Article

High-intensity circuit training using body weight: Maximum results with minimal investment

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

To understand the health benefits and practical application of a high-intensity circuit training exercise protocol.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Cardiorespiratory endurance and strength abilities are the basic components of physical fitness that contribute to significant health benefits. There is ample scientific evidence to suggest that regular aerobic and resistance training is a highly effective strategy for managing and improving physical fitness, preventing fatigue and motivating individuals to pursue their fitness goals (Klika and Jordan, 2013). These exercise strategies have to be safe, effective and efficient in order to deliver tangible results for timeconstrained individuals, who should be able to perform the program in any location without the need for dedicated equipment (Klika and Jordan, 2013). ...
... There is ample scientific evidence to suggest that regular aerobic and resistance training is a highly effective strategy for managing and improving physical fitness, preventing fatigue and motivating individuals to pursue their fitness goals (Klika and Jordan, 2013). These exercise strategies have to be safe, effective and efficient in order to deliver tangible results for timeconstrained individuals, who should be able to perform the program in any location without the need for dedicated equipment (Klika and Jordan, 2013). ...
... The recommended recovery time between sets is two to three minutes. Each muscle group should be exercised in two to four sets (Klika and Jordan, 2013). According to standard guidelines, weekly aerobic training should involve 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (46 to 63% of maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max) for 30 to 60 minutes per session and/or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity exercise (64 to 90% of VO2max) for 20 to 60 minutes per session (Klika and Jordan, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to develop international standards for evaluating strength endurance with the use of the 3-Minute Burpee Test. The results of 3862 women (Poland-2502, Great Britain-500, Hungary-412, Serbia-448) and 5971 men (Poland-4517, Great Britain-500, Hungary-451, Serbia-503) aged 18-25 (mean age of 20.36 ± 0.94 and 20.05 ± 1.25 y, respectively) were collated between 2004 and 2018. The students' strength endurance was evaluated in the 3-Minute Burpee Test. The results were expressed on a uniform scale with the 3-sigma rule which was used to develop the T-score scale for the 3-Minute Burpee Test. Men completed 56.69 cycles/3 min and women-48.84/3 min on average. The best male participant completed 82 burpees, and the best female participant-73 burpees. The majority of male and female participants (66.71% and 68.18%, respectively) were characterized by average strength endurance in the 3-Minute Burpee Test (range of scores: 47-66 and 37-60 cycles/3 min, respectively). Very good strength endurance (76-85 and 72-83 cycles/3 min, respectively) was noted in the smallest percentage of male and female participants (0.52% and 0.26%, respectively). Similar studies should be carried out in other countries and in different age groups to develop objective international classification standards for variously-aged individuals.
... Body weight resistance training and high-intensity interval training are two fitness trends gaining momentum among the health and fitness community (23). High-intensity circuit training (HICT) using body weight as resistance is an ideal exercise modality in terms of functionality and economy (11). Several body-weight exercises utilized in HICT mimic movements used in activities of daily living (e.g. ...
... Additionally, HICT requires little to no equipment and can be done in a variety of environments (e.g. outside, in the home, in small spaces) (11). Despite the recent popularity, there are few studies investigating HICT using body weight resistance exercise. ...
... Following baseline testing procedures, each participant was introduced to the body weight resistance exercise in the HICT protocol ( Table 1). The rational for the exercise selection and protocol was based on previously published work (11). Participants were familiarized with each of the seven exercises (and/or the modified version of the exercise) in the circuit. ...
Article
High-intensity circuit training (HICT) using body weight as resistance is a popular fitness trend and an ideal exercise modality in terms of functionality and economy. Given the popularity of HICT, evidence suggests that sex may elicit unique physiological and perceptual responses to this mode of exercise and there is a need for further work in this area. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and perceptual responses of females and males to HICT using body weight resistance exercise. Forty-five participants (23 females and 22 males) completed baseline testing and a 15-minute HICT exercise bout wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. %VO2max, %HRmax, and RER were monitored during exercise and analyzed at 3 different 5-minute time segments during the HICT (beginning, middle, end). RPE was assessed half-way through the circuit (7.5), immediately upon cessation of exercise (15), and 15-minutes post-exercise (Session RPE). There was a significant (p<0.01) time effect on %VO2max, %HRmax, RER, and RPE. At all three time points, %VO2max was significantly (p<0.02) higher among females compared to males. RER values were significantly (p=0.02) higher among females during the last 5-minute segment (i.e. the end) of the exercise bout. However there were no differences in %HRmax (p>0.20). Males reported a higher RPE immediately post-exercise compared to females (p=0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that there are distinct, sex-specific physiological and perceptual responses to HICT; thus, sex-specific exercise prescription considerations are warranted.
... In this paper, we give an optimization model that determines the exercises and their order in the workout using rigorous mathematical calculations. We build our model for a special type of workout called circuit training [1] [2]. Circuit training involves a series of exercises performed in rotation with minimal rest. ...
... Suppose the number of arcs in those chains are 1 , , k a a  . Then the number of nodes in those chains are 1 where i is the order of exercise e i in the circuit. ...
... (M1) An important requirement for the circuit is that the same muscle group cannot be used as the primary group in two consecutive exercises [1]. Correspondingly, we have the following constraint. ...
... Vigorous intensity exercise, that could rise heart rate to 70-85% of maximum heart rate, is still inconsistent in cognitive function effect. Previous study reported that vigorous intensity exercise could increase cognitive function in executive attention, concentration, and spatial memory particularly in young adult population, however another study informed its decreasing in elderly population (7)(8)(9). ...
... High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) is one of a simple vigorous intensity exercise that combine aerobic and resistance exercise into 12 movements in 7 minutes, can be perform anywhere and only need one chair. It was effective to reduce body weight, increase VO 2 max, as well as improve short term memory in male young adult and children (9,10). However, no report has been found about the effect of HICT in attention function in male young adult, especially in medical student, a known population with tight study activities and rare exercise. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Several studies have analyzed the benefits of High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) in some cognitive function such as short-term memory. However, the effect of long-term and regular HICT particularly in young adults, who need good cognitive function including attention function to improve the learning process, has not been studied yet. This study is aimed to analyze the effect of regular HICT in attention function improvement of young adults. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test un-equivalent group method. Samples were taken purposively from medical student of Diponegoro University (n=56, age=18-22 years old), who were divided into two groups, the control and training group. Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to measure attention function in alerting, orienting and executive function before and after HICT. The data were analyzed using Paired t-test, Independent t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann-Whitney test. Results: A significant improvement of attention function was found in executive function and reaction time after High Intensity Circuit Training for 8 weeks (p<0.05), with mean 15.67ms to 14.36ms; 620.46ms ± 110.13 to 573.14ms ± 67.11, respectively. The mean difference between pre-test and post-test attention function test was found increased in alerting, executive function and reaction time (p>0.05), that training group had higher score as compared to control group, with mean difference 0.7857ms; 31.3ms; 30.29ms, respectively. Conclusion: Regular High Intensity Circuit Training improves attention function particularly in executive function and reaction time in male young adults.
... For HIIT, the training session involved 12 types of body weight exercises (squats, static lunges, shoulder bridge, standing single leg calf raises, push-ups, incline bench push-ups, triceps dips, crunches, side crunches, back raises, step-ups, and side-to-side jumps over skipping rope) . These exercises were performed for 30 seconds with 10 seconds of transition time between bouts of exercises (Klika & Jordan, 2013). The total time to complete the entire exercises was approximately 7 minutes. ...
... In the present study, the HIIT involved body weight exercises of various muscle groups in the training protocol. The researchers chose a training program adapted from Klika and Jordan (2013) to align with the HIRT where the resistance training recruited major muscles of compound exercises. Some findings have suggested that HIIT is an effective stimulus for reducing body fat level, even in the absence of weight loss for those individuals with large fat mass (Boutcher, 2011;Laforgia, Withers & Gore, 2006) which might be similar to the present finding. ...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of overweight or obesity has increased worldwide and this was associated with increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies also had suggested that individuals with the high accumulation of body fat in the abdominal region were at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Existing studies had not directly studied a comparable amount of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) on the improvement of body composition and aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects between 6 weeks of HIIT and HIRT on body fat percentage and aerobic fitness among overweight female adults. Fourteen sedentary female were recruited and assigned to two groups; HIIT (n = 7) and HIRT (n = 7), aged 22.571 ± 1.399 years, height 155.929 ± 2.841cm, weight 63.464 ± 5.873 kg and BMI 26.079 ± 2.032 kg/m 2. Both training interventions were conducted with 90% of heart rate maximum which included 12 types of bodyweight exercises performed 30 seconds with 10 seconds of transition time between bouts of exercises for 2-3 sets for HIIT and 75% of 1-RM for HIRT consisting of compound of push and pull exercises targeting large muscle groups of 10 repetitions for 3 sets with 2 minutes rest interval. The results showed that there were significant differences in body fat percentage (p < .05) and aerobic fitness (p < .05) in both training programs. In comparing the two trainings, HIRT produced greater significant improvement in aerobic fitness than HIIT. However, body fat percentage did not differ significantly between these trainings (p > .05). In conclusion, both HIIT and HIRT were effective in reducing body fat percentage and improving aerobic fitness among overweight female adults.
... For HIIT, the training session involved 12 types of body weight exercises (squats, static lunges, shoulder bridge, standing single leg calf raises, push-ups, incline bench push-ups, triceps dips, crunches, side crunches, back raises, step-ups, and side-to-side jumps over skipping rope) . These exercises were performed for 30 seconds with 10 seconds of transition time between bouts of exercises (Klika & Jordan, 2013). The total time to complete the entire exercises was approximately 7 minutes. ...
... In the present study, the HIIT involved body weight exercises of various muscle groups in the training protocol. The researchers chose a training program adapted from Klika and Jordan (2013) to align with the HIRT where the resistance training recruited major muscles of compound exercises. Some findings have suggested that HIIT is an effective stimulus for reducing body fat level, even in the absence of weight loss for those individuals with large fat mass (Boutcher, 2011;Laforgia, Withers & Gore, 2006) which might be similar to the present finding. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The prevalence of overweight or obesity has increased worldwide and this is associated with increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies also have suggested that individuals with the high accumulation of body fat in the abdominal region are at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Existing studies have not directly studied a comparable amount of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) on the improvement of body composition and aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects between 6 weeks of HIIT and HIRT on body fat percentage and aerobic fitness among overweight female adults. Fourteen sedentary female were recruited and assigned to two groups; HIIT (n = 7) and HIRT (n = 7), aged 22.571 ± 1.399 years, height 155.929 ± 2.841cm, weight 63.464 ± 5.873 kg and BMI 26.079 ± 2.032 kg/m 2. Both training interventions were conducted with 90% of heart rate maximum which included 12 types of bodyweight exercises performed 30 seconds with 10 seconds of transition time between bouts of exercises for 2-3 sets for HIIT and 75% of 1-RM for HIRT consisting of compound of push and pull exercises targeting large muscle groups of 10 repetitions for 3 sets with 2 minutes rest interval. The results showed that there were significant differences in body fat percentage (p < .05) and aerobic fitness (p < .05) in both training programs. In comparing the two trainings, HIRT produced greater significant improvement in aerobic fitness than HIIT. However, body fat percentage did not differ significantly between these trainings (p > .05). In conclusion, both HIIT and HIRT are effective in reducing body fat percentage and improving aerobic fitness among overweight female adults.
