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Empathy and tourism: Limits and possibilities

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Abstract

Promoted as an emotional pre-requisite for cross-cultural understanding, the notion of empathy connects with tourism in a variety of ways. This article explores this connection by considering the current and potential role of empathy in tourism encounters and tourism studies. The discussion develops a critical understanding of the positioning of empathy in tourism, highlighting the importance of examining empathy’s limitations and risks. It is argued that important differences lay between an unquestioned or non-reflective empathy and a more ‘unsettled’ empathy, which is reflective and renders possible a productive sense of shame. The article concludes by considering the possibilities of and for empathy within tourism and tourism studies, and by suggesting questions to take the links between tourism and empathy forward.

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... Memorial museums are frequently located at sites (such as prisons, places of torture, and sites of mass death) directly associated with state-sponsored violence (Zombory 2017). By giving visitors the experience of proximity -of "being there" (Tucker 2016) -such sites have the potential to engender identification with, and empathy for, victims of suffering. ...
... Empathy can be defined as "a complex, imaginative process through which an observer simulates another person's situated psychological states while maintaining clear self-other differentiation" (Coplan 2011, 40). It is essentially a form of emotional and imaginative engagement in which an individual feels (or tries to feel) the situation and perspectives of another person (Tucker 2016;Zembylas 2018). In a museum context empathy is about an encounter or meeting with the other (Mason et al 2018) but in circumstances in which the positions of visitor and other are clearly different (Landsberg 2004). ...
... In a museum context empathy is about an encounter or meeting with the other (Mason et al 2018) but in circumstances in which the positions of visitor and other are clearly different (Landsberg 2004). However a common criticism of empathy is that there will always be limits to the extent that an individual can empathize with another whose circumstances are completely different from his or her own (Tucker 2016;Delgado and Stefancic 2017). While feeling is central to empathy, recent debate emphasizes that empathy is more than an emotional experience and also involves significant cognitive engagement (Landsberg 2004;Coplan 2011;Endacott and Brooks 2013;Savenije and de Bruijn 2017). ...
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Many states in post-communist East-Central Europe have established memorial museums which aim to tell the story of suffering under the communist regime. They also seek to encourage visitors to develop empathy for the victims of communist repression. This paper explores the responses of a group of young people to a memorial museum in Romania (Sighet Memorial Museum), focusing on how these visitors experienced empathy for the victims of communist-era violence. Data were collected using focus groups. Most participants showed a degree of empathy for the victims of suffering but this was usually shallow in nature. However some visitors displayed more “active” empathy (characterized by deeper imaginative and cognitive engagement). The paper explores how both the design and environment of the museum and the background experiences of visitors influenced the development of empathy. It argues that empathy is not an automatic response to suffering and instead can be considered as an interaction between the design of the museum and the background knowledge of visitors. The paper argues that empathy is an important means for young people to participate in remembering the communist period, and is a means to make “prosthetic” memories of an authoritarian past which they have not experienced first-hand.
... This study builds on current research undertaken by Barlow and Maul (2002), Beck (2006), Pedwell (2012), Tucker (2016), Mostafanezhad (2014) and Crossley (2017); all have explored the roles, manifestations and risks of empathy across areas such as hospitality, tourism and voluntourism. The contributions of this study lay in: exploring whether pro-social tourism has heightened the potential to harness empathy compared to other types of tourism; and identifying the key elements that either harness or constrain the development of traveller empathy. ...
... While the claim that tourism leads to peace remains contentious (Var and Van Doren 1994;Brown 1989;Din 1988;Salazar 2006: 325;Isaac 2014), studies that explore empathy as a force for cross-cultural understanding in tourism have gained momentum. References to empathy in tourism have been made by Caton (2012), Schwarzin (2012), Higgins-Desbiolles (2003), Mostafanezhad (2014), and Moufakkir and Kelly (2010) and Tucker (2016). Within the realms of hospitality, empathy is viewed as an 'essential ingredient in service quality and loyalty' (Umasuthan et al. 2017: 621). ...
... Furthermore, the claim that one can understand the Other through crosscultural communication is relatively presumptuous. Most of the time, gaps in understanding are filled out with the subject's own projections, ultimately taking over and silencing Otherness (Tucker 2016). Worryingly, in pro-social tourism, the empathic encounter is often symbolized by imagery of a poor child aided by a benevolent international tourist; this sets up a paternalistic and neo-colonial ideal (Mostafanezhad 2014). ...
Article
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Given tourism’s economic importance, its potential to create positive social change is often promoted, including the possibility for it to become a force for cross-cultural understanding through empathy. Because of its capacity to open new forms of intersubjective understanding, it is believed that empathy can harness more ethical relations between hosts and guests. Allied to these ideals is the following question: to what extent do tourists in less developed contexts actively engage with hosts (or the Other) through empathy? By using a case study of a ten-day pro-social cycling tour in Cambodia, this study examined the conditions that governed and shaped empathy between hosts and guests. Findings suggest that the key condition that harnesses empathy in host–guest relationships materializes when there is an opportunity to engage in bilateral conversations in situations where power differences are reduced. However, the role of empathy as a ‘necessary’ element for cross-cultural understanding remains open to contestation and remains ripe for further research.
... I also address how cosmopolitan empathy is oriented towards the suffering of particular social groups deemed worthy of volunteer tourists' concern. In order to achieve this, I explore the potential of Lacanianinflected psychosocial studies to enhance our understanding of cosmopolitan empathy in volunteer tourism, thereby contributing to an emerging critical literature on emotion and affect in tourism (Crossley, 2012a(Crossley, , 2012b(Crossley, , 2014Molz, 2015;Picard & Robinson, 2012;Tucker, 2009) and empathy more specifically (Mostafanezhad, 2014;Tucker, 2016). Psychosocial studies theorises subjectivity non-dualistically as an emergent property of interconnected social and psychic fields, avoiding the reductive, essentialising tendencies that make psychology off-putting for some critical tourism researchers (McCabe, 2005;Moore, 2002). ...
... However, beyond this reference to emotion, the concept of cosmopolitan empathy remains relatively untheorised in Mostafanezhad's work and, I argue, warrants a more in-depth theoretical exploration. More broadly, Tucker (2016) notes the lack of attention that has been paid to the concept of empathy, in any form, within the tourism literature despite its potential to articulate the affective dynamics at play within a variety of contexts. Indeed, in relation to volunteer tourism, the term 'cosmopolitan empathy' has not to date been used beyond Mostafanezhad's work (see also Swain, 2016), although 'empathy' does make an appearance in the literature, usually in reference to tourists' development of cross-cultural competencies once in the volunteer tourism site (cf. ...
... In this paper, I have explored the potential of Lacanianinflected psychosocial studies to enhance our understanding of cosmopolitan empathy in volunteer tourism, thereby contributing to an emerging critical literature on emotion and affect in tourism (Crossley, 2012a(Crossley, , 2012b(Crossley, , 2014Molz, 2015;Picard & Robinson, 2012;Tucker, 2016Tucker, , 2009). This theorisation conceptualises cosmopolitan empathy as an emergent property of interrelated social and psychic fields, which results in the affect serving both ideological and psychological functions. ...
Chapter
Volunteer tourism provides a means of proximate engagement with usually distant others, emphasising reciprocity, cultural learning and humanitarianism in poor communities. As such, the practice has come to be investigated for its potential to engender global citizenship, a broader scope of emotional identification, and new kinds of progressive transnational social spaces. This paper focuses on the intersection between volunteer tourism and cosmopolitan empathy, outlining an account of cosmopolitan empathy that draws on a Lacanian psychosocial reading of tourist subjectivity. This theorisation conceptualises cosmopolitan empathy as an emergent property of interrelated social and psychic fields, which results in the affect serving both ideological and psychological functions. I argue that bridging geographical distance through travel presents volunteer tourists with encounters that can potentially destabilise the discourses and fantasies of the needy, grateful Other underpinning their experiences of cosmopolitan empathy, thus disrupting the conventional spatial ontology of affect that frequently dominates theoretical discussions of cosmopolitanism.
... The role of empathy, with a greater focus on understanding or stepping into the shoes of another, signifies potential to shift the focus away from the tourist to the host destination residents. Tucker (2016) explores the links between tourism and empathy from a critical tourism perspective but contends that whilst empathy can generate 'intersubjective understanding' between tourists and communities, tourist empathy for the 'other' is also linked with neoliberal discourse and a market-oriented logic. The imperative for tourists 'to care' effectively transfers responsibility away from the tourism company to address inequalities as a result of tourism, and puts the onus on the tourist as consumer (2016, p. 35). ...
... Tourists could also be encouraged to take community-run tours whereby people represent themselves and their situation on their own terms, in line with a more inclusive approach to development (Scheyvens & Biddulph, 2018). Such approaches to decommodifying 'doing good' could offer the potential to foster meaningful global solidarity (McLennan, 2019) and a more reflective sense of empathy (Tucker, 2016) among tourists. ...
