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Green Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Buying Behavior

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Abstract

This study aims to give information about the effect of green marketing on customers purchasing behaviors. First of all, environment and environmental problems, one of the reason why the green marketing emerged, are mentioned, and then the concepts of green marketing and green consumer are explained. Then together with the hypothesis developed literature review has been continued and studies conducted on this subject until now were mentioned. In the last section, moreover, questionnaire results conducted on 540 consumers in Istanbul are evaluated statistically. According to the results of the analysis, environmental awareness, green product features, green promotion activities and green price affect green purchasing behaviors of the consumers in positive way. Demographic characteristics have moderate affect on model.
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
5
-5 (1), 2012
Green Marketing and Its Impact on
Consumer Buying Behavior
Aysel Boztepe1
Abstract
This study aims to give information about the effect of green marketing on customers
purchasing behaviors. First of all, environment and environmental problems, one of the
reason why the green marketing emerged, are mentioned, and then the concepts of
green marketing and green consumer are explained. Then together with the hypothesis
developed literature review has been continued and studies conducted on this subject
until now were mentioned. In the last section, moreover, questionnaire results conducted
on 540 consumers in Istanbul are evaluated statistically. According to the results of the
analysis, environmental awareness, green product features, green promotion activities
and green price affect green purchasing behaviors of the consumers in positive way.
Demographic characteristics have moderate affect on model.
Keywords: Green Marketing, Environmental Awareness, Green Product Features,
Green Promotion, Green Price, Green Purchasing Behavior.
1 Fatih Universtity, ayselbalaman@hotmail.com
Aysel Boztepe
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Introduction
While globalization process continues in its full speed across the world, this
process has also brought some problems with it. Leading one of these problems is
environmental problems that affect all living beings negatively. These aforementioned
environmental problems have started to come to the agenda more and more in the
recent years and people have started to talk these negativities. Consumers now have
worries about the future of the world and as results of this mostly prefer environment-
friendly products. In return to these attitudes of the consumers, companies have
started to form their marketing strategies so as to appeal increasing awareness of this
environment-friendliness. These marketing strategies, named as green marketing,
have caused companies to adopt green policies in their pricing, promotion, product
features and distribution activities.
Taking into consideration that companies are socio-economic entities, it can’t
be expected that they remain unresponsive to the “Environmental Awareness” that
may direct consumer behaviors. Particularly marketing managers encounter with
consumers sensible to environmental issues. The old perception on how businesses
are establishments with no other objective but to profit leaves its place rapidly to
a new perception which defines companies as establishments that are sensible to
social problems. Apart from producing environment-friendly products and selecting
environment-friendly markets, essentially understanding of ‘Environmentally
Friendly” is required to be integrated into the corporate culture. Consumers
encounter with terms such as ozone-friendly, environment-friendly and recyclable
products in green marketing. However, green marketing isn’t limited to these terms
but is a much wider concept of marketing activity which can be applied to consumer
goods, industrial goods and even to services (Erbaslar, 2010).
Green marketing term was first discussed in a seminar on “ecological marketing”
organized by American Marketing Association (AMA) in 1975 and took its place in the
literature. In this seminar where the impact of marketing on natural environment was
analyzed with the contribution of academicians, bureaucrats and other participants,
ecological marketing concept was defined as follows: Studies regarding adverse or
positive impacts on environmental pollution, energy consumption and consumption
of other resources as result of marketing (Cevreorman, 2010).
Green marketing serves two purposes: (Uydacı, 2002: 85)
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
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In order to develop goods that can appeal to the consumer, reasonably affordable
prices and environment-friendly products causing minimal damage are required.
In order to reflect an image of high quality, environmental sensitivity and hence
production of products compatible with environment are required.
Businesses and Green Marketing
There are serious changes for awakening in the business world regarding the
responsibility towards the environment and the society. Strategies targeting not only
making a profit for the day but also for long-term profitability and environmentally
friendly sustainability have started to become agendas of the companies. Corporate
ethical code of the 21st century is being green. The ideology of “always me, always
me” of profit-making companies has no longer any effect. Of course, the primary
objective of companies is profitability but it is too hard for companies with the sole
objective of making profit to obtain sustainability. Companies should be aware of
their responsibilities towards the environment and the society in the same way as
towards clients, shareholders and employees. Climate change, environmental issues
and social problems will challenge the leaders of future generation for taking efficient
and comprehensive decisions. In the process of taking these decisions, the priority
of business people should be based on the principal of protecting the environment
rather than profitability of the business. The opinion of Rakesh Khurana and Nitin
Nohria, professors of business administration at Harvard, is such that priority should
take its place in the professional literature with an oath similar to the Hippocratic Oath.
The concept of creative capitalism defined by Bill Gates underlines that the leaders
of future generations are responsible not only for obtaining desired results but also
for the impacts of their decisions on elements other than their own companies and
markets (Businews, 2010).
Green Consumer
The green consumer is generally defined as one who adopts environmentally-
friendly behaviors and/or who purchases green products over the standard
alternatives. Green consumers are more internally-controlled as they believe that an
individual consumer can be effective in environmental protection. Thus, they feel that
the job of environmental protection should not be left to the government, business,
environmentalists and scientists only; they as consumers can also play a part. They
are also less dogmatic and more open-minded or tolerant toward new products and
Aysel Boztepe
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ideas. Their open-mindedness helps them to accept green products and behaviors,
more readily (Shamdasani at al. 1993:491).
According to the consumption report of the EU (Consumers in Europe), it is found
that ten percent of the consumers recognize the ecological product labels or green
energy labels on the products sold in the supermarkets. Although the companies
in our country progress with significant speed in terms of the environment, it is not
possible yet for us to say that they have reached the same level regarding consumer
sensitivity. In Western implementations, environmental awareness and the “green
policy” in business organizations are reflected in the business as result of the
environmental awareness of the consumers. The most recent and classical example
regarding this subject is airline transportation industry. In airline transportation,
large amount of carbon emission released by the planes into the environment is a
matter in question. British Airway offers the following “relieving” solution to people
who have to travel by plane but feel disturbed due to the carbon emission: to
give financial support to a fund providing researches intended to reduce carbon
emission. The carbon emission, released during the distance covered is calculated
and a contribution of 12.08 Euro per ton can be paid per person. Carbon dioxide
emission per one passenger during an Istanbul-London flight reaches 29 kilograms,
and with this fund, which was established on a voluntary basis, environmentally
conscious passengers can donate 3.25 Euro and feel relaxed. On the other hand,
Turkish Airlines has stated “we achieved fuel savings and this saving reduced
carbon emission” in a statement they made in October, demonstrating that the firm
has a more low profile “temporary” approach (Naturalhaber, 2010).