... Recently, high-intensity circuit training (HICT) has gained popularity due to its time efficiency and practicality (9). HICT is the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which consists of short high-intensity intervals interspersed with lower intensity recovery periods (10). ...
... HICT is the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which consists of short high-intensity intervals interspersed with lower intensity recovery periods (10). In healthy individuals, HICT using body weight (HICTBW), has been shown to lead to greater improvements in physical fitness within a shorter period of exercise (7 minutes) compared with traditional HICT programs (9). Wang (11) studied the effects of a HICTBW program (12 × 30 seconds exercises with a 15-seconds rest) on cardiopulmonary fitness in overweight middle-aged men and observed that aerobic capacity was increased after 12 weeks of training. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: It is unknown whether a shorter duration of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) could improve health-related fitness in sedentary women. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of 4-week of HICT using body weight (HICTBW) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in middle aged, sedentary women. Methods: Twenty-four women (age: 35±3 years), who currently participated in exercise for less than 2 days or 150 minutes per week, were randomly assigned to either an untrained (CG; n=12) or trained (TG; n=12) group. The TG group performed a HICTBW program for four weeks (3 times weekly), whereas the CG group performed their usual activity. All participants were asked to maintain their current eating habits. Parameters were compared before and after 4 weeks. Results: Exercise V̇O2peak, relative V̇O2peak, heart rate and workload significantly increased over the 4-week period in the TG compared with CG at the end of the 4 weeks of training (p< 0.05). However, there were also no differences between groups in any body composition parameters at the end of the 4-week program (p >0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a 4-week HICTBW program (12 poses per circuit, 8 min each circuit three times weekly for 4 weeks) was sufficient to improve cardiorespiratory fitness but had no effect on body composition or weight loss in sedentary women who did not change their dietary habits.
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. ...
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. (29) Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Progressive population aging is estimated globally as an indicator of health improvement. However, when living more health problems are associated and they position when time goes by; one of them is sarcopenia, which is consider a common condition in older adults and it is associated to physical inactivy, low resistance, low walk speed and a decrease in mobility. These factors contribute to an increase of falls risk and to a decrease of functionality and life quality. Objective: To show updated evidence on the results of the strength training with partial restriction of blood flow in older adults´ populations with sarcopenia, as a cost-effective strategy for dependence associated to aging. Methods: It was made a search in scientific databases as EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Web of Science and PubMed searcher. There were used the following terms: training with partial restriction of blood flow, sarcopenia, older adult. The analyzed articles included reviews and research articles, mainly controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Conclusions: Training with partial restriction of the blood flow in older adults emerges as an useful tool to intervene in sarcopenia associated to aging, being an alternative to induce muscle force´s gain, and decreasing the risks of high intensity training. In addition, it is an economic and easy to implement technique in health centers with massive audiences. Keywords: Training with partial restriction of blood flow; sarcopenia; older adult. Introducción: El progresivo envejecimiento poblacional se estima a nivel mundial como un indicador de mejora de la salud. No obstante, al vivir más años se le asocian problemas sanitarios que se van posicionando en el tiempo, y uno de ellos es la sarcopenia, la que se considera una condición común en los adultos mayores y se asocia a la inactividad física, baja resistencia, baja velocidad de marcha y disminución de la movilidad. Estos factores contribuyen a un aumento del riesgo de caída y a una disminución de la funcionalidad y de la calidad de vida. Objetivo: Mostrar evidencia actualizada respecto a los resultados del entrenamiento de fuerza con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en población adulto mayor con sarcopenia, como estrategia costo-efectiva para la dependencia asociada al envejecimiento. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos científicas EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Web of Science y en el buscador PubMed. Se utilizaron los siguientes términos de búsqueda: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo, sarcopenia, adulto mayor. Los artículos analizados incluyeron revisiones y artículos de investigación, principalmente ensayos clínicos controlados y revisiones sistemáticas con metanálisis. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en el adulto mayor surge como una herramienta útil para intervenir en la sarcopenia asociada al envejecimiento, constituyendo una alternativa para inducir la ganancia de fuerza muscular, con la disminución de los riesgos del entrenamiento de alta intensidad. Además, es una técnica económica y fácil de implementar en centros de salud de asistencia masiva. Palabras clave: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo; sarcopenia; adulto mayor.
... These combine aerobic and resistance alternating short training periods of intense exercise, limited rest design and depend on just body weight and props such as a chair or a wall. 1 It is free of charge indefinitely after download in both Android and iOS platforms, has full and efficient functionality without additional software download being necessary, apart from the ordinary software updates. ...
... Body weight is used as the only resistance, without complex and expensive equipment needed, rendering it a feasible and affordable way for the general population to exercise daily. 1 Lastly, users can receive instantaneous verbal and visual feedback during workouts to self-assess their performance, perform each exercise correctly and avoid potential injuries. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 7 Minute Workout® app is an official science-based app designed by the Department of Exercise Physiology at the Johnson & Johnson Human Performance Institute. The primary feature of the app is based on High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT), while the secondary is based on low volume High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). These combine aerobic and resistance alternating short training periods of intense exercise, limited rest design and depend on body weight and props such as a chair or a wall.
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. ...
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. (29) Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES ...
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. ...
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. (29) Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES ...
Article
Full-text available
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. 2020;46(3):e1105 1 Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES Revisión Entrenamiento de fuerza con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en adultos mayores con sarcopenia Strenght training with partial restriction of blood flow in older adults with sarcopenia Carlos Bahamondes-Ávila 1* https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4616-5663 Felipe Ponce-Fuentes 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3449-9738 Natalia Chahin-Inostroza 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8716-9460 Fanny Bracho-Milic 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6626-1172 Claudia Navarrete-Hidalgo 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9342-4846 1 Universidad Mayor, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Kinesiología. Temuco, Chile. * Autor para la correspondencia: carlos.bahamondesa@mayor.cl RESUMEN Introducción: El progresivo envejecimiento poblacional se estima a nivel mundial como un indicador de mejora de la salud. No obstante, al vivir más años se le asocian problemas sanitarios que se van posicionando en el tiempo, y uno de ellos es la sarcopenia, la que se considera una condición común en los adultos mayores y se asocia a la inactividad física, baja resistencia, baja velocidad de marcha y disminución de la movilidad. Estos factores contribuyen a un aumento del riesgo de caída y a una disminución de la funcionalidad y de la calidad de vida. Objetivo: Mostrar evidencia actualizada respecto a los resultados del entrenamiento de fuerza con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en población adulto mayor con sarcopenia, como estrategia costo-efectiva para la dependencia asociada al envejecimiento. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos científicas EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Web of Science y en el buscador PubMed. Se utilizaron los siguientes términos de búsqueda: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo, sarcopenia, adulto mayor. Los Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. 2020;46(3):e1105 2 Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES artículos analizados incluyeron revisiones y artículos de investigación, principalmente ensayos clínicos controlados y revisiones sistemáticas con metanálisis. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en el adulto mayor surge como una herramienta útil para intervenir en la sarcopenia asociada al envejecimiento, constituyendo una alternativa para inducir la ganancia de fuerza muscular, con la disminución de los riesgos del entrenamiento de alta intensidad. Además, es una técnica económica y fácil de implementar en centros de salud de asistencia masiva. Palabras clave: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo; sarcopenia; adulto mayor. ABSTRACT Introduction: Progressive population aging is estimated globally as an indicator of health
... Similar to typical endurance training, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), is recognized as a powerful factor to ameliorate a relative maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) [6,7] as well as a beneficial metabolic stimulus for better glucose uptake [8,9] and cognitive functions improvement [10,11]. One of HIIT variations is the high-intensity circuit training (HICT), using a person's own body weight as a workload [12]. Our previous data revealed that a single session of HICT improved concentration and special memory among young women. ...
... The HICT training program was based on a previous study [9] and contained nine exercises chosen from the original HICT protocol [12]. Women from training group completed 15 HICT sessions during the five-week period (three training sessions per week). ...
Article
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: cathepsin B brain-derived neurotrophic factor irisin fibroblast growth factor-21 inter-individual variability A B S T R A C T This study verified the impact of five weeks of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on changes in concentration of exerkines in relation to cognitive functions. Sedentary women (n = 33; age=39±13 years) were randomly assigned into the HICT (n = 21) group or the control group (n = 12). The HICT group performed 15 training sessions; meanwhile, the control group performed the HICT twice, only at baseline and at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected before, 1 h and 24 h after the first and last HICT, to evaluate the concentration of exerkines: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cathepsin B (CATB) using enzyme immunoassay method. Cognitive functions and quality of life were assessed using the Vienna Test System and the Short Form Health Survey. HICT induced improvement of cognitive function and quality of life, and these changes were accompanied by an increase of BDNF and shifts in CATB concentration. HICT program caused a decrease in FGF-21 concentration, which was modified by age and insulin sensitivity. The improvement of cognitive functions was more pronounced in females , who experienced a drop in FGF-21. In summary, HICT program, that can be performed during pandemic, enhanced cognitive functions and this response was related to changes in exerkines.
... Although body weight resistance training can be an efficient strategy to improve metabolic health, it may be inferior to creating absolute strength compared to commonly used strength trainings regimes (78). However, this trainings method was used to increase maximal aerobic capacity and decreasing body fat (61). Interestingly, a current meta-analysis revealed that hypertrophy adaptations between low-vs. ...
... high-load resistance training can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges (79), which might also be responsible for improvements in running economy and velocity due to an improved muscle strength and endurance in the current investigation. Moreover, body weight resistance training was also used due to its practical application, since the use of equipment or a facility is not required (61). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose was to examine the effects of concurrent training (CT) combined with specific collagen peptides (SCP) intake on cardiometabolic parameters and performance indices in women. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial recreationally active women (n = 59) completed a 12-week CT training (3 day/week) and ingested 15 g of SCP (treatment group [TG]) or placebo (control group [CG]) on a daily basis. Running distance as a marker of endurance performance (time trial), velocity and heart rate at the lactate and anaerobic threshold (incremental running test) and body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA]) were measured. BIA measurements included determination of fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM). Additionally, muscular strength (one-repetition-maximum [1RM]) and muscular endurance (60% of 1RM) were assessed. After 12-weeks, TG had a higher increase in running distance (1,034 ± 643 m) compared to the CG (703 ± 356 m) indicated by a significant interaction effect (p < 0.05). Velocity at lactate and anaerobic threshold improved in both groups over time (p < 0.001), with no significant differences between groups. Similarly, heart rate at lactate threshold decreased over time (p < 0.001), with no time × group interaction. TG declined more in heart rate at anaerobic threshold (−8 ± 14 bpm) than the CG (−1 ± 7 bpm), which resulted in a significant interaction effect (p < 0.01). FM decreased over time in TG and CG (p < 0.001), with no group differences. On contrary, TG had a higher increase in FFM (0.8 ± 0.9 kg) compared to the CG (0.3 ± 1.0 kg) (time × group interaction: p < 0.05). Both, 1RM and muscular endurance improved over time (p < 0.001), with no significant group differences. In conclusion, supplementation of SCP in combination with CT resulted in a significant increase in endurance performance compared to the control group. This might potentially be a consequence of improved structural and cardiometabolic adaptations.
