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Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soils for improved crop performance

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... Tungsten (W) is a rare transition heavy metal, presents naturally in soil and sediment in small concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 2.4 mg kg −1 in the lithosphere (Senesi et al. 1988). However, anthropogenic activities potentially accumulate tungsten concentration in environmental systems due to traffic, smelting, or mining (Chibuike and Obiora 2014). In addition to the use of W in many industrial applications such as light bulb, golf clubs, electronics, and specialized ingredients of modern technology (Koutsospyros et al. 2006). ...
... Concerning cultivated soils, land plants growing in the uncontaminated soils by W generally contain low W, being less than 0.1 mg kg −1 (Wilson and Pyatt 2009;Brueschweiler et al. 2009). Tungsten uptake by agricultural crops is of concern because of its supplementary addition to phosphate fertilizers and other fertilizers (Chibuike and Obiora 2014). W concentration in phosphate fertilizer was 100 mg kg −1 , 30-270 mg kg −1 for rock phosphates and phosphorites, as well as 1-100 mg kg −1 for sewage sludge as was reported by Senesi et al. (1988). ...
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The phyto-impact of tungstate is not frequently studied like other heavy metals especially in the sight of continuous accumulation of tungstate in the agriculture soils and water. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate the supplementation of various tungstate concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100) to germination water (mg L⁻¹) or clay soil (mg kg⁻¹) on germination and metabolism of broccoli. Lower concentrations (1–10 mg L⁻¹) accelerated germination process and reciprocally were recorded at the highest one (100 mg L⁻¹). The promoter effect of lower concentrations on seedlings growing on tungstate contaminated soil was underpinned from enhancement of pigments, metabolites, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and nitrate reductase. However, the highest concentration-noxious impacts perceived from oxidative damage and membrane integrity deregulation accompanied with no gain from increment of proline, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The depletion of phytochelatins and nitric oxide jointed with the enhancement of peroxidases, polyphenol oxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase at higher concentration reinforced lignin production which restricted plant growth. The results supported the hormetic effects of tungstate (beneficial at low concentrations and noxious at high concentration) on morphological and physiological parameters of broccoli seedlings. The stimulatory effect of tungstate on metabolic activities could serve as important components of antioxidative defense mechanism against tungstate toxicity.
... The increased demand for petroleum as a source of energy is a major anthropogenic source of crude oil pollution of the environment across the globe [1]. Crude oil pollution effects found in soil, water and air environments have continued to be a major issue of scientific concern, political and public interest [1]. ...
... The increased demand for petroleum as a source of energy is a major anthropogenic source of crude oil pollution of the environment across the globe [1]. Crude oil pollution effects found in soil, water and air environments have continued to be a major issue of scientific concern, political and public interest [1]. The invention of internal combustion engines and its usage in all forms of transportation enlarged the demand for petroleum; this in turn increased the production, transportation, stockpiling, and distribution of crude oil as well as the by-products [2]. ...
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Wetland pollution due to inputs from crude oil is one of the most prevalent environmental problems facing the aquatic ecosystem in the world. The present study was intended to investigate the effectiveness of combination of cow lumen and NPK fertilizer in stimulating the degradation of crude oil polluted fresh water wet land. Soil samples were collected from unpolluted plots, crude oil polluted plots and crude oil polluted plots that were treated with the remediating agents. After fifteen days and sixty days of remediation, the soil samples were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (E.C), phosphate, PO ³⁻ 4 , phosphorous, P, % organic carbon, % total nitrogen N, carbon/nitrogen ratio and total petroleum hydrocarbon, TPH. The result indicates that combination of the inorganic and organic manure was more efficient in stimulating the degradation of the crude oil than the use of either the cow lumen or NPK fertilizer alone. The physiochemical properties of the soil in all the treated plots were observed to have been improved when compared with that of the untreated plots.
... Mycorrhiza is another bioremediator present naturally in soil as symbiotic association with roots of vascular plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been reported for bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants (Chibuike 2013). These fungi occur naturally in roots of plants growing on heavy metal polluted soil (Turnau 1998). ...