Article
Hotels create opportunities for tourists to 'do good' whilst on holiday, for example through participation in hotel-led programmes involving environmental clean-ups or donations to schools, the purchase of community-made products, or taking community and school tours. These initiatives foster in tourists a sense of compassion for communities in tourist destinations, but at the same time, effectively commodify the desire to 'do good'. Critically, initiatives centre predominantly on the gifting of tangible donations whilst precluding any engagement with either the structural causes of inequalities or the broader priorities of destination communities. Case studies are used to explore community perspectives of initiatives led by luxury hotels to support schools in Fiji. Findings highlight the tension between the commodifica-tion of tourist desire to give back to destination communities and their limitations in addressing community development priorities. We consider whether tourist compassion can be harnessed to work for communities through tourism partnerships, and reflect upon the kinds of tourism partnerships that might be effective mechanisms for realising the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, highlighting the need to delink addressing community needs from the feel-good tourist experience.
... Also, the destination's perceived image was equally unchallenged concerning safety and so was the intention to visit the destination again and to recommend it to friends and family (positive WOM). In this context, the 'sympathy effect' and the need to offer help leads to the development of volunteer tourism in the areas experiencing a refugee or any other kind of humanitarian crisis (Tucker, 2016). ...
... Volunteer tourism is defined as the form of tourism which gives the opportunity to travellers to offer volunteer work in countries or regions in need, with the aim to develop the local society (Polus & Bidder, 2016). Tourists going on volunteer trips have mainly altruistic motives (Bussell & Forbes, 2002;Callanan & Thomas, 2005;Wearing & Neil, 1997) that refer to a sense of providing (Tucker, 2016) therefore they expect an experience that will contribute not only to the development of the host society but also to their personal development through acquiring new skills, through training, through collective participation (Polus & Bidder, 2016) and through philanthropy (Coghlan, 2015). However, there are cases where the effects may be negative, and this happens because many organizations are driven by profit and they try to satisfy the volunteers' demands and not to serve the cause, resulting to sending good but inexperienced volunteers to projects that do not suit their abilities (Tomazos & Cooper, 2012). ...
Article
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Since the summer of 2015, many islands in the Aegean received an unprecedented wave of refugees and migrants, which created a series of immediate, short term and long term social, humanitarian and economic issues (UNHCR. (2015). The sea route to Europe: Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/8URK97). This paper aims to study and analyse the effects of refugees’ inflows and the implications of the volunteers’ presence on the islands of Chios and Lesvos (Greece) through a primary research, as well as the reactions of the stakeholders involved. A primary qualitative research with the use of semi-structured interviews has been conducted between October 2016 and March 2017. The sample of the research was selected by random sampling and it involved 122 participants who were separated in two groups: a) representatives of state bodies and local authorities as well as local entrepreneurs and b) independent volunteers and members of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO). The main findings of the primary research showed a negative attitude of the local stakeholders as to the effects of the refugees’ inflows on the economic and social life of both islands and, therefore, on tourism. The research recorded a positive attitude towards the islands and their local societies on behalf of the volunteers and NGO members, as well as their intention to revisit the islands in the future as tourists.
... The terms are mistakenly used interchangeably when, as summarised by Farmaki and Christou (2019, p. 671), their distinction lies in one's "impediment to safely return to their home country", which is however not always a clear line. In times of anthropogenic crises, such as those related to any populations' mobility, the international community engages directly or indirectly both in the generation and/or circulation of opinion statements and news (Tucker, 2016). Online information sharing platforms and social media facilitate the generation speed and volume of user-generated content (UGC), thus serving simultaneously as opinion sharing channels and information intelligence media (Wang et al., 2016;Williams et al., 2017), triggering consciously and unconsciously potential tourists' image perceptions and hence, visiting intentions for an undefined period of time. ...
... Overall interaction was the most significant construct directly related to destination image co-creation, indicating the importance of interpersonal encounters to generate empathy and affective attachment to the visited destination (Tucker, 2016;Yang, 2016). In exploring the significance of the categorical demographic attributes of age, income and education, findings of this study suggest age as the highest underlying contribution for engagement in the destination image co-creation, followed by income and later education. ...
Article
Customer co-creation feeds from customer engagement, value recognition and experience appreciation. Tourists participation in the image communication of a destination in adversity is well documented along literature addressing their motivations and their reliability as information intelligence. What remains still vague is an exploration of the above dynamics in the case of destinations in sustained crisis hence the customer predispositions for destinations under an extended duration yet reduced intensity turbulent destination image. Using Lesvos (Greece) as a case study of a destination affected by refugee and immigrant mobilities since 2012, this paper explores those constructs affecting tourists’ response and engagement in the formulation, promotion and hence co-creation of an affected destinations’ cognitive and affective image. The theoretical contribution of the paper lies in the exploration of the conscious and unconscious tourist triggers that could promote the co-repair and co-restoration of a long-affected destination’ image, with direct managerial implications both for destination and crisis management.
... Building on Ashworth and Isaac's (2015) propositions, we view dark tourism as emotional experiences (positive, negative, and mixed) triggered at disaster sites that subsequently have some consequences on the visitor's life. Some describe the recent focus on emotions in tourism studies as the "emotional turn"-a shift in focus from viewing tourism as a mere economic activity toward tourism as a social space embodied with issues of self and other which are lived experiences and performed through emotions (Buda 2015;Tucker 2016). Studies of resident emotions have lagged somewhat behind those of tourist emotions, and the range of residents' emotional experiences at local dark tourism sites remain an area that needs further attention (Prayag 2016;Prayag, Buda, and Jordan 2020). ...
... As suggested by the findings, cognitive appraisals of experiences led residents to utilize more mixed, and emotion-focused coping strategies rather than problem-focused strategies (McCrae 1984;Schuettler and Boals 2011). This supports the emotion turn in tourism studies described by Buda (2015) and Tucker (2016), where disaster-related dark tourism sites become a social space to reflect on self in relation to the dead, survivors, and the postquake community. ...
Article
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While tourist emotions elicited at dark tourism sites are well understood, little is known about residents’ experiences at local dark tourism sites. This study explores residents’ emotional experiences at dark tourism sites, the cognitive appraisals of their experiences and emotions, and the coping strategies they deploy to address them. In-depth interviews with 37 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand (site of the Canterbury earthquakes), reveal that residents cognitively appraised their experience at local dark tourism sites on important facets such as centrality and controllability. Visits to local dark tourism sites embodied memories of the disaster that elicit more negative (e.g., sadness) than positive emotions (e.g., gratefulness). Residents coped through seeking comfort from others or positive reappraisal of the experience. Furthermore, visits to dark tourism sites are in and of themselves a coping strategy for residents postdisaster. Implications for the development of dark tourism attractions and support for resident well-being are offered.
... Nevertheless, demand or supply-oriented explanations tend to be negated in the vast range of black spots. Miles' (2002) relatively dark places, spectrum of supply from the lightest to the darkest, and Sharpley's (2009a) shades of dark tourism have partly been negated in different case studies (see Cohen, 2011;Tucker, 2016). Indeed it is a hard task to theorize inclusively why people choose a spot for which reasons. ...
Book
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book dedicated to virtual dark tourism
... 1206). A critical tourism approach similarly suggests that empathy in tourists "may open up new forms of intersubjective understanding and thereby create more ethical relations between people across cultural and social divides" (Tucker, 2016(Tucker, , p. 1064). ...
Article
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities are usually determined, in large part, by head office and by shareholder interests. This article explores the unique case of tourism CSR which has a distinctive relationship with local communities. CSR programmes of hotels and resorts in the Global South are increasingly creating opportunities for tourists to engage directly with communities, yet the relationship between tourists and CSR – and how this impacts on community development outcomes – has so far been overlooked. Based on two separate research projects undertaken in Zambia and Fiji which examined hotel CSR from community perspectives, we show how these programmes were largely motivated, driven and financed by tourists. This suggests that, in the accommodation subsector of tourism, CSR is not only being shaped by head office, but that tourists can play a key role, leading us to coin the term TSR (tourist social responsibility). For community development initiatives in particular, this gives rise to both challenges and opportunities.
... Nevertheless, demand or supply-oriented explanations tend to be negated in the vast range of black spots. Miles' (2002) relatively dark places, spectrum of supply from the lightest to the darkest, and shades of dark tourism have partly been negated in different case studies (see Tucker, 2016). Indeed it is a hard task to theorize inclusively why people choose a spot for which reasons. ...
Chapter
This volume is an eclectic multidisciplinary collection of essays related to the interconnections between dark tourism and pilgrimage travel. It focuses on dark tourism sites as pilgrimage destinations, dark tourists as pilgrims, and pilgrimage as a form of dark tourism. Theories and histories of dark tourism and pilgrimage are covered, as well as aspects of the visitor experience, including tourists' motivations and emotional responses, and social aspects, among others. The book has 22 chapters and a subject index.