Hypothesis Development
In recent times, with the increase in industrialization and urbanization, the usage
of resources in spite of their shortages has confronted the natural environment and
human health with a pollution at dangerous levels. This result has put the operations
of implementing environmentally friendly products or applications to the top among
the problems of marketing managers in developed countries, which they will
encounter and need to solve. Businesses, which understood the fact that an awareness
of protecting the environment, known as the green movement is highly supported
by developed societies, also adopted this environmental movement and started to
implement programs with the minimum potential to harm the natural environment.
Making an environmentally friendly product is not enough by itself for a
sustainable world. Environmental awareness is also needed in matters regarding
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
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consuming. Consumers also have important tasks in this matter as well as the people
managing the marketing operations of the businesses. Consumers have started
to support the environment by using their purchasing power and with their post
consuming responsibilities. The trend to use environmentally friendly products
containing materials which are not harmful to environment and human health (i.e.
green products) has become popular among consumers thanks to this environmental
awareness. Within this context, the people who aim to protect themselves and the
environment with their purchasing power are identified as “green consumers”.
The research literature is examined in the historical process at the level of
environmental awareness of consumers is increasing. However consumers evoke
their environmental interest with environmentally friendly consumer behavior. A
study carried out between 1989-1990 supports these ideas with an increase in the
number of consumers who expressed interest in the environment and a climb in the
number of environmentally friendly products purchased. However some studies in
the early 1990s do not fully support these claims. For example, in 1991, according
to the Simmons market research bureau’s (SMRB) study , there is low correlation
between consumer’s environmental concern and the willingness to purchase
environmentally friendly products. Kleiner (1991), Schlossberg (1991) and Winski
(1991)’ s found in their studies a weak relationship between a consumer’s positive
attitudes to environmental issues and the actual buying behavior. By the end of the
1990s, despite environment related research in marketing literature , in practice it
had not reached the desired result (Naturelhaber, 2010).
The purpose of this study is to discuss the effects of environmental awareness,
green product features, green product prices, green product advertisements and
consumers’ demographic characters on the purchasing behavior of consumers and
to determine if there is a significant relationship between them and the direction and
level of this relationship, if any.
Environmental Awareness and Purchasing Green Product
A consumer with environmental awareness can be defined as “an ecologist
who had grasped his/her self-efficacy against environmental pollution and how has
a sense of responsibility with respect to future generations and the whole humanity
in his/her use of resources. Conscious consumers with environmental awareness
can assess the presence of environmental resources, their cost of use as well as
the impact of this use to the environment and to themselves (Babaoğul and Ozgun,
2008).
Aysel Boztepe
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Aslan, conducted a survey on 400 university students at Kafkas University.
According to this study, students are aware of green purchase and use of products
that are harmful to the environment. Features of the purchased product , superfluous
packaging or wrapping, how waste abate after using, even after the purchase that
information about purchased product are important for student (Aslan, 2007).
Aracıoğlu conducted a survey study with 360 questionnaires in İzmir. According
to this study, when environmental pollution and awareness of environmental protection
increase, they affect consumer buying behavior. Also participants were aware of
the importance of recycling for protecting the environment and the prevention of
environmental pollution (Aracıoğlu and Tatlıdil, 2009: 435-461).
H1 : There is a significant and positive relationship between environmental
awareness and purchasing behavior of green product.
Green Product and Purchasing Green Product
Environmental pollution increasing rapidly throughout the industrialization
period leading to a great reaction was born against products hazardous to the
environment. When the hazardous contents of a product became one of the factors
influencing the purchase decisions of consumers, businesses started to manufacture
environmentally friendly or in other words green products and to create green
product policies (Uydacı, 2002: 113).
Grail Research conducted a survey on 520 US Green consumer in June 2009.
Target individuals include respondents between the ages of 18- 65 years old, who
are aware of green products and who have purchased green products in the past.
According to this study, Consumers think of green products as those that minimize
the impact on the environment (e.g.,energy-efficient, recyclable, natural or organic).
Only 30% of consumers consider reducing water usage to be a green practice
Product labels and word of mouth are the primary sources of information about
green products and companies for consumers (Grailresearch, 2010).
H2: There is a significant and positive relationship between Green Product
Features and purchasing behavior of green product.
Green Price and Purchasing Green Product
A lower price caused by cost saving will encourage consumers to buy
environmentally friendly products. When the demand for a product is price
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
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responsive, a lower price will be a more successful strategy for the company. When
the price is held at the same level, positive properties of the product about the
environment can be used as a competitive advantage element. In case the price
of the product is higher, importance should be given to promotion of differentiated
green product and also there should be consumers ready to overpay for the product.
In this case, important thing is level of price (Emgin and Turk, 2004).
Grail Research conducted a survey on 520 US Green consumer in June 2009.
According to this study, consumers who never bought green products are deterred
from purchasing them because they are perceived to be too expensive. Price is the
main reason consumers choose not to buy green products (Grailresearch, 2010).
H3: There is a negative relationship between Green Price and purchasing
behavior of green product.
Green Promotion and Purchasing Green Product
A good presentation provides the opportunity for the consumer to get together
with businesses showing environmental responsibility. The presentation policy
aims to create an “environmentally friendly business firm” image in the eye of the
consumer and give environmental messages to consumers about the product. To
achieve this goal, advertising campaigns, promotion, public relations and other
marketing tools are adopted. This requires both internal and external communication
(Uydacı, 2002: 128).
Shrum and others (1993) conducted a study on 3690 people. According to this
study women , both green buying variables are associated positively with the belief
that advertising is insulting and the tendency to switch channels during advertising ,
suggesting that women who tend to buy green are more skeptical of advertising than
women who do not. In contrast men’s skepticism toward advertising appears to be
unrelated to their green buying behavior (Shrum at al. 1995: 71).
H4: There is a significant and positive relationship between Green Promotion
and purchasing behavior of green product.