... Not only is HIIT thought to induce similar changes as moderate-intensity continuous training, but it can be practiced by people with an impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM [5]. Furthermore, a modification of HIIT, high-intensity circuit training (HICT) using one's own body weight as a workload, is considered as a safe way of practicing resistance training [6]. ...
... HICT training protocol was the same as in our previous study [7] based on ACSM recommendations and the original protocol [6]. Before the main experiment we recorded a movie with instructions (whole units of training) with music and time visualisation, that was easy to play on mobile devices. ...
... However, when continuous endurance and resistance exercise training programs are applied as discrete exercise modes within the same training regimen are time-consuming and may have high attrition and low compliance rates [17]. On the other hand, highintensity exercise protocols (HIIT) incorporating mainly cardiovascular activities performed in interval and/or circuit fashion have been proposed [18][19][20] because they are time-efficient [21] and they also improve aerobic capacity [22], body composition [23], resting metabolic rate [24] and skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism [25] in healthy, sedentary overweight and obese adults. HIIT-induced changes in mitochondrial function may explain its greater effectiveness in inducing positive metabolic adaptations compared to traditional endurance and/or resistance exercise training protocols even when no diet intervention is applied in weight loss trials [26]. ...
... A supervised, small-group (5-10 women/session) training protocol was performed three times/week (with a 48-hour recovery between sessions), with the use of asynchronous music, for 40 weeks. Exercises incorporated fundamental movement patterns using bodyweight as resistance [19,20] or adjunct portable modalities [28]. Each session was preceded by a 10-min warm-up (low-intensity endurance exercise, stretching exercises and mobility exercises) and followed by a 5-min cool-down period (walking/stretching exercises). ...
Article
Full-text available
This randomized controlled trial examined body mass, body composition, energy balance and performance responses of previously sedentary overweight/obese women to a circuit-type integrated neuromuscular training program with alternative modalities. Forty-nine healthy overweight or class I obese females (36.4±4.4 yrs) were randomly assigned to either a control (N = 21), training (N = 14) or training-detraining (N = 14) group. In weeks 1-20, the training groups trained three times/week using 10-12 whole-body exercises of progressively increased intensity/volume, organized in timed interval circuit form. In weeks 21-40, the training group continued training whereas the training-detraining group not. Heart rate, perceived exertion, blood lactate, exertion, oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption were measured for one session/phase/person and exercise energy expenditure was calculated. Energy intake, habitual physical activity, resting metabolic rate, body composition, body mass, strength and maximal oxygen consumption were measured at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine differences between three time points and three groups. In C, VO2max declined (p
... Le circuit training à haute intensité (HIIT) permet d'avoir d'excellents ré sultats sur la santé en peu de temps et avec peu de moyens [78]. Ce type d'entraînement amé liore la force, l'endurance [78][79][80] et même la qualité de vie [80]. ...
... Le circuit training à haute intensité (HIIT) permet d'avoir d'excellents ré sultats sur la santé en peu de temps et avec peu de moyens [78]. Ce type d'entraînement amé liore la force, l'endurance [78][79][80] et même la qualité de vie [80]. De plus, il n'occasionne pas de blessures [81][82][83]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim. – Our study aimed at testing whether high intensity strength training protocols (20 minutes duration, twice a week, without exercise machine) improve functional independence and quality of life in cerebral palsy patients. Method. – Eighteen children (eleven boys, seven girls, aged eight to twenty years old) suffering from cerebral palsy and receiving physical therapy interventions. The experimental group received 20 minutes of high intensity strength training twice a week (during the physical therapy session) for three months. The control group receives classical physical therapy intervention. Before and after the protocol, two test sessions measured: muscle force and muscle endurance (maximum number of repetitions in 30 s, four exercises; maintain isometric positions for a maximal duration, four positions), walking speed (six minutes walking test), functional motor abilities (EMFG scale item D and E) and quality of life (Kidscreen 27 scale). Results. – The group receiving high intensity strength training significantly improved his performance (force, endurance and function) compared to the control group. A similar trend was observed for the quality of life although differences did not reach significance. Conclusion. – This study shows that patients suffering from cerebral palsy can benefit from short high intensity strength training protocols. Twenty minutes of such an intervention, twice a week, without any exercise machine, seems to be an effective and realistic strategy to improve force, endurance, motor function and quality of life. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Objectif. – Le but de notre intervention est de tester si des protocoles de musculation à haute intensité (protocoles courts et intenses : 20 minutes, deux fois par semaine ; sans machine de musculation) améliorent l’indépendance fonctionnelle et la qualité de vie des personnes atteintes de paralysie cérébrale. Méthode. – Dix-huit enfants (11 garc¸ons, sept filles, âgés de huit à20 ans) atteints de paralysie cérébrale poursuivent leurs séances de kinésithérapie. Le groupe expérimental bénéficie de 20 minutes de musculation à haute intensité pendant la rééducation et cela deux fois par semaine pendant trois mois. Le groupe témoin poursuit sa prise en charge classique. Avant et après le protocole deux séances de tests ont visé à mesurer : la force et l’endurance musculaire (maximum de répétitions en 30 s pour quatre mouvements ; maximum de temps maintenus pour quatre positions), la vitesse de marche (test des six minutes marche), la motricité fonctionnelle globale (échelle EMFG item D et E) et la qualité de vie (échelle Kidscreen 27). Résultats. – Après trois mois d’entraînement, le groupe musculation a significativement augmenté ses performances (force, endurance, fonction) par rapport au groupe témoin et une tendance similaire a été observée sur la qualité de vie. Conclusion. – Cette étude sur des sujets atteints de paralysie cérébrale montre l’efficacité de courts protocoles de musculation à haute intensité. Vingt minutes de renforcement musculaire à haute intensité , deux fois par semaine, sans contrainte de dispositif, semblent être une stratégie efficace et réaliste pour améliorer la force, l’endurance, la fonction motrice, et la qualité de vie.
... Training intensity at each post that was thirty seconds to perform exercises with interval rest between posts which was 10-15 seconds were proven to be able to continuously managed by athletes. Athletes could observe this by checking their training pulses [29] manually or by using a heart rate monitor. ...
... The circuit training method is used. [3] The circuit training was developed by Morgan and Anderson in 1959 at the University of Leeds in England. The beginning of this exercise consisted of 9 to 12 training protocols using medium intensity (40% to 60% of 1 RM) with certain number of repetitions and little breaks at every move to the next training station. ...
... All prescribed exercises will incorporate multi-planar, fundamental and complex movements (squat, hinge, lunge, push, pull, carry, rotation, and plank) using bodyweight [23,25] or adjunct portable modalities (suspension belts, balance balls, kettlebells, medicine balls, battle ropes, stability balls, speed ladders, foam rollers, and elastic bands) as resistance [29]. A 10-min warm-up with low-intensity cardiovascular exercise, dynamic stretching and movement preparation drills and a 5min cool-down period of very low-intensity cardiovascular exercise and static stretching will be included in each session. ...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates and low levels of quality of life among adults globally. It is critical to examine evidence-based practices for developing lifestyle behavioral changes such as physical movement and structured exercise training. The DoIT protocol, a high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) program, effectively reduces body mass, alters energy balance, and improves performance of obese adults with a high adherence rate. This study aims to determine the dose-response effects of the DoIT protocol on body composition, health, performance and quality of life in sedentary obese adults. This study will recruit 88 sedentary, obese males and females (BMI 25.0–34.9; 30–50 years) who will be randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) control (n = 22), (ii) one session/week (n = 22), (iii) two sessions/week (n = 22) or (iv) three sessions/week (n = 22). DoIT will use a supervised, circuit-type (1–3 rounds), functional/neuromotor and progressive exercise program for 12 months. DoIT incorporates 8–12 multi-planar, fundamental and complex, whole body movements and uses bodyweight and alternative exercise modes as a resistance. DoIT utilizes prescribed work-to-rest ratios which will be varied every four weeks. Each session will last less than 30 min. DoIT will be implemented for a year and its effects on body mass and body composition, physical fitness, functional capacity, bone health, leptin, adiponectin, blood lipids, glycemic control, inflammation, oxidative stress and quality of life will be assessed. The outcomes of the proposed study will provide insight on optimal exercise prescription guidelines for such HIIT-type exercise protocols for overweight or obese individuals.
... K. Chang et al., 2012). In the 9 years since, many studies have been published, including several that examined intermittent forms of high-intensity exercise typically shorter than traditional aerobic exercise (Klika & Jordan, 2013) and often associated with higher self-reported enjoyment (Thum, Parsons, Whittle, & Astorino, 2017). In addition, several potential moderators of the influence of exercise on cognition have been identified (Y. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-intensity exercise has recently emerged as a potent alternative to aerobic regimens, with ramifications for health and brain function. As part of this trend, single sessions of intense exercise have been proposed as powerful, noninvasive means for transiently enhancing cognition. However, findings in this field remain mixed, and a thorough synthesis of the evidence is lacking. Here, we synthesized the literature in a meta-analysis of the acute effect of high-intensity exercise on executive function. We included a total of 1,177 participants and 147 effect sizes across 28 studies and found a small facilitating effect ( d = 0.24) of high-intensity exercise on executive function. However, this effect was significant only compared with rest ( d = 0.34); it was not significant when high-intensity exercise was compared with low-to-moderate intensity exercise ( d = 0.07). This suggests that intense and moderate exercise affect executive function in a comparable manner. We tested a number of moderators that together explained a significant proportion of the between-studies variance. Overall, our findings indicate that high-intensity cardiovascular exercise might be a viable alternative for eliciting acute cognitive gains. We discuss the potential of this line of research, identify a number of challenges and limitations it faces, and propose applications to individuals, society, and policies.
... Os exercícios devem ser similares às atividades da vida diária do idoso, aplicando uma combinação de movimentos essenciais como puxar, empurrar, carregar, agachar, levantar e girar, sempre realizados em máxima velocidade concêntrica, com uma complexidade motora executável e seguindo uma progressão gradual, iniciando-se com duas passagens nas primeiras semanas até chegar a três passagens durante a fase final do programa, 8 a 12 repetições e intensidade inicial de 60% de 1 RM, progredindo até 85%. A densidade do treinamento deve se iniciar de 1/1 e progredir para 3/1 na fase final do programa (Alcaraz et al., 2011;Kilka & Jordan, 2013). ...
Book
A prática regular de exercícios físicos tem sido amplamente recomendada para a população idosa, em virtude dos inúmeros benefícios morfológicos, fisiológicos, metabólicos, neuromusculares e comportamentais produzidos, particularmente, por essa estratégia, nesta etapa da vida. Tais benefícios aprimoram o desempenho nas atividades da vida diária e a capacidade cognitiva, favorecendo a melhoria da qualidade de vida e aumentando a longevidade com independência funcional. Atendendo a essa finalidade, o Treinamento Funcional (TF) tem ganhado destaque e atraído um grande número de adeptos por sua premissa básica de proporcionar melhoria do sistema psicobiológico humano, a partir da aplicação de exercícios integrados direcionados para o aprimoramento da habilidade de movimento. Nesse sentido, esta obra apresenta de forma prática informações referentes às alterações psicobiológicas do processo de envelhecimento, descreve importantes características de um programa de treinamento físico voltado ao aprimoramento das atividades cotidianas do idoso, propõe um interessante protocolo sistematizado e discuti possíveis adaptações e benefícios desse protocolo, somando novas ideias embasadas cientificamente e as transmitindo de forma aplicável. Desde já, gostaríamos de pontuar que a filosofia do TF é a busca da intervenção mais eficaz na promoção de adaptações multisistêmicas favoráveis à funcionalidade, é a riqueza de detalhes, o cuidado com as variáveis do treinamento, é a promoção do bem estar e o papel social dos profissionais da saúde. Por isso, essa obra tem como objetivo fornecer informações claras e facilitar a transferência para as ações cotidianas destes profissionais, através da integração entre a teoria e a pratica, a fim de fazer com que o conhecimento produzido seja mais bem aproveitado. Em hipótese alguma, as investigações sobre o assunto se encerram aqui, e esperamos que esse livro sirva de incentivo para novas pesquisas. Desejamos a você leitor, uma excelente leitura.