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An experiment was carried out to investigate the capability of Trichoderma harzianum and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae) in agricultural waste land soil to ameliorate the heavy metal toxicity caused by industrial effluents. Different combinations of T. harzianum and AMF (G. mosseae) were applied into the soil before cultivation of red amaranth. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) were determined both in soil and red amaranthafter growing period. Vegetative parameters of red amaranth were not significantly influenced by the treatments except dry weight. Both Pb and Cd concentration in soil was significantly reduced by all treatments. Soil treated with T. harzianum@ 0.5 g/m² had a better capacity for up taking Cd from soil. Conversely, both T. harzianum and AMF inoculation increased accumulation of Pb and Cd by red amaranth. Trichoderma harzianum had increased the accumulation of Pb and AMF inoculation had increased the Cd accumulation by red amaranth. This investigation gave an insight on the exploitation of these bio-agents for amelioration of agricultural waste land by trapping heavy metals using suitable crops.
... La biorremediación es una tecnología prometedora para el tratamiento de sitios contaminados, ya que es de bajo costo, lleva a la completa mineralización y no requiere técnicas sofisticadas para su funcionamiento. Se puede igualmente llevar a cabo in situ, eliminando así los riesgos asociados con el transporte de los suelos contaminados (Das & Chandran, 2011;Chibuike & Obiora, 2014). La biorremediación ocurre naturalmente, por lo que se le considera como una manera segura de tratar suelos contaminados. ...
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El objetivo de esta investigación incluye el aislamiento, caracterización e identificación de las especies de Pseudomonas existentes en la rizosfera de una leguminosa presente (colonizadora o sobreviviente) en un suelo de sabana contaminado por un derrame de petróleo con el fin de explicar el apoyo al crecimiento de esta leguminosa a través de la reducción de la toxicidad del crudo derramado (efectos hidrocarburoclásticos) El sitio se encuentra a la entrada del pueblo de Amana del Tamarindo, estado Monagas, Venezuela (9° 38' 52" N, 63° 7' 20'' E, 46 msnm). Se muestreó un área de 50 m2. Según las descripciones, claves y comparación con las exsiccatae del herbario UOJ, la leguminosa colectada fue identificada como Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr., la cual pertenece a la Familia Fabaceae. Los resultados de la caracterización bioquímica y la producción de los pigmentos piocianina y fluoresceína permitieron identificar diez aislados como P. fluorescens, 5 como P. putida y 5 como P. aeruginosa. Se recomienda la revegetación con S. saman del área contaminada.
... From the above results, it could be concluded that hydrocarbon contamination adversely alters the soil properties. Studies have showed that crude oilpolluted soil was characterized by lower WHC compared with unpolluted soils (Chibuike and Obiora 2013). The result suggested that the percentage of WHC in crude oil-affected areas was found to be lower compared to the uncontaminated sites. ...
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potentiality of a herb named Crotalaria pallida which are abundantly grown on crude oil-contaminated soil of oil field situated at upper Assam, India, so that this plant could be used to remediate hydrocarbon from contaminated soil. To evaluate the potentiality of the plant, a pot culture experiment was conducted taking 3 kg of rice field soil mixed with crude oil at a concentration of 10,000 (10 g/kg), 20,000 (20 g/kg), 30,000 (30 g/kg), 40,000 (40 g/kg), 50,000 (50 g/kg), 60,000 (60 g/kg), 70,000 (70 g/kg), 80,000 (80 g/kg), 90,000 (90 g/kg), and 100,000 (100 g/kg) ppm. Ten numbers of healthy seeds of C. pallida were sown in three pots of each concentration for germination, and after 15 days of germination, single healthy seedling in each pot was kept for the study. A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. The duration of the experiment was fixed for 6 months. The results showed that uptake of hydrocarbon by the plants was increased with increasing the concentration of crude oil in the soil up to 60,000 ppm. After that, uptake of hydrocarbon by the plants was found to be lower with increasing doses of crude oil concentration. Uptake of hydrocarbon by the shoot was found to be maximum, i.e., 35,018 ppm in 60,000 ppm concentration. Dissipation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from the soil was also gradually increased with increasing concentration of crude oil in the soil up to 60,000 ppm. Maximum dissipation, i.e., 78.66 %, occurred in 60,000 ppm concentration of crude oil-mixed soil. The plant could not survive in 100,000 ppm concentration of crude oil-mixed soil. The results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with an increase of crude oil concentration. Furthermore, results revealed that the shoot biomass was higher than root biomass in all the treatments.
