Rhenium mineralisation in the Kuril Islands

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Rhenium is found in a great deal of occurrences in the Kuril Islands, apart from the known occurrence at the Kudryavyi volcano. Rhenium mineralisation is located both in the upper parts of the ore-magmatic systems with sublimation molybdenite-sulphur ores of the Quaternary volcanoes (≥n· 100g/t) and in the lower horizons of the Neogene volcano-tectonic structures (VTS) with epithermal gold-silver and (barite-massive sulfide)-complex ores (up to 25g/t). Distinctions between Re-bearing mineral assemblages of sublimation and epithermal ores of the Kuril occurrences are brought about by the gradient variations in the ore-forming system evolvement. Along with previously located ReS2 - MoS2 bisulfide at the Kudryavyi volcano, among carriers and concentrators of rhenium there were recognised Mo, Pb, Bi minerals in the Bilibin, Ebeko and Novyi volcanoes (up to 46400g/t Re), in the epithermal veins of the Prasolov volcano-tectonic structure (up to 37400g/t Re) as well as sphalerite, pyrite and fahlores, including those received through artificial precipitation from volcanic gases. The Kuril Re-Mo minerals are similar in composition to molybdenite, both in the high-rhenium porphyry-Co-Mo ores from the Kadjaran deposit (Armenia) and in the low-rhenium ores of the Yokoto-kuroko deposit (Japan). The correlation of rhenium with indium and cadmium in the ores of all studied Kuril occurrences is interpreted as an indicator of a possibility to recognise new Re-bearing minerals and mineral assemblages. The obtained data is an important prerequisite for discovering rhenium deposits in the Kuril island arc, and hence the study of regularities in formation and distribution of rare-metal ores in island-arc setting as well as a possibility of metal extraction from volcanic gases is a pressing question.

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Au-Ag-Te-Se-bearing epithermal mineralization at Prasolovskoye occurs along fault zones developed within a circular intrusive zone in Miocene to Quaternary age volcanic rocks. The ores show complex textures and mineralogy and can be divided into three stages based on tectonic fracturing and mineral associations: pyrite (I), polymetallic (II), and gold-silver (III). Stages I and II occur as hydrothermal replacement zones, veins, and breccias and are base metal sulfide rich without economic gold and silver grades. Following intrusion of rhyolitic dikes after stages I and II, gold-silver mineralization (stage III) formed during the late Pliocene. Vein-related, wall-rock alteration zones occur along stage III veins, overprinting pervasive propylitic assemblages, and consist mainly of silicification and sericitization. Stage III ore mineralization is composed of four substages which show a progressive change in mineralogy with increasing paragenetic time. -from Authors
The main minerals of the sulphide ores are pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, and a small amount of pyrrhotite with quartz, calcite, sericite and chlorite as gangue minerals. Arsenopyrite occurs in accessory amounts. Tennantite and electrum are rarely observable. Baryte, one of the main constituent minerals of the Cainozoic Kuroko-type deposit, however, is absent. FeS and MnS contents in sphalerites vary 3-21 and 0.2-12.5 mol.%, respectively; CdS content ranges 0.2-1.0 mol.%. FeS contents of sphalerites in the ores with pyrite are < approx 15 mol.%, and those in ores with pyrrhotite are > approx 20 mol.%. The ore deposits at the Taro mine are presumed to have formed under the lower fS 2 and fO 2 conditions as compared with the Cainozoic Kuroko deposits, and the pyrrhotite-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-alabandite assemblage was presumably formed under the conditions of the oxidation-reduction boundary and in its vicinity. -M.Ak.
δD and δ18O values of fumarolic condensates collected from the Showashinzan volcano, Hokkaido, Japan, during the period from 1954 to 1974 were determined. The results indicate that the fumarolic condensates are mixtures of magmatic water and local surface waters. The mixing of these two waters is suggested to have proceeded at very shallow parts of the volcano. The local surface water infiltrating the volcano shifted its δ18O value by the oxygen isotopic exchange with hot wall rocks. The degree of oxygen isotope shift of the water varied year after year as the fumarolic activity diminished. This variation caused remarkable variations in δ18O value of fumarolic condensates with time. On the basis of variations in δD and δ18O values of fumarolic condensates with time the isotopic composition of magmatic water is estimated to be -32‰ (SMOW) in δD and +7.4‰ (SMOW) in δ18O.
D/H and ¹⁸O/¹⁶O ratios of fumarolic condensate, hot spring water and surface water collected from a volcanic island, Satsuma-Iwojima were determined together with some of chemical components. D and δ¹⁸O of fumarolic condensates range from −27 to −17‰ (SMOW) and from +7.3 to +9.5‰ (SMOW), respectively. The high value of δ¹⁸O was concluded to be the result of thorough oxygen isotope exchange with ambient andesitic rocks. δD values are also higher than that of the local surface water, but we could not find a positive evidence that supports the assumption of mixing of the local surface water and sea water. On the basis of the relationship between the concentration of chemical components and isotope ratios of fumarolic condensates, it was concluded that water vapor and chemical components behave independently in an individual fumarole.