... It usually applied in a short duration (7 to 10 minutes) of calisthenics (rhythmic bodily exercises performed without weight equipment) exercise. 14,15 Despite HICT is classified as a weight training exercise, nonetheless, it is deemed to be able to train cardiovascular as well as muscle strength. [16][17][18] cardiovascular capacity is an important fitness component in football games. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studies showed that FIFA 11+, the football injury prevention program, can improve physical fitness components through resistance and neuromuscular exercise. Currently, resistance training using High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) is considered beneficial in increasing physical fitness component, including maintaining cardiopulmonary fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HICT modified- FIFA 11+ training on the physical fitness components and cardiovascular (CV) training intensity of young football players. Methods: Thirty-nine football players were recruited by purposive random sampling to the football academies in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The players were randomized into 2 groups; 20 players were in the experiment (EXP) group and 19 players were in the control (CON) group. The EXP group performed HICT modified- FIFA 11+ exercise and the CON group performed standard FIFA 11+. HICT modification was performed in the EXP group only in part 2 of FIFA 11+ (strength, power, and balance training) while the other parts were regular. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times per week for 4 weeks. All players completed a pre- and post-intervention physical fitness tests comprising the core strength (plank test), leg strength (leg dynamometer) and agility (Illinois test). Heart rate (HR) was monitored in both groups while exercise was being implemented to measure the CV training intensity. Changes in performance (pre- vs. post-intervention) of each group were analyzed using paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. Statistical significance was set to p < 0.05. Twelve players dropped out in this research. Results: This study showed that core strength increased significantly in both groups (p = 0.00). The EXP group had higher CV training intensity (HR max 91%; mean HR 74%) than the CON group (HR max 90%; mean HR 66%). Conclusions: Results suggest that HICT modified FIFA 11+ can be implemented as an alternative program to increase the physical fitness components and also CV training intensity among young football players.
... Thousands of measurements performed on differently aged participants have demonstrated that the 3-MBT is easy to conduct, even under the most basic conditions. Variations of the test or its individual stages (e.g., push-ups, jumps) are used by people who engage in functional training (cross-fit, high-intensity circuit training) as well as professional athletes (boxing, mixed martial arts) [4]. The high intensity of the discussed exercise is a key tenet to its popularity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in anthropometric indicators, body composition, physical fitness, and physiological parameters in young women and men performing extremely strenuous exercise during the 3-Minute Burpee Test (3-MBT). Post-exercise recovery during a 6-minute break was determined in the tested subjects. Material and methods. Ninety-six university students volunteered to take part in this study (45 women aged 20.05 ± 1.81 years and 51 men aged 20.20 ± 2.71 years). Endurance-strength abilities were determined during the 3-MBT motor fitness test, and body composition was determined with an InBody720 analyser. Data were analysed using a Mann-Whitney U test, with statistical significance accepted at p ≤ 0.05. Results. The anthropometric indicators, body composition parameters, physical fitness levels (47.22 cycles/3 min), and physiological parameters measured during the 3-MBT were significantly higher in men (VO2avg – 41.57 mL/kg/min, VO2max – 49.67 mL/kg/min, EPOCavg – 11.02mL/kg, and EPOCpeak – 27.84mL/kg) than in women. Women were characterised by significantly higher (p < 0.05) body fat mass (BFM = 18.80 kg) and percent body fat (PBF 28.26%) than men. Conclusions. Male subjects were characterised by higher values of anthropometric indicators, body composition parameters (excluding body fat), motor fitness levels, and physiological parameters than women, and endurance-strength abilities were 23.75% higher, on average, in men than women.
... In September 2017, we conducted a literature search in Embase, Medline, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL using the search terms "high-intensity interval training" (HIIT), "high-intensity circuit training" (HICT), "cognitive function, " and "SUD." The results of our search yielded 11 articles (Weinstock et al., 2008(Weinstock et al., , 2014Smith and Lynch, 2011;Wolff et al., 2011;Zschucke et al., 2012Zschucke et al., , 2013Flemmen et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2014;Haglund et al., 2015;Klika and Jordan, 2015;Unhjem et al., 2016) of relevance to this study. This corpus included research that examined physical activity for SUD populations as outpatients or inpatients in recovery after withdrawal ( Zschucke et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This proposed study will examine whether structured physical activity reduces the recovery time of cognitive functioning during the early phase of substance use disorder treatment. Addiction or substance dependence is associated with neurobiological changes and cognitive impairment that can affect quality of life and the efficacy of therapy for up to a year after clinical detoxification. The biological, psychological, and social effects of physical exercise have the potential to be a therapeutic approach to increase quality of life and relieve symptoms associated with substance abuse, such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. There is a dearth of research on physical activity and exercise in clinical substance use disorder patients. This protocol describes a clinical study that will examine cognitive recovery after substance abuse using physical exercise as a treatment intervention. We will use a quasi-experimental longitudinal clinical trial, with a pretest and multiple posttests, on naturally randomized sequential groups. Patients will be consecutively be recruited into the study groups, with a control group that is completed, before its followed by an intervention group, each with 30 patients. Patients will be enrolled 2 weeks after the start of detoxification, at which time all subjects will be inpatients at the Stavanger Salvation Army Treatment Center in the Norwegian specialized healthcare system. Cognition will be evaluated with a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, including several tests of executive function. Physical fitness will be tested with the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test, the 30-S Chair Stand Test, the 1-Min Burpee Test at baseline (within the first 2 weeks of admittance) and after 4 weeks. The intervention will be a 30-min workout at 70–90% of maximum heart rate (134–170 bpm), recorded and calculated by a Polar heart rate monitor. The intervention treatment will be administered four times a week for 4 weeks and will consist of high-intensity circuit training, high-intensity interval training, functional movement, and primitive reflex training. We anticipate improvement in both the control and intervention groups, with the exercise intervention group having the greatest increase in recovery of cognitive function because of the combination of functional full body movements and primitive movement training in an intense interval training program. Clinical Trial Registration ID: ISRCTN74750479, Retrospectively Registered.
... An often used excuse to not exercise is that one has inadequate time, but everybody has 7 minutes to try out the 7-minute full bodyweight exercise (Klika and Jordan, 2013) -if you are feeling particularly fit then do it twice. Remember you have 24 hours in a day -you choose how you spend them. ...
... The perceived exertion scale (BORG) was used to control the intensity of the activities during this component of the intervention[42]. The activities included in the program were based on the recommendations of high-intensity physical activities for adolescents[43] [44][45].2. Physical activity during the lunch break: Equipment (i.e., balls, ropes, clubs, cones) was provided during the lunch break and supervised sports activities were held three times a week for six months (i.e., the duration of the intervention). ...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity promotes positive effects on people's health, but most adolescents do not engage in sufficient physical activity to receive the benefits. Studies suggest that school-based interventions can be effective in increasing physical activity in adolescents. However, the literature is inconsistent on the effect size and the type of intervention. This paper presents the design of the SCHOOL IN ACTION program to increase physical activity engagement and healthy eating habits. The cluster randomized controlled trial was performed during a period of six months of intervention and 12 months of follow-up in adolescents from four Brazilian public schools. The theoretical model is based on health promoting schools and the social-ecological and self-determination theory. The action strategies were: improvement of exercises intensity during physical education classes and during lunch breaks; vegetable gardening experience; active breaks in non-physical education classes; counselling health to parents and adolescents and changes in the school environment to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Primary variables were physical activity and sedentary behavior (both assessed by accelerometers). Secondary variables were body composition (assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and eating habits (assessed by questionnaire and 3-day food recall). Questionnaires were used to assess other information related to life satisfaction, health behavior and socioeconomic information. Statistical analysis will follow the principles of intention-to-treat and will explore the composition data analysis and mediating factors of lifestyle-related behaviors. We propose that SCHOOL IN ACTION program will be effective to provide evidence to increase physical activity and food healthy habits in adolescents' students. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT03153176. TRIAL STATUS: Follow-up and data analysis.
... Between each station, as described above, there will be a maximum of 30 s rest. This strategy will be used to require the contraction of several muscle groups, with a short rest between stations, causing cardiovascular and metabolic benefits and greater reduction in adipose tissue [83]. It should also be noted that this technique, in addition to resulting in a lower total exercise time, maximizes the impact of an exercise protocol in a short time. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of a 14-week periodized circuit training protocol on patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in randomized intervention groups, on thigh intermuscular adipose tissue (interMAT), body composition, systemic inflammation, cartilage degradation, and its repercussion on pain, functional performance and quality of life. Methods This study presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Sixty selected participants diagnosed with knee OA grades II and III, 40–65 years old and BMI < 30 kg/m2, will be randomly divided into three groups:periodized circuit training, strength training, and educational protocol. The circuit training and strength training protocols consist of 14-week training protocols conducted 3 times a week. The circuit training group will perform selected exercises previously stratified as light, moderate, and intense, arranged progressively in a circuit model, the strength group will perform regular strength exercises, and the educational protocol group will participate in a 14-week protocol with lectures twice a month about healthy lifestyles. Baseline and follow-up evaluations will be conducted for thigh interMAT (computed tomography), body composition (DXA), inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, leptin, and adiponectin), and joint degradation biomarkers (uCTX-II and sCOMP), performance-based tests (30s Chair Stand Test, 40 m Fast-paced Walk Test and Stair Climb Test), quadriceps and hamstring maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), and questionnaires (WOMAC and pain catastrophizing scale). Repeated measures ANOVA will be used to compare differences between groups (circuit training X strength training X educational protocol) at the different times of assessment (baseline x follow-up or baseline x during protocol x follow-up) for each of the dependent variables. When significant main effects were found, the pots hoc Bonferroni test will be used to identify statistical differences. A significance level of 5% (p < 0.05) will be adopted. Discussion This will be the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a circuit training protocol on patients with knee OA on thigh intermuscular adipose tissue (interMAT). Given the prevalence and impact of OA and the widespread availability of this intervention, assessing the efficacy of a low-cost, non-pharmacological, and non-invasive treatment for knee OA patients has the potential for immediate and high clinical impact. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02761590, registered in May 4, 2016. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12891-018-2325-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Improvements in muscle resistance and endurance capacity, following combined endurance and strength training [11], sprint and resistance training [2,4], and endurance and track sprint training [30], have been well described in the literature. However, specific training using multicomponent modes (i.e., explosive, resistance and endurance exercises) with specific periodization is less debated in relation to SFSs [11].Body-weight exercises, such as push-ups and sit-ups, are known to stimulate large muscle groups, which require higher blood volume, higher oxygen consumption and more flexibility [31], thus suggesting that an SCTC format is the best alternative to improving cardiovascular and motor performances. In addition, pullups and push-ups, as indicators for strength endurance, represent fitness tests that check the preparedness of many armies around the world [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present investigation was to follow-up the effect of specific commandos' training-cycles (SCTCs) on upper-body strength resistance and running endurance performance , as well as determine whether variation in seasonal parameters has any effect on physical performance. Fourteen SCTCs were held over eight years, involving 466 participants. Participants were assigned to four subgroups according to their distribution over the seasons: summer (n = 124), autumn (n = 145), winter (n = 52) and spring (n = 145). Before and after each SCTC, four tests (maximal pull-up, push-up and sit-up repetitions in 70-seconds for muscle strength resistance) and a 5-km crosscountry run (endurance) were performed. Seasonal data were continuously recorded during all SCTCs. Body mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all groups following SCTCs. These training-cycles induced a significant increase (p<0.05) in the 70-seconds push-ups, pull-ups and sit-ups and a decrease (p<0.01) in the 5-km crosscountry running time among all trainees. The main effect of the season was present in all tests (p<0.01). With regard to the percentage of changes, the results from the 70-seconds push-up, pull-up and sit-up tests were significantly higher in winter and spring (p<0.01) compared with the two other seasons, while 5-km crosscountry performance improvements were significantly higher (p<0.01) in spring and summer, compared to the two other seasons. In summary,14-week of SCTCs improved upper-body strength resistance and running endurance performance in the commandos. Improvements in strength resistance performance were greater during cool weather (winter and spring), while improvements in running endurance performance were higher during hotter (spring and summer) seasons. PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.
