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High-intensity circuit training using body weight: Maximum results with minimal investment

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Abstract

To understand the health benefits and practical application of a high-intensity circuit training exercise protocol.

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... Vigorous intensity exercise, that could rise heart rate to 70-85% of maximum heart rate, is still inconsistent in cognitive function effect. Previous study reported that vigorous intensity exercise could increase cognitive function in executive attention, concentration, and spatial memory particularly in young adult population, however another study informed its decreasing in elderly population (7)(8)(9). ...
... High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) is one of a simple vigorous intensity exercise that combine aerobic and resistance exercise into 12 movements in 7 minutes, can be perform anywhere and only need one chair. It was effective to reduce body weight, increase VO 2 max, as well as improve short term memory in male young adult and children (9,10). However, no report has been found about the effect of HICT in attention function in male young adult, especially in medical student, a known population with tight study activities and rare exercise. ...
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Introduction: Several studies have analyzed the benefits of High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) in some cognitive function such as short-term memory. However, the effect of long-term and regular HICT particularly in young adults, who need good cognitive function including attention function to improve the learning process, has not been studied yet. This study is aimed to analyze the effect of regular HICT in attention function improvement of young adults. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test un-equivalent group method. Samples were taken purposively from medical student of Diponegoro University (n=56, age=18-22 years old), who were divided into two groups, the control and training group. Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to measure attention function in alerting, orienting and executive function before and after HICT. The data were analyzed using Paired t-test, Independent t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann-Whitney test. Results: A significant improvement of attention function was found in executive function and reaction time after High Intensity Circuit Training for 8 weeks (p<0.05), with mean 15.67ms to 14.36ms; 620.46ms ± 110.13 to 573.14ms ± 67.11, respectively. The mean difference between pre-test and post-test attention function test was found increased in alerting, executive function and reaction time (p>0.05), that training group had higher score as compared to control group, with mean difference 0.7857ms; 31.3ms; 30.29ms, respectively. Conclusion: Regular High Intensity Circuit Training improves attention function particularly in executive function and reaction time in male young adults.
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. ...
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. (29) Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES ...
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Introducción: El progresivo envejecimiento poblacional se estima a nivel mundial como un indicador de mejora de la salud. No obstante, al vivir más años se le asocian problemas sanitarios que se van posicionando en el tiempo, y uno de ellos es la sarcopenia, la que se considera una condición común en los adultos mayores y se asocia a la inactividad física, baja resistencia, baja velocidad de marcha y disminución de la movilidad. Estos factores contribuyen a un aumento del riesgo de caída y a una disminución de la funcionalidad y de la calidad de vida. Objetivo: Mostrar evidencia actualizada respecto a los resultados del entrenamiento de fuerza con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en población adulto mayor con sarcopenia, como estrategia costo-efectiva para la dependencia asociada al envejecimiento. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos científicas EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Web of Science y en el buscador PubMed. Se utilizaron los siguientes términos de búsqueda: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo, sarcopenia, adulto mayor. Los artículos analizados incluyeron revisiones y artículos de investigación, principalmente ensayos clínicos controlados y revisiones sistemáticas con metanálisis. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en el adulto mayor surge como una herramienta útil para intervenir en la sarcopenia asociada al envejecimiento, constituyendo una alternativa para inducir la ganancia de fuerza muscular, con la disminución de los riesgos del entrenamiento de alta intensidad. Además, es una técnica económica y fácil de implementar en centros de salud de asistencia masiva.
... Although body weight resistance training can be an efficient strategy to improve metabolic health, it may be inferior to creating absolute strength compared to commonly used strength trainings regimes (78). However, this trainings method was used to increase maximal aerobic capacity and decreasing body fat (61). Interestingly, a current meta-analysis revealed that hypertrophy adaptations between low-vs. ...
... high-load resistance training can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges (79), which might also be responsible for improvements in running economy and velocity due to an improved muscle strength and endurance in the current investigation. Moreover, body weight resistance training was also used due to its practical application, since the use of equipment or a facility is not required (61). ...
Article
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The purpose was to examine the effects of concurrent training (CT) combined with specific collagen peptides (SCP) intake on cardiometabolic parameters and performance indices in women. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial recreationally active women (n = 59) completed a 12-week CT training (3 day/week) and ingested 15 g of SCP (treatment group [TG]) or placebo (control group [CG]) on a daily basis. Running distance as a marker of endurance performance (time trial), velocity and heart rate at the lactate and anaerobic threshold (incremental running test) and body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA]) were measured. BIA measurements included determination of fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM). Additionally, muscular strength (one-repetition-maximum [1RM]) and muscular endurance (60% of 1RM) were assessed. After 12-weeks, TG had a higher increase in running distance (1,034 ± 643 m) compared to the CG (703 ± 356 m) indicated by a significant interaction effect (p < 0.05). Velocity at lactate and anaerobic threshold improved in both groups over time (p < 0.001), with no significant differences between groups. Similarly, heart rate at lactate threshold decreased over time (p < 0.001), with no time × group interaction. TG declined more in heart rate at anaerobic threshold (−8 ± 14 bpm) than the CG (−1 ± 7 bpm), which resulted in a significant interaction effect (p < 0.01). FM decreased over time in TG and CG (p < 0.001), with no group differences. On contrary, TG had a higher increase in FFM (0.8 ± 0.9 kg) compared to the CG (0.3 ± 1.0 kg) (time × group interaction: p < 0.05). Both, 1RM and muscular endurance improved over time (p < 0.001), with no significant group differences. In conclusion, supplementation of SCP in combination with CT resulted in a significant increase in endurance performance compared to the control group. This might potentially be a consequence of improved structural and cardiometabolic adaptations.
... Similar to typical endurance training, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), is recognized as a powerful factor to ameliorate a relative maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) [6,7] as well as a beneficial metabolic stimulus for better glucose uptake [8,9] and cognitive functions improvement [10,11]. One of HIIT variations is the high-intensity circuit training (HICT), using a person's own body weight as a workload [12]. Our previous data revealed that a single session of HICT improved concentration and special memory among young women. ...
... The HICT training program was based on a previous study [9] and contained nine exercises chosen from the original HICT protocol [12]. Women from training group completed 15 HICT sessions during the five-week period (three training sessions per week). ...
Article
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: cathepsin B brain-derived neurotrophic factor irisin fibroblast growth factor-21 inter-individual variability A B S T R A C T This study verified the impact of five weeks of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on changes in concentration of exerkines in relation to cognitive functions. Sedentary women (n = 33; age=39±13 years) were randomly assigned into the HICT (n = 21) group or the control group (n = 12). The HICT group performed 15 training sessions; meanwhile, the control group performed the HICT twice, only at baseline and at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected before, 1 h and 24 h after the first and last HICT, to evaluate the concentration of exerkines: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cathepsin B (CATB) using enzyme immunoassay method. Cognitive functions and quality of life were assessed using the Vienna Test System and the Short Form Health Survey. HICT induced improvement of cognitive function and quality of life, and these changes were accompanied by an increase of BDNF and shifts in CATB concentration. HICT program caused a decrease in FGF-21 concentration, which was modified by age and insulin sensitivity. The improvement of cognitive functions was more pronounced in females , who experienced a drop in FGF-21. In summary, HICT program, that can be performed during pandemic, enhanced cognitive functions and this response was related to changes in exerkines.
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. ...
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. (29) Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES ...
Article
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Introduction: Progressive population aging is estimated globally as an indicator of health improvement. However, when living is extended, health issues appear; one of them is sarcopenia, which is consider a common condition in older adults and it is associated to physical inactivy, low resistance, low walk speed and a decrease in mobility. These factors contribute to an increase of falls risk and to a decrease of functionality and life quality. Objective: To show updated evidence on the results of the strength training with partial restriction of blood flow in older adults populations with sarcopenia, as a cost-effective strategy for dependence associated to aging. Methods: Search was done in scientific databases as EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed searcher. Following terms were used: training with partial restriction of blood flow, sarcopenia, older adult. The analyzed articles included reviews and research articles, mainly controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Conclusions: Training with partial restriction of the blood flow in older adults emerges as an useful tool to intervene in sarcopenia associated to aging, being an alternative to induce muscle force´s gain, and decreasing the risks of high intensity training. In addition, it is an economic and easy to implement technique in health centers with massive audiences. Keywords: Training with partial restriction of blood flow; sarcopenia; older adult.
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. ...
... El EC de alta intensidad combina el entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia en una sola sesión de ejercicios, (28) ofrece numerosos beneficios para la salud y en menos tiempo que los programas tradicionales. (29) Además, al utilizar solo el peso corporal (PC) como resistencia, elimina factores limitantes de acceso a equipamiento e instalaciones, (28) se caracteriza por realizar variados ejercicios con el PC o con muy bajas cargas en diversas articulaciones, los cuales se completan en 30-40 segundos, con pausas de recuperación cortas de 15-30 segundos entre ellas. (29) Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES ...