... Within the context of this affective language of helping in the promotion of volunteer tourism, and the emotional and affective sentiments of 'altruism', 'care' and 'compassion', it is not surprising that scholars are turning to theories of affect to make sense of the embodied emotional aspects of the volunteering experience. As critical tourism scholars point out, emotions are central in mediating tourism encounters and are made sense of by tourists through their emotional and embodied entanglements in their experiences (see Buda, d'Hauteserre, & Johnston, 2014;Buda & McIntosh, 2012;Tucker, 2016;Tucker & Shelton, 2018;Picard, 2012). Theorising affect in tourism spaces can provide 'new ways of understanding identity, place and power for tourism scholars' (Buda et al., 2014, p. 103), and gives researchers insights into how meaning is generated through subjectivities that are both individual and collective. ...
Article
Full-text available
Promotion of volunteer tourism is couched within notions of ‘giving back’, drawing on affective sentiments of ‘care’, ‘compassion’ and ‘empathy’, reinforced by neo-colonial and neoliberal notions of developmental aid. It is not surprising then, that scholars are turning to theories of affect to make sense of the embodied, emotional aspects of the volunteering experience. We build on this emerging research trajectory by arguing that in drawing attention to the unequal geographies of international volunteering, the complexities and nuances of affect and emotion demand an engagement with theories that are more attuned to ambiguity, in order to open up dialogue for multiple possibilities. We critically engage with extant theorisations of affect as autonomous in volunteer tourism encounters to explore these possibilities. However we find a tendency within the conceptualisations of affect as autonomous (re)creates binaries, albeit in distinctive forms - with a focus on possibility - to the detriment of power. We therefore turn to decolonial feminist contributions to understand subjectivity, positionality and the pivotal role of the body in research in non-binary ways. We use this framing to reflexively re-engage with fieldwork six years on from a volunteer tourism site in Ecuador to demonstrate the nuances and complexities of theorising the affective aspects of volunteer tourism encounters. We focus this analysis around three key themes that arose in this re-engagement with the fieldwork: i) vulnerability and unlearning ii) critical intimacy and iii) affective closures. We conclude by arguing that the affective spaces in volunteer tourism are at once bound up in, and shaped by, the larger processes of neoliberalism and neo-colonial legacies, while at the same time, they contain borderland encounters of intersubjective relationalities and moments of vulnerability, care, critical intimacy and emergent decolonising connections.
... In the present study, the concept of empathy is chosen to test nomological validity because the tourism literature suggests conceptual connections between empathy and alternative forms of tourism such as transformative travel (Tucker 2016). Empathy is defined as "a set of constructs having to do with the responses of one individual to the experiences of another" (Davis 2018, p. 12). ...
Article
Transformative travel encourages tourists to self-reflect, question their assumptions, and develop a more tolerant worldview. While this form of travel is gaining attention, there is unmet demand for a scale that measures the complex transformative travel experience and potential outcomes. This study focuses on developing the Transformative Travel Experience Scale (TTES). The study applies a well-tested approach based on DeVellis and Podsakoff et al. to reveal that a four-dimensional scale, composed of the dimensions of local residents and culture, self-assurance, disorienting dilemma, and joy, can be successfully used to measure the process and outcomes of transformative travel. From a theoretical perspective, the findings suggest that the disorienting dilemma might occur at different points in time. The Transformative Travel Experience Scale is helpful to organizations that want to capture the positive changes resulting from participation in transformative travel when applying for certifications, awards, and grants.
... , which could be conceived as complementary to the concepts delivered by Spaargaren (1997) and Shove et al. (2012), Recently, Sterchele (2020) has argued that it is surprising that Collins' IR theory remains underutilised, given the growing focus on emotions, feelings and affect in tourism studies (cf. Cohen & Cohen, 2019;d'Hauteserre, 2015;Li, Scott, & Walters, 2015;Tucker, 2016). ...
Article
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In spite of renewed attention for practices in tourism studies, the analysis of practices is often isolated from theories of practice. This theoretical paper identifies the main strands of practice theory and their relevance and application to tourism research, and develops a new approach to applying practice theory in the study of tourism participation. We propose a conceptual model of tourism practices based on the work of Collins (2004), which emphasises the role of rituals in generating emotional responses. This integrated approach can focus on individuals interacting in groups, as well as explaining why people join and leave specific practices. Charting the shifting of individuals between practices could help to illuminate the dynamics and complexity of tourism systems.
... --only when the trip becomes long enough (≥12 days), can the energy be significantly boosted, and sufficient selfefficacy be acquired over a trip to support the adequate resilience investment at the return-flight stage -only a long-enough trip (≥21 days) allows the anticipated during-trip gain of social resources (i.e., connection with important others/strangers) overshadowing their anticipated/ experienced consumption (i.e., group travel coordination), and boost empathy ( Tucker, 2016) -insignificance at the return-flight stage is related to consumed more empathy from social encounters/coordination effort) over a longer trip (Keller, Novembre, & Hove, 2014) -trust in air-service providers should have little relevance to the duration of trip not experienced yet, hence the revealed departure-flight insignificance; -experienced flight and diverse hospitality services over the trip provide a concrete base for building the trust (Bilgihan, 2016) ns. ...
Article
Effective air-travel stress management is increasingly crucial in determining tourist satisfaction and travel choices, particularly in a time of intensive fear about virus, terrorism, and plane crashes. However, research about air-travel stress, particularly what and how various influential forces shape passenger stress levels, is still in its infancy. The current research proposes the adoption of Conservation of Resources (COR) theory as a holistic schema to identify through resource dynamics the potential influential forces for air-travel stress across leisure travel stages. The findings, based on surveying passengers at the gate of multi-country international and domestic airports, demonstrates the capability of COR schema to predict and explain the influences on air-travel stress from an array of personal and situational/trip-specific factors. The theoretical advances from COR-based crossstage stress analyses, and the guidance for customized airline/airport stress-soothing service strategies are discussed.
... Bondi et al., 2007;Hopkins, 2009;Sharp, 2009). These 'emotional geographies' have contributed to opening new interpretations in the study of gender and emotions in tourism (see Cohen & Cohen, 2019;d'Hauteserre, 2015;Frazer & Waitt, 2016;Hall, 2018;Moyle et al., 2019;Picard, 2012;Tucker, 2009Tucker, , 2016Wilson & Little, 2008). For example, drawing from Ahmed's work on emotions, Buda et al. (2014) examined the notion of embodied emotionality or how emotions play a crucial role in the ways in which touring bodies interact with other subjects (i.e. ...
Article
Understandings of emotions and their role in ordering social life has been a fruitful feminist contribution to cultural and social studies. Under this theoretical perspective, affective or emotional responses illustrate women’s strategies to cope with or resist productive and spatial limitations produced by traditional gender roles and stereotypes. Since the 2000s, tourism and gender researchers have turned their attention to emotions, although their intersection of gender stereotypes has been limited. Ahmed’s framework on emotions and other theoretical contributions on socio-cultural spaces, embodied emotions, affective practices and gendered work to investigate gender roles, stereotypes and tourism productive and spatial relations in Mexican rural contexts. This context shed light on roles and gender stereotypes and their connections with the affective spatial practices experienced by women. A total of 49 Mexican women were interviewed from 2015 to 2018. Qualitative content analysis is employed to examine interview data, using inductive and deductive approaches. In addition, non-participant observation, document review, and field notes enrich and complement the interview data. Emotions are shown to mediate women’s lived experiences of gendered rural tourism work and the potential of emotional responses to contest social norms in opening new paths to surpass women’s relatively weaker positions in rural societies and to negotiate inequalities. Women continue to experience contradictory messages experienced and tensions generated in both the family and the community, even with the growth in gender mainstreaming strategies and the proposing a framework to contest traditional gender roles and to improve women’s affective spatial practices in rural contexts.
... Cutting the statues "down to size" in the various approaches under consideration here, takes away or diminishes or manages the potentially strong emotions surrounding memories (Wulff, 2007) such as anger, grief, admiration and fear. The taming or erasing of both political and personal threat is clearly important for sustaining peace in the political present and also for making tourist attractions and spaces comfortable for visitors, even as the emotional life of other cultures and past political regimes sparks interest, curiosity and potentially empathy in tourists (Heelas, 2007;Tucker, 2016). ...
Article
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In times of liquid modernity, when human lifespan often exceeds that of grand political structures, monumental statues continue to be built and celebrated as symbols of enduring ideological triumphs. In their apparent permanence, these statues often outlive the political systems they were designed to glorify, creating a dilemma of how to exhibit their ambiguous or disgraced presence. In this article, we argue that the heritagization of political figures and pasts is central to the reframing of such narratives and that tourists have a key, if sometimes unwitting, role to play in the shaping of the emerging political imaginaries. Focusing on statue parks in Central and Eastern Europe showcasing communist-era sculptures, we examine strategies of exhibition and tourist responses to the multivalent presence of the monuments of past regimes. We identify four approaches of destruction, delegitimization, decontextualization, and depoliticization, each tied to a particular political moment and rhetorical goal. Examining these shifting modes of preservation, presentation and interpretation, we query the tourists’ role as participants in the processes of stabilization and peace-building, proposing that in times of global re-evaluation of the symbolism of past monuments, these sites can serve to guide much needed analysis and reflection.