... Fortunately, with the emergence of phone applications (commonly referred to as apps), users have the ability to be guided through exercise programming in any setting at no to minimal costs. One such app called "7-Minute Workout Challenge", consists of a HIIT-styled protocol incorporating resistance training using body weight exercises (22). The exercise plan contains brief bouts of intense exercise followed by a resting interval similar to a standard HIIT protocol such as cycling or running. ...
Article
To investigate the acute cardiometabolic responses of a 7-minute bodyweight resistance exercise circuit (HICE) compared to a 7-minute high intensity interval training cycle protocol (HIIE). Methods: Twelve apparently healthy and active young adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study (HICE vs HIIE). The 12 HICE exercises used a 30:5 second exercise to rest ratio, followed by a 3-minute cool-down and was replicated in the HIIE cycle protocol. Following each protocol, subjects were seated for the next hour. Measurements included blood pressure (BP) heart rate, blood glucose and triglycerides, taken prior to exercise, immediately after, 15, 30, 45, and 60-minutes post-exercise. Blood glucose and triglycerides were only taken, immediately after and at 60-minutes. General mixed linear modeling was used to analyze the data and Cohen's d was calculated for effect size. Post hoc analysis of individual time points used Bonferroni adjustment. Results: There was no significant difference in overall systolic BP between HIIE and HICE (p = 0.168). However, there was a significant difference in overall diastolic BP resulting a higher response in HIIE (p = 0.002). Immediately after exercise exhibited significant (p = 0.001) and trending, respectfully, higher values in diastolic BP for HIIE. The overall post-exercise heart rate was lower for HIIE vs HICE (p < 0.001). Blood glucose and Triglycerides had no overall difference between the two protocols (p = 0.104). Conclusion: The HICE protocol had a similar cardiometabolic response post-exercise to HIIE but did have a reduction in diastolic BP post-exercise. However, post-exercise heart rate was higher.
... When UH was finished, 10 min of FR (80% VO 2 max) were performed. Own body weight resistance exercises (WE) used the women's body weight as load.After warm-up and stretch activities for 15 min, the protocol, based onKlika and Jordan (2013), had 12 stations with 1 exercise per station performed for 30 s with 10 s ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To test the effectiveness on recreational female middle-aged runners of a programme of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for a half-marathon race contrasted to a conventional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Methods: Twenty recreational female runners (40 ± 7 years) followed MICT or HIIT schedules for training a half-marathon. The MICT group trained a mean of 32 km/week at intensities below 80% VO2max. The HIIT group ran 25 km/week at intensities between 80 and 100% VO2max, combined with uphill running and resistance training. Women following HIIT ran 21% less distance and invested 17% less time than those from MICT group. All the women were evaluated at the beginning and end of the training and participated in the same half-marathon run. Results: Women following both schedules reduced their previous finishing times by 2–3%, which for HIIT group would have meant rising up to 90 positions out of 1454 participants in the local half-marathon race. The high intensity performed during series of high power output (200 m and 400 m) and resistance sessions in HIIT programme promoted changes that allowed modifying efficiency at high workloads. At the same time, the HIIT training programme elicited changes in oxygen uptake and transport as indicated the cardiorespiratory parameters obtained during recovery in lab tests. Moreover, HIIT registered a 14% baseline decrease in heart rate contrasting to the not significant 6% decrease in MICT. Conclusions: Runners following HIIT training obtained similar registers as with a traditional MICT schedule, expending less time and running shorter distances, yet improving their anaerobic and aerobic power.
... Medical recommendations for home-confined footballers' training during the COVID-19 pandemic mended. In the absence of suitable equipment, strength training can be carried out at home with elastic resistance [45] or body weight exercises, for example pull-ups, push-ups, sit-ups, dips, Nordic hamstring exercise, etc [46,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In early 2020, the world is facing a global emergency called COVID-19. Many professional footballers around the world are home confined. The maintenance of physical capacity is a fundamental requirement for the athlete, so the training sessions must be adapted to this unique situation. Specific recommendations must be followed concerning the type of training, its intensity, the precautions that have to be followed to avoid the possibility of contagion, and the restrictions in accordance with the presence of any symptoms. This article analyses the available scientific evidence in order to recommend a practical approach.
... Entrenamiento tipo HIIT, el cual se define en su modalidad clásica como la realización de series cortas de sprints, o de pedaleo en cicloergómetro, repetidos en el tiempo a una alta intensidad, pero no de intensidad máxima, intercalados con períodos de recuperación incompleta (Buchheit, & Laursen, 2013;López-Chicharro & Vicente-Campos, 2018). En cuanto a la modalidad no clásica, se trata de la combinación del entrenamiento en circuito, junto con la realización de ejercicios con el propio peso corporal y/o con distintos elementos como kettlebell, cuerdas, balones medicinales, etc, buscando estar en niveles de intensidad elevados, con recuperaciones parciales (Klika, & Jordan, 2013). En ambos tipos de HIIT cobra especial importancia el factor de cuantificación de la intensidad, la cual se puede establecer en función de la FCmáx (80-100%), en función de la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (RPE) (>7,5), o en función del VO2max (90-100%), entre otros métodos (Maillard, Pereira, & Boisseau. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Debido al desafío que supone la extinción de un Incendio Forestal (IF), y la exigencia física que se les demanda, es de esperar que este tipo de trabajadores lleven a cabo un entrenamiento físico regular, para así realizar su labor profesional con la máxima eficiencia. En el presente estudio se pretende implementar una programación de entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad (HIIT), en su modalidad calisténica, aplicado al trabajo del Personal Especialista en Extinción de IIFF (PEEIF). Para ello se han realizado una serie de pruebas de condición física genéricas y específicas (circuito de campo en el que se evaluó la distancia recorrida con mochila de 20 kg, nº de golpeos con batefuegos y m 2 en el manejo de la azada) previas y posteriores a un programa de entrenamiento HIIT de dos sesiones por semana durante 8 semanas. Los ejercicios propuestos están ideados para tener transferencia a las acciones específicas del PEEIF con el fin de valorar las posibles mejoras en distintas capacidades físicas y en el rendimiento y/o productividad laboral. La programación de entrenamiento ha provocado cambios fisiológicos sobre los sujetos (n=10) (disminución de la FCmax, tiempo en la aparición de umbrales), mejoras significativas en distintas capacidades (altura de salto en CMJ, número máximo de push up, tiempo en posición de plancha y fuerza resistencia de la musculatura extensora del tronco), y mejoras en cuanto a rendimiento laboral se refiere (aumento de un 7,7% de la productividad total). En conclusión, la aplicación durante 8 semanas de un HIIT-calisténico, con un volumen de entrenamiento mínimo, sin necesidad de máquinas o ergómetros específicos, ni de espacio singular, en PEEIF ya entrenado, ha mostrado ser muy eficiente en la mejora de la condición física general y específica, lo que es de aplicación a más colectivos o ámbitos. Palabras clave HIIT; PEEIF; bomberos forestales; entrenamiento específico; incendios forestales.
... The uphill run on the third day of the week consisted of climbing 100-m 10% to 12% slopes at an intensity of 85% VO 2 max, which was followed by running downhill at a slow pace and then a 10-min fast run at 80% VO 2 max. This was combined with a circuit of 12 stations of weight resistance exercises performed at maximum intensity, based on the training described in Klika and Jordan (2013). When the circuit was completed, 4 50-m sprints and 3 30-s sets of Bosco's countermovement jump tests (Bosco et al., 1983) were performed in order to improve anaerobic power and increase the efficiency of using elastic energy. ...
Article
Full-text available
A crucial subject in sports is identifying the inter-individual variation in response to training, which would allow creating individualized pre-training schedules, improving runner’s performance. We aimed to analyze heterogeneity in individual responses to two half-marathon training programs differing in running volume and intensity in middle-aged recreational women. 20 women (40 ± 7 years, 61 ± 7 kg, 167 ± 6 cm, and VO2max = 48 ± 6 mL⋅kg–1⋅min–1) underwent either moderate-intensity continuous (MICT) or high-intensity interval (HIIT) 12-week training. They were evaluated before and after training with maximal incremental tests in the laboratory (VO2max) and in the field (time to exhaustion, TTE; short interval series and long run). All the women participated in the same half-marathon and their finishing times were compared with their previous times. Although the improvements in the mean finishing times were not significant, MICT elicited a greater reduction (3 min 50 s, P = 0.298), with more women (70%) improving on their previous times, than HIIT (reduction of 2 min 34 s, P = 0.197, 50% responders). Laboratory tests showed more differences in the HIIT group (P = 0.008), while both groups presented homogeneous significant (P < 0.05) increases in TTE. Both in the short interval series and in the long run, HIIT induced better individual improvements, with a greater percentage of responders compared to MICT (100% vs 50% in the short series and 78% vs 38% in the long run). In conclusion, variability in inter-individual responses was observed after both MICT and HIIT, with some participants showing improvements (responders) while others did not (non-responders) in different performance parameters, reinforcing the idea that individualized training prescription is needed to optimize performance.