Article
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Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. 2020;46(3):e1105 1 Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES Revisión Entrenamiento de fuerza con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en adultos mayores con sarcopenia Strenght training with partial restriction of blood flow in older adults with sarcopenia Carlos Bahamondes-Ávila 1* https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4616-5663 Felipe Ponce-Fuentes 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3449-9738 Natalia Chahin-Inostroza 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8716-9460 Fanny Bracho-Milic 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6626-1172 Claudia Navarrete-Hidalgo 1 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9342-4846 1 Universidad Mayor, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Kinesiología. Temuco, Chile. * Autor para la correspondencia: carlos.bahamondesa@mayor.cl RESUMEN Introducción: El progresivo envejecimiento poblacional se estima a nivel mundial como un indicador de mejora de la salud. No obstante, al vivir más años se le asocian problemas sanitarios que se van posicionando en el tiempo, y uno de ellos es la sarcopenia, la que se considera una condición común en los adultos mayores y se asocia a la inactividad física, baja resistencia, baja velocidad de marcha y disminución de la movilidad. Estos factores contribuyen a un aumento del riesgo de caída y a una disminución de la funcionalidad y de la calidad de vida. Objetivo: Mostrar evidencia actualizada respecto a los resultados del entrenamiento de fuerza con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en población adulto mayor con sarcopenia, como estrategia costo-efectiva para la dependencia asociada al envejecimiento. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos científicas EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Web of Science y en el buscador PubMed. Se utilizaron los siguientes términos de búsqueda: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo, sarcopenia, adulto mayor. Los Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. 2020;46(3):e1105 2 Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.es_ES artículos analizados incluyeron revisiones y artículos de investigación, principalmente ensayos clínicos controlados y revisiones sistemáticas con metanálisis. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en el adulto mayor surge como una herramienta útil para intervenir en la sarcopenia asociada al envejecimiento, constituyendo una alternativa para inducir la ganancia de fuerza muscular, con la disminución de los riesgos del entrenamiento de alta intensidad. Además, es una técnica económica y fácil de implementar en centros de salud de asistencia masiva. Palabras clave: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo; sarcopenia; adulto mayor. ABSTRACT Introduction: Progressive population aging is estimated globally as an indicator of health
... When UH was finished, 10 min of FR (80% VO 2 max) were performed. Own body weight resistance exercises (WE) used the women's body weight as load.After warm-up and stretch activities for 15 min, the protocol, based onKlika and Jordan (2013), had 12 stations with 1 exercise per station performed for 30 s with 10 s ...
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Purpose: To test the effectiveness on recreational female middle-aged runners of a programme of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for a half-marathon race contrasted to a conventional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Methods: Twenty recreational female runners (40 ± 7 years) followed MICT or HIIT schedules for training a half-marathon. The MICT group trained a mean of 32 km/week at intensities below 80% VO2max. The HIIT group ran 25 km/week at intensities between 80 and 100% VO2max, combined with uphill running and resistance training. Women following HIIT ran 21% less distance and invested 17% less time than those from MICT group. All the women were evaluated at the beginning and end of the training and participated in the same half-marathon run. Results: Women following both schedules reduced their previous finishing times by 2–3%, which for HIIT group would have meant rising up to 90 positions out of 1454 participants in the local half-marathon race. The high intensity performed during series of high power output (200 m and 400 m) and resistance sessions in HIIT programme promoted changes that allowed modifying efficiency at high workloads. At the same time, the HIIT training programme elicited changes in oxygen uptake and transport as indicated the cardiorespiratory parameters obtained during recovery in lab tests. Moreover, HIIT registered a 14% baseline decrease in heart rate contrasting to the not significant 6% decrease in MICT. Conclusions: Runners following HIIT training obtained similar registers as with a traditional MICT schedule, expending less time and running shorter distances, yet improving their anaerobic and aerobic power.
... Medical recommendations for home-confined footballers' training during the COVID-19 pandemic mended. In the absence of suitable equipment, strength training can be carried out at home with elastic resistance [45] or body weight exercises, for example pull-ups, push-ups, sit-ups, dips, Nordic hamstring exercise, etc [46,47]. ...
Article
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In early 2020, the world is facing a global emergency called COVID-19. Many professional footballers around the world are home confined. The maintenance of physical capacity is a fundamental requirement for the athlete, so the training sessions must be adapted to this unique situation. Specific recommendations must be followed concerning the type of training, its intensity, the precautions that have to be followed to avoid the possibility of contagion, and the restrictions in accordance with the presence of any symptoms. This article analyses the available scientific evidence in order to recommend a practical approach.
... Fortunately, with the emergence of phone applications (commonly referred to as apps), users have the ability to be guided through exercise programming in any setting at no to minimal costs. One such app called "7-Minute Workout Challenge", consists of a HIIT-styled protocol incorporating resistance training using body weight exercises (22). The exercise plan contains brief bouts of intense exercise followed by a resting interval similar to a standard HIIT protocol such as cycling or running. ...
Article
To investigate the acute cardiometabolic responses of a 7-minute bodyweight resistance exercise circuit (HICE) compared to a 7-minute high intensity interval training cycle protocol (HIIE). Methods: Twelve apparently healthy and active young adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study (HICE vs HIIE). The 12 HICE exercises used a 30:5 second exercise to rest ratio, followed by a 3-minute cool-down and was replicated in the HIIE cycle protocol. Following each protocol, subjects were seated for the next hour. Measurements included blood pressure (BP) heart rate, blood glucose and triglycerides, taken prior to exercise, immediately after, 15, 30, 45, and 60-minutes post-exercise. Blood glucose and triglycerides were only taken, immediately after and at 60-minutes. General mixed linear modeling was used to analyze the data and Cohen's d was calculated for effect size. Post hoc analysis of individual time points used Bonferroni adjustment. Results: There was no significant difference in overall systolic BP between HIIE and HICE (p = 0.168). However, there was a significant difference in overall diastolic BP resulting a higher response in HIIE (p = 0.002). Immediately after exercise exhibited significant (p = 0.001) and trending, respectfully, higher values in diastolic BP for HIIE. The overall post-exercise heart rate was lower for HIIE vs HICE (p < 0.001). Blood glucose and Triglycerides had no overall difference between the two protocols (p = 0.104). Conclusion: The HICE protocol had a similar cardiometabolic response post-exercise to HIIE but did have a reduction in diastolic BP post-exercise. However, post-exercise heart rate was higher.
... Seventy to eighty percent of the Advanced scores would set the Intermediate range (6 to 7), and 50% of the Advanced Scores would set the Beginner range (4 to 5). Other options for summative fitness assessments include a timed cross-training segment that includes a 500-meter run, 40 squat jumps, 30 curl-ups, and 20 push-ups; the 7-minute workout shown to improve fitness and metabolic outcomes (Klika & Jordan, 2013;Reynolds, 2013); Shaun T's Insanity Fit Test (2020); or one of hundreds of Darbee printable workouts (Darbee.com, n.d.), which gives students variety, choice, access and physical activity options they will likely encounter as adults (Oliveira et al., 2018). ...
Article
High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is an effective strategy for improving health-related fitness in youth. With continued trends of reduced physical education activity time, disturbing youth obesity rates, and outdated fitness testing practices, HIIT training becomes a viable option to use in physical programs to increase physical health and literacy. Proposed is an alternative approach to traditional fitness testing that not only improves fitness but gives students the tools needed to stay active for life.
... In brief, the selected ten exercises are: (1) jumping jack, (2) wall sit, (3) pushup, (4) abdominal crunch, (5) squat, (6) plank, (7) lunge, (8) side plank (right side), (9) side plank (left side), and (10) high knees running. The selected exercises included in our program showed accessibility, practicality, and time-saving for individuals previously felt they did not have enough resources or time to exercise [43]. Participants were encouraged to stay hydrated between the two rounds by offering 100 mL (3.3 oz) of water. ...
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Purpose This study aimed to examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on both sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with depression. Methods Using a single pre- and post-test study design with no control group, 82 patients diagnosed with depressive disorders underwent HIIT comprising a total of 24 15-min sessions, three times per week for 8 weeks. Depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and cardiorespiratory fitness were evaluated using the Beck depression inventory-II, the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the form of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max), respectively. Results All 82 patients completed the intervention. HIIT training was associated with significant improvements in BDI-II score (diff = − 1.57 [95% CI − 2.40 to − 0.73], P = 0.001), PSQI score (diff = − 1.20 [95% CI − 2.10 to − 0.32], P = 0.008), and CPET VO2 max (diff = 0.95 [95% CI 0.62–1.28], P = 0.001). Effect size calculations revealed that the greatest improvement occurred in CPET VO2 max (Cohen’s d = 0.64) and that improvements in the BDI-II and PSQI scores were somewhat smaller in magnitude (Cohen’s d = − 0.41 and − 0.30, respectively). Sleep quality improvements were observed in sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, and the use of sleep-promoting medications (Cohen’s d = 0.18, 0.19, and 0.25, respectively). Change in cardiorespiratory fitness successfully predicted change in sleep quality but not in depressive symptoms. Adverse effects were limited to minor injuries which did not interfere with completion of training. Conclusions HIIT training delivered over 8 weeks was associated with improvements in depression symptoms, sleep quality, and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with depressive disorders.
... Entrenamiento tipo HIIT, el cual se define en su modalidad clásica como la realización de series cortas de sprints, o de pedaleo en cicloergómetro, repetidos en el tiempo a una alta intensidad, pero no de intensidad máxima, intercalados con períodos de recuperación incompleta (Buchheit, & Laursen, 2013;López-Chicharro & Vicente-Campos, 2018). En cuanto a la modalidad no clásica, se trata de la combinación del entrenamiento en circuito, junto con la realización de ejercicios con el propio peso corporal y/o con distintos elementos como kettlebell, cuerdas, balones medicinales, etc, buscando estar en niveles de intensidad elevados, con recuperaciones parciales (Klika, & Jordan, 2013). En ambos tipos de HIIT cobra especial importancia el factor de cuantificación de la intensidad, la cual se puede establecer en función de la FCmáx (80-100%), en función de la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (RPE) (>7,5), o en función del VO2max (90-100%), entre otros métodos (Maillard, Pereira, & Boisseau. ...
Conference Paper
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Debido al desafío que supone la extinción de un Incendio Forestal (IF), y la exigencia física que se les demanda, es de esperar que este tipo de trabajadores lleven a cabo un entrenamiento físico regular, para así realizar su labor profesional con la máxima eficiencia. En el presente estudio se pretende implementar una programación de entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad (HIIT), en su modalidad calisténica, aplicado al trabajo del Personal Especialista en Extinción de IIFF (PEEIF). Para ello se han realizado una serie de pruebas de condición física genéricas y específicas (circuito de campo en el que se evaluó la distancia recorrida con mochila de 20 kg, nº de golpeos con batefuegos y m 2 en el manejo de la azada) previas y posteriores a un programa de entrenamiento HIIT de dos sesiones por semana durante 8 semanas. Los ejercicios propuestos están ideados para tener transferencia a las acciones específicas del PEEIF con el fin de valorar las posibles mejoras en distintas capacidades físicas y en el rendimiento y/o productividad laboral. La programación de entrenamiento ha provocado cambios fisiológicos sobre los sujetos (n=10) (disminución de la FCmax, tiempo en la aparición de umbrales), mejoras significativas en distintas capacidades (altura de salto en CMJ, número máximo de push up, tiempo en posición de plancha y fuerza resistencia de la musculatura extensora del tronco), y mejoras en cuanto a rendimiento laboral se refiere (aumento de un 7,7% de la productividad total). En conclusión, la aplicación durante 8 semanas de un HIIT-calisténico, con un volumen de entrenamiento mínimo, sin necesidad de máquinas o ergómetros específicos, ni de espacio singular, en PEEIF ya entrenado, ha mostrado ser muy eficiente en la mejora de la condición física general y específica, lo que es de aplicación a más colectivos o ámbitos. Palabras clave HIIT; PEEIF; bomberos forestales; entrenamiento específico; incendios forestales.