... The sense of security is its psychological and social dimension. It may be safe, but for a variety of reasons, such as a history of insecurity or negative publicity, people may feel insecure; Be it (Hazel, 2015). Security is, in fact, the most important and underlying principle in the formulation of tourism development strategy in the world. ...
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Security is considered as the most important factor in tourism development strategies and has a direct relationship with tourism. Unless safe, travel will not take place. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of security in the development of international tourism in Tabriz county. The research methodology is descriptive-analytical with the purpose of developmental application. Data were gathered through a questionnaire and SPSS software version 24 was used to analyze the information, 200 questionnaires were distributed by sampling method among tourists in the 2018 in the towns hip of Tabriz, Results indicated that, Prior to arriving in Iran, tourists did not have a proper understanding of the security situation in tourism. In this pessimism, the role of Western media and negative propaganda has been confirmed. Tourists, after confronting the facts, are well aware of the security situation in Iran. According to tourists, the existence of a special police force has increased the sense of security, but the presence of a large crowd of policemen has not been confirmed to increase the sense of psychological security. The results also indicate that there is a significant relationship between financial security and the incentive to travel back to Iran.
... Within the context of tourism, up to now, the concept of empathy has mostly been applied to stimulate an understanding between tourists and residents (Tucker, 2016;Zamanillo Tamborrel & Cheer, 2019). In other contexts, though, methods and tools are being developed that could also further the development of tourism visitor flows and experiences in a more empathic way. ...
Book
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This booklet accompanies my (Ko Koens) inaugural lecture. In it, I take a systemic perspective to examine the current state of urban tourism and argue that a reframing of tourism is necessary in order to understand and prevent tourism excesses. I also discuss ways to reframe tourism, the principles of designing tourism that add value to cities, and a strategy for tourism design. In doing so, I seek to provide at least some initial guidelines on how we can rebuild urban tourism in a way that is more sustainable and resilient and that contributes to a better-quality environment for all city users. Finally, I turn to ‘New Urban Tourism’, which can loosely be described as ‘tourism of the everyday urban life’ in neighbourhoods or areas that are not (yet) on the mainstream tourism trail. I argue that New Urban Tourism’s unique focus and characteristics make it useful as a place of analysis and experimentation with regard to the place-based, co-production of tourism that can foster ideas in response to the question of ‘how’ to reinvent tourism.
... The emotional expression of the film's textual content and presentation of scenic spots' images on the screen determine the identity conversion from "audiences" to "tourists" to a large extent. Through visual technology and emotional arousal, relevant information about the destinations in the film is presented and reproduced at a high level, and the positive shaping of tourist destinations can strongly strike an emotional chord with viewers (Tucker, 2016). This can change the perceptual, emotional, and intentional characteristics of the existing destination image in the minds of tourists, and create a brand-new tourist destination image (Xu et al., 2021), thereby generating tourism motivation (Hosany et al., 2020). ...
Article
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With the advent of the information age and advancement of digital technology, film and television tourism is developing rapidly under the joint action of the film industry and tourism industry, and has become a crucial form of cultural and entertainment consumption for individuals to pursue a better life in the new age. This study designs three experiments from the perspectives of identity conversion, motivation transfer, and demand change to conduct an empirical study on the mediating role of empathy for further exploring the internal mechanism of film-induced tourism in film and television tourism. The findings suggest that the three mediation hypotheses are all valid, indicating that film-induced tourism involves identity conversion from audiences to visitors, motivation transfer from watching to traveling, and demand change from interest to expectation through emotional media.
... While saying this, we recognize that this paper is the outcome of our partial perspectives and positionalities, and that the call for cultural sensitivity does not come without risks. Postcolonial critiques underline that the wish to recognize and listen to the Other can appear as romanticization, paternalism, and other forms of 'othering' and silencing (Chambers & Buzinde, 2015;Higgins-Desbiolles & Whyte, 2013;Tucker, 2016). As alluded to in our introduction, by taking up cultural sensitivity we run the risk of furthering such epistemic violences. ...
Article
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Cultural sensitivity is highly relevant but inadequately conceptualized in tourism contexts. This article explores and advances understanding of cultural sensitivity in relation to Arctic tourism where local and Indigenous livelihoods and environments are tethered to dynamics of recent tourism growth and decline, climate change, and colonial power relations. Framing cultural sensitivity as a subjective orientation towards otherness, the article illuminates differences between ethnocentric and ethnorelative orientations and discusses the importance of relational tourism processes. By advancing the conceptualization of cultural sensitivity, the article offers a framework for developing tourism services and products, and approaching tourism encounters , in ways that can enhance recognition, respect and reciprocity towards otherness in Arctic tourism and beyond.
... Contrary to the main findings of earlier conceptual studies (Foley & Lennon, 1996;Seaton, 1996), which indicated death as a primary motive for visiting the dark sites, Iliev (2020) pointed out that numerous contemporary 'dark' tourists are motivated by their interest in cultural heritage, learning and education opportunities for understanding what actually happened within so-called 'dark' destinations. Authors, such as Ashworth and Isaac (2015), Buda (2015), Nawijn and Fricke (2015) and Tucker (2016) even perceived the concept of dark tourism as an emotional experience that might be characterized as negative but also positive, to some extent (considering an increase of emotions, such as hope, love, pride, fascination, interest, gratitude), or mixed, with accompanying consequences for the life of dark tourism participants. In respect to that, the concept of dark tourism is often considered as an entire process of searching for a personal deeper experience (Iliev, 2020). ...
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Previous research on dark tourism in vulnerable post-conflict areas, such as South-Eastern Europe, has overlooked the nature of visitor personalities. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study is to determine which personality traits (dark triad, sadistic impulse, and six personality traits) are related to preference for dark tourism sites. The sample consisted of 227 respondents from Serbia who completed an online questionnaire. Using a multivariate general linear model, it was found that respondents high in Machiavellianism tended to prefer dark exhibitions, while respondents high in psychopathy tended to prefer visiting conflict/battle sites. Visitors to fun factories as an additional type of dark tourism sites showed low levels of sadism, while narcissism showed no effect on preference for dark tourism sites. Hence, only agreeableness and honesty-humility showed a significant effect on preference for dark tourism sites (dark exhibitions and conflict/battle sites). These results show interesting differences in dark sites visitors’ personalities.
... These initiatives are carried out under the supervision and guidance from the UNWTO secretariat. (Stone, 2012;Tucker, 2015). UNWTO developed guidelines coined "Roadmap for Recovery", and these have been established to direct the tourism sector and governments to respond to the economic crisis (UNWTO, 2015). ...
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Good weather and favourable climate are vital resources for tourism, particularly nature-based tourism (NBT). Weather plays a pivotal role in selecting tourist activities and the overall experience of the trip, while climate influences the timing of the trip, the range of activities offered, and the natural environment experiences which attract tourists. This influence is amplified in countries located in the global South, which have little to no adaptative capacity to ameliorate unfavourable climatic conditions and extreme weather experiences. This study presents the first comprehensive tourism and climate change analysis in Zimbabwe, and used a mixed-methods approach to: (1) assess tourists’ perceptions of climate change; (2) explore tourism stakeholders’ perceptions of climate change and their adaptation strategies; and (3) investigate the climatic suitability of Zimbabwe for tourism at various selected locations across the country. This comprehensive assessment is the first of its kind in Southern African tourism and climate change research which triangulates three different sets of empirical findings in evaluating Zimbabwean climate suitability and climate change perceptions, which enhanced the credibility of the research findings. For the tourists’ perceptions, closed and open-ended questionnaires were used, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with tourism stakeholders to investigate their climate change perceptions and the adaptation strategies they employ. For climate suitability, the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) was calculated. The results from the TCI highlight that the mean annual TCI scores for Zimbabwe range between 75.5-83 (100 being the maximum score), classifying the country as having “very good” to “excellent” climatic conditions for tourism, while the mean monthly TCI scores range from 53.8 “good” to 86 also “excellent” climatic conditions for tourism for the period under study 1989-2014. These results were then triangulated with questionnaire results from tourists and semi-structured interviews with various tourism stakeholders at the selected locations around Zimbabwe. These three sets of results largely complemented each other where thermal comfort is the most important climatic variable considered for tourism climate suitability by the TCI, the tourists and the tourism stakeholders, and hence addressed the knowledge gap in Southern African climate change and tourism.
... Clearly, an encounter in and of itself is insufficient to disrupt race-based structural violence. In their work, both Gibson (2010) and Tucker (2009Tucker ( , 2016 advocate a "reflexive interrogation" (Tucker, 2009, p. 444) of potentially productive, but often embodied as 'negative,' emotions of shame, guilt, fear, or pity that often arise over the course of the tourism encounter. This perspective is further drawn upon below, through the voice of two participants in this research who advocate for greater interrogation of power and subjective positionalities in the tourism encounter. ...