Demographics and Purchasing Green Product
A number of past studies have analyzed relationship between demographic
variables and attitudes/ consumptions of ecologically awareness consumers. Such
variables, if significant in terms of statistics, offer easy and efficient ways for to segment
Aysel Boztepe
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the market and capitalize on green attitudes and behaviors for marketers. Roberts,
conducted a survey on 235 students in a big university in order to determine green
consumer behaviors in the new century. As result of this study, psychographics appear
to be more effective than demographics in explaining variation in college students’
ecological awareness consumer behavior. A person’s belief that individuals can play
an important role in fighting against environmental destruction is likely to be the
driving force behind ecologically awareness consumer behavior. This relationship
was held across samples of adult consumers and with college students in the present
study, suggesting a stable green consumer profile. Although liberalism was found to
be a significant correlate of ecologically awareness consumer behavior, it appears
that this type of behavior transcends ideological boundaries. Altruism was also
found to play a role, albeit a secondary one, in explaining ecologically awareness
consumer behavior (Straughan and James, 1999: 559-575).
Diamantolopous and others (2003) conducted a study on 1697 questionnaires
in Britain. According to this study, demographic variables were found insufficient
to determine green consumer profile. However, again according to this study
women are more related to the environment and women display pro environmental
behaviors. Married couples are more likely to have pro environmental behavior.
There is a negative correlation between age and pro environment attitude. There
is a positive correlation between education, information and attitudes and behavior.
However, in high social class, environmental information and environmental quality,
and participating in green activities hypotheses were not supported (Keleş, 2007).
Tilikidou ve Delistavrou (2001) conducted a survey in Greece with 420
household. As a result of this study, it is concluded that citizens who more frequently
adopt pro-environmental non-purchasing behaviors are all highly educated people.
These citizens are not many, neither strongly engaged in most of these behaviors.
The non-purchasing ecological behaviors are all positively correlated to recycling
attitudes and locus of control. Recycling behavior is better predicted by recycling
attitudes, while post-purchasing behavior and ecological activities are better
predicted by the other behaviors. Consumers who are mostly involved in recycling
and non-energetic, rather traditional activities are mostly influenced by their positive
attitudes towards recycling as well as by their social responsibility. It was also found
that those who were engaged in one type of the non-purchasing pro-environmental
behavior were more likely to engage in another type as well (Tilikidou and Antonia,
2008: 61-76).
H5: Age has a moderator affect on model.
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
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H6: Gender has a moderator affect on model.
H7: Marital status has a moderator affect on model.
H8: Education has a moderator affect on model.
H9: Income has a moderator affect on model.
Finding and Analysis
Demographics
Demographical Properties of the Consumers Participating in the Research
Factors N %
Gender Female 270 50
Male 270 50
Marital Status
Unmarried 266 49,3
Married 153 28,3
Married and have
children 121 22,4
Age
16-35 age 374 69,3
36-45 age 116 21,5
46 years old or
over 50 9,3
Education
Elementary
school 128 23,7
High school 196 36,3
Bachelor and
graduate students 216 40
Income
0-1000 174 32,2
1001-2000 220 40,7
2001 and over 146 27
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Impact of Green Marketing on Green Purchasing Behavior
Relationship between Green Marketing and Purchasing Behavior of the
Consumers
Factors Green Purchasing Behavior
Green Awareness
R0,235
P 0,000
N540
Green Price
R0,270
P 0,000
N540
Green Product Features
R0,328
P 0,000
N540
Green Promotion
R0,322
P 0,000
N540
As result of correlation analysis conducted to determine the relationship
between;
Environment awareness and green purchasing behavior, a positive significant
relation was found. (r=0,235; p=0,000<0,05).
Green price and green purchasing behavior, a positive significant relation was
found. (r=0,270; p=0,000<0,05).
Green product features and green purchasing behavior, a positive significant
relation was found. (r=0,328; p=0,000<0,05).
Green promotion and green purchasing behavior, a positive significant relation
was found. (r=0,322; p=0,000<0,05). According to this, as environment awareness,
green promotion, green price, green product features increases green purchasing
behavior increases as well.
In this respect, H1, H2 and H4 hypothesis were accepted. H3 Hypothesis was
not accepted.
Impact of Gender on Purchasing Behavior
Regression model conducted in order to test exposure level of green purchasing
behavior from green marketing for;
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
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Female consumer was statistically significant (F=12,220; p=0,000<0,05).
Male consumer was statistically significant (F=19,715; p=0,000<0,05).
In this respect, while green promotion, environment awareness, green price,
green product features affect green purchasing for male consumers, for female
consumers only green promotion affect purchasing behavior. H5 hypothesis was
accepted. Gender has a moderator effect on model.
Impact of Marital Status on Purchasing Behavior
Regression model conducted in order to test exposure level of green purchasing
behavior from green marketing for;
Unmarried consumer was statistically significant (F=13,267; p=0,000<0,05).
Married consumer was statistically significant (F=8,330; p=0,000<0,05).
Married and having children consumer was statistically significant (F=6,179;
p=0,000<0,05).
In this respect, while only green promotion affect green purchasing for unmarried
consumers and only green price affects green purchasing for married consumers,
for married costumers having children, only green product features affect green
purchasing. H6 hypothesis was accepted. Marital status has a moderator effect on
model.
Impact of Age of Purchasing Behavior
Regression model conducted in order to test exposure level of green purchasing
behavior from green marketing for;
Consumers on 16-35 age group was statistically significant (F=18,613;
p=0,000<0,05).
Consumers on 36-45 age group was statistically significant (F=10,268;
p=0,000<0,05).
Consumers on 46 years old or over age group was not statistically significant.
(F=1,961; p=0,117>0,05).
In this respect, while environment awareness, green product features and green
promotion affect green purchasing for consumers in 16-35 age group and green
price and green promotion affect green purchasing for consumer in 36-45 age
group, for consumer that are 46 years old or over, only green promotion affect green
Aysel Boztepe
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purchasing. H7 hypothesis was accepted. Age has a moderator effect on model.
Impact of Education on Purchasing Behavior
Regression model conducted in order to test exposure level of green purchasing
behavior from green marketing for;
Elementary School Graduate consumers was statistically significant (F=5,295;
p=0,001<0,05).
High School Graduate consumers was statistically significant (F=7,376;
p=0,000<0,05).
Undergraduate and graduate school graduate consumers was statistically
significant (F=20,134; p=0,000<0,05).
In this respect, while only green promotion affects green purchasing for
elementary school graduates, for high school graduates green price and green
product features affect green purchasing, and environment awareness, green
product features and green promotion affect green purchasing for undergraduate
and graduate school graduate consumers. H8 hypothesis was accepted. Education
level has a moderator effect on model.
Impact of Income Level on Purchasing Behavior
Regression model conducted in order to test exposure level of green purchasing
behavior from green marketing for;
Consumers having Income between 0-1000 tl was statistically significant
(F=4,134; p=0,003<0,05).