... From the results of his research it was found that circuit training increased maximum oxygen consumption and quality of life significantly, and the effectiveness of circuit training compared with high intensity interval training did not differ significantly. [11][12][13][14][15][16] This study aimed to investigated the effect of circuit exercise on TNF-α levels as proinflammatory biomarkers and 6-minutes walk test distance as functional capacity parameters in patients with chronic heart failure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Physical exercise in patients with heart failure can decrease the level of proinflammatory biomarkers andincrease functional capacity. Circuit training is one of the most advantageous exercise models because it improves cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength.This study aimed to investigate the effect of circuit training on TNF alphaandsix minutes walk test in patients with chronic heart failure in RSUP Dr. Kariadi. Twenty-six stable chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients were randomized into exercise group that received circuit training in the rehabilitation center of Kariadi Hospital for a month and control group. TNF- α levels as a inflammatory biomarker and distance of six minute walk test as a functional capacity parameter were taken before and after the exercise period.Nine-teensubjects completed the study without any significant side effects.There was no significant difference in TNF-α levels before and after treatment between treatment groups and control groups (p=0,513). The treatment group with circuit training showed a greater increase in distance of six minute walk test than the control group (p=0,034).It was concluded that circuit training in patients with chronic heart failure can increase distance of six minute walk test, but no changes in TNF alpha levels. Keywords: Circuit training, TNF-a, six minute walk test
... Many PA programs have an informal character with the aim of encouraging students to undertake any type of exercise in their free time. Also, new forms of PA are being introduced to the universities in order to increase the attractiveness of PE programs, including fitness-based activities, such as aerobics and jazz gymnastics, as well as activities that are generally popular among young adults, such as snowboarding, and high intensity-functional training (HIFT), including high-intensity interval training (HIIT), high-intensity circuit training (HICT) and Crossfit 3,4 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of physical activity (PA) among female students in physical education (PE) programs offered by universities in Poland, Hungary, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Two hundred full-time female university students (mean age: 19.93±0.82) enrolled in various PA programs. The participants’ anthropometric traits were measured, and their body composition parameters were determined with the InBody analyzer. Based on the students’ physiological parameters, the effectiveness of various types of PA was measured with Suunto Ambit3 peak heart rate monitors during 60 minutes of physical exertion. Results: The average values of body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat level (VFL), and obesity degree were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who participated in jogging followed by sauna (JFBS), performed martial arts and attended general physical education (PE) classes. Physiological parameters were the highest in the martial art group, followed by JFBS and swimming groups, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in other PA groups (golf, aerobics, general PE classes, cycling, and individual training). Physiological parameters were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who played golf and trained individually. Conclusions: Martial arts, JFBS, and swimming were the most effective types of PA among female university students. Students performing martial arts and JFBS had relatively lower body fat levels, whereas students who practiced swimming had the highest body fat levels in the population sample.
... Many PA programs have an informal character with the aim of encouraging students to undertake any type of exercise in their free time. Also, new forms of PA are being introduced to the universities in order to increase the attractiveness of PE programs, including fitness-based activities, such as aerobics and jazz gymnastics, as well as activities that are generally popular among young adults, such as snowboarding, and high intensity-functional training (HIFT), including high-intensity interval training (HIIT), high-intensity circuit training (HICT) and Crossfit 3,4 . ...
Article
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of physical activity (PA) among female students in physical education (PE) programs offered by universities in Poland, Hungary, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Two hundred full-time female university students (mean age: 19.93±0.82) enrolled in various PA programs. The participants' anthropometric traits were measured, and their body composition parameters were determined with the InBody analyzer. Based on the students' physiological parameters, the effectiveness of various types of PA was measured with Suunto Ambit3 peak heart rate monitors during 60 minutes of physical exertion. Results: The average values of body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat level (VFL), and obesity degree were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who participated in jogging followed by sauna (JFBS), performed martial arts and attended general physical education (PE) classes. Physiological parameters were the highest in the martial art group, followed by JFBS and swimming groups, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in other PA groups (golf, aerobics, general PE classes, cycling, and individual training). Physiological parameters were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who played golf and trained individually. Conclusions: Martial arts, JFBS, and swimming were the most effective types of PA among female university students. Students performing martial arts and JFBS had relatively lower body fat levels, whereas students who practiced swimming had the highest body fat levels in the population sample.
... HIIT involves alternating short bursts of high-intensity exercise with recovery periods or light exercise [30]. Based on the study from Klika et al. [31], subjects conducted a high-intensity interval training for the lower limbs, performing 3 sets squats, lunges, and one-legged heel rises using each individual's bodyweight as resistance. Participants were encouraged to maintain an execution speed of 2 s, which was equally split between the concentric and eccentric phases. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, strategies to mitigate excessive ROS productions could be useful to reduce the negative consequences of oxidative damage for health, as well as for physical, performances. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of pre-exercise oatmeal consumption on exercise-induced ROS generation in young, healthy women. Thirty-four participants were randomly allocated in one of two groups: oatmeal prior to HIIT (oatmeal; n = 17) or HIIT alone (control; n = 17). Blood samples were obtained at pre-meal, pre-HIIT, immediately post-HIIT, and 15 min after HIIT. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to analyze the concentrations of ROS in the capillary blood. In addition, the blood glucose and blood lactate levels were measured. Immediately post-HIIT, the ROS generation in the oatmeal group was significantly lower in contrast to the control group (p < 0.05). A significant interaction effect of time × meal (p < 0.05; η2 = 0.234) was detected from the pre-meal to 15 post-HIIT for ROS production. Moreover, significant differences in the blood glucose levels were observed between the groups at pre-HIIT and immediately post-HIIT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the consumption of oatmeal before HIIT may mitigate exercise-induced ROS production.
... Seventy to eighty percent of the Advanced scores would set the Intermediate range (6 to 7), and 50% of the Advanced Scores would set the Beginner range (4 to 5). Other options for summative fitness assessments include a timed cross-training segment that includes a 500-meter run, 40 squat jumps, 30 curl-ups, and 20 push-ups; the 7-minute workout shown to improve fitness and metabolic outcomes (Klika & Jordan, 2013;Reynolds, 2013); Shaun T's Insanity Fit Test (2020); or one of hundreds of Darbee printable workouts (Darbee.com, n.d.), which gives students variety, choice, access and physical activity options they will likely encounter as adults (Oliveira et al., 2018). ...
Article
High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is an effective strategy for improving health-related fitness in youth. With continued trends of reduced physical education activity time, disturbing youth obesity rates, and outdated fitness testing practices, HIIT training becomes a viable option to use in physical programs to increase physical health and literacy. Proposed is an alternative approach to traditional fitness testing that not only improves fitness but gives students the tools needed to stay active for life.
Research
Full-text available
This study aims to develop models of physical exercise soccer goalie by using the circuit method. Research development is packaged in the form of circuit training models to improve the physical condition of football goalkeeper. Methods used are research and development (Research and Development) of the Borg & Gall with 10 steps. Feasibility models and evaluated by five expert sports. Those are 2 experts of coaching and 3 experts of goalkeeper. While the subject of research is the goalkeeper in Banyuwangi. This research begins with needs analysis, planning, product, testing, revision and final products. The results show that this model is feasible to use the product goalkeeper. In the test results for small groups and large groups can be explained that the model as a whole can do well. In a test of the effectiveness of the mean value for the group amounted to 42 221 circuit and the value of the conventional group amounted to 33 167 t-count value 3,447 such results can be declared effective circuit training models to improve the physical abilities keeper.It shows that the model of physical exercise with circuit can be used by the goalkeeper in football and can effectively improve the physical abilities soccer goalkeeper.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to develop models of physical exercise soccer goalie by using the circuit method. Research development is packaged in the form of circuit training models to improve the physical condition of football goalkeeper. Methods used are research and development (Research and Development) of the Borg & Gall with 10 steps. Feasibility models and evaluated by five expert sports. Those are 2 experts of coaching and 3 experts of goalkeeper. While the subject of research is the goalkeeper in Banyuwangi. This research begins with needs analysis, planning, product, testing, revision and final products. The results show that this model is feasible to use the product goalkeeper. In the test results for small groups and large groups can be explained that the model as a whole can do well. In a test of the effectiveness of the mean value for the group amounted to 42 221 circuit and the value of the conventional group amounted to 33 167 t-count value 3,447 such results can be declared effective circuit training models to improve the physical abilities keeper.It shows that the model of physical exercise with circuit can be used by the goalkeeper in football and can effectively improve the physical abilities soccer goalkeeper.
Thesis
Full-text available
En la actualidad, el fútbol es uno de los deportes con mayor campo de investigación científica. En los últimos tiempos, el entrenamiento de la fuerza ha adquirido un papel fundamental en la planificación y programación del entrenamiento en fútbol, ya que, influye de forma positiva en la mejora de las demás cualidades y, por tanto, en un mayor rendimiento del deportista. Sin embargo, aún existe mucha controversia sobre el desarrollo de trabajos de fuerza en jugadores jóvenes de fútbol y su posible interferen cia con otras cualidades físicas y/o antropométricas. El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral, fue comparar los efectos que producen dos tratamientos de fuerza diferentes, sobre la capacidad de salto, el consumo máximo de oxígeno y la composición corporal, en jugadores jóvenes de fútbol durante una temporada, atendiendo a la categoría (cadete/juvenil) y la demarcación específica (portero, defensa central, lateral, centrocampista, extremo y delantero). Los tratamientos de fuerza fueron: 1. Grupo de fuerza con au tocargas (GAUT) y 2. Grupo de fuerza con sobrecargas (GSOB). Después de 37 semanas, con un total de 74 sesiones de entrenamiento,se produjeron mejoras significativas sobre la capacidad de salto (17.54 % GAUT ; 16.54 % GSOB ) y sobre el consumo máximo de oxígeno (7.58 % GAUT; 6.69 % GSOB). Además, se produjeron descensos del % graso (13.94 %), aumentos significativos desde el 0.5 al 1.84 % en la variable altura (cm) y aumentos en la masa muscular (Kg) (8.30 % GAUT; 4.81 % GSOB), en ambas categorías. Podemos concluir que las diferentes metodologías de entrenamiento de fuerza utilizadas, hicieron mejorar de manera significativa las variables de rendimiento estudiadas. Así pues, podemos indicar que tanto el tratamiento de fuerza con autocargas como el de sobrecargas, son métodos de entrenamiento válidos y óptimos para producir cambios a niveles neuromusculares, cardiorrespiratorios y antropométricos. Por último, se recomienda tanto a los entrenadores y/o preparadores físicos, qu e implementar un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza durante la temporada en jugadores jóvenes de fútbol, es efectivo para mejorar el rendimiento de sus jugadores.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-loading strength training program (SLSTP) on countermovement jump performance (CMJ) and body composition (BC) in young soccer players. 60 young soccer players were distributed in 4 groups [U16 14,67 ± 0,49 years); U17 (15,73 ± 0,46); U18 (16,67 ± 0,82); U19 (18,27 ± 0,46)]. Completed a strength training program with self-loading during 8 weeks with weekly training frequency of 2 sessions of 1 hour per week. CMJ performed with the app My Jump and BC were analyzed with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method (BIA). Data were collected pre- and postintervention. The effect size (ES) was calculated and a level of significance of p<0,05. The main results of the study showed a significant increase in U19 group (p<0.01) in CMJ performance. A significant decrease in body mass in U17 group (p<0.001). U17 and U19 groups showed a significant decrease in % fat mass (p<0.001) and, finally, there was a significant increase in lean mass (p <0.001) in all groups. The present study confirms that the strength training with self-loading is a valid method to produce changes at the neuromuscular level and modification of body composition in young soccer players.