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Drawing on the theme of gender equality in tourism, this book aims to identify the main obstacles to women's advancement in the tourism industry, and to discover and share successful strategies to overcome them, drawing on case studies from all over the world. Interlaced between the 12 chapters of the book are stories from women who work in tourism. The chapters and stories that make up this book explore women's stories of empowerment beyond the neoliberal conceptualizations of economic improvement, to highlight the structural inequalities that prevent true gender equality. The collection points to the slow and small changes that women are making and how women are using the transformations tourism brings to their advantage. The book has a subject index.
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Managing tourists' uncivilized behavior is an important issue for both scholars and practitioners. The intervention of others provides a real-time self-management measure for reducing destructive behavior. However, many deviant tourists react angrily to such intervention, making the management measure ineffective. Exploring the reasons behind deviant tourists' anger reactions is highly important for reducing tourists' uncivilized behavior. Based on cognitive dissonance theory, this study provides a theoretical explanation of deviant tourists' anger reactions to the intervention of others. Conducting a guided recall survey, the study finds that the intervention of others positively influences deviant tourists' shame, guilt, and anger. Tourists' shame positively influences their anger, but their guilt negatively influences their anger. Moreover, the relationships are moderated by tourists' internalization of moral identity. For tourists with a low internalization of moral identity, the relationships are stronger. This study extends uncivilized behavior research by explaining deviant tourists' reactions to management measures. It also provides suggestions for practitioners to make the best use of third-party intervention in reducing tourists’ uncivilized behavior.
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Social robots such as chatbots are regarded as a practical approach to alleviate loneliness. Few studies in the tourism field have focused on loneliness and its impact on the acceptance of chatbots used by the tourism industry. This paper explores the factors influencing tourists’ willingness to use chatbots from the perspective of loneliness by combining theories related to anthropomorphism and the uncanny valley effect. This paper adopts a qualitative research method by taking a semi-structured interview with 15 tourists who have used travel chatbots before. The results show that in addition to perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, there are three factors (tourist loneliness, perceived anthropomorphism, and user anxiety) that directly influence tourists’ acceptance of travel chatbots. Moreover, tourist loneliness positively influences user anxiety through perceived anthropomorphism. User anxiety has a negative effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. This research then proposed an extended TAM model from the perspective of tourist loneliness. This paper enriches the research on loneliness as well as chatbots in the tourism field. The results provide suggestions for the practical application of travel chatbots.
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Lucerne has been a much sought-after tourist place for over two hundred years. Over time, the tourism industry has not only shaped the physical appearance of the cityscape, but it has also influenced selfawareness, capabilities, knowledge, and know-how of its residents, as well as the overall identity, quality, and ability of the place, which hence formed its “touristic capital” (Stock et al. 2014:13). Due to the ongoing globalisation, tourism has become increasingly diverse, with many Asian tourists visiting the city in central Switzerland. This change in visitor segments has gone along with a constant growth in visitor numbers, fostering a debate over what kind of tourism Lucerne wants, how many visitors are enough, and where the tourism industry generally intends to develop. Under the umbrella of the catch phrase overtourism, an all-encompassing, vivid, and engaged controversy about how to deal adequately with tourism has dominated the public discourse in recent years. As a tourist place, Lucerne is thus contested: many different actors are inhabiting the city through many different practices, which are sometimes mutually enhancing, sometimes conflicting. The present PhD thesis aims to improve understanding of Lucerne’s touristic situation and therefore opts for a qualitative examination of the field of research. It wants to comprehend the origins of the problem of overtourism, where conflicts, misunderstandings but also friendly encounters are rooted, and finally what lessons can be learned from this analysis so as to deal with the current situation more satisfactorily and adapt future developments. The present body of research approaches this endeavour in three different ways. First, it investigates the people dwelling in Lucerne (Ingold 2011; Lussault and Stock 2010; Sheller and Urry 2004). By enlarging the focus on the different actors inhabiting the city on a temporary, periodic, or even longterm basis, the thesis overcomes the outdated duality of the traditional host/guest relationship. Second, it is argued that it is not only the number of visitors that is decisive in assessing Lucerne’s tourism situation. In contrast, the study postulates that it is rather about social, cultural, and material practices (Schatzki 2019; Reckwitz 2016; Stock 2014), that is, about how actors inhabit a place, instead of merely the amount of people who do so. Tensions over tourism arise out of different background knowledge, cultural norms, learned understandings, and personal motivations when dwelling in a place. Third, the thesis shows how a place unfolds out of the practices of the people associated with it (Bærenholdt 2004; Sheller and Urry 2004; Stock 2019). A tourist city such as Lucerne is not a fixed and determined container filled with definite purpose and meaning, but a fluid, dynamic and ever-changing place which is constantly negotiated, shaped, and produced by those living in it. The work presented here draws heavily on the new mobilities paradigm (Sheller and Urry 2006), which proposes that tourist places are co-produced and actively shaped by different actors and mobilities. Following this theoretical conceptualization, its consequences for the methodical approach must be drawn. Urban tourism situations cannot be observed satisfactorily in closed laboratories, but only in a vivid, open, dynamic living space such as a city is. This research therefore opts for mobile research methods (Büscher et al. 2009; Fincham et al. 2010; Urry 2007) which are succeeding information and informants on the move. A grounded theory approach brought out the insights and findings of 38 walking interviews (with more than 80 interview partners) and extensive participant observation. The empirical findings unfold in the form of an urban ethnography that sheds light on ‘living with tourism’ in Lucerne by finding new reasons for conflicts over tourism and fresh perspectives on potential future developments.
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There is no doubt that globalization and technology have in recent years been responsible for the economic and social progress of the four corners of the world. Tourism has also been “affected” by these phenomena and is generally referred to as the greatest expression of globalization. Today, the business volume of tourism equals or even surpasses that of oil exports, food products or automobiles. Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce and represents at the same time one of the main income sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an increasing diversification and competition among destinations (UNWTO). In the service area, tourism distinguishes itself as the main industry for technological use and innovation. But as tourism grows, climate risks increase. Storms, hurricanes, torrents of water, earthquakes and general natural disasters arrive without warning!
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Destinations increasingly use chatbots in the management and communication with tourists. This study analyzes the mediating effect of chatbot usage satisfaction on forming the destination’s image. As a case study, we use the Chabot “Victoria la Malagueña,” Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations were necessary to identify the relationships between the constructs. The results show that informativeness and empathy are the main attributes that influence user satisfaction and mediate forming a destination image. The study has managerial implications and provides destination management organizations with practical information for creating chatbots.
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This study examined Vietnamese local residents’ attitudes toward the reopening of their country to international tourists amid COVID-19 from March to April 2021. It began with a qualitative analysis of local residents’ opinions ( n = 240) to identify the factors that could affect their attitudes, then continued with a review of the literature to create a theoretical model. Finally, the study implemented a structured survey to collect quantitative data ( n = 412) to confirm the model. The outcomes revealed that “perceived vaccine efficacy” and “xenophobia” were two significant predictors of “attitude toward inbound tourism.” Implications of this study were then discussed.
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Higher education institutions should take into account the needs of stakeholders in the planning and development of quality educational services. In general, the stakeholders are divided into two categories: internal and external stakeholders. This study aims to explore the diverse basic needs of the university internal stakeholders (students, academic staff, and employees) and the impact of the services on the brand image of the educational institutions. Consensus has been built that an organization's image can only be or assessed by its stakeholders or constituents. Utilizing the qualitative approach through empirical semi‐structured interviews, data were collected from both Benghazi University in the country of Libya and Yarmouk University in the country of Jordan. To gain an in‐depth understating of the basic services, interviews were conducted with 41 university internal stakeholders (students, academic staff, and employees). The findings have a remarkable impact on the education services quality and the perception of brand image of both institutions, which subsequently affects the Libyan and Jordanian economy. The paper explores the differences between the needs of the three groups. This study is of value to educational leaders as it serves as contribution to the well designing of comprehensive plans of the university, by providing the decision makers with information on the needs of the university internal stakeholders. Managements can develop policies, which will improve the safety of customers and staff and increase collaborations with both universities stakeholders, etc. Accordingly, the results provide a foundation on which future research can be built.
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In the Argentine tango music culture of Japan, to have undergone many life experiences is considered critical in order to perform the powerful emotions of tango. Narratives by Japanese tango musicians stress ‘each musician’s feelings’ as crucial in shaping a good tango performance, while empathy is considered important in cultivating such feelings. Based on the author’s field research in Japan and Argentina, and by adding a different nuance to Carolyn Pedwell’s notions of transnational ‘affective relations’, this essay examines how Japanese historical narratives, rooted in aesthetic and moral ethos, fabricate discourses of tango authenticity by Japanese musicians. Taking a closer look at the ways in which Japanese musicians discuss tango’s emotion illuminates how Argentine tango’s aesthetics of emotion are given renewed meanings through the channelling of cultural and historical symbols in Japanese contexts. This article argues that Japanese tango musicians create their discourses surrounding tango authenticity at such transnational instances when aesthetics, affect and morality intersect.