... The perceived exertion scale (BORG) was used to control the intensity of the activities during this component of the intervention[42]. The activities included in the program were based on the recommendations of high-intensity physical activities for adolescents[43] [44][45].2. Physical activity during the lunch break: Equipment (i.e., balls, ropes, clubs, cones) was provided during the lunch break and supervised sports activities were held three times a week for six months (i.e., the duration of the intervention). ...
Article
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Physical activity promotes positive effects on people's health, but most adolescents do not engage in sufficient physical activity to receive the benefits. Studies suggest that school-based interventions can be effective in increasing physical activity in adolescents. However, the literature is inconsistent on the effect size and the type of intervention. This paper presents the design of the SCHOOL IN ACTION program to increase physical activity engagement and healthy eating habits. The cluster randomized controlled trial was performed during a period of six months of intervention and 12 months of follow-up in adolescents from four Brazilian public schools. The theoretical model is based on health promoting schools and the social-ecological and self-determination theory. The action strategies were: improvement of exercises intensity during physical education classes and during lunch breaks; vegetable gardening experience; active breaks in non-physical education classes; counselling health to parents and adolescents and changes in the school environment to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Primary variables were physical activity and sedentary behavior (both assessed by accelerometers). Secondary variables were body composition (assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and eating habits (assessed by questionnaire and 3-day food recall). Questionnaires were used to assess other information related to life satisfaction, health behavior and socioeconomic information. Statistical analysis will follow the principles of intention-to-treat and will explore the composition data analysis and mediating factors of lifestyle-related behaviors. We propose that SCHOOL IN ACTION program will be effective to provide evidence to increase physical activity and food healthy habits in adolescents' students. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT03153176. TRIAL STATUS: Follow-up and data analysis.
... The uphill run on the third day of the week consisted of climbing 100-m 10% to 12% slopes at an intensity of 85% VO 2 max, which was followed by running downhill at a slow pace and then a 10-min fast run at 80% VO 2 max. This was combined with a circuit of 12 stations of weight resistance exercises performed at maximum intensity, based on the training described in Klika and Jordan (2013). When the circuit was completed, 4 50-m sprints and 3 30-s sets of Bosco's countermovement jump tests (Bosco et al., 1983) were performed in order to improve anaerobic power and increase the efficiency of using elastic energy. ...
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A crucial subject in sports is identifying the inter-individual variation in response to training, which would allow creating individualized pre-training schedules, improving runner’s performance. We aimed to analyze heterogeneity in individual responses to two half-marathon training programs differing in running volume and intensity in middle-aged recreational women. 20 women (40 ± 7 years, 61 ± 7 kg, 167 ± 6 cm, and VO2max = 48 ± 6 mL⋅kg–1⋅min–1) underwent either moderate-intensity continuous (MICT) or high-intensity interval (HIIT) 12-week training. They were evaluated before and after training with maximal incremental tests in the laboratory (VO2max) and in the field (time to exhaustion, TTE; short interval series and long run). All the women participated in the same half-marathon and their finishing times were compared with their previous times. Although the improvements in the mean finishing times were not significant, MICT elicited a greater reduction (3 min 50 s, P = 0.298), with more women (70%) improving on their previous times, than HIIT (reduction of 2 min 34 s, P = 0.197, 50% responders). Laboratory tests showed more differences in the HIIT group (P = 0.008), while both groups presented homogeneous significant (P < 0.05) increases in TTE. Both in the short interval series and in the long run, HIIT induced better individual improvements, with a greater percentage of responders compared to MICT (100% vs 50% in the short series and 78% vs 38% in the long run). In conclusion, variability in inter-individual responses was observed after both MICT and HIIT, with some participants showing improvements (responders) while others did not (non-responders) in different performance parameters, reinforcing the idea that individualized training prescription is needed to optimize performance.
... From the results of his research it was found that circuit training increased maximum oxygen consumption and quality of life significantly, and the effectiveness of circuit training compared with high intensity interval training did not differ significantly. [11][12][13][14][15][16] This study aimed to investigated the effect of circuit exercise on TNF-α levels as proinflammatory biomarkers and 6-minutes walk test distance as functional capacity parameters in patients with chronic heart failure. ...
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Physical exercise in patients with heart failure can decrease the level of proinflammatory biomarkers andincrease functional capacity. Circuit training is one of the most advantageous exercise models because it improves cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength.This study aimed to investigate the effect of circuit training on TNF alphaandsix minutes walk test in patients with chronic heart failure in RSUP Dr. Kariadi. Twenty-six stable chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients were randomized into exercise group that received circuit training in the rehabilitation center of Kariadi Hospital for a month and control group. TNF- α levels as a inflammatory biomarker and distance of six minute walk test as a functional capacity parameter were taken before and after the exercise period.Nine-teensubjects completed the study without any significant side effects.There was no significant difference in TNF-α levels before and after treatment between treatment groups and control groups (p=0,513). The treatment group with circuit training showed a greater increase in distance of six minute walk test than the control group (p=0,034).It was concluded that circuit training in patients with chronic heart failure can increase distance of six minute walk test, but no changes in TNF alpha levels. Keywords: Circuit training, TNF-a, six minute walk test
... In September 2017, we conducted a literature search in Embase, Medline, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL using the search terms "high-intensity interval training" (HIIT), "high-intensity circuit training" (HICT), "cognitive function, " and "SUD." The results of our search yielded 11 articles (Weinstock et al., 2008(Weinstock et al., , 2014Smith and Lynch, 2011;Wolff et al., 2011;Zschucke et al., 2012Zschucke et al., , 2013Flemmen et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2014;Haglund et al., 2015;Klika and Jordan, 2015;Unhjem et al., 2016) of relevance to this study. This corpus included research that examined physical activity for SUD populations as outpatients or inpatients in recovery after withdrawal ( Zschucke et al., 2012). ...
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This proposed study will examine whether structured physical activity reduces the recovery time of cognitive functioning during the early phase of substance use disorder treatment. Addiction or substance dependence is associated with neurobiological changes and cognitive impairment that can affect quality of life and the efficacy of therapy for up to a year after clinical detoxification. The biological, psychological, and social effects of physical exercise have the potential to be a therapeutic approach to increase quality of life and relieve symptoms associated with substance abuse, such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. There is a dearth of research on physical activity and exercise in clinical substance use disorder patients. This protocol describes a clinical study that will examine cognitive recovery after substance abuse using physical exercise as a treatment intervention. We will use a quasi-experimental longitudinal clinical trial, with a pretest and multiple posttests, on naturally randomized sequential groups. Patients will be consecutively be recruited into the study groups, with a control group that is completed, before its followed by an intervention group, each with 30 patients. Patients will be enrolled 2 weeks after the start of detoxification, at which time all subjects will be inpatients at the Stavanger Salvation Army Treatment Center in the Norwegian specialized healthcare system. Cognition will be evaluated with a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, including several tests of executive function. Physical fitness will be tested with the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test, the 30-S Chair Stand Test, the 1-Min Burpee Test at baseline (within the first 2 weeks of admittance) and after 4 weeks. The intervention will be a 30-min workout at 70–90% of maximum heart rate (134–170 bpm), recorded and calculated by a Polar heart rate monitor. The intervention treatment will be administered four times a week for 4 weeks and will consist of high-intensity circuit training, high-intensity interval training, functional movement, and primitive reflex training. We anticipate improvement in both the control and intervention groups, with the exercise intervention group having the greatest increase in recovery of cognitive function because of the combination of functional full body movements and primitive movement training in an intense interval training program. Clinical Trial Registration ID: ISRCTN74750479, Retrospectively Registered.
... Many PA programs have an informal character with the aim of encouraging students to undertake any type of exercise in their free time. Also, new forms of PA are being introduced to the universities in order to increase the attractiveness of PE programs, including fitness-based activities, such as aerobics and jazz gymnastics, as well as activities that are generally popular among young adults, such as snowboarding, and high intensity-functional training (HIFT), including high-intensity interval training (HIIT), high-intensity circuit training (HICT) and Crossfit 3,4 . ...
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Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of physical activity (PA) among female students in physical education (PE) programs offered by universities in Poland, Hungary, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Two hundred full-time female university students (mean age: 19.93±0.82) enrolled in various PA programs. The participants’ anthropometric traits were measured, and their body composition parameters were determined with the InBody analyzer. Based on the students’ physiological parameters, the effectiveness of various types of PA was measured with Suunto Ambit3 peak heart rate monitors during 60 minutes of physical exertion. Results: The average values of body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat level (VFL), and obesity degree were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who participated in jogging followed by sauna (JFBS), performed martial arts and attended general physical education (PE) classes. Physiological parameters were the highest in the martial art group, followed by JFBS and swimming groups, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in other PA groups (golf, aerobics, general PE classes, cycling, and individual training). Physiological parameters were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who played golf and trained individually. Conclusions: Martial arts, JFBS, and swimming were the most effective types of PA among female university students. Students performing martial arts and JFBS had relatively lower body fat levels, whereas students who practiced swimming had the highest body fat levels in the population sample.
... Many PA programs have an informal character with the aim of encouraging students to undertake any type of exercise in their free time. Also, new forms of PA are being introduced to the universities in order to increase the attractiveness of PE programs, including fitness-based activities, such as aerobics and jazz gymnastics, as well as activities that are generally popular among young adults, such as snowboarding, and high intensity-functional training (HIFT), including high-intensity interval training (HIIT), high-intensity circuit training (HICT) and Crossfit 3,4 . ...