... Some fungi also have the ability to degrade hydrocarbon based pollutants like Planerochaete chrysosporium (White rot fungus) is an example of ligninolytic fungi capable of degrading polyaromatic hydrocarbons and other harmful environmental pollutants. Cunninghamella echinulata and Mycorrhizal fungi have also been used for the remediation of PHC-polluted soil [6]. ...
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Hydrocarbons are widely distributed in environment owing to its extensive use as pesticides, petroleum products or other organic compounds. Hydrocarbons being mutagenic and carcinogenic in nature, it has led to various serious threats to living form. Pollution can ensue due to accidental spillage or leakages while handling and transportation of such compounds. Thus it becomes necessary to ensure safe removal and disposal of pollutants, to avoid further dispersal in different environmental layers. Bioremediation is one such effective treatment methods which render the pollutants harmless. Thus studying hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria becomes an essential step to formulate an effective bioremediation process. Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were isolated from a hydrocarbon based polluted site and scrutinized by series of tests. Among the isolates, five Pseudomonas species have been found to be effective in hydrocarbon utilizing capability. The isolates were identified using 16 sRNA sequencing procedure.
... Using phytoremediation and bioremediation methods for contaminated soil enhance the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil [2-9-16]. Plant and bacteria can independently remove hydrocarbon from contaminated soil [2]. ...
Conference Paper
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Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons causes many problems for the surrounding environment. The current research aims at studying the performance of different in-situ remediation methods for the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from sandy soil at different levels of contamination. The remediation methods that were tested include phytoremediation using alfalfa, bioremediation using Pseudomonase putida, and a combination. The soil was spiked with TPH at different levels (2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0%). after 90 days of experiments, the different treatments were able to reduce the level of contamination in the sandy soil with efficiencies up to a maximum of 99.9% for phytoremediation, 98.7% for bioremediation, and 99.0% for the combination method. The experimental results showed that the TPH remediation followed the first-order kinetics.
... Phytoremediation involves the use of plants to remove, transfer, stabilize and/or degrade pollutant in soil, sediment and water (Odu et al., 2006;Chibuike and Obiora, 2013;Anna and Anna, 2015). Phytoremediation is a passive low-cost method that has the potential to address organic and inorganic contaminants. ...
... Martin et al.(2014) reported that hydrocarbon degrading organisms are abundant in most soils and they usually increase when hydrocarbons are spilled into the environment. Obviously, microorganisms remediate polluted environment (soil) and remove hydrocarbon from the soul (Chibuike and Obiora, 2013). ...
Article
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Analyses of crude oil degrading potentials of Phaseoluslunatus (L) and its associated bacteria was considered in this study. Ten bags of soil samples weighing 23 kg per bag were used. The set up were assigned into groups A and B. Group A and B consists of five sub-groups (1 (served as control), 2, 3, 4, and 5) each. Whereas group A sub-groups consists of one plant each treated with 0 ml, 60 ml, 120 ml, 180 ml, and 240 ml of crude oil respectively, group B sub-groups received same treatment but were not planted. Samples were analyzed using standard methods. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degraded by P. lunatusvegetated soil were 99.84, 99.69, 99.72 and 99.76 for 60 ml,120 ml, 180 ml and 240ml volumes respectively.The total viable count of bacteria from the vegetated polluted soil samples was significantly (P < 0.5) higher than those of non-vegetated.
... Another group of beneficial microorganisms that have been generally applied for improvement of polluted sites is plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), such as Pseudomonas spp. (Chibuike and Obiora 2014). The mechanisms involved in PGPR action to alleviate abiotic stresses on plants are not fully understood. ...