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Empirical studies increasingly testify to the capacity for archaeological and cultural heritage sites to engender wonder, transformation, attachment, and community bonding among diverse individuals. Following political theorist Jane Bennett, these sites have the power to ‘enchant’ and, in so doing, they are seedbeds of human generosity, ethical mindfulness, and care for the world at large. However, the means by which such enchantment is created, and the extent to which these intimate encounters with the prehistoric or historic record can be deliberately crafted, are little understood. Worsening the predicament, professional practices commonly thwart the potential for archaeology to provoke ethical action amongst humans. Here, I propose a multi-stranded conceptual model for generating enchantment with the archaeological record across both professional audiences and broader publics. With reference to the European Commission-funded EMOTIVE Project, I articulate one particular strand of this model: facilitated dialogue. Alongside exploring the role of digital culture in its advancement, I argue that an enchantment-led approach is imperative for achieving a truly socially-beneficial archaeological discipline.
Article
Visiting post-natural disaster sites has been burgeoning in recent years. Dark tourism at those settings has been utilised as part of relief and recovery strategies after natural disasters. This research, undertaken at four post-natural disaster sites, explores the onsite experience of 196 participants using semi-structured interviews and participant-generated photos. Findings indicate that experiencing a disaster context could be cognitive, emotional, introspective, sensory, relational and hedonic. Some experience dimensions, such as introspective and relational experiences, might help illuminate the value of promoting dark tourism at natural disasters. Experience discrepancy across multiple cases indicates the heterogeneity and malleability of visitors' experiences in the context. By depicting lived experiences of tourists, this study contributes to the understanding of the ways through which dark tourism sites at natural disasters are experienced and constructed as well as provides practical insights into tourist experience creation.
Purpose This paper aims to contribute to research on the interrelations between urban tourism, travelling and landscapes. It shows how young visitors to the tourism-reliant city of Arusha, northern Tanzania, experience and interpret discomfiting encounters with street sellers by drawing on stereotypes circulating in guidebooks, online forums and in the tourism industry. In turn, such re-interpreted encounters are increasingly seen as problematic for the city’s development of urban tourism. Design/methodology/approach The author draws on extensive ethnographic fieldwork with tourist-product street sellers in Arusha and Moshi, Tanzania in 2015–2017. With detail-oriented focus on social interaction and communication, the author has used participant observation and interviews to understand the perspectives and actions involved. Complementing this, the author draws on interviews with tour companies and local authorities to connect everyday occurrences with broader political, economic and urban transformations. Findings This paper explores the interrelation between changing urban landscapes, gentrification and burgeoning urban tourism by highlighting not only how streets are created and sought to be re-created but how also re-interpreted stories and stereotypes fundamentally influence how it is understood by local authorities. As the consumption of place, shopping and foreigners’ experiences take centre stage in Arusha’s urban development project, practices and people that are re-interpreted as causes of discomfort, become objects of ordering and discipline. Originality/value This paper emphasizes that the social encounters beyond dichotomies of host–guest relationships are a fruitful and important means of investigating how “encounters” connect space to power, the street to urban planning and mundane on-the-street interactions to processes of transformation and gentrification. This paper presents a reading of “landscapes” not as a text, but as a series of encounters that catch our attention when and where they break our norms, or the norms of others.
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This article reconsiders Chinese tourist gaze studies, examining the extent to which extant studies and theoretical models relating to the Chinese tourist gaze have overcome the Eurocentric limits of John Urry’s concept of the tourist gaze and elaborated the complexity of Chinese tourists’ gazes and visual practices. Content analysis is carried out, examining research articles, books, book chapters and PhD and MSc theses collected from multiple English and Chinese databases. The research results manifest that, overall, the previous studies, mobilise cultural essentialism, with an overestimation of the ‘Chineseness’ of Chinese tourists’ behavioural patterns, which are widely believed to be framed by, but also constituting of, unique Chinese culture. Overdependence on Chinese cultural values and traditional philosophies as sources for rationale has resulted in a handful of theoretical frameworks, which appear to be of insufficient magnitude in terms both of their contribution to the original tourist gaze model, and in their manifesting of the complexity of Chinese tourists’ visual behaviour. Indeed the divide that once deliberately set apart West and East, or more precisely Western and Chinese tourist gazes, seems to become accentuated in most attempts to study and write about Chinese tourist gaze(s). The previous studies thus largely serve to mirror the Eurocentrism of Urry’s gaze, rather than challenging it. Despite not aiming to reconceptualise the Chinese tourist gaze, this review article contributes to the field of tourist gaze studies by engaging critically with the bias and theoretical insufficiencies that have emerged, while this concept is appropriated and re-formulated to explain Chinese tourists’ gazes and visual practices. On this basis, we suggest a critical redirection of the extant Chinese tourist gaze studies, which would be rather significant to those researchers in future with an interest to research what the Chinese tourists prefer to see in travel and how they engage with the gazee. This study has a few limitations, especially, as we only review and analyse the studies of the Chinese tourist gaze. It means that our conclusion might not well be generalised to either the investigation of the tourist gaze in another culture or the Chinese tourist studies, at large, which might exhibit a different pattern deserving more academic attention in future. Moreover, we recommend the future researchers, who are eager to probe Chinese tourists’ behavioural pattern, to seek for new pathways and alternative paradigms, which would be useful in overcoming the limits of cultural representations, and in reducing the problematic Sino-Western divide.
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This chapter examines the role of student guides as mediators between the institutional mission and heritage of their university and visitors to the historic campus. Drawing on a longitudinal study undertaken at two historic universities in the west, the authors establish that a small cadre of elite, competitively-chosen guides at these institutions perform a role of openness and democracy on behalf of the increasingly complex and hybrid modern university. The chapter considers how student guides are able to navigate their own pride at such privileged engagement and how this privilege impacts on tours offered to visitors, where campus tours become a negotiation based on internal and external influences and are constructed and reconstructed according to the imagined or actual demands of different tour groups. By managing risk at the point of employment, and by encouraging free reign in tours, there is limited risk involved to host universities as student guides offer an informed, personalised heritage experience to both domestic and international tourists.
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As one of the world's fastest growing industries, heritage tourism is surrounded by political and ethical issues. This research explores the social and political effects and implications of heritage tourism through several pertinent topics. It examines the hegemonic power of heritage tourism and its consequences, the spectre of nationalism and colonialism in heritage-making, particularly for minorities and indigenous peoples, and the paradox of heritage tourism's role in combating these issues. Drawing from global cases, the study addresses a range of approaches and challenges of empowerment within the context of heritage tourism, including cultural landscapes, intangible heritage and eco-museums. The research argues that heritage tourism has the potential to develop as a form of co-production. It can be used to create a mechanism for community-centred governance that integrates recognition and interpretation and promotes dialogue, equity and diversity.
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In dark tourism affects are generated in a relational manner by the tourists and the locations visited by them. Exploring affective meanings of Banksy’s Dismaland via socio-spatial theories of emotion and affect is a way to contribute to the understanding of dystopian tourism. The dystopian touristic experience of Dismaland evolves from the interaction of a dystopian atmosphere, a displacement strategy and productive negative intensities. Whilst the affects produced vary according to the artist’s intentions, through innovative and politicised forms of dystopian dark tourism, Banksy creates atmospheres where productive negative intensities are able to be developed. In spite of the shades of dystopia and darkness in the artist’s work, a hopeful form of tourism could be generated. The implications are that affect in the dark tourism context has different layers of meaning where the materialising dystopian experiences, as simulacra, range from pure attraction to social change. Dismaland’s dark tourism experience reveals the role that political and ethical matters play in socio-affective encounters as exemplified by the commodification of the tourism industry, the Mediterranean refugee crisis and the glorified/sorrowful death of Diana, princess of Wales.
Article
This paper describes the potential that tourism encounters have in disrupting structural violence (conceptualized as silencing and invisibilization) in South Africa. Based on PhotoVoice research undertaken with a small number of residents of three Cape Town-area townships, we consider how residents’ descriptions of their encounters with the tourists can be seen as helping to “polish the wounds of the past” as they shared a sense of being seen and heard. We apply the African philosophical lens of Ubuntu, described by one participant as “I am because we are,” to consider the role of tourism in promoting peace simultaneously at the individual as well as the collective level. While far from unproblematic, this research finds hope in the ways township tourism is disrupting structural violence, thereby supporting the emancipatory aims of post-apartheid South Africa.