Article
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of physical activity (PA) among female students in physical education (PE) programs offered by universities in Poland, Hungary, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Two hundred full-time female university students (mean age: 19.93±0.82) enrolled in various PA programs. The participants' anthropometric traits were measured, and their body composition parameters were determined with the InBody analyzer. Based on the students' physiological parameters, the effectiveness of various types of PA was measured with Suunto Ambit3 peak heart rate monitors during 60 minutes of physical exertion. Results: The average values of body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat level (VFL), and obesity degree were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who participated in jogging followed by sauna (JFBS), performed martial arts and attended general physical education (PE) classes. Physiological parameters were the highest in the martial art group, followed by JFBS and swimming groups, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in other PA groups (golf, aerobics, general PE classes, cycling, and individual training). Physiological parameters were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who played golf and trained individually. Conclusions: Martial arts, JFBS, and swimming were the most effective types of PA among female university students. Students performing martial arts and JFBS had relatively lower body fat levels, whereas students who practiced swimming had the highest body fat levels in the population sample.
... Severe exercise hypoxemia was found in individuals with AIDS, with an average of 79% oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry [9] Research has shown that circuit exercise improves body composition, VO2max, strength, and alters certain dimensions of QoLin overweight women [10]. Circuits exercise is an efficient and effective way to lose weight, keep it off disease, and increase physical fitness [11]. According to earlier research [12,13,14] , machine-based circuit exercise training improved the physical performance and body composition of PLWH. ...
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Introduction: Impaired pulmonary function and arterial oxygen (O2) saturation are among the symptomatic changes in people living with HIV (PLWH), associated with progression of HIV disease and anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Exercise has been considered an important adjuvant therapy for health promotion and improving the pulmonary function of PLWH. However studies are lacking on the effects circuit exercise training on o2 saturation and pulmonary function of PLWH. Objective: This study determined the effect of moderate intensity circuit exercise programme on the O2 saturation and pulmonary function of PLWH. Methods: The study design was a pretest-posttest randomized controlled design. A total of 120 participants were recruited from the HIV clinic of a teaching hospital. Fish bowl method was used to randomize the participants to control group or exercise group. Moderate intensity (50 – 75% MHR) circuit exercise programme was administered to the participants 3 times a week between 30-60 minutes per session for 8 weeks. Pulse Oximeter and hand held spirometer were used to measure the oxygen saturation and some pulmonary functions respectively. Measurement were taken at baseline and at 8-week. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and percentages were used to summarize demographic data. Paired sample t-test and Independent sample t-test determined the mean difference within the groups and between the groups respectively. Alpha level was set at P<0.05. Results: There was significant difference in the mean score of O2 saturation and pulmonary function within the exercise group after 8-week exercise intervention. There was significant difference in the mean score of O2 saturation and pulmonary function between the control group and exercise group after 8-week exercise intervention. Conclusion: An 8-week circuit exercise programme brought about improvement in O2 saturation and pulmonary function of PLWH. Circuit exercise can be effectively employed to improve lung function and ameliorate the exercise hypoxemia associated with decreased O2 saturation in PLWH.
... Thousands of measurements performed on differently aged participants have demonstrated that the 3-MBT is easy to conduct, even under the most basic conditions. Variations of the test or its individual stages (e.g., push-ups, jumps) are used by people who engage in functional training (cross-fit, high-intensity circuit training) as well as professional athletes (boxing, mixed martial arts) [4]. The high intensity of the discussed exercise is a key tenet to its popularity. ...
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Abstract Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in anthropometric indicators, body composition, physical fitness, and physiological parameters in young women and men performing extremely strenuous exercise during the 3-Minute Burpee Test (3-MBT). Post-exercise recovery during a 6-minute break was determined in the tested subjects. Material and methods. Ninety-six university students volunteered to take part in this study (45 women aged 20.05 ± 1.81 years and 51 men aged 20.20 ± 2.71 years). Endurance-strength abilities were determined during the 3-MBT motor fitness test, and body composition was determined with an InBody720 analyser. Data were analysed using a Mann-Whitney U test, with statistical significance accepted at p ≤ 0.05. Results. The anthropometric indicators, body composition parameters, physical fitness levels (47.22 cycles/3 min), and physiological parameters measured during the 3-MBT were significantly higher in men (VO2avg – 41.57 mL/kg/min, VO2max – 49.67 mL/kg/min, EPOCavg – 11.02mL/kg, and EPOCpeak – 27.84mL/kg) than in women. Women were characterised by significantly higher (p < 0.05) body fat mass (BFM = 18.80 kg) and percent body fat (PBF 28.26%) than men. Conclusions. Male subjects were characterised by higher values of anthropometric indicators, body composition parameters (excluding body fat), motor fitness levels, and physiological parameters than women, and endurance-strength abilities were 23.75% higher, on average, in men than women.
... HIIT involves alternating short bursts of high-intensity exercise with recovery periods or light exercise [30]. Based on the study from Klika et al. [31], subjects conducted a high-intensity interval training for the lower limbs, performing 3 sets squats, lunges, and one-legged heel rises using each individual's bodyweight as resistance. Participants were encouraged to maintain an execution speed of 2 s, which was equally split between the concentric and eccentric phases. ...
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High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, strategies to mitigate excessive ROS productions could be useful to reduce the negative consequences of oxidative damage for health, as well as for physical, performances. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of pre-exercise oatmeal consumption on exercise-induced ROS generation in young, healthy women. Thirty-four participants were randomly allocated in one of two groups: oatmeal prior to HIIT (oatmeal; n = 17) or HIIT alone (control; n = 17). Blood samples were obtained at pre-meal, pre-HIIT, immediately post-HIIT, and 15 min after HIIT. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to analyze the concentrations of ROS in the capillary blood. In addition, the blood glucose and blood lactate levels were measured. Immediately post-HIIT, the ROS generation in the oatmeal group was significantly lower in contrast to the control group (p < 0.05). A significant interaction effect of time × meal (p < 0.05; η2 = 0.234) was detected from the pre-meal to 15 post-HIIT for ROS production. Moreover, significant differences in the blood glucose levels were observed between the groups at pre-HIIT and immediately post-HIIT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the consumption of oatmeal before HIIT may mitigate exercise-induced ROS production.
... The present study examined the effect of a contemporary BWT program on CRF in healthy, inactive adults. The intervention was modelled on the original 5BX plan, but modified to include calisthenics and bodyweight movements that are now commonly recommended for this style of training (12,27). Brief bouts of vigorous exercise were interspersed with recovery periods, and the program required eleven minutes per session. ...
Article
Bodyweight training (BWT) is a style of interval exercise based on classic principles of physical education. Limited research, however, has examined the efficacy of BWT on cardiorespiratory fitness. This is especially true for simple BWT protocols that do not require extraordinarily high levels of effort. We examined the effect of a BWT protocol, modelled after the original "Five Basic Exercises" (5BX) plan, on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in healthy, inactive adults (20 ± 1 y; body mass index: 20 ± 5 kg/m2; mean ± SD). Participants were randomized to a training group that performed 18 sessions over six weeks (n=9), or a non-training control group (n = 10). The 11-minute session involved five exercises (burpees, high knees, split squat jumps, high knees, squat jumps), each performed for 60-seconds at a self-selected "challenging" pace, interspersed with active recovery periods (walking). Mean intensity during training was 82 ± 5% of maximal heart rate, rating of perceived exertion was 14 ± 3 out of 20, and compliance was 100%. ANCOVA revealed a significant difference between groups after the intervention, such that VO2peak was higher in the training group compared to control (34.2 ± 6.4 vs 30.3 ± 11.1 ml/kg/min; p = 0.03). Peak power output during the VO2peak test was also higher after training compared to control (211 ± 43 vs 191 ±50 W, p = 0.004). There were no changes in leg muscular endurance, handgrip strength or vertical jump height in either group. We conclude that simple BWT- requiring minimal time commitment and no specialized equipment - can enhance cardiorespiratory fitness in inactive adults. These findings have relevance for individuals seeking practical, time-efficient approaches to exercise.
... Although HIIT can be performed in different exercise modalities (aerobic, anaerobic, circuit), high-intensity circuit training (HICT) incorporates multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint exercises and uses body weight as resistance [9]. Therefore, HICT could be an effective workout in a home exercise setting because it does not require equipment and can be performed in reduced spaces only using a person's own body weight [10,11]. ...
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Background/objective: The quarantine caused by the COVID-19 pandemic increased sedentary behavior, psychological stress, and sleep disturbances in the population favoring the installation of alterations in the cardiovascular system. In this sense, physical exercise has widely been suggested as an efficient treatment to improve health. The current study determined the impact of short-term high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on resting heart rate variability (HRV) in adults. Methods: Nine healthy participants (age: 31.9 ± 4.4 yr.) performed 36 HICT sessions (3 times per day; 3 days per week) and four participants (age: 29.5 ± 1.7 yr.) were assigned to a control group. The HICT consisted of 12 min of whole-body exercises performed during a workout. Twenty-four hours before and after the exercise program, HRV parameters were recorded. Results: The heart rate exercise during the last session trended to be lower when compared with the first HICT session (p = 0.07, d = 0.39, 95% CI = -13.50, 0.72). The interval training did not modify the HRV time (Mean NN, SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50) and frequency (LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, total power) domain parameters. Conclusion: Thirty-six HICT sessions did not provide enough stimuli to modify the resting HRV in adults during social isolation elicited by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the data suggested that exercise protocol did not induce cardio-vagal adaptations.
... Participants were instructed to refrain from alcohol and not complete PA ≤48 h before, to prevent compromising exercise perception (Marcora et al., 1985). Exercises were chosen based on previous similar research (Klika and Jordan, 2013). The exercises in the video were performed at a mean tempo of 130 beats per minute, in line with the tempo used in research investigating the effects of music During the rising phase the following (behind body) leg is raised on high-intensity interval exercise performance (Maddigan, 2013;Maddigan et al., 2019). ...