Thesis
High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) or Functional High Intensity Circuit Training (FHICT), Is a new form of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), that is done like a circular resistance training, using body weight and performing functional movements. The results of previous studies on functional responses, body composition, and biochemistry in High Intensity Circuit Training are very contradictory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HICT training on serum levels of sirtuin1, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHDG), catalase activity and physical function in boy soccer players. For this intention, 21 voluntary adolescence soccer player boys, aged 14 to 16 years, in a way available and voluntary were selected and randomly divided into two training groups: (HICT) and control group. The training group trained for 8 weeks, 3 days a week, with 80% of maximal heart rate in the first 4 weeks and 85 to 90% of maximal heart rate in the second four weeks. The control group continued their usual football training with the same volume as the training group. At pre-test and post-test from all subjects had resting blood samples and one hour after maximal aerobic activity. Body composition test with body composition analyzer and functional tests was also performed before onset the exercises. In order to analyze the data, statistical software SPSS version 23 was used and significance level was considered (P <0.05). Results showed that HICT training significantly increased physical performance indexes including: agility, sargent jump height, flexibility, shoulder muscle strength and soccer dribbling (P <0.05) compared to the control group. Also, in the post-test, values of peak oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the training group than in the control group. There was no significant difference between isokinetic strength of knee extensors and flexors, velocity, anaerobic power, balance, abdominal muscle endurance, balance, fatigue index and body composition variables in the training and control groups after 8 weeks of HICT (P> 0.05). Also, not significant difference was observed in resting and short-term response values of sirtuin1, 8-OHDG and catalase activity to maximal aerobic activity (P> 0.05). Therefore, 8 weeks of High Intensity Circuit training does not cause significant oxidative stress on the soccer teenager's body, while it can have a significant effect on improving athletic performance. Recommendation: Applying HICT exercises in the competition season and dedicated preparation is an effective training strategy to increase the physical performance of relatively skilled young soccer players. It can also be used as a time and cost advantageous program in the physical education classes of school students. Keywords: Sirtuin1, 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine, Catalase, Body Composition, Sport Performance
Article
Introduction/objective: To evaluate the effects of a periodized circuit training (CT) compared with a conventional strength training (ST) and an educational protocol (EP) on body composition, metabolic parameters, muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Method: This study followed a randomized controlled trial design. A sample of sixty-one patients with KOA, 40-65 years old and BMI < 30 kg/m2, were randomly divided into three 14-week protocols: CT, ST, or EP. The CT performed whole body exercises organized in circuit, 3 times a week. The ST performed conventional resistance exercises also 3 times a week, and the EP joined in educational meetings twice a month. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)); metabolic parameters (abdominal obesity, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressure and fasting glucose), knee maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) extension and flexion, performance-based tests (40-m walk test, 30-s chair test, and stair climb test), self-reported pain, stiffness, and physical function (WOMAC) and pain catastrophism were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare differences between groups (CTxSTxEP) at the different times of assessment (baseline × follow-up). When group-time interaction was found, a one-way ANOVA, followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test, was used to compare groups in each time point; while a paired t test was used to verify the time effect in each group. Additionally, the training effect was analyzed in terms of the percent change (Δ%). Effect size was calculated for post intervention (week 14) between groups. For all analyses a significance level of 5% was adopted (p < 0.05). Results: The CT was the only protocol that presented significant lower body mass (p = 0.018; Δ% = - 1.4), fat mass (p = 0.017; Δ% = - 10.3), %fat mass (p < 0.001; Δ% = - 13.9), adipose indices (%fat trunk/%fat legs p = 0.031; Δ% = 7.8; fat mass/height2p = 0.011; Δ% = - 15.1; trunk/limb fat mass p = 0.012; Δ% = - 8.2; visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume (cm3) p = 0.039; Δ% = - 11.6; VAT area (cm2) p = 0.044; Δ% = - 12.2), blood pressure levels (SBP p = 0.042; Δ% = - 3.4 and DBP p = 0.001; Δ% = - 4.9), higher lean mass and HDL (p < 0.001; Δ% = 5.9) compared to baseline. CT and ST presented lower WOMAC pain, stiffness and physical function (p < 0.001; Δ% = - 64.0 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 0.001; Δ% = - 46.4 for ST in WOMAC total score, pain catastrophizing (p < 0.001; Δ% = - 66.7 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = - 61.5 for ST) a higher functional performance (30 s chair test: p < 0.001; Δ% = 45.7 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 26.9 for ST; 40 m walk test: p < 0.001; Δ% = 26.7 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 12.5 for ST; stair climb test: p = 0.002; Δ% = - 33.9 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = - 18.8 for ST) and knee extension MIVC (p < 0.001; Δ% = 21.92 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 30.25 for ST). Conclusion: A periodized CT model reduces visceral adipose tissue, SBP and DBP, and improves HDL, important cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, in patients with KOA. Both trained groups (CT and ST) improve self-reported clinical symptoms, muscle strength, and physical performance in this sample. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02761590 (registered on May 4, 2016). Key points: • A 14-week periodized circuit training reduces visceral adipose tissue, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and improves HDL blood levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis.• Both periodized circuit training and conventional strength training improve clinical symptoms, functional performance and muscle strength in this sample.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study was to investigate effects of 8-week modified high intensity circuit training using bodyweight (modified HICT BW) on body weight (BW), Waist/Hip circumference ratio (WHR), body circumferences and resting metabolic rate in sedentary obese women. Methods: Twenty-four sedentary female (aged between 20 and 40 years) who have body mass index between 25-29.9 kg/m 2 participated and were divided into untrained groups and trained groups. The trained group performed modified HICT BW program for 8 weeks. All parameters were measured before and after the 8-week study period in both groups Results: There was a significant increase in resting metabolic rate after 8 weeks of modified HICT BW training (p<0.05) , however, there were no significant differences in BW, WHR and body circumference in trained group when compared before and after an eight-week training. Discussion: An eight-week modified HICT BW exerts the beneficial effects on an improvement of resting metabolic rate, but not body weight loss and changes in body circumference in sedentary obese people.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit from engaging in amounts of exercise less than recommended. In addition to exercising regularly, there are health benefits in concurrently reducing total time engaged in sedentary pursuits and also by interspersing frequent, short bouts of standing and physical activity between periods of sedentary activity, even in physically active adults. Behaviorally based exercise interventions, the use of behavior change strategies, supervision by an experienced fitness instructor, and exercise that is pleasant and enjoyable can improve adoption and adherence to prescribed exercise programs. Educating adults about and screening for signs and symptoms of CHD and gradual progression of exercise intensity and volume may reduce the risks of exercise. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise testing for CHD are useful when clinically indicated but are not recommended for universal screening to enhance the safety of exercise.
Article
Full-text available
To compare the effects of an acute one versus three-set full body resistance training (RT) bout in eight overweight (mean ± SD, BMI = 25.6 ± 1.5 kg m(-2)) young (21.0 ± 1.5 years) adults on resting energy expenditure (REE) measured on four consecutive mornings following each protocol. Participants performed a single one-set or three-set whole body (10 exercises, 10 repetition maximum) RT bout following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for RT. REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) by indirect calorimetry were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h after the RT bout. Participants performed each protocol in randomized, counterbalanced order separated by 7 days. There was no difference between protocols for REE or RER. However, REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~400 kJ day(-1)) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline. There was a no change in RER in both the protocols at 72 h compared to baseline. A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The one-set RT protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set RT programs for weight management in young adults, due to the minimal time commitment and the elevation in REE post RT bout.
Article
Full-text available
We use a new approach to the estimation of energy expenditure for resistance training involving nonsteady state measures of work (weight × displacement), exercise O2 uptake, blood lactate, and recovery O2 uptake; all lifts were performed to muscular failure. Our intent was to estimate and compare absolute and relative aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditure and recovery energy expenditure. Single-set bench press lifts of ∼ 37, ∼ 46, and ∼ 56% (muscular endurance-type exercise) along with 70, 80, and 90% (strength-type exercise) of a 1 repetition maximum were performed. Collectively, the muscular endurance lifts resulted in larger total energy expenditure (60.2 ± 14.5 kJ) as compared with the strength lifts (43.2 ± 12.5 kJ) (p = 0.001). Overall work also was greater for muscular endurance (462 ± 131 J) as opposed to strength (253 ± 93 J) (p = 0.001); overall work and energy expenditure were related (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). Anaerobic exercise and recovery energy expenditure were significantly larger for all strength lifts as compared with aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001). For the muscular endurance lifts, anaerobic energy expenditure was larger than recovery energy expenditure (p < 0.001) that in turn was larger than aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001). We conclude that for a single set of resistance training to fatigue, the anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure contributions can be significantly larger than aerobic energy expenditure during the exercise. To our surprise, recovery energy expenditure was similar both within strength and muscular-endurance protocols and between protocols; moreover, recovery energy expenditure had little to no relationship with aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditure or work.
Article
Full-text available
High-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) is a compromise between time-consuming moderate-intensity training and sprint-interval training requiring all-out efforts. However, there are few data regarding the ability of HIIT to increase the capacities of fat and carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. Using untrained recreationally active individuals, we investigated skeletal muscle and whole-body metabolic adaptations that occurred following 6 weeks of HIIT (~1 h of 10 x 4 min intervals at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), separated by 2 min rest, 3 d.week-1). A VO2 peak test, a test to exhaustion (TE) at 90% of pre-training VO2 peak, and a 1 h cycle at 60% of pre-training VO2 peak were performed pre- and post-HIIT. Muscle biopsies were sampled during the TE at rest, after 5 min, and at exhaustion. Training power output increased by 21%, and VO2 peak increased by 9% following HIIT. Muscle adaptations at rest included the following: (i) increased cytochrome c oxidase IV content (18%) and maximal activities of the mitochondrial enzymes citrate synthase (26%), beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (29%), aspartate-amino transferase (26%), and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH; 21%); (ii) increased FAT/CD36, FABPpm, GLUT 4, and MCT 1 and 4 transport proteins (14%-30%); and (iii) increased glycogen content (59%). Major adaptations during exercise included the following: (i) reduced glycogenolysis, lactate accumulation, and substrate phosphorylation (0-5 min of TE); (ii) unchanged PDH activation (carbohydrate oxidation; 0-5 min of TE); (iii) ~2-fold greater time during the TE; and (iv) increased fat oxidation at 60% of pre-training VO2 peak. This study demonstrated that 18 h of repeated high-intensity exercise sessions over 6 weeks (3 d.week-1) is a powerful method to increase whole-body and skeletal muscle capacities to oxidize fat and carbohydrate in previously untrained individuals.
Article
Full-text available
There is a paucity of research concerning energy expenditure during and after circuit weight training (CWT). There is evidence that duration of rest between sets affects metabolic responses to resistive exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of rest-interval duration upon the magnitude of 1 h of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Seven healthy men completed two randomized circuit weight training sessions using 20-s and 60-s rest intervals (20 RI, 60 RI). Sessions included two circuits of eight upper and lower body resistive exercises in which 20 repetitions were performed at 75% of a previously determined 20 repetition maximum. The 1 h EPOC of 10.3 +/- 0.57 L for the 20 RI session was significantly higher than 7.40 +/- 0.39 L for the 60 RI session. The net caloric expenditure during 1 h of recovery from the 20 RI session was significantly higher than that of the 60 RI session (51.51 +/- 2.84 vs 37.00 +/- 1.97 kcal); however, total gross energy expenditure (exercise + 1 h recovery) was significantly greater for the 60 RI protocol (277.23 kcal) than the 20 RI protocol (242.21 kcal). Data demonstrate that shortening the rest interval duration will increase the magnitude of 1 h EPOC from CWT; however, the exercise + recovery caloric costs from CWT are slightly greater for a longer rest interval duration protocol. These data suggest that total caloric cost be taken into account for CWT.