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Η συγγραφή αυτού του βιβλίου στοχεύει στην καταγραφή και συστηματική ανάλυση των κυριότερων ζητημάτων τα οποία απασχολούν την κοινωνιολογία του τουρισμού και τα οποία συνδέονται άμεσα με πολλά από τα χαρακτηριστικά της τουριστικής ανάπτυξης σε χώρες όπως η Ελλάδα και ιδιαίτερα με τις ποικίλες κοινωνικές αλλαγές που οφείλονται κατά κύριο λόγο στην παρουσία του τουρισμού. Ιδιαίτερη έμφαση δίνεται σε θέματα στα οποία ο τουρισμός διαδραματίζει έναν ολοένα σημαντικότερο ρόλο στον σύγχρονο κόσμο όπως: ιστορική εξέλιξη του τουρισμού, σχέσεις τουριστών και ντόπιων, σχέση εργάσιμου και ελεύθερου χρόνου, κοινωνικά χαρακτηριστικά της απασχόλησης, κοινωνικές, πολιτιστικές και περιβαλλοντικές επιπτώσεις της τουριστικής ανάπτυξης, τοπικότητα και βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη, ανάπτυξη των ειδικών και εναλλακτικών μορφών τουρισμού κ.ά. Ο διεπιστημονικός, ερευνητικός και εκπαιδευτικός χαρακτήρας του βιβλίου συμβάλλει στην πολυεπίπεδη διερεύνηση του τουρισμού ως καθοριστικού κοινωνικού φαινομένου του σύγχρονου κόσμου, ενώ η εκτεταμένη και αναλυτική βιβλιογραφία του αποτελεί για τους αναγνώστες ένα δεύτερο επίπεδο ανάγνωσής του.
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Tourism education may have an important role to play in ‘resetting’ tourism onto a more sustainable trajectory post-Covid-19. However, neoliberal policies that have increasingly encouraged higher education institutions to prioritise vocational learning over liberal learning may hinder the development of Philosophic Practitioners (Tribe, 2002), those graduates who may be best equipped for this task. The purpose of this research was to explore the extent to which education for Philosophic Practice (Tribe, 2002) – that which balances vocational and liberal learning - is reflected in the curricula of tourism taught Master's (TTM) programmes offered globally. In particular, the popularity of TTM programmes, combined with a focus on high-level professional responsibilities, means that future decision-making for and about tourism may increasingly rest with the graduates that emerge from these programmes. Using qualitative content analysis, findings show that overall TTM education does have a strong vocational orientation. There are, however, some signs that liberal learning outcomes addressing broader socio-cultural and environmental needs are also being emphasised. Crucially, though, there is little evidence to suggest that vocational and liberal learning are being balanced in TTM curricula. This is a potentially problematic situation that may have implications for sustainable tourism in the future.
Article
Exhibitions commemorating anniversaries of incidents that are distressing or involve death or suffering are arguably a form of dark tourism. While they often attract large numbers of tourists and extensive media coverage, there is a dearth of studies on their staging. This is surprising, given recent moves towards making exhibitions more emotionally involving and presenting narratives that are aimed at promoting empathy with respect to previously marginalised voices or stories. This article explores the planning behind dark commemorative exhibitions during the Centenary of World War One in Australia, based on a qualitative phenomenological study. Interviews with organisers suggested that they sought to leave visitors with feelings of empathy, as well as a sense of identity – two outcomes that were intertwined – with story-telling, design and technology used to heighten emotion and engagement. Forgotten voices were highlighted, while, in some cases, the intention was to unsettle with confronting interpretations.
Article
Previous research has found that peer-to-peer platforms have overly positive reviews. Guided by Construal Level Theory, this research investigates the relationship between social distance, empathy, and tourists’ intention to leave negative online reviews. The first study is a qualitative analysis which compares peer-to-peer settings (i.e., Airbnb) to institutional ones (i.e., Booking.com), and explores whether social closeness hinders tourists’ willingness to provide negative online reviews to express their poor experiences. The second and third study are laboratory studies which show that the mechanism behind reviewing biases is the activation of empathy. This research offers practical implications for both traditional hospitality players, on how to activate empathy, and online platforms operators, on how to increase the reliability of their reputation systems. This article also launches the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on Peer-to-peer accommodation networks, a special selection of research in this field.
Purpose Considerable research has examined the negative consequences of customer incivility on employees (e.g. turnover intention and sabotage behavior toward the customer). However, there is scant research investigating how other customers, as observers, may react to incivility. This knowledge gap should be filled because hospitality services are often consumed in the public setting where customers can observe and be influenced by each other. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by examining observing customers’ willingness to revisit the company following customer incivility. Design/methodology/approach Participants are American consumers recruited from a crowdsourced online panel. Two scenario-based experimental studies in the restaurant setting are conducted. Customer incivility and relationship norms (communal versus exchange) are manipulated, while relationship closeness is measured. Findings Study 1 shows that following fellow customer incivility (vs civility), observing customers’ intention to revisit the company was lower when they perceive a distant relationship with the employee. This intention did not differ regardless of incivility and civility when they perceive a close relationship with the employee. Study 2 shows that when observing customers perceive a communal relationship with the employee, their revisit intention was even higher following customer incivility (vs civility). Practical implications Hospitality managers need to train employees to identify signs of customer incivility and assume appropriate actions to reduce the negative consequences on observers. Hospitality managers should also communicate their expectations for respectful customer behaviors through an organization-wide campaign. Finally, hospitality businesses should foster a close relationship with their customers, particularly a communal relationship to offset the negative consequences of customer incivility on observers. Originality/value This study adds to previous research by challenging the universally negative view of customer incivility. The authors do so by examining the moderating effects of relationship closeness and norms in observer reactions to customer incivility. This study contributes to previous research drawing on script theory and deontic justice theory.
Article
Many dark tourism sites are positioned as a domain for exploring moral judgements and behaviours. This study draws on German students’ narratives of Auschwitz to examine the dark tourism site as an alternate teaching space. Employing thematic analysis of students’ comments to identify the meanings that the students attached to the Auschwitz site, the findings reveal that Auschwitz provided the students with learning opportunities, affirming collective identity, emotional engagement, and moral reflection. Auschwitz was experienced as a moral space imbued with moral judgements. The theoretical concept of moral geographies is valuable for explaining the moral complexities associated with educational dark tourism and informing effective management of dark tourism sites to guide the objectives in educating young people.
Article
Tourists' emotions have a pivotal role in tourists' cognitive evaluations and behavioral responses. Fleeting but powerful, emotions are associated with individuals' biological makeup, shaped by their experiences and related to personal mental associations. The aim of this contribution is twofold: to broaden the depth and breadth of the emotion discourse in tourism and to offer principles for emotion-oriented tourism design. Mainstream emotion literature and tourism emotion contributions are critically analyzed and discussed. This study proposes novel paths to investigate emotions in our scholarly field, offers insights for the emerging tourism design science and outlines the contribution that the uniqueness of our field of research can offer to emotions' theorists.
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This article explores the role of war related attractions as an infrastructure for peace, particularly in post conflict areas. Emphasis is given to war museums and their narratives. The article questions the view based on the implicit causal relation between the representation of war and the promotion of peace. An alternative approach is proposed by linking theories from tourism, museum and peace studies. The application of ‘the forgiveness model’ to give rise to a different kind of war museum narrative is put forward, along with a theoretical model on tourism and peace based on the conception of war related attractions as local infrastructures for peace.
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During the thirty-year period (1968–1998) known as the Troubles in Northern Ireland, 3500 people died and thousands more suffered physical disabilities and psychological trauma. Belfast, among other conflict cities, helped inspire the term ‘dark tourism’ in 1989. The country continues to be in conflict but is officially in a period of peace. Northern Ireland has been the theme for much peace and reconciliation research, but literature to date concentrates on polarised discourses rather than rural representation. Toward meeting and expanding the UN SDG16 peace goals, this research explores how what we term emotive peace tourism can be used as a methodology to affect emotional reconciliation registers in a unique rural Northern Ireland visitor experience. Bringing domestic tourists from Catholic and Protestant communities into face-to-face contact through a liminal participative ‘out-of-place’ visitor experience, we choreographed and performed a series of “Troubles” events: a guided night walk through a checkpoint, an IRA Wake, a UDA Funeral, and a Mixed-Marriage. Contributing to the debate as to whether tourism is more of a ‘peacekeeper’ than a ‘peacemaker’, our research demonstrates that an in situ liminal, emotive peace tourism experience, can generate sustainable tolerance, respect, trust, sympathy, and empathy towards others in post-conflict Northern Ireland and likely elsewhere.
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The paper examines the concept of empathy and its role in the fields of tourism and the leisure industry. Based on a literature review, the definitions, the aspects and the role of empathy in the tourism and recreation professions are discussed. Researchers see empathy as a component of quality services. It is also concluded that empathy can be identified and staff can be trained in this ability in order to achieve team spirit, enjoyment at work and satisfied customers.
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Affective self-transformation premised on empathy has been understood within feminist and anti-racist literatures as central to achieving social justice. Through juxtaposing debates about empathy within feminist and anti-racist theory with rhetorics of empathy in international development, and particularly writing about ‘immersions’, this article explores how the workings of empathy might be reconceptualised when relations of postcoloniality and neoliberalism are placed in the foreground. I argue that in the neoliberal economy in which the international aid apparatus operates, empathetic self-transformation can become commodified in ways that fix unequal affective subjects. Empathy may function here less to produce more intersubjective relations and ways of knowing than it does to augment the moral and affective capacities of development professionals. Yet, I suggest, it is in the ambivalences, tensions and contradictions of both emotion and neoliberalism that spaces for thinking and feeling transnational encounters differently might be cultivated.