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Background: Low volume-high intensity interval exercise (LV-HIIE) has gained interest, due to its efficiency in invoking health and fitness benefits. However, little research has studied "at home" feasibility or effects of LV-HIIE. This study aimed to demonstrate that remote "at-home" LV-HIIE research is possible and to investigate if affective responses to the LV-HIIE protocol, subsequent intentions, and self-efficacy to repeat were related to self-reported tolerance of the intensity of exercise. Methods: Using self-reported tolerance of the intensity of exercise, 41 healthy, physically active participants (25 female and 16 male; age 21.3 ± 1.0 years, body mass index 23.0 ± 2.9 kg.m2) were divided into low tolerance (LT, n = 14), middle tolerance (MT, n = 15), and high tolerance (HT, n = 12) groups. Participants completed a 20-min LV-HIIE circuit training video [2 × (10 ×30 s work, 15 s rest)] at home. Participants reported ratings of perceived exertion, affective valence, and perceived activation at baseline, during the protocol, immediately post-protocol, and during the cool down. 20-min after completion, respondents answered questions on exercise task self-efficacy and intentions to repeat LV-HIIE. Results: The study recruited n = 65 individuals, of whom n = 50 passed screening. Ultimately n = 41 (82%) completed the exercise protocol and data collection. Ratings of perceived exertion were not significantly different between groups (p = 0.56), indicating similar perceptions of task difficulty. There was no significant effect of tolerance on affective valence (p = 0.36) or felt arousal (p = 0.06). There was evidence of high individual variability in affective responses within and between participants. Subsequent intentions and self-efficacy to repeat the exercise protocol did not seem to be related to affective valence during or after the protocol. Discussion: Recruitment and data collection indicated that research into "at home" LV-HIIE is possible. High individual differences in affective responses suggest that LV-HEII may be appropriate for some but not all as an exercise option. Assessing self-reported tolerance of intensity of exercise may not appropriately identify whether or not LV-HIIE will be suitable for an individual.
... Body weight training provides a time-efficient alternative to traditional resistance exercise, as this form of training can be performed almost anywhere at any time. Although research has repeatedly demonstrated beneficial effects of bodyweight training for health and cardiovascular function [54,55], the evidence supporting it as an effective modality for stimulating muscular strength and hypertrophy remains much scarcer than for lifting weights. There is compelling evidence that a small number of upper-body bodyweight exercises can be effective strength training alternatives, such as the pull-up/ chin-up [56] and push-up [57]. ...
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Lack of time is among the more commonly reported barriers for abstention from exercise programs. The aim of this review was to determine how strength training can be most effectively carried out in a time-efficient manner by critically evaluating research on acute training variables, advanced training techniques, and the need for warm-up and stretching. When programming strength training for optimum time-efficiency we recommend prioritizing bilateral, multi-joint exercises that include full dynamic movements (i.e. both eccentric and concentric muscle actions), and to perform a minimum of one leg pressing exercise (e.g. squats), one upper-body pulling exercise (e.g. pull-up) and one upper-body pushing exercise (e.g. bench press). Exercises can be performed with machines and/or free weights based on training goals, availability, and personal preferences. Weekly training volume is more important than training frequency and we recommend performing a minimum of 4 weekly sets per muscle group using a 6–15 RM loading range (15–40 repetitions can be used if training is performed to volitional failure). Advanced training techniques, such as supersets, drop sets and rest-pause training roughly halves training time compared to traditional training, while maintaining training volume. However, these methods are probably better at inducing hypertrophy than muscular strength, and more research is needed on longitudinal training effects. Finally, we advise restricting the warm-up to exercise-specific warm-ups, and only prioritize stretching if the goal of training is to increase flexibility. This review shows how acute training variables can be manipulated, and how specific training techniques can be used to optimize the training response: time ratio in regard to improvements in strength and hypertrophy. Graphic Abstract
... The average duration of training sessions is usually between 20 and 40 minutes [52]. Overall, the benefits of HICT mainly involve the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and strength and changes in body composition [52,54]. ...
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Introduction: Due to its highly dynamic characteristic and the time efficiency generated in relation to other training methods, High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has become a strategy used in different contexts. HIIT is understood as a training method that intersperses periods of effort performed at high intensity with periods of active (when an activity is performed at low intensity) or passive (when no activity is performed) recovery. Based on this concept that does not discriminate types of exercises, different HIIT models can be found in the literature, such as classic HIIT, Sprint Interval Training (SIT), HIIT with bodyweight, High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT), High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT), and High Intensity Resistance Training (HIRT), expanding the possibilities of applying HIIT to different purposes and audiences. Aim: a) to revisit, through a brief update, the concept of HIIT and its different aspects; b) present, from a scientific perspective, different protocols that can be applied based on the concept of HIIT and its effects. Conclusion: Based on the exposed concept and on the HIIT intensity control variables, this approach can be applied to different training modalities. In addition, it can be used as a strategy to provide safe and efficient training across different populations. RESUMO Introdução: Devido à sua característica altamente dinâmica e à eficiência do tempo gerado em relação a outros métodos de treinamento, o Treinamento Intervalo de Alta Intensidade (HIIT) tem se tornado uma estratégia utilizada em diferentes contextos. O HIIT é entendido como um método de treinamento que intercala períodos de esforço realizados em alta intensidade com períodos de recuperação ativa (quando uma atividade é realizada em baixa intensidade) ou passiva (quando nenhuma atividade é realizada). Partindo desse conceito que não discrimina tipos de exercícios, diferentes modelos de HIIT podem ser encontrados na literatura, como o HIIT clássico, Sprint Interval Training (SIT), HIIT com peso corporal, Treinamento Funcional de Alta Intensidade (HIFT), Treinamento em Circuito de Alta Intensidade (HICT), e Treinamento Resistido de Alta Intensidade (HIRT), ampliando as possibilidades de aplicação do HIIT para diferentes finalidades e públicos. Objetivo: a) revisitar, através de uma breve atualização, o conceito de HIIT e seus diferentes aspectos; b) apresentar, do ponto de vista científico, diferentes protocolos que podem ser aplicados com base no conceito de HIIT e seus efeitos. Conclusão: Com base no conceito expos-to e nas variáveis de controle de intensidade HIIT, esta abordagem pode ser aplicada a diferentes modali-dades de treinamento. Além disso, pode ser usado como uma estratégia para fornecer treinamento seguro e eficiente para diferentes populações. Palavras-chave: exercício físico; desempenho; saúde; aptidão física, treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade.
... The resistance and aerobic exercises are performed in 7-10 min bouts. 32 The delayed intervention group will be asked to maintain their usual lifestyle. However, after the completion of the intervention period, the delayed intervention group will also receive 2 hours of exercise time per week from working hours for 4 weeks. ...
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Introduction: The worldwide rising levels of physical inactivity especially in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Eastern Mediterranean region are alarming. The UAE reports one of the highest rates of non-communicable disease mortality and insufficient physical activity (PA) is a major underlying cause. Therefore, action is required to reduce physical inactivity using evidence-based strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a worksite exercise intervention on cardiometabolic health in the UAE. Methods and analysis: This is a protocol for a pragmatic parallel randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio to the intervention group and delayed intervention group. A total of 150 participants will be recruited from a semigovernment telecommunications company in Dubai (UAE) after meeting the eligibility criteria. The intervention group will receive 2 hours of exercise per week during working hours for 12 weeks (maximum 1 hour/day). The intervention group will be assigned to attend personal trainer sessions in the workplace gym throughout the intervention period. After the intervention is completed, the delayed intervention group will also receive 2 hours of exercise time per week from working hours for 4 weeks. The main outcome measure is the change in the cardiometabolic risk components, that is, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline to the end of the intervention. The secondary outcome is to examine whether the workplace exercise intervention improves PA levels 4 weeks postintervention. Ethics and dissemination: The study has been approved by the Dubai Scientific Research Ethics Committee (DSREC-SR-08/2019_02). The results will be disseminated as follows: at various national and international scientific conferences; as part of a PhD thesis in Public Health at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University; and in a manuscript submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number: NCT04403789.
... Similarly, push-up training induced similar increases in muscle thickness and strength to the 40% 1RM bench press free-weight training (Kikuchi and Nakazato 2017). In addition, the inclusion of devices such as a system of straps and handles for performed suspension exercise (Cayot et al. 2017), weighted vests or dip belts (Harrison 2010), elastic bands (Calatayud et al. 2015), and low-intensity exercise with slow movement (Tanimoto and Ishii 2006), or the combination of different exercises in circuit training (Klika and Jordan 2013) are commonly practiced. ...
Chapter
Recent classifications of resistance training methods classify them in gravitational, to move the resistance we will have to apply an acceleration greater than the force of the gravity (9.81 m·s⁻¹), and non-gravitational methods that allow us to work in multiple directions, not being exclusively conditioned by gravity. Bodyweights training, also known as calisthenic exercise; Free-weights training, weight lifting through barbells, dumbbells, and kettlebells; inertial devices, how flywheel devices that an active stretch, while trying to brake an external resistance that exceeds the capacity of the muscle; and external resistance variable resistance, where resistance varies throughout range of motion are, among others, the main methods of resistance training currently. In this chapter, a contextualization of them will be carried out, exposing those essential aspects that it is necessary to know from a practical application and allowing the reader to understand the following chapters where each of them will be addressed in depth.
... For the nature-exercise group, we used a clinically proven exercise program that was especially designed for beginners to perform without any gym equipment (Kilka and Jordan, 2013). Each exercise in the circuit is performed for 30 s, with 10 s transition time between. ...