Consumers having Income between 1001-2000 tl was statistically significant
(F=13,900; p=0,000<0,05).
Consumers having Income 2001 and more was statistically significant (F=14,644;
p=0,000<0,05).
In this respect, while only green promotion affect green purchasing for consumers
having income level between 0-1000 TL, environment awareness and green price
affect green purchasing for consumers having income level between 1001-2000 TL
and for consumers having income of 2001 TL and more, environment awareness and
green promotion affect green purchasing. H9 hypothesis was accepted. Income
level has a moderator effect on model.
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
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Conclusion
With industrialization and development and progress of technology,
diversification in human needs has increased. As result of increase in diversification
in the needs, our world has faced with the devastation and pollution of its natural
resources. As result of use of natural sources, environmental devastation and
pollution affect human life negatively. Humans have been in the search for ensuring
their futures and sustaining their life in appropriate conditions. Consumers, by not
remaining insensitive to environmental problems such as environment pollution and
global warming, they have started to consider whether the products they purchase
is environment-friendly or not apart from price and quality features of the products.
With environment and environmental problems gaining importance for people,
companies have started to change their production, goods or service generation,
and hence marketing strategies accordingly. They have started to produce
environment-friendly products and have tried to reach `Green Marketing` concept
to the consumers.
The aim of this study, by analyzing the impact of environmental awareness,
green product features, green product prices, green product advertisement and
demographical features of consumers on purchasing behaviors of consumers, is to
determine whether there is a significant relationship between them and if there is, to
reveal direction and level of this relationship and hence to give advices to companies
producing environment-friendly products.
As result of the study, as environment consciousness, green product features,
green promotion and green price increase, green purchasing behavior increases
as well. In most of the studies conducted until today, a negative relation between
green price and purchasing behavior has been observed. Nevertheless, the result
of our study shows that people are now willing to pay more for environment-friendly
product against environmental pollution that threatens our world together with
developing technology and industrialization.
When demographic properties of consumers are examined, while green
promotion, environment awareness, green price, green product features affect
green purchasing for male consumers, for female consumers only green promotion
affect this. And this result shows us that companies should taken gender into
consideration in their green marketing strategies. In environment- friendly product
advertisements broadcasted within the day oriented to women, apart from stating
price, features and environment-friendly aspect of the products, directly promotion
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studies that shall make the advertisement charming may be carried out. In
advertisement broadcasted in male oriented programs or in environment-friendly
services oriented, product features, its price or its environment-friendly aspect can
be stressed. Strategies may be also implemented in the products oriented to men or
women in light of these results.
In the study conducted on marital status, while only green promotion affects
green purchasing for unmarried consumers, only green price affects green
purchasing for married consumers; and for married and having children consumers,
only green product features affects green purchasing. According to this result,
unmarried consumers are affected only from promotion and hence weight should
be given to promotion activities in environment-friendly products oriented to
unmarried consumers and in advertisements, instead of its price, feature and
environment- friendliness it should be made to make the advertisement charming.
On the other hand, in products manufactured for married consumers, importance
should be given on the price of the product, in the advertisements price should be
stressed (appliances, furniture etc.). As married and having children consumers are
more sensitive about product features, promotions activities that bring this to the
forefront should be carried out. The fact that consumers having children compared
to unmarried or married and having children consumers only gives attention to
product features shows us that if environment-friendly product service is especially
oriented to children, product features should be on the forefront. (such as it does not
harm health and that it is useful etc.) and companies should act sensitively on this
subject.
In the study conducted on age, while environment awareness, green product
features and green promotion affect green purchasing for consumers in 16-35 age
group and green price and green promotion affect green purchasing for consumer
in 36-45 age group, for consumer that are 46 years old or over, only green promotion
affect green purchasing. 16-35 age group pays attention to all aspects expect price
while purchasing a green product. In green marketing strategies oriented to this
age group consumers, environment-friendliness and features of the product without
stressing its price can be mentioned in the advertisements. For 36-45 age group,
on the other hand, price properties should be stressed. Consumers of 46 years
and more age group are affected only from the promotion. This group mosly is
composed of people with high retirement rate whether be it female or male. Hence,
TV advertisements may be prioritized.
In the study conducted on education, while only green promotion affects
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
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green purchasing for elementary school graduates, for high school graduates
green price and green product features affect green purchasing, and environment
awareness, green product features and green promotion affect green purchasing
for undergraduate and graduate school graduate consumers. According to these
results, environment consciousness are higher in the group with high educational
level unlike other groups. Enterprises plan and implement their activities in line
with demand and needs of individuals. Consumers in this group demonstrating
their demands and their purchasing as result of their environment conscious will
allow environmental gains increase gradually. Moreover, due to this environment
consciousness that educated group has, seminars and conferences may be
organized on these subjects. As this group is also affected from promotion, billboard
advertisements may be given inside campuses.
In the study conducted on income, while only green promotion affect green
purchasing for consumers having income level between 0-1000 TL, environment
awareness and green price affect green purchasing for consumers having income
level between 1001-2000 TL and for consumers having income of 2001 TL and more,
environment awareness and green promotion affect green purchasing. This result
shows that consumers having low income level are not affected from price as thought,
they are affected from promotion activities. Middle income group, on the other hand,
are more conscious on environment and is a group that also considers the price.
for the group with income level of 2001 TL and more, on the other hand, promotion
and environment awareness is significantly important and hence in environment-
friendly products in which high price is required, environmental aspect of the
product should be mentioned more. Due to the fact that consumers with low income
level are only affected from green promotion, enterprises should concentrate on
promotion activities for the products that they will produce oriented to this group,
and they should also take some actions in terms of public relations apart from TV
advertisement. (For instance, as a certain percentage of products with low prices
that low income group consumers can buy is used for nature protection purposes).
As shown also in the results, for today`s consumer, price difference in
environment-friendly products has disappeared to be a negative factor now and
promotion has become important for consumers. When companies take these into
consideration and determine marketing strategies accordingly, they can reach their
goals by considering needs and demands of the consumers and by responding
them in the most appropriate way. Therefore, tendency to environmental-friendly
product shall exhibit gradual increase. Marketing managers should pay also attention
Aysel Boztepe
20
to demographic features in separation of consumers in the target mass to the
segments. It is required that consumers have environmental awareness in the name
of protecting the environment by non-governmental organization, governments,
companies and individuals. Moreover, companies should especially pay attention to
promotion activities and should increase their activities in this direction and should
develop their contents. Promotion, price and product features should be directed as
of demographic properties.