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Empathy is widely embraced as a means of educating the social imagination; from John Dewey to Martha Nussbaum, Cornel West to bell hooks, we find empathy advocated as the foundation for democracy and social change. In this article I examine how students' readings of Art Spiegelman's MAUS, a comicbook genre depiction of his father's survival of Nazi Germany, produces the Aristotelian version of empathy advocated by Nussbaum. This ‘passive empathy’, I argue, falls far short of assuring any basis for social change, and reinscribes a ‘consumptive’ mode of identification with the other. I invoke a ‘semiotics of empathy’, which emphasizes the power and social hierarchies which complicate the relationship between reader/listener and text/speaker. I argue that educators need to encourage what I shall define as ‘testimonial reading’ which requires the reader's responsibility.
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This article provides a preliminary examination of the capacity of Aboriginal tourism experiences to contribute to the achievement of reconciliation in Australia. This analysis situates reconciliation tourism as a special type of volunteer tourism and places both of these under the umbrella of tourism as a force for peace. It begins by exploring the foundations for the concept of tourism as a force for peace and understanding as seen in international documents, institutions, case studies, and tourism research. The focus then moves to Aboriginal tourism in Australia and the current status of the reconciliation movement. The experience of the Ngarrindjeri community of South Australia through their tourism and educational facility, Camp Coorong Race Relations and Cultural Education Centre, is then utilized for a case study of reconciliation tourism. This analysis is then followed by a look at the future of reconciliation tourism in Australia and an outline of possible future research agendas in reconciliation tourism.
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Deaths, disasters and atrocities in touristic form are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature within the contemporary tourism landscape, and as such, are ever more providing potential spiritual journeys for the tourist who wishes to gaze upon real and recreated death. As a result, the rather emotive label of 'dark tourism' has entered academic discourse and media parlance, and consequently has generated a significant amount of research interest. However, despite this increasing attention the dark tourism literature remains both eclectic and theoretically fragile. That is, a number of fundamental issues remain, not least whether it is actually possible or justifiable to collectively categorise a diverse range of sites, attractions and exhibitions that are associated with death and the macabre as 'dark tourism', or whether identifiable degrees or 'shades' of darkness can be attributed to a particular type of dark tourism supplier. This paper argues that certain suppliers may indeed, conceptually at least, share particular product features, perceptions and characteristics, which can then be loosely translated into various 'shades of darkness'. As a result, dark tourism products may lie along a rather 'fluid and dynamic spectrum of intensity', whereby particular sites may be conceivably 'darker' than others, dependant upon various defining characteristics, perceptions and product traits. It is proposed that construction of a firm and comprehensive typological foundation will lead not only to a better understanding of dark tourism supply, but also, and perhaps more importantly, lead to a better understanding of where to locate and explore consumer demand, motivations and experiences.
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Over the last decades, in response to feminist, postmodern and postcolonial critiques of the modern museum, objects, collections and processes of museaIization have been radically re-signified and re-posited in the cultural arena. The new museums emerging from this shift have redefined their functions in and for communities not simply by changing their narratives but by renegotiating the processes of narration and the museal codes of communication with the public. They define themselves now not as disciplinary spaces of academic history but as places of memory, exemplifying the postmodern shift from authoritative master discourses to the horizontal, practice-related notions of memory, place, and community. The key feature of these new museums is that they deploy strategies of applied theatrics to invite emotional responses from visitors: to make them empathize and identify with individual sufferers and victims, or with their own contemporaries inhabiting alternative modernities in distant places. This dossier seeks to probe these new museographic and curatorial discourses, focusing in particular on the memory museum as an emergent global form of (counter)monumentality. Drawing on different geographical and historical contexts, it argues that the new museums’ apparently global aesthetics implies a danger of surrendering the very specificity of historical experiences the memorial ‘site’ offers its visitors.
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In this report I focus on encounter, and the manner in which tourism catalyses entanglements of people, places and identities. Antecedent were earlier theories of the tourist gaze, and critiques of tourism as neocolonialism. One response was the emergence of an ethical tourism industry — branded as such because of commitments to pay decent wages, respect local cultures and tread lightly on nature. While the ethical tourism industry has made strides on these issues, I critique its reliance on binary thinking, and failure to accommodate contradictions and variable ethical conduct in the moments of encounter. By contrast, recent work in geography has sought to explore the multisensory and affective dimensions of tourism encounters without recourse to ethical essentialism. In research on embodiment, emotions and sensory encounters, risks of diluting critique are weighed against opportunities to sharpen ethical concepts. A focus on encounter enables closer dissection of the moments and spaces in which power is exercised, and relations of care extended.
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Cultural critics often view the sympathy that white audiences may feel when encountering African-American culture as a process of co-optation that does little to upset racial hierarchies. To complicate the predominant critical view that cross-racial sympathy is inevitably imperialistic, this article offers a reception study of Oprah Winfrey’s televised Book Club programs, focusing on white female fans discussing black women’s fiction. While some white readers displayed a problematic ‘color-blindness’ with imperialist overtones, others experienced transformative identifications with black subjects and a reflective alienation from white privilege. Although cross-racial sympathy can often devolve into a colonizing appropriation, my reception analysis underscores the important role that empathetic crossings within cultural space can play in the development of anti-racist coalitions. In examining the relationship of fiction reading to political change, I argue that the public and private spheres are intertwined rather than diametrically opposed.
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This article examines Hackney Museum's exhibition Abolition '07 and asks how the multicultural nature of this London borough affected attempts to memorialise the abolition of the slave trade – a trade which has had a direct impact on so many of the local residents. Analysing the exhibition materials and referring to the creative writing produced by young visitors, Hackney Council encouraged an ‘ethics of empathy’ to enable a collective response to tragedy and horror, pride in the borough's abolitionist history and a shared ownership of the past. Such an approach is not unproblematic. Drawing on the work of historians, identification theorists and postcolonial critics, I suggest that imagining the pain of enslaved people falls within wider discursive frameworks which may encourage voyeuristic reading practices and an appropriative approach to alterity. However, despite significant limitations, I ultimately maintain that Abolition '07's encouragement of identifications across time, space and race is an effective strategy for reinserting the human into these stories of the past.
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The concept of empathic listening has become a powerful force in interpersonal literature. However, the axiomatic commonness of the empathie premise has generated little critical examination of its presuppositions. This essay offers a critique of some basic empathie assumptions and suggests a direction for further inquiry. This work also provides the foundation for a companion article, “Interpretive Listening: An Alternative to Empathy,”; by John Stewart.
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At the Annual Meeting in May 1974, the American Academy awarded its first Social Science Prize to Clifford Geertz for his significant contributions to social anthropology. Mr. Geertz has taught at Harvard University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Chicago; in 1970 he became the first Professor of the Social Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Mr. Geertz' research has centered on the changing religious attitudes and habits of life of the Islamic peoples of Morocco and Indonesia; he is the author of Peddlers and Princes: Social Changes and Economic Modernization in Two Indonesian Towns (1963), The Social History of an Indonesian Town (1965), Islam Observed: Religious Developments in Morocco and Indonesia (1968), and a recent collection of essays, The Interpretation of Cultures (1973). In nominating Mr. Geertz for the award, the Academy's Social Science Prize Committee observed, "each of these volumes is an important contribution in its own right; together they form an unrivaled corpus in modern social anthropology and social sciences." Following the presentation ceremony, Mr. Geertz delivered the following communication before Academy Fellows and their guests.
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Abstract The empathic work of understanding is often written about as if it depended solely on the emotional, imaginative, or mind reading capabilities of the empathizer. But if it is embedded in an intersubjective encounter that necessitates ongoing dialog for its accuracy, then it implicates the imaginative and emotional capacities of the person to be understood as well. I argue that we should be investigating more actively the ways in which people in different times and places promote or discourage understanding of themselves. [empathy, anthropology, imagination, Toraja, work of empathy]
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This paper argues that in the current neo-liberal era, the discourse of tourism as an “industry” has overshadowed other conceptualisations of the tourism phenomenon. An argument is developed that this discourse serves the needs and agendas of leaders in the tourism business sector. However, the author desires to revive an earlier understanding of tourism that predates the neoliberal era. Tourism is in fact a powerful social force that can achieve many important ends when its capacities are unfettered from the market fundamentalism of neoliberalism and instead are harnessed to meet human development imperatives and the wider public good. Examining the human rights aspects of tourism, investigating phenomena such as “social tourism”, exploring a few “non-western” perspectives of tourism and outlining some of the tantalising promise that tourism holds, this paper attempts to revive and reinforce a wider vision of tourism's role in societies and the global community. It is argued that it is critical for tourism academics, planners and leaders to support such a vision if tourism is to avoid facing increasing opposition and criticism in a likely future of insecurity and scarcity.