Article
The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected over 200 countries, forcing governments to impose lockdowns to contain the spread of the disease. Although effective in reducing infection rates, the lockdowns have also resulted in a severe negative impact on mental health throughout the world; Setting the foundation for mental illnesses to become the next “silent” pandemic. This study attempts to determine a self-care method of ensuring mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for those living under lockdown. We evaluated the potential of physical exercise (in a nature setting) and nature therapy in improving mental wellbeing, among young adults with either stress, anxiety or depression symptoms. The study involved thirty subjects, who were equally divided into a nature-exercise group and a nature therapy group. The participants were briefed on the activities that they were to perform on a daily basis, and both groups performed their assigned activities concurrently for one week (27th April 2020 to 3rd May 2020) at urban greeneries accessible to them (rooftop parks, neighbourhood parks, home gardens). We used the depression, anxiety and stress scale – 21 items (DASS-21) to evaluate the mental health status of participants, once before beginning the study (baseline readings) and once at the end of the study (after a week of nature-exercise/nature therapy). There was a statistically significant reduction in stress, anxiety and depression symptoms for both the nature-exercise and nature therapy groups. However, when evaluating the effectiveness of exercise and nature therapy in treating stress, anxiety and depression symptoms on a case-by-case basis, it was discovered that nature therapy was more effective in treating mental health issues. Hence, nature therapy has the potential to be a form of preventive medicine, namely in preserving mental health during the COVID-19 crisis.
... Sua prática pode ser feita em uma variedade de ambientes (parques, em casa ou até pequenos espaços) com poucos (ex. elásticos) ou nenhum equipamento, o que representa uma alternativa promissora às abordagens de treinamento mais tradicionais [54]. De forma geral, seus benefícios envolvem principalmente a melhora da aptidão cardiorrespiratória, da força e alterações de composição corporal, desde que praticado por mais de 20 semanas [55]. ...
... • Avoid processed food [Methods] • Choose health-promoting fats Ferguson, Birch, Forrest, & Gill, 2016). Based on the study from Klika et al. (Klika & Jordan, 2013), subjects conducted a high-intensity interval training for the lower limbs, performing 3 sets squats, lunges and one-legged heel rises using each individuals' bodyweight as resistance. Participants were encouraged to maintain an execution speed of 2 seconds, which was equally split between concentric and eccentric phase. ...
Thesis
Antioxidant strategies using dietary approaches are gaining increasing attention in physiological and in functional research. Although several recent studies have shown the positive effects of some antioxidant-rich foods on oxidative stress compared to control diets, evidence is still scarce, particularly from studies applying direct assays to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the main purpose of the experimental part of this thesis was to investigate the antioxidant effects of dietary strategies on immediate ROS production in vivo during rest and following exercise. Study 1: The first study of this thesis investigated whether changes in the diet that lead to an increased intake of antioxidant micronutrients could affect ROS generation by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The individuals enrolled in the study demonstrated nutritional behavior below current national recommendations and were instructed to follow a mixed healthy diet for two weeks. The results indicated that dietary changes led to a significantly increased intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene which was accompanied by a significant decrease in ROS generation. This finding showed that a mixed healthy diet increased dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and reduced ROS generation. Study 2: The second study investigated the acute effects of oatmeal consumption on high-intensity interval training (HIIT)-induced ROS generation by using EPR detection method. Thirty-four young female participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: “oatmeal prior to HIIT” or “HIIT alone”. The results showed that ROS generation in the oatmeal group was significantly lower than in the control group immediately after HIIT. A significant interaction between time and meal was detected from the pre-meal to 15 minutes post- HIIT for ROS generation. These findings revealed that the consumption of oatmeal rich in antioxidant secondary plant products before HIIT may mitigate exercise-induced ROS generation. Study 3: In order to further summarize the current state of research concerning the effects of antioxidant-rich diets on exercise-induced oxidative stress, a narrative review of 28 studies was conducted. In general, these studies showed that most dietary strategies attenuated exercise-induced oxidative stress; only one study did not find positive effects. The majority of the included studies demonstrated positive effects of phenol-rich foods on exercise-induced oxidative stress in short-term as well as longer-term experimental designs. Nevertheless, the protocols used in these studies were highly heterogeneous and further systematically designed studies are needed. In summary, the findings from this thesis provide evidence that a diet rich in antioxidant nutrients is an effective strategy for combating oxidative stress both during rest and following exercise. Further studies examining a greater number of dietary regimens and with a special focus on potential mechanisms are warranted to further strengthen the evidence on this topic.
... In these countries, ball games (soccer, basketball, volleyball) are strongly rooted in national traditions and are highly popular (Berman, 2019). Furthermore, students are eager to follow new fitness trends, such as functional training, high-intensity interval training and high-intensity circuit training (Klika & Jordan, 2013;Majeric, 2016;Thompson, 2017). The results of this study indicate that university students were able to select from a wide range of PA offered by the institutions, yet the strong presence of general PE classes that teach and develop physical skills in higher education still seems surprising. ...
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Background: For the majority of students, the transition into higher education seems to have deleterious effects on their physical activity (PA) behaviors and motivation. To tackle students’ physical inactivity, reforms in higher education were supposed to reinvent physical education (PE) programs, revise their objectives and tasks. Nevertheless, European universities are experiencing a physical activity crisis, and recent generations of students are facing health problems due to underprovided levels of PA. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to analyze the state and status of physical education in higher education in selected European countries with regards to its curriculum and resources. Methods: Quantitative data were collected from 66 tertiary institutions from various countries in Europe. The questionnaire was used to gather information regarding characteristics of tertiary institutions, sport and leisure facilities, types and characteristics of PA programs available for students. Results: PE classes were obligatory in 44% and facultative in 30.3% of tertiary institutions; 22.7% of the institutions offered mixed PE curricula. The most popular team sports were volleyball, soccer and basketball, whereas fitness and functional training were the most popular types of individual PA. PE sessions lasted one or two semesters in 53% of the institutions. In 12% of establishments, PE was not part of curricula. In 60% of institutions, PE curricula consisted of 31–60 academic hours during the entire study program, and 55% of establishments charged additional fees for sports activities. In 55% of the analyzed institutions, physical fitness assessments were conducted only to determine students’ eligibility to participate in team sports. Conclusions: The research study investigated problems of insufficient PA levels in higher education, indicating several reasons for this state of affairs. The study recommends that PE curricula are thoughtfully planned and executed with improved financing. Furthermore, PE ought to be combined with health education to promote active and healthy lifestyles among students.
... It consisted of cycling or running exercises, performed 5 days per week at low intensity or 3 days per week at vigorousintensity with a minimum duration of 25-30 min per session, according to the WHO guidelines (World Health Organization [WHO], 2019). The strength training consisted of a 12-station High-intensity circuit (Klika and Jordan, 2013) performed twice a week according to the American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines (ACSM) (Bushman, 2020). All exercises could be done with bodyweight in almost any setting (e.g., home, office, hotel room, etc.). ...
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Universal exercise recommendations for adults neglect individual preferences, changing constraints, and their potential impact on associated health benefits. A recent proposal suggests replacing the standardized World Health Organisation (WHO) exercise recommendations for healthy adults by co-designed interventions where individuals participate actively in the decisions about the selected physical activities and the effort regulation. This study contrasts the effects on mental health and interoceptive awareness of a co-designed and co-adapted exercise intervention with an exercise program based on the WHO recommendations for healthy adults. Twenty healthy adults (10 men and 10 women, 40–55 y.o.) participated voluntarily in the research. They were randomly assigned to a co-designed exercise intervention (CoD group) and a prescribed exercise program (WHO group). Supervised online by specialized personal trainers, both programs lasted 9 weeks and were equivalent in volume and intensity. The effects of the exercise intervention were tested through personal interviews, questionnaires (DASS-21 and MAIA) and a cardiorespiratory exercise test. Intragroup differences (pre-post) were assessed using the Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon test and intergroup differences through Student’s t-tests. Effect sizes were calculated through Cohen’s d. Interviews were analyzed through thematic analysis. Eleven participants completed the intervention (CoD = 8, WHO = 5). Both groups improved, but non significantly, their cardiorespiratory testing results, and no differences were found between them post-intervention. Mental health was only enhanced in the CoD group (p < 0.001), and interoceptive awareness improved in seven of the eight scales in the CoD group (p < 0.001) and only in 3 scales in the WHO group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the co-designed intervention was more effective for developing mental health, interoceptive awareness, autonomy, and exercise self-regulation than the WHO-based exercise program.
... CT consists of a short series of aerobic and resistance exercises performed in repetition. It is known to be efficient in developing both muscular strength and endurance (Klika and Jordan, 2013). Compared to low-intensity CT, the energy consumption per unit time is higher in high-intensity CT with high additional energy consumption during the resting period; hence, it is preferred by individuals who find it difficult to perform regular exercise due to the lack of time (Paoli et al., 2012). ...
Article
The recently discovered myokines, irisin and fibroblast growth factor-21, have emerged beneficial for metabolic health due to their role in regulating browning. This study examined the effects of high-intensity circuit training on obesity indices, physical fitness, and irisin and fibroblast growth factor-21 levels in inactive female college students. Ten female college students performed high-intensity circuit training (jogging, stretching, squat jumps, arm walking and push-ups, lunge jumps, burpee test, mountain climbers, side steps, and crunches and side crunches exercises). The exercise program consisted of 40 min of circuit training at 60%-80% hear rate reserve and was conducted 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The body composition, physical fitness, and concentration of plasma irisin and fibroblast growth factor-21 were analyzed before and after the exercise. The body weight (P=0.001), waist circumference (P=0.003), and body fat percentage (P=0.003) decreased, while the muscular strength (handgrip strength test, P=0.030; sit-ups test, P=0.024) and cardiorespiratory fitness (P=0.001) increased after the exercise program. However, there were no significant changes in the irisin and fibroblast growth factor-21 levels. These results suggest that high-intensity circuit training could be the ideal type of exercise in inactive female college students to induce a positive change in the obesity indices and physical fitness. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of exercise on the browning factors.
... Research has demonstrated that the number of repetitions used during exercise, and the perceived effort and energy cost of the session can be affected when the training order is changed regarding exercise distribution (Schaun and Alberton, 2020). Klika and Jordan (2013) proposed an organization of training sessions using body weight, promoting exercise using four body areas. These included total body, lower body, upper body, and core. ...