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Istanbul : Türkmen Kitabevi
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Mudurlugu/Ced veCySubeMudurlugu.aspx?sflang=tr, (Accessed in 10 November
2010)
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consumer trend İncreases (Accessed in 02 April 2010)
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(Accessed in 10 December 2010)
... It demonstrates that green marketing should continue to expand. Furthermore, Boztepe (2012) provides information about green marketing and its impact on consumer buying behaviour by analysing environmental awareness, green product and its features, green promotional activities, and green price, all of which have a positive impact on consumers' green purchasing behaviour. ...
... Pal and Khan (2015) have stated that Green consumers are those who prefer green products for the environmental benefits along with their health, they are concern about both the things. Boztepe (2012) has stated that green consumers are one who purchases green products other than normal products. ...
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Hizmetkar liderliğin iş tatminine etkisinde örgütsel özdeşleşmenin aracı rolü: Bir Model Önerisi
... Thereby companies need to provide clear information about the green cosmetic products and the benefits offered by them on health and environment (Puh, 2016). Despite of targeting long term profitability and environment friendly sustainability there is a need to understand consumer's demographics such as age, gender, income, marital status and others before deciding on the 4 P'S of green cosmetics (Lee, 2008 andBoztepe, 2012). ...
... (Khan M. , 2013), found that awareness, environmental knowledge and concern, health and hygiene, demographic factors (age, gender, income, occupation and ethnicity), product availability (Kaufmann, 2012) induces the purchase of green cosmetics in women of Madhya Pradesh. Positive purchase intention, word of mouth (Boztepe, 2012), adapting attitude and trust (Hagius, 1995) of consumers is essential for the growth of green cosmetics. Due to increased awareness companies are experiencing an increase in sales and the demand of green cosmetics. ...
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India being in the phase of developing economy is facing a lot of environmental complications due to excessive chemical usage. The growth spurts as observed in Delhi NCR, India, has impacted the ecosystem resulting in many aberrations. The environment pollutants have not only affected the atmosphere but have led to many health issues. There is a growing concern over health risks associated with the consumption of artificial non-green products reacting with the human body. This has resulted in many skin and hair diseases. The drastic environmental change has made mankind realize the importance of being natural and being "Organic". Renewable strategy towards sustainable development is the need of the hour. In line with the change in the business environment, the attitudes of present consumer have changed also thoroughly. The consumers today are changing into more knowledgeable ones and this is reflected in the buying attitude towards cosmetics. Through this paper an attempt is contrived to identify the factors motivating consumers to purchase the green cosmetics. The study used a structured survey of 150 respondents covering Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR) of Ghaziabad, Noida and Faridabad (India). The study investigates the relationship between significant variables for the respondents living in Delhi (NCR). It tries to identify the various pitfalls faced by consumers while moving from non-green to green cosmetics. By sufficient analysis it is summed that changes need to be adapted by the marketers for segmenting, targeting and motivating the wide diversified customer base
... The different components of attitudes, including the cognitive, emotional (affective) and behavioral ones, have been the object of various investigations in research fields such as concern for health (A. Davies et al., 1995;Schifferstein & Oude Ophuist, 1998;Severo et al., 2020), concern for the environment (Albayrak et al., 2013;Borusiak et al., 2021;Fransson & Gärling, 1999;Kinnear et al., 2010;Laroche et al., 2001), inconvenience (Caniels et al., 2021;Laroche et al., 2001), skepticism (Albayrak et al., 2011;Silva et al., 2020), perceived consumer effectiveness (Kang et al., 2013;Roberts, 1996;Tucker, 1980), perceived personal relevance (Kang et al., 2013), environmental consciousness (Boztepe, 2012;Krause, 1993), knowledge (Kaiser et al., 1999;Peattie, 2010;Saari et al., 2021). As for the impact of environmental concern on sustainable consumption, research has delivered contradictory resultsfrom a (strongly) positive impact on intentions (Albayrak et al., 2013;Chan & Lau, 2000) to a very poor impact (Fransson & Gärling, 1999;Newton et al., 2015;Tanner, 1999). ...
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This paper aims at examining the sustainable urban consumption (SUC) of households in three Bulgarian cities and determining whether there are significant differences between their sustainable consumption patterns. A conceptual model for measuring SUC is developed with an emphasis on the behavioral component of the attitudes. As part of this, four indexes to study different dimensions of SUC are constructed, namely: Housing Index (provision of the housing with conditions for sustainable consumption); Electricity and Water Index; Food Index; Transportation Index. А Composite Behavioral Index (CBI) was also constructed from the four aforementioned indexes. The model was tested in an empirical study covering a total of 1049 households in the cities Sofia (403 households), Varna (342 households) and Svishtov (304 households). The results reveal that a relatively small portion of the households in the three cities tend to have sustainable lifestyles. Overall, the households from Varna perform the most sustainable behavior. The efficient use of electricity and water prevails the investments in sustainable housing conditions, which signals for orientation towards short term savings rather than reduction of costs in the long run. With no significant differences between the cities, the sustainable transportation practices are least popular among the households. Sustainable food consumption, normally related to preparing at home fresh and locally produced food of mainly vegetable origin, was more widespread among the households from Varna and Svishtov. The proposed research methodology for measuring SUC can be applied both in comparative analyses of SUC for households from different settlements and regions, and for tracking the changes of SUC for households in a given settlement.
... The green consumer is typically known as one who supports eco-friendly attitudes and/or who purchases green products over the standard alternatives (Boztepe, 2012). However, referring to Blustein's argument (1991) that 'there can be care without commitment, but there cannot be commitment without care' and taking into consideration the 'attitude--behaviour gap' phenomena, it is worth considering whether the use of the conjunction 'or' in the definition proposed above might be justified. ...