Article
Full-text available
Strength training is an important component in sports training and rehabilitation. Quantification of the dose-response relationships between training variables and the outcome is fundamental for the proper prescription of resistance training. The purpose of this comprehensive review was to identify dose-response relationships for the development of muscle hypertrophy by calculating the magnitudes and rates of increases in muscle cross-sectional area induced by varying levels of frequency, intensity and volume, as well as by different modes of strength training. Computer searches in the databases MEDLINE, SportDiscus® and CJNAHL® were performed as well as hand searches of relevant journals, books and reference lists. The analysis was limited to the quadriceps femoris and the elbow flexors, since these were the only muscle groups that allowed for evaluations of dose-response trends. The modes of strength training were classified as dynamic external resistance (including free weights and weight machines), accommodating resistance (e.g. isokinetic and semi-isokinetic devices) and isometric resistance. The subcategories related to the types of muscle actions used. The results demonstrate that given sufficient frequency, intensity and volume of work, all three types of muscle actions can induce significant hypertrophy at an impressive rate and that, at present, there is insufficient evidence for the superiority of any mode and/or type of muscle action over other modes and types of training. Tentative dose-response relationships for each variable are outlined, based on the available evidence, and interactions between variables are discussed. In addition, recommendations for training and suggestions for further research are given.
Article
Full-text available
To determine the effects of a 15-week high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program on subcutaneous and trunk fat and insulin resistance of young women. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: HIIE (n=15), steady-state exercise (SSE; n=15) or control (CONT; n=15). HIIE and SSE groups underwent a 15-week exercise intervention. Forty-five women with a mean BMI of 23.2+/-2.0 kg m(-2) and age of 20.2+/-2.0 years. Both exercise groups demonstrated a significant improvement (P<0.05) in cardiovascular fitness. However, only the HIIE group had a significant reduction in total body mass (TBM), fat mass (FM), trunk fat and fasting plasma insulin levels. There was significant fat loss (P<0.05) in legs compared to arms in the HIIE group only. Lean compared to overweight women lost less fat after HIIE. Decreases in leptin concentrations were negatively correlated with increases in VO(2peak) (r=-0.57, P<0.05) and positively correlated with decreases in TBM (r=0.47; P<0.0001). There was no significant change in adiponectin levels after training. HIIE three times per week for 15 weeks compared to the same frequency of SSE exercise was associated with significant reductions in total body fat, subcutaneous leg and trunk fat, and insulin resistance in young women.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of standard set weight training (SWT) and circuit weight training (CWT) on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The type and order of exercises were the same for both programs. The programs differed in three respects: a circuit approach as opposed to three sets of the same exercise; the percent of maximum weight used was 80 percent in SWT and 50 percent CWT; and rest periods were shorter for CWT (30 seconds) than SWT (120 seconds). This longer rest period resulted in a longer SWT program (50 minutes) than the CWT program (19 minutes). Ten untrained college men performed both weight-training programs. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was determined before each weight program, followed by a determination of EPOC. The magnitude and duration of EPOC produced by CWT were significantly (p < 0.01) greater than those produced by SWT. The EPOC produced by CWT was 20 minutes in duration with a net caloric cost estimated at 24.9 kilocalories, while that produced by SWT was 15 minutes in duration with an estimated net caloric cost of 13.5 kilocalories. The intensity of CWT (289 kilograms per minute) was also greater than that of SWT (106 kilograms per minute). It was concluded that the magnitude and duration of EPOC is greater for CWT in comparison to SWT and the EPOC produced by weight training is somewhat less than that found for aerobic exercise. (C) 1992 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Sprint interval training (SIT) and traditional endurance training elicit similar physiological adaptations. From the perspective of metabolic function, superior glucose regulation is a common characteristic of endurance-trained adults. Accordingly, we have investigated the hypothesis that short-term SIT will increase insulin sensitivity in sedentary/recreationally active humans. Thirty one healthy adults were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) SIT (n = 12): six sessions of repeated (4-7) 30 s bouts of very high-intensity cycle ergometer exercise over 14 days; (2) sedentary control (n = 10); (3) single-bout SIT (n = 9): one session of 4 x 30 s cycle ergometer sprints. Insulin sensitivity was determined (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) prior to and 72 h following each intervention. Compared with baseline, and sedentary and single-bout controls, SIT increased insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate: 6.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.8 mg kg(1) min(1); mean +/- s.e.m.; P = 0.04). In a separate study, we investigated the effect of SIT on the thermogenic response to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation, an important determinant of energy balance. Compared with baseline, and sedentary and single-bout control groups, SIT did not affect resting energy expenditure (EE: ventilated hood technique; 6274 +/- 226 vs. 6079 +/- 297 kJ day(1); P = 0.51) or the thermogenic response to isoproterenol (6, 12 and 24 ng (kg fat-free mass)(1) min(1): %EE 11 +/- 2, 14 +/- 3, 23 +/- 2 vs. 11 +/- 1, 16 +/- 2, 25 +/- 3; P = 0.79). Combined data from both studies revealed no effect of SIT on fasted circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, pigment epithelial-derived factor, non-esterified fatty acids or noradrenaline (all P > 0.05). Sixteen minutes of high-intensity exercise over 14 days augments insulin sensitivity but does not affect the thermogenic response to beta-AR stimulation.
Article
High-intensity interval training (HIT) induces skeletal muscle metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble traditional endurance training despite a low total exercise volume. Most HIT studies have employed ‘all out’, variable-load exercise interventions (e.g. repeated Wingate tests) that may not be safe, practical and/or well tolerated by certain individuals. Our purpose was to determine the performance, metabolic and molecular adaptations to a more practical model of low-volume HIT. Seven men (21 ± 0.4 years, ml kg−1 min−1) performed six training sessions over 2 weeks. Each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at ∼100% of peak power output elicited during a ramp peak test (355 ± 10 W) separated by 75 s of recovery. Training increased exercise capacity, as assessed by significant improvements on both 50 kJ and 750 kJ cycling time trials (P < 0.05 for both). Skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsy samples obtained before and after training revealed increased maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) as well as total protein content of CS, COX subunits II and IV, and the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) (P < 0.05 for all). Nuclear abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) was ∼25% higher after training (P < 0.05), but total PGC-1α protein content remained unchanged. Total SIRT1 content, a proposed activator of PGC-1α and mitochondrial biogenesis, was increased by ∼56% following training (P < 0.05). Training also increased resting muscle glycogen and total GLUT4 protein content (both P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that a practical model of low volume HIT is a potent stimulus for increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and improving exercise performance. The results also suggest that increases in SIRT1, nuclear PGC-1α, and Tfam may be involved in coordinating mitochondrial adaptations in response to HIT in human skeletal muscle.
Article
Whereas the lipolytic and diabetogenic consequences of sustained growth hormone (GH) exposure are well described, the metabolic effects of a short-lived physiological GH pulse have only recently been reported. To assess the possible dose-response of such short-term bolus administration of GH, six healthy, male subjects were each studied thrice for 4 1/2 hours after an intravenous (IV) bolus of either 70, 140, or 350 micrograms GH, resulting in peak GH concentrations of 10, 15, and 34 micrograms/L. Observed results include: (1) Time- (but not dose-) dependent changes (P less than .05) in plasma glucose and an acute (from 10 minutes onward), persistent, 40% decrease in forearm glucose uptake. Total glucose turnover decreased steadily with time on all occasions. (2) Time- and dose-dependent increases (P less than .05) in the concentrations of circulating lipid intermediates, with an increase of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) from a basal of 35 mumol/L to peak values of 108 +/- 34 (70 micrograms), 176 +/- 46 (140 micrograms), and 232 +/- 51 mumol/L (350 micrograms), forearm uptake of 3-OHB changed in parallel. (3) Respiratory exchange ratio decreased (P less than .05) with increasing GH doses (indicating increased lipid and decreased glucose oxidation), and energy expenditure remained unaffected. (4) Concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were unchanged throughout all studies. We conclude that the stimulating effects of a modest GH bolus on circulating lipid intermediates and lipid oxidation are dose-dependent. This finding underlines the potential role of GH as a principal physiological regulator of fuel consumption in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.
Article
Brief, intense exercise training may induce metabolic and performance adaptations comparable to traditional endurance training. However, no study has directly compared these diverse training strategies in a standardized manner. We therefore examined changes in exercise capacity and molecular and cellular adaptations in skeletal muscle after low volume sprint-interval training (SIT) and high volume endurance training (ET). Sixteen active men (21 +/- 1 years, ) were assigned to a SIT or ET group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions over 14 days. Each session consisted of either four to six repeats of 30 s 'all out' cycling at approximately 250% with 4 min recovery (SIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at approximately 65% (ET). Training time commitment over 2 weeks was approximately 2.5 h for SIT and approximately 10.5 h for ET, and total training volume was approximately 90% lower for SIT versus ET ( approximately 630 versus approximately 6500 kJ). Training decreased the time required to complete 50 and 750 kJ cycling time trials, with no difference between groups (main effects, P </= 0.05). Biopsy samples obtained before and after training revealed similar increases in muscle oxidative capacity, as reflected by the maximal activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and COX subunits II and IV protein content (main effects, P </= 0.05), but COX II and IV mRNAs were unchanged. Training-induced increases in muscle buffering capacity and glycogen content were also similar between groups (main effects, P </= 0.05). Given the large difference in training volume, these data demonstrate that SIT is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in skeletal muscle and exercise performance that are comparable to ET in young active men.
Article
Recovery from a bout of exercise is associated with an elevation in metabolism referred to as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). A number of investigators in the first half of the last century reported prolonged EPOC durations and that the EPOC was a major component of the thermic effect of activity. It was therefore thought that the EPOC was a major contributor to total daily energy expenditure and hence the maintenance of body mass. Investigations conducted over the last two or three decades have improved the experimental protocols used in the pioneering studies and therefore have more accurately characterized the EPOC. Evidence has accumulated to suggest an exponential relationship between exercise intensity and the magnitude of the EPOC for specific exercise durations. Furthermore, work at exercise intensities >or=50-60% VO2max stimulate a linear increase in EPOC as exercise duration increases. The existence of these relationships with resistance exercise at this stage remains unclear because of the limited number of studies and problems with quantification of work intensity for this type of exercise. Although the more recent studies do not support the extended EPOC durations reported by some of the pioneering investigators, it is now apparent that a prolonged EPOC (3-24 h) may result from an appropriate exercise stimulus (submaximal: >or=50 min at >or=70% VO2max; supramaximal: >or=6 min at >or=105% VO2max). However, even those studies incorporating exercise stimuli resulting in prolonged EPOC durations have identified that the EPOC comprises only 6-15% of the net total oxygen cost of the exercise. But this figure may need to be increased when studies utilizing intermittent work bouts are designed to allow the determination of rest interval EPOCs, which should logically contribute to the EPOC determined following the cessation of the last work bout. Notwithstanding the aforementioned, the earlier research optimism regarding an important role for the EPOC in weight loss is generally unfounded. This is further reinforced by acknowledging that the exercise stimuli required to promote a prolonged EPOC are unlikely to be tolerated by non-athletic individuals. The role of exercise in the maintenance of body mass is therefore predominantly mediated via the cumulative effect of the energy expenditure during the actual exercise.