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The time-efficient nature of HIIT using bodyweight exercises can facilitate the application of exercise programs at home by encouraging more people to perform regular physical exercise. However, there are no studies investigating the influence of the distribution/order of exercises during HIIT training sessions using this method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different exercise orders on training load indicators during HIIT sessions using body weight. Twenty male participants performed three 20-min sessions of HIIT using whole body exercise, consisting of 20 sets with 30 s of activity performed at maximal intensity, followed by 30 s of passive recovery. Three designs of exercise protocols were randomly performed according to the following exercise distribution: A: jumping jack, burpee, mountain climb and squat jump); B: jumping jack, mountain climb, burpee, and squat jump) and C: burpee, squat jump, jumping jack and mountain climb. No differences were found between protocols for relative heart rate, perceived exertion, and lactate concentrations. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found for the number of movements (A:712 ± 59, B:524 ± 49, C:452 ± 65). No differences were observed for the area under curve when examining perceived exertion between protocols. However, the values for perceived recovery significantly differed (p < 0.001) between protocols (A:64 ± 19; B:52 ± 11; C:17 ± 13). Interestingly, protocol B and C induced a displeasure perception compared to protocol A. Our findings suggest that exercise distribution/order using HIIT whole body exercise promotes alterations in psychophysiological responses in HIIT using whole body exercises.
... The CG performed a typical physical education class during 60 minutes. The HICT program's are commonly used by teachers in their physical education classes and coaches in many sports (Alves et al., 2021;Klika & Jordan, 2013). This typically includes exercises using body weight which are executed in a circuit fashion-way aiming to enhance neuromuscular structure and function (Engel et al., 2019). ...
Article
Physical activity plays a paramount role on children growth and schools emerged as a key setting for promoting physical activity during childhood. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a high intensity circuit training performed during regular physical education classes at schools. One hundred and five children aged 11-14 years (71 boys and 34 girls) were evaluated. The participants were split into a control group (boys: N = 47; girls: N = 16) and an experimental group (boys: N = 24; girls: N = 18). Besides the normal physical education classes, the experimental group also performed a high intensity circuit training for eight weeks, twice a week, at the beginning of the lesson. A pre-post-test was performed. Cardiorespiratory (20 m shuttle run test) and a set of strength variables were evaluated. Percentage of fat mass was used as a somatic indicator. The 20 m shuttle run test presented a significant time effect, but not a time X sex, time X group, and time X weight status interactions. Conversely, the strength variables presented a significant time X group interaction (significant differences between groups). Percentage of fat mass presented a significant time effect, but not a significant time X group interaction. Data showed that adding a high intensity circuit training to physical education classes would result in a significant increase in muscular fitness performance in children, but cardiorespiratory fitness may not present the same magnitude of improvement. High intensity circuit training programs (performed during regular physical education classes at schools) seem to present a positive and significant effect in physical fitness parameters as well as reducing the percentage of fat mass.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-loading strength training program (SLSTP) on countermovement jump performance (CMJ) and body composition (BC) in young soccer players. 60 young soccer players were distributed in 4 groups [U16 14,67 ± 0,49 years); U17 (15,73 ± 0,46); U18 (16,67 ± 0,82); U19 (18,27 ± 0,46)]. Completed a strength training program with self-loading during 8 weeks with weekly training frequency of 2 sessions of 1 hour per week. CMJ performed with the app My Jump and BC were analyzed with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method (BIA). Data were collected pre- and postintervention. The effect size (ES) was calculated and a level of significance of p<0,05. The main results of the study showed a significant increase in U19 group (p<0.01) in CMJ performance. A significant decrease in body mass in U17 group (p<0.001). U17 and U19 groups showed a significant decrease in % fat mass (p<0.001) and, finally, there was a significant increase in lean mass (p <0.001) in all groups. The present study confirms that the strength training with self-loading is a valid method to produce changes at the neuromuscular level and modification of body composition in young soccer players.
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Background and Objective: Obesity is a hralth problem found throughout the world and could lead to subsequent complications. Nowadays, people are more interested in exercise to maintain and improve their health as a result of the support from social media, which make an attention of being healthy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven-minute exercise program on the fat percentage in the obese women. Materials and methods: Fifty female volunteers with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were divided into two groups; exercise with seven-minute exercise program (n=25) and control groups (n=25). All participants were measured the percentage of fat, BMI and waist circumference at before and after 6 weeks period. Results: Seven-minute exercise program could decrease the percentage of fat (10.72%), weight (7.10%), BMI (7.10%) and waist circumference (4.12%) significantly when compared to the control group before and after exercise in six weeks. (p<0.05). Conclusions: Seven-minute workout for 6 weeks could reduce the percentage of weight, BMI and waist circumference in obese females.
Thesis
High Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) or Functional High Intensity Circuit Training (FHICT), Is a new form of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), that is done like a circular resistance training, using body weight and performing functional movements. The results of previous studies on functional responses, body composition, and biochemistry in High Intensity Circuit Training are very contradictory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HICT training on serum levels of sirtuin1, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHDG), catalase activity and physical function in boy soccer players. For this intention, 21 voluntary adolescence soccer player boys, aged 14 to 16 years, in a way available and voluntary were selected and randomly divided into two training groups: (HICT) and control group. The training group trained for 8 weeks, 3 days a week, with 80% of maximal heart rate in the first 4 weeks and 85 to 90% of maximal heart rate in the second four weeks. The control group continued their usual football training with the same volume as the training group. At pre-test and post-test from all subjects had resting blood samples and one hour after maximal aerobic activity. Body composition test with body composition analyzer and functional tests was also performed before onset the exercises. In order to analyze the data, statistical software SPSS version 23 was used and significance level was considered (P <0.05). Results showed that HICT training significantly increased physical performance indexes including: agility, sargent jump height, flexibility, shoulder muscle strength and soccer dribbling (P <0.05) compared to the control group. Also, in the post-test, values of peak oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the training group than in the control group. There was no significant difference between isokinetic strength of knee extensors and flexors, velocity, anaerobic power, balance, abdominal muscle endurance, balance, fatigue index and body composition variables in the training and control groups after 8 weeks of HICT (P> 0.05). Also, not significant difference was observed in resting and short-term response values of sirtuin1, 8-OHDG and catalase activity to maximal aerobic activity (P> 0.05). Therefore, 8 weeks of High Intensity Circuit training does not cause significant oxidative stress on the soccer teenager's body, while it can have a significant effect on improving athletic performance. Recommendation: Applying HICT exercises in the competition season and dedicated preparation is an effective training strategy to increase the physical performance of relatively skilled young soccer players. It can also be used as a time and cost advantageous program in the physical education classes of school students. Keywords: Sirtuin1, 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine, Catalase, Body Composition, Sport Performance
Article
Introduction/objective: To evaluate the effects of a periodized circuit training (CT) compared with a conventional strength training (ST) and an educational protocol (EP) on body composition, metabolic parameters, muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Method: This study followed a randomized controlled trial design. A sample of sixty-one patients with KOA, 40-65 years old and BMI < 30 kg/m2, were randomly divided into three 14-week protocols: CT, ST, or EP. The CT performed whole body exercises organized in circuit, 3 times a week. The ST performed conventional resistance exercises also 3 times a week, and the EP joined in educational meetings twice a month. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)); metabolic parameters (abdominal obesity, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressure and fasting glucose), knee maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) extension and flexion, performance-based tests (40-m walk test, 30-s chair test, and stair climb test), self-reported pain, stiffness, and physical function (WOMAC) and pain catastrophism were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare differences between groups (CTxSTxEP) at the different times of assessment (baseline × follow-up). When group-time interaction was found, a one-way ANOVA, followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test, was used to compare groups in each time point; while a paired t test was used to verify the time effect in each group. Additionally, the training effect was analyzed in terms of the percent change (Δ%). Effect size was calculated for post intervention (week 14) between groups. For all analyses a significance level of 5% was adopted (p < 0.05). Results: The CT was the only protocol that presented significant lower body mass (p = 0.018; Δ% = - 1.4), fat mass (p = 0.017; Δ% = - 10.3), %fat mass (p < 0.001; Δ% = - 13.9), adipose indices (%fat trunk/%fat legs p = 0.031; Δ% = 7.8; fat mass/height2p = 0.011; Δ% = - 15.1; trunk/limb fat mass p = 0.012; Δ% = - 8.2; visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume (cm3) p = 0.039; Δ% = - 11.6; VAT area (cm2) p = 0.044; Δ% = - 12.2), blood pressure levels (SBP p = 0.042; Δ% = - 3.4 and DBP p = 0.001; Δ% = - 4.9), higher lean mass and HDL (p < 0.001; Δ% = 5.9) compared to baseline. CT and ST presented lower WOMAC pain, stiffness and physical function (p < 0.001; Δ% = - 64.0 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 0.001; Δ% = - 46.4 for ST in WOMAC total score, pain catastrophizing (p < 0.001; Δ% = - 66.7 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = - 61.5 for ST) a higher functional performance (30 s chair test: p < 0.001; Δ% = 45.7 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 26.9 for ST; 40 m walk test: p < 0.001; Δ% = 26.7 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 12.5 for ST; stair climb test: p = 0.002; Δ% = - 33.9 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = - 18.8 for ST) and knee extension MIVC (p < 0.001; Δ% = 21.92 for CT and p < 0.001; Δ% = 30.25 for ST). Conclusion: A periodized CT model reduces visceral adipose tissue, SBP and DBP, and improves HDL, important cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, in patients with KOA. Both trained groups (CT and ST) improve self-reported clinical symptoms, muscle strength, and physical performance in this sample. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02761590 (registered on May 4, 2016). Key points: • A 14-week periodized circuit training reduces visceral adipose tissue, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and improves HDL blood levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis.• Both periodized circuit training and conventional strength training improve clinical symptoms, functional performance and muscle strength in this sample.
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The aim of this research was to analyze the effects on jumping and throwing after applying a protocol of self-loading and plyometry to a women's university handball team. Eleven amateur handball players participated in the event (M age = 23.70; SD = 2.26), who performed the training protocol for eight weeks. An experimental design was established in which pre- and post-intervention evaluations were made in which the medicine ball throw, the speed of throwing to goal and the speed of the goal were evaluated, CMJ one leg and both legs, horizontal jump and asymmetries between both legs. For the evaluation of the training effect, a dependent samples t-test was tasked. The results show that they improved in the jumping tests but not in the throwing tests. In conclusion, a protocol of self-loading and plyometrics is effective in the vertical jump.