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The concern for the condition of the natural environment requires taking a new approach towards consumption and meeting consumer needs (Bocking 2009). Despite many initiatives related to the paradigm of sustainable development and the concept of sustainable consumption, the situation is still far from a general departure from mass consumption and consumerism. The article aims to try to synthetically organise the views of other authors on the challenges of greening consumption, both for enterprises and consumers in the context of social responsibility. Competences play an important role in this process. The greening of consumption has not yet been widely propagated in societies, including also Polish society. One of the crucial elements of greening consumption is the purchase of ecological/organic food products. To learn about the behaviour of Poles towards the issue discussed in this article, the authors conducted a study on a representative sample of Poles (N = 1,000) during Nov. 15–27, 2021, using the Computer Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) technique (which is an online surveying technique that fits into the quantitative methodology of market and opinion research) and online panels as part of the omnibus study. The survey shows that only 7.1% of the respondents have never purchased ecological/organic food products. Among buyers, 21.8% do it rarely/sporadically, 40.1% occasionally/sometimes, 20.2% often/try to choose ecological products when shopping and 10.8% do it very often or always. Among the respondents, 55.3% declared that ecological/organic products are expensive but still worth the price due to the health benefits they bring. Noticing the advantages of these products, 63.7% of respondents would like to buy more of them. In view of the results obtained, it can be said that it is necessary to disseminate the main greening consumption ideas that are apparent from this study, and this can be done through education, building consumer competences or visualising the effects of the continuation of current consumption habits. The problem of protecting the natural environment, discussed in numerous documents issued by governments and international organisations and in scientific publications, cannot remain unnoticed. Greening consumption is a challenge for companies whose production should be rational in using non-renewable natural resources, reducing or eliminating toxic waste, using recyclable packaging and introducing ‘clean production’ principles aimed at obtaining consumer products using more cost-effective and healthier methods. It is also a challenge for consumers, who should replace perishable goods with products with a longer life cycle, consume goods and services more sparingly and cease to accept planned obsolescence of products or unethical behaviour of enterprises towards their employees.
... Bulent et al. (2009) also found a positive attitude of people toward the environment; however, there is a gap between the conceptual knowledge of the environment and the enthusiasm to participate in environmental conservation (Halder et al., 2013). In addition, gender differences have been found in perceptions and attitudes towards the environment, renewable energy, and science (e.g., Boztepe, 2011;Wright, 2011;Karytsas and Theodoropoulou, 2014) and females appeared to be less positive towards science concerning the environment and renewable energy than males (Črne-Hladnik et al., 2009;Qin and Brown, 2007). Young people, for example, students compared to the old are aware of the importance of using renewable energy than fossil energy fuels (Greenberg, 2009). ...
Article
We aimed to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of tertiary level students in Bangladesh regarding wood and non-wood (fossil-based) furniture and energy fuels through a pre-tested semi-structured face-to-face interview. About 59% and 90% of students opined that wood or bamboo-based fuels and furniture can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels and non-wood furniture, respectively, while 96, 54 and 71% of students commented on storing carbon, lowering CO2 emissions, and reducing deforestation, respectively, by the use of wood and residues. This mitigation benefit of wood also depends on recycling and reusing of wooden furniture, and scientific use of wood residues (e.g., biomass gasification) and almost all students agreed with the post-use of furniture as fuels. About 78% of students showed a positive attitude to use and 72% to buy more wooden furniture compared to non-wood furniture and 78% to reuse or recycle post-use furniture. These positive attitudes toward using and buying wooden furniture and recycling wood in science students were significantly higher than those in non-science students. Our findings also show that students’ perceptions of wooden furniture and bioenergy were reflected in their positive attitudes to promote the use of these. However, peoples´ unawareness about environmental benefits of wood and bioenergy use and related policies, and post-use of wood products or recycling have been seen as the main challenges. Young generations´ positive attitudes could help society to overcome the challenges. The study concluded to incorporate environmental education along with formal education so that non-science and female students could easily perceive new ideas and conceptions at their youth stage to show positive behavior towards using wood-based products and bioenergy. The findings of this study could be applied to other regions of a similar environment in building up essential awareness and attitudes of tertiary level students towards environmental benefits and climate change mitigation.
... It was proved that the traditional product attributes such as price, quality, and brand are still the most important attributes that consumers consider when making green purchasing decision [16]. Boztepe studied about the effect of green advertisements in green marketing on customers purchasing behaviours [17]. The respondents were university students at Kafkas University. ...
Article
The awareness of green environment among the common man have made them choose green products over non green products. Green companies now try to manufacture green products that are more economical. There are global green companies to local household groups that manufacture green products. These are the outcomes of the green movement that made people become more eco-friendly in their day to day lives. This paper addresses the impact of green product features like green label, green package, green advertisements etc. on consumer’s online buying decision. The analysis is carried out using regression methods. The studies would help green product manufacturers and online shopping companies to identify the green product features that influence the online green customers.
... Consumer awareness of green products is referred to as environmental awareness. Numerous academics have studied this topic, and some of them have looked at consumer preferences for connected goods or services [45]. Additionally, a number of researchers have looked at the connection between consumer behavior, green energy use, and environmental consciousness [46]. ...
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Over the last few years, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has taken significant steps in adopting clean and sustainable energy coming from renewable energy sources. The adoption of solar energy in residential use was one of the main projects in the 2030 Saudi vision of preserving nature reserves, with sustainability as a key pillar. The Saudi government has granted individuals the right to install solar photovoltaic systems in their homes and has taken many steps to encourage this initiative. However, despite all these efforts to bring solar energy into homes, few applications have been received. Therefore, it is important to examine the various factors that influence Saudi society’s perceptions and attitudes toward the acceptance or rejection of new solar technologies. The Technology Acceptance Model is one of the best technology acceptance frameworks. The model examines intentions and attitudes to adopt new technologies based on two constructs: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. In this study, we extend the Technology Acceptance Model by adding new constructs: relative advantages, environmental awareness, and cost of solar photovoltaic systems. These factors were examined by analyzing the intentions of 492 male and female respondents. Data were collected through online surveys. The findings of the study indicated that all the Technology Acceptance Model constructs significantly impact the attitude toward the adoption of solar energy in residential use. These results recommend that the Saudi government should focus on increasing Saudi environment awareness, reconsidering solar PV costs, and putting more emphasis on the relative advantages of solar PV in residential use.