Article
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Air pollution in metropolitan areas of Iran has negatively impacted establishment, growth, and development of many woody plant species, threatening the health of urban forest species. This study was designed to investigate the effects of artificial inoculation of seedlings of a major urban forest tree, Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica Greene) with beneficial microorganisms under the stress of air pollution caused by exhaust emissions from fuel pollutants (FP). We conducted this research as a completely randomized design in a form of split-factorial with three factors comprising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae or a mixture of both species, bacterial inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens and non-inoculated controls, and two levels of FP (fuel pollutants and non-fuel pollutants) using three replications of each treatment. Fuel pollutants significantly reduced root colonization, shoot and root dry weight, nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, and Fe), glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), and chlorophyll concentration, while increasing proline content, enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in Arizona cypress seedlings. Nevertheless, adverse effects of FP in the inoculated plants (especially AMF plants) were less than in the non-inoculated plants. Inoculations of AMF especially the mixture of both mycorrhizal species effectively alleviated the negative effects of FP on Arizona cypress seedlings. This promising effect was related to increased GRSP content in the media which improved concentrations of N, P, and Fe in plants, enhanced chlorophyll concentration, and elevated enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase which resulted in increased dry mass of the plants under air pollution stress.
... Investigation carried out reveals that for a good bioremediation programme to be achieved it requires a good engineering design which includes site inspection, bioremediation option, design concept, pilot plant, final design and site characterization [9][10][11][12]. The action of microbes in bioremediation programme are quite similar in behavior if the environmental favours their actions but in most cases, when the environmental factors is a contributing factors, the action of the microbes may defer because they found themselves in an unfavorable environment which influence their active site and several research conducted on various literature on plant materials for crude oil remediation in both soil and water environment were obtained as shown in the reference [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. In most cases, the nutrient to feed on is available but the active site of the microbes is totally inhibited [21][22][23][24][25]. ...
Article
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Degradation of Crude oil in different soils environment was monitored using two different species of plant extract namely moringa and Neem roots. Four different types of soil was investigation namely loamy, sandy, clay and silt soil all obtained from Niger Delta area of Nigeria as well as the Moringa and Neem roots including the alcohol and water media with the aims to extract the useful nutrient that can enhance microbial activities on crude oil degradation. The mass of 500g and 600g of the moringa and Neem roots fermented extracts were introduced into the various polluted soil types investigated and the result obtained show increase in degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) with increase in time in all the soil types. Degradation of the TPH was more rapid in sandy soil environment and less in silt soil environment in moringa in water and alcohol as well as in Neem in alcohol and water media. The research work also revealed that degradation was faster in moringa in water than all others, showing the acceptability of moringa root as a major radiant for crude oil polluted environment. The aim of this research work is to examine the effectiveness of fermented moringa and Neem roots extract for remediation of crude oil polluted soils of different environment.
Chapter
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Bioplastics are the plastics composed from the biomass of corn, sugarcane, etc., which nowadays form an eco-friendly system that saves fuel burning, CO2 emission, and plastic. There are emerging interests in agro-based research pack-aging for designing cost-effective bioplastics, thanks to the heavy burden of diseases from petroleum products. Plastic industries are among the foremost important and regularly applied industries within the globe, and they are widely employed due to its biodegradability nature. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) are naturally produced by microorganisms that can be considered as a substitute for the standard plastics. These biodegradable materials are currently providing a sustainable alternative to petroleum feedstock. Mostly, biodegradable polymers get hydrolyzed into biomass, CH4, CO2, and other inorganic compounds. The utilization of bio-origin materials in food pack-aging has led to the tremendous innovation within the previous couple of years, which were obtained through microbial fermentations (e.g., starch and cellulose). The plant-based bioplastics are considered to be more durable, cost-effective, chemical independent, highly immune to microwaves, and less brittle. It is concluded that the assembly and use of bioplastics will aid in the sustainability of the environment by reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs), reduction in waste biomass, and as a substitute to petroplastics.