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College students are at risk for adverse mental and physical health. Physical activity (PA) can reduce risks and promote positive mental health; however, less than half of college students meet PA recommendations. Further, few students seek ancillary help such as counseling services. Therefore, in this study we implemented a 5-week evidence-based PA program (#ubwell) in collaboration with counseling services designed to promote students’ PA participation and motivation, as well as positive mood states and mental health. Results showed participants increased in positive feelings and arousal levels during all PA sessions. Additionally, intrinsic motivation significantly increased from pre to post, but PA participation and mood states did not change significantly. The increased motivation and positive affect are promising, and additional research with larger samples and additional campus recreation activities (e.g., fitness classes, intramurals) may provide greater insight into the benefits of PA programs for mental health and wellness.
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Résumé La musculation à haute intensité en télé-rééducation présente de nombreuses plus-values pour améliorer la qualité de vie de personnes atteintes de paralysie cérébrale. Le 17 mars 2020 a débuté le « confinement de la population » lié à la COVID-19 en France. Cette mesure sanitaire a remis en cause le déroulement habituel des séances de rééducation. Pour s’adapter à ce contexte, des séances de télé-rééducation synchrones et asynchrones essaient de se mettre en place rapidement afin que les personnes atteintes de paralysie ne perdent pas les bénéfices de leur accompagnement et préservent leurs capacités motrices. Cette pratique à distance, bien développée dans d’autre pays, est une découverte récente en France. Elle reste d’actualité et devrait se pérenniser comme nouvel arsenal thérapeutique dans le cas où son indication reste pertinente. Nous aborderons d’abord les intérêts et les limites de la télé-rééducation. Puis, les origines de la faiblesse musculaire des personnes atteintes de paralysie cérébrale seront évoquées. Ensuite, les multiples plus-values de la musculation à haute intensité seront développés. Enfin, nous montrerons que l’utilisation de cette rééducation novatrice, qui permet réellement d’améliorer la qualité de vie de cette population, est particulièrement intéressante en télé-rééducation.
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En la actualidad, el fútbol es uno de los deportes con mayor campo de investigación científica. En los últimos tiempos, el entrenamiento de la fuerza ha adquirido un papel fundamental en la planificación y programación del entrenamiento en fútbol, ya que, influye de forma positiva en la mejora de las demás cualidades y, por tanto, en un mayor rendimiento del deportista. Sin embargo, aún existe mucha controversia sobre el desarrollo de trabajos de fuerza en jugadores jóvenes de fútbol y su posible interferen cia con otras cualidades físicas y/o antropométricas. El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral, fue comparar los efectos que producen dos tratamientos de fuerza diferentes, sobre la capacidad de salto, el consumo máximo de oxígeno y la composición corporal, en jugadores jóvenes de fútbol durante una temporada, atendiendo a la categoría (cadete/juvenil) y la demarcación específica (portero, defensa central, lateral, centrocampista, extremo y delantero). Los tratamientos de fuerza fueron: 1. Grupo de fuerza con au tocargas (GAUT) y 2. Grupo de fuerza con sobrecargas (GSOB). Después de 37 semanas, con un total de 74 sesiones de entrenamiento,se produjeron mejoras significativas sobre la capacidad de salto (17.54 % GAUT ; 16.54 % GSOB ) y sobre el consumo máximo de oxígeno (7.58 % GAUT; 6.69 % GSOB). Además, se produjeron descensos del % graso (13.94 %), aumentos significativos desde el 0.5 al 1.84 % en la variable altura (cm) y aumentos en la masa muscular (Kg) (8.30 % GAUT; 4.81 % GSOB), en ambas categorías. Podemos concluir que las diferentes metodologías de entrenamiento de fuerza utilizadas, hicieron mejorar de manera significativa las variables de rendimiento estudiadas. Así pues, podemos indicar que tanto el tratamiento de fuerza con autocargas como el de sobrecargas, son métodos de entrenamiento válidos y óptimos para producir cambios a niveles neuromusculares, cardiorrespiratorios y antropométricos. Por último, se recomienda tanto a los entrenadores y/o preparadores físicos, qu e implementar un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza durante la temporada en jugadores jóvenes de fútbol, es efectivo para mejorar el rendimiento de sus jugadores.
Chapter
In recent years, sports and fitness apps have become increasingly popular. In a 2018 survey, 60% of respondents aged 18–69 years old reported using a fitness app several times a week [1]. Moreover, it is expected that the use of these offers will continue to increase in the future. By 2024, 18.3 million users are predicted to use the service. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with restrictions on team sports and the closure of gyms, many people try to compensate for the lack of exercise by doing workouts.There are many different programs and apps that motivate the user to do sports at home. Systems like Nintendo’s Switch Ring Fit Adventure try to animate the user playfully. Other apps, such as Adidas Training by Runtastic and 7-min Workout, on the other hand, motivate the user through instructions, challenges and customizable workout plans for body-weight exercises.This paper aims to analyze the current market situation of digital fitness applications. The applications are to be categorized and evaluated concerning their application area and structure. The focus of the analysis is, on the one hand, on the possibilities and methods for recording sport sessions and, on the other hand, on the applications’ approach to motivate the users to exercise in the long term.KeywordsExergamesWorkout appsHealth effectsPlayer motivationPlayer monitoring
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The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit from engaging in amounts of exercise less than recommended. In addition to exercising regularly, there are health benefits in concurrently reducing total time engaged in sedentary pursuits and also by interspersing frequent, short bouts of standing and physical activity between periods of sedentary activity, even in physically active adults. Behaviorally based exercise interventions, the use of behavior change strategies, supervision by an experienced fitness instructor, and exercise that is pleasant and enjoyable can improve adoption and adherence to prescribed exercise programs. Educating adults about and screening for signs and symptoms of CHD and gradual progression of exercise intensity and volume may reduce the risks of exercise. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise testing for CHD are useful when clinically indicated but are not recommended for universal screening to enhance the safety of exercise.
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To compare the effects of an acute one versus three-set full body resistance training (RT) bout in eight overweight (mean ± SD, BMI = 25.6 ± 1.5 kg m(-2)) young (21.0 ± 1.5 years) adults on resting energy expenditure (REE) measured on four consecutive mornings following each protocol. Participants performed a single one-set or three-set whole body (10 exercises, 10 repetition maximum) RT bout following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for RT. REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) by indirect calorimetry were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h after the RT bout. Participants performed each protocol in randomized, counterbalanced order separated by 7 days. There was no difference between protocols for REE or RER. However, REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~400 kJ day(-1)) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline. There was a no change in RER in both the protocols at 72 h compared to baseline. A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The one-set RT protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set RT programs for weight management in young adults, due to the minimal time commitment and the elevation in REE post RT bout.
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We use a new approach to the estimation of energy expenditure for resistance training involving nonsteady state measures of work (weight × displacement), exercise O2 uptake, blood lactate, and recovery O2 uptake; all lifts were performed to muscular failure. Our intent was to estimate and compare absolute and relative aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditure and recovery energy expenditure. Single-set bench press lifts of ∼ 37, ∼ 46, and ∼ 56% (muscular endurance-type exercise) along with 70, 80, and 90% (strength-type exercise) of a 1 repetition maximum were performed. Collectively, the muscular endurance lifts resulted in larger total energy expenditure (60.2 ± 14.5 kJ) as compared with the strength lifts (43.2 ± 12.5 kJ) (p = 0.001). Overall work also was greater for muscular endurance (462 ± 131 J) as opposed to strength (253 ± 93 J) (p = 0.001); overall work and energy expenditure were related (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). Anaerobic exercise and recovery energy expenditure were significantly larger for all strength lifts as compared with aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001). For the muscular endurance lifts, anaerobic energy expenditure was larger than recovery energy expenditure (p < 0.001) that in turn was larger than aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001). We conclude that for a single set of resistance training to fatigue, the anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure contributions can be significantly larger than aerobic energy expenditure during the exercise. To our surprise, recovery energy expenditure was similar both within strength and muscular-endurance protocols and between protocols; moreover, recovery energy expenditure had little to no relationship with aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditure or work.
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Recovery from a bout of exercise is associated with an elevation in metabolism referred to as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). A number of investigators in the first half of the last century reported prolonged EPOC durations and that the EPOC was a major component of the thermic effect of activity. It was therefore thought that the EPOC was a major contributor to total daily energy expenditure and hence the maintenance of body mass. Investigations conducted over the last two or three decades have improved the experimental protocols used in the pioneering studies and therefore have more accurately characterized the EPOC. Evidence has accumulated to suggest an exponential relationship between exercise intensity and the magnitude of the EPOC for specific exercise durations. Furthermore, work at exercise intensities >or=50-60% VO2max stimulate a linear increase in EPOC as exercise duration increases. The existence of these relationships with resistance exercise at this stage remains unclear because of the limited number of studies and problems with quantification of work intensity for this type of exercise. Although the more recent studies do not support the extended EPOC durations reported by some of the pioneering investigators, it is now apparent that a prolonged EPOC (3-24 h) may result from an appropriate exercise stimulus (submaximal: >or=50 min at >or=70% VO2max; supramaximal: >or=6 min at >or=105% VO2max). However, even those studies incorporating exercise stimuli resulting in prolonged EPOC durations have identified that the EPOC comprises only 6-15% of the net total oxygen cost of the exercise. But this figure may need to be increased when studies utilizing intermittent work bouts are designed to allow the determination of rest interval EPOCs, which should logically contribute to the EPOC determined following the cessation of the last work bout. Notwithstanding the aforementioned, the earlier research optimism regarding an important role for the EPOC in weight loss is generally unfounded. This is further reinforced by acknowledging that the exercise stimuli required to promote a prolonged EPOC are unlikely to be tolerated by non-athletic individuals. The role of exercise in the maintenance of body mass is therefore predominantly mediated via the cumulative effect of the energy expenditure during the actual exercise.