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Abstract: Regular use of CRM (Customer relationship management) application or customer relationship management system enables companies in the financial services sector, in addition to a quality database of current and potential customers, to have the ability to effectively manage the performance of sales teams. While the twentieth century was based on time economy, in terms of hiring competent workers for a certain number of working hours for which they were paid, the twenty-first century brought a new business paradigm, performance economy, which involves paying workers with appropriate competencies according to realized performance. period of time. In the context of performance economics, the CRM application has received its full implementation based on an active approach to generating business revenue by engaging the full internal potential of the company, both on the client and human resources side. CRM application is a tool based on which sales processes are actively conducted, bearing in mind that in one place in online time, companies have recorded all the oral and written communications with the client, review of submitted, realized offers and additional customer requests. , as well as all created marketing campaigns addressed to the client. The data collected in this way enable the client to be taken care of in the right way, because the client will not understand the further sales process, especially cross-selling, in a manipulative, but in a useful sense. On the other handts on a daily basis through advanced technical solutions, such as CRM applications. This creates a basis for objective feedback to the employee on his work performance, by presenting a direct link between his daily (recorded in Crm) sales activities and the achieved result in selling a specific financial product or service in a certain time interval. The causes of poor sales performance, the team member is no longer looking for "outside" (competition, price, recession, etc.), but is focused on finding solutions to change daily work activities and improve knowledge about products and services offered by the company he works for. Keywords: CRM, financial service, potential client, data, manager, competition, recession, Customer relationship management, application
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Ekoloji, tüm canlıların birbirleriyle ve bu gezegendeki yaşamı destekleyen toprak, hava ve su ile nasıl ilişki kurduğuyla ilgilidir. Ekolojik sorunlar ise çok yönlüdür. Yeryüzünde yaşayan toplam insan sayısı, nüfus yoğunluğu ve ekonomik refah arayışı çevresel bozulmaya katkıda bulunan unsurların başında gelmektedir. Nüfus artışı dışında pazarlama ile doğrudan ilgili üç genel çevre sorunu türü tanımlanabilir. Bunlar çevresel kirlilik, doğal kaynakların tükenmesi ve artan enerji tüketimidir (Murphy ve Laczniak, 1977: 27). Günümüzde işletmeler, strateji ve planlamalarına dayalı gerçekleştirecekleri tüm faaliyetlerinde artık çevre sorunlarının farkında değilmişçesine devam edemeyeceklerinin bilincindedirler. Dolayısıyla tüm faaliyetlerinin olası çevresel boyutlarını veya çevreye yansımalarını dikkate almak zorundadırlar. Bu da daha sürdürülebilir bir dünya ve çevre için ekolojik pazarlama düşüncesinin daha çok işletme tarafından dikkate alınmaya başlayacağı anlamına gelmektedir. Bu bağlamda sosyal, ekonomik, siyasi gelişmeler ve çevre sorunlarının sonuçlarına paralel olarak çevre kavramının ve çevreye bakış açısının son yıllarda önemli ölçüde değişeceği söylenebilir (Durmaz ve Yaşar, 2016: 64). Sınırlı kaynaklara sahip bir gezegende yaşamaktayız. 20. yüzyıl boyunca sanayileşmiş ekonomilerin küresel yükselişi, bu kaynakların çoğunu (hava, toprak ve su gibi) ciddi şekilde tüketti veya kirletti. Sonuç itibariyle de karbon ayak izimizi genişleterek uzun vadeli hayatta kalmamızı tehdit etmeye başladı. İşletmelerin çoğu ne yazık ki geleneksel olarak çevreyi, girdilerini temin edilebilecekleri, bitmiş ürünlere dönüştürüp satarak müşterilerine dağıtabilecekleri ve daha sonra da tüketilen ürünlerin atılabileceği bir doğal kaynak olarak görmekteler. Tüm bu faaliyetler zinciri sonucunda önemli miktarlarda endüstriyel atık, çevresel kirlilik ve doğal kaynakların tükenmesi sonucuyla karşı karşıya kalındı ve daha da kötüsü bu durum yakın zamana kadar pek de ciddiye alınmadı (Mohr vd., 2016: 30-31). Öte yandan günümüzde artan tüketici bilinci ile işletmelerin sürdürülebilir olmaları ancak yönetim anlayışında sosyal ve çevresel önceliklere yer vermeleriyle mümkün olabilir (Stubbs ve Cocklin, 2008: 103). Özellikle artan rekabetin bir sonucu olarak işletmeler, başta müşterileri olmak üzere tüm paydaşları ile sağlıklı ve uzun vadeli ilişkiler kurmaya çalışmaktadırlar. Temelde amaçlanan şey müşterilerin sadakatini kazanmak ve uzun süreli sadık müşteriler ile karlılıklarını ve pazar paylarını korumak ve artırmak olduğundan, kurulacak bu ilişkilerin çevreyle ve müşterilerinin yaşamlarıyla da etkileşim içerisinde olması gerekmektedir. Başka bir deyişle işletmeciler içerisinde yaşadığımız ortak çevrenin sorunlarını yani ekolojik sorunları dikkate almaları gerektiği gerçeğiyle yüzleşmiştirler. Buradan hareketle çoğu işletme yönetimi ekolojik sorunları azaltmaya yönelik uygulamalara yer vererek bunu aynı zamanda stratejik açıdan kendileri için fırsata dönüştürmesini bilmektedir. Bu bağlamda ekolojik olarak tercih edilen ürün seçenekleri oluşturma, paydaşları ekolojik konular hakkında eğiterek farkındalık yaratma, tüketicileri ekolojik temelli satın almaların değerine ikna etme ve çevresel sosyal sorumluluk faaliyetleriyle örnek olma, vb. uygulamalar ekolojik sorunlarla mücadele noktasında geliştirilen yöntemlerden bazılarıdır (Lockrey, 2015: 2).
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Em virtude da importância do setor da construção civil para a economia mundial e as constantes preocupações em relação ao impacto que a atividade causa ao meio ambiente, o Governo vem tomando ações visando à minimização desse problema por meio da promulgação de legislações específicas. No Brasil, a responsabilidade pelo cumprimento destas legislações é dos municípios e do Distrito Federal, que para garantir a legitimidade de suas ações devem cumpri-las e fiscaliza-las. Neste sentido, este estudo tem como objetivo o desenvolvimento de um modelo de avaliação da legitimidade de planos municipais integrados de gerenciamento de resíduos da construção civil. O modelo foi embasado em 21 indicadores, elaborados por meio da análise do discurso do levantamento bibliográfico e Metodologia Multicritério de Apoio à Decisão Construtiva. Estes indicadores, foram avaliados através de um painel de especialistas, realizado em duas rodadas, o qual também embasou a definição do grau de importância de cada indicador. Utilizou-se ainda, a metodologia de alocação de pesos, na fase de definição da metodologia de avaliação do modelo desenvolvido. O modelo desenvolvido é composto por sete etapas, que além de avaliar a legitimidade dos municípios, permite a proposição de prioridade de ações dos municípios que visam maximizar seus níveis de legitimidade, por meio da elaboração de planos de ações por grau de prioridade.