Chapter
The advent of green revolution or high input agrotechnologies have led to self-reliance in food production. Modern agriculture methods are getting increasingly dependent on the steady supply of synthetic inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, which are products of fossil fuels. There is an increasing concern about the excessive dependence on the supply of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and the adverse effects of the indiscriminate use of synthetic inputs in soil productivity and environmental quality. The cumulative effect of environmental degradation due to application of agrochemicals has led to a decline in food production during the last two decades. In order to overcome these adverse effects, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies for ensuring further growth in agricultural output. By adapting a strategy involving integrated supply of nutrients from a combination of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, organic manures, and biofertilizers and biopesticides, the soil can be saved from further impoverishment and environmental degradation. The use of microbes as bioinoculants for promoting plant growth and/or bioremediation purposes gives a new dimension to agricultural and environmental biotechnology. Actinobacteria are considered as the most prominent source of bioactive compounds (antibiotics, enzymes, and plant growth modulators) facilitating plant growth promotion and plant disease suppression. Attempts are being made to utilize actinobacteria that produce antibiotics and agro-active compounds as biofertilizers and biopesticides; these aids in mitigating the use of harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Besides making agriculture systems sustainable, soil inhabiting actinobacteria play important roles in various ecological processes such as organic matter decomposition and toxic pollutant and heavy metal bioremediation, thus contributing to the restoration of soil fertility and environmental sustainability.
Article
The consortium of thermotolerant petroleum-oxidizing bacteria containing strains Gordonia sp. 1D VKM Ac-2720 D, Rhodococcus sp. Par7 VKM Ac-2722 D, and R. pyridinivorans L5A-BSU VKM Ac-2721 for destruction of oil and oil products in hot climates was developed for the first time. The consortium was effective in soils and liquid media at temperature as high as 50°C, at salinity up to 7%, and soil moisture of about 10%. The efficiency of petroleum destruction for 21 days was 70 and 59% at 24 and 45°C, respectively. The consortium of thermotolerant petroleum-destructing strains could be used as basis for the biopreparation for remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils and waters in hot climates.
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Consortium application in bioremediation is well documented. A group of microorganism being capable of utilizing and breaking down complex compounds into intermediate derivatives, which is then consumed and/or broken down to simpler compounds by another group of microorganisms. This is a synergistic conversion which renders pollutants harmless. This is especially helpful approach with pollutants that are complex and recalcitrant in nature such as petroleum or pesticides based pollutants. In nature the group of microorganisms come together in this synergistic biodegradation process. But so as to make this bioremediation process faster and more vital, effective group of microorganisms are used to prepare the consortium. This is done by isolating hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms from a polluted site and scrutinizing them by series of tests. These isolates are then combined in a group and a consortium is prepared. The degradative properties is thus enhanced by using this consortium instead of individual isolates.
Article
Petroleum hydrocarbons can affect soil ecosystems, resulting in significant losses in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of hydrocarbon pollution (crude oil and waste engine oil) on soil enzyme activities and determine the fate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) during an incubation period of 3 months. The possible use of wastewater sludge as a biostimulating agent in petroleum-contaminated soils was also evaluated. Enhanced enzyme activity levels in contaminated soils indicated that crude oil and waste engine oil (0.5% w/w) appeared to stimulate microbial growth and enzyme activity in the soil environment. The results also indicated that significant TPH degradation in both crude and waste engine oil-contaminated soils (87% and 65%, respectively) occurred after an incubation period of 3 months. The degradation of crude oil in contaminated soil was significantly enhanced by the addition of wastewater sludge, whereas no apparent biostimulating effect on TPH removal was observed in the case of engine oil contamination.
Chapter
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Plant–microbe association is a key driving factor for proper functioning of an ecosystem. Microbes are being popularly used to facilitate plant growth and agricultural productivity as they are actively involved in decomposition of organic matter, biogeochemical cycling, and soil structure formation. In spite of these functions, current empirical studies support the use of microbes for bioremediation (bioaccumulation, bio-transformation, volatilization, etc.) of various pollutants in our environment. As food crops cannot be recommended for cultivation on polluted sites due to potential risks of pollutants’ bioaccumulation, on the other hand, arable lands, cannot be utilized for cultivation of aromatic plants due to pressure of food demand. Hence, cultivation of aromatic crops on such contaminated sites will be a safe strategy as aromatic plants are stress-tolerant and their end product is essential oils, which are non-edible and remain free from pollutants. Reports suggest that the use of suitable plant–microbe association can be helpful in remediation of polluted sites as microbial secondary metabolites favor the plant growth, increase plant tolerance to pollutants, and also enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of plant by increasing the bioavailability of pollutants in rhizosphere. In this chapter, therefore, we review the available literature and discuss future perspectives on application of microbes in association with aromatic plants for remediation of heavy metal and xenobiotic polluted soils.
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