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1970’li yıllardan itibaren ortaya çıkan yeşil pazarlama kavramı ürünün üretimi, tüketimi ve tüketimden sonra yok olana kadar tüm ürün yaşam seyri boyunca etkili bir rol üstlenmektedir. Türkiye’de emekleme dönemini yaşayan yeşil pazarlama kavramı ve yeşil tüketici kitlesinin oluşumuyla beraber yeşil ürüne olan duyarlılığın artması araştırmanın konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Bununla birlikte, Türkiye’deki pazarlama faaliyetleri kapsamında gelişmiş ülkelerdeki kadar yeşil tüketicinin taleplerini karşılayacak uygulamaya rastlanmamaktadır. Buna rağmen çevreye olan duyarlılığın artmasıyla beraber yeşil pazarlamaya olan ilginin de arttığı görülmektedir. Bu ilginin yeşil ürün satın alma davranışına yansıyıp yansımadığını saptamak için Kafkas Üniversitesi öğrencilerine yönelik anket çalışması yapılarak, öğrencilerin çevreye karşı tutumları ve çevreyle dost ürünleri kullanma eğilimleri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır.
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term in Turkey and increasing of sensitivity about green product with originating mass of green marketing is constituted the topic of study. However contain marketing activities in Turkey about covering green consumer’s demand; there are no enough applications as developed countries. Although, it is seemed that interest about green marketing increases with rise of ecological sensitivity. Because of determining this interest whether reflect in behavior of purchasing green product, it is tried to designate if students aimed at environmental attitudes by doing a questionnaire study on students of Kafkas University. The findings in the context that Kafkas University students don’t have enough information about green marketing activities and they live in instability of receiving green products
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The authors construct a psychographic profile of the green consumer in terms of variables directly related to purchase behavior, such as price consciousness and general care in shopping, interest in new products, and brand loyalty. Additionally, they address attitudes toward advertising and media preferences. Data from 3264 respondents to the DDB Needham Life Style Study were analyzed. The results show the green consumer to be an opinion leader and a careful shopper who seeks information on products, including information from advertising, but also suggest that the green consumer is rather skeptical of advertising. The implications are that green consumers may be receptive to green marketing and advertising, but marketers should take care not to alienate them by using ambiguous or misleading messages.
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Looking to the future of green marketing, examines the dynamic nature of ecologically conscious consumer behavior. The study also provides a method of profiling and segmenting college students based upon ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Findings indicate that, despite a significant amount of past research attention, demographic criteria are not as useful a profiling method as psychographic criteria. Consistent with past findings, the study indicates that perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) provides the greatest insight into ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Further, the inclusion of altruism to the profile appears to add significantly to past efforts. Additional constructs examined suggest that environmental segmentation alternatives are more stable than past profiles that have relied primarily on demographic criteria.
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Tuketicilerin, sanayilesme surecini izleyen donemlerde goz ardi edilen ancak ozellikle son on yil icinde etkileri oldukca artan cevre kirliligine yonelik olarak, duyarliliklarinin arttigi gorulmektedir. Tuketiciler ellerindeki satin alma gucuyle isletmelerin sorumluluklarinin farkina varmalarini ve cevreyi koruyacak uygulamalara yonelmelerini de saglamaktadirlar. Tuketicilerin bilinc duzeyinde meydana gelen artis ve buna bagli olarak cevreye zarar vermeyen urunlere yonelmeleri ve satin alma davranislarinda cevre bilincinin daha da etkili olmasiyla birlikte, isletmelerin de “yesil isletmecilik”, “cevreci pazarlama” gibi kavramlarla tanimlanabilen faaliyetlere yoneldikleri gorulmektedir. Bu kapsamda calismada oncelikle tuketicilerin cevre bilinc duzeyleri irdelenecek, daha sonra ise cevre bilincinin satin alma davranisina etkileri degerlendirilmeye calisilacaktir.
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Taking into consideration that everyone in society has to consume, consumers' behaviors have a part in increasing or decreasing environmental pollution. Environmental education constitutes one of the subjects for consumer education and tries to reach individuals, families and society with widespread and organized education.
Article
This article presents an examination of non-purchasing ecological behaviors and their influential factors. The results indicate that consumers who engage in recycling, pro-environmental post-purchasing behavior and pro-environmental activities are highly educated people. Among them, those who are mostly involved in recycling and the non-energetic, rather traditional, activities are mostly influenced by their positive attitudes towards recycling, as well as by their social responsibility. Those who adopt more energetic, more active, behaviors are mostly influenced by their beliefs that they hold power over politicians and politics. It was also found that those who are engaged in one type of non-purchasing pro-environmental behavior are more likely to engage in another type as well. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Yeşil Pazarlama Tüketicilerin Yeşil Ürünleri Tüketme Davranışları ve Yeşil Ürünlerin Tüketiminde Kültürün Etkisi ile ilgili bir uygulama Exploring Green Consumers In An Oriental Culture: Role Of Personal And Marketing Mix Factors Advances in Consumer Research
  • Ceyda Keles
  • Shamdasani
  • Gloria Prem
  • Daleen Ong Chon-Lin
  • Richmond
Keles, Ceyda.2007. " Yeşil Pazarlama Tüketicilerin Yeşil Ürünleri Tüketme Davranışları ve Yeşil Ürünlerin Tüketiminde Kültürün Etkisi ile ilgili bir uygulama " Shamdasani,Prem,Gloria Ong Chon-Lİn, Daleen Richmond.1993. " Exploring Green Consumers In An Oriental Culture: Role Of Personal And Marketing Mix Factors, Advances in Consumer Research " 20: 491
Yeşil Pazarlama İş Ahlakı ve Çevresellik Açısından Yaklaşımlar Istanbul : Türkmen Kitabevi Websites www.businews.eu, Yeşil Gerilla Pazarlama Yükseliyor
  • Mert Uydacı
Uydacı, Mert.2002. Yeşil Pazarlama İş Ahlakı ve Çevresellik Açısından Yaklaşımlar Istanbul : Türkmen Kitabevi Websites www.businews.eu, Yeşil Gerilla Pazarlama Yükseliyor, (Accessed in 27 November 2010)
Yıl 3 Yeşil Pazarlama " Ekonomi, Sosyoloji ve Politika Dergisi
  • Gazanfer Erbaslar
Erbaslar, Gazanfer. Yıl 3. " Yeşil Pazarlama " Ekonomi, Sosyoloji ve Politika Dergisi, (edergi ), http://www.paradoks.org, ISSN 1305-7979 – Sayı:1, Accessed 25.11.2010