Article

Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Green Practices at Restaurants?

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study examines customers’ willingness to pay more for green practices in restaurants using hypothetical scenarios. The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of consumers with a higher willingness to pay more and examine the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of green brand image and their willingness to pay more for a restaurant’s green practices. A total of 334 responses showed that more than two-thirds of restaurant customers would be willing to pay extra money for green restaurant practices. Age, previous experience, involvement, and self-perception were found to be significant in accessing consumers’ willingness to pay more for green practices in restaurants. In addition, the results showed that customers with a strong likelihood to pay more for green practices had higher perceptions of green brand image than those who were less likely to pay extra.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Therefore, dining establishments have started to adopt some green practices to reduce costs and maintain a competitive advantage [9][10][11], which introduced the notion of green dining establishments. Many green restaurants have implemented green initiatives by decreasing energy use and water consumption, recycling, and buying sustainable and fresh produce [12]. Some of these initiatives include avoiding plastic cutlery in the dining room, avoiding plastic water bottles, and installing energy-efficient equipment [13]. ...
... The adoption of these sustainable programs by restaurants reflected their environmental responsibility [11]. Investigating consumers' intentions towards green dining establishments is viewed as a significant aspect that affects restaurants' decisions around successfully implementing environmental programs [12]. ...
... Starting with gender, some researchers report that females are more inclined to be environmentally mindful and form intentions to dine at green establishments [45]. Moreover, another study in 2017 reported that women were prepared to pay more for proenvironmental initiatives in these establishments compared to men [12]. Specifically, women are more fulfilled with all the programs implemented in green hotels than men [46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the growing notion of environmental protection, many restaurants have started to apply operational practices to diminish their carbon footprint, leading to the emergence of “green” restaurants. Green restaurants are establishments committed to minimizing adverse environmental consequences throughout their operations. Nevertheless, further research is warranted to examine consumer behavior in this field. Taking the consumers’ perspective, this study uses an augmented theory of planned behavior (TPB) and a cross-section of 896 British diners to explain their dining intentions towards green restaurants. The extended model of the TPB was tested to justify the addition of past behavior and the impact of sociodemographic characteristics. Using structural equation analysis, the results identified past behavior, perceived behavioral control, subjective descriptive norms, and attitude as critical factors influencing behavioral intention. Furthermore, apart from gender, the relationships between sociodemographics and intentions to dine at green restaurants were insignificant. This research provides insightful implications in the green restaurant domain and suggestions for future research.
... The industry defines green restaurants as food establishments committed to minimizing negative environmental impacts throughout their operation (Liu et al., 2020). Many green restaurants have widely adopted green initiatives, such as reducing energy use, reducing water consumption, increasing recycling behaviour, and using sustainable and fresh produce (Namkung & Jang, 2017). ...
... The main barrier to dining at a green restaurant relates to an expectation of higher prices, a common finding in prior green hospitality studies (Millar et al., 2012;Namkung & Jang, 2017). The findings in relation to consumers' willingness to pay more for green products have returned mixed results. ...
... However, they were unwilling to pay extra for those practices, believing the restaurant should bear the additional costs for implementing environmental practices (DiPietro et al., 2013). Other studies suggest that consumers were willing to pay extra for environmentally friendly products and services (Namkung & Jang, 2017). This is crucial for restaurant managers to understand as consumers generally have the perception that green restaurants cost more than traditional restaurants. ...
Article
This study explores consumers' intrinsic ethical beliefs across the UK and how these contribute to their intention to dine at green restaurants. A series of four semi-structured focus groups were conducted to elicit ethical beliefs relative to the consumers' decision-making concerning dining at green restaurants. The in-depth qualitative data was examined through the lens of the Hunt-Vitell theory of ethics (H-V model), which has been rarely used in the hospitality domain. The data showed that 45% of the participants had dined at a green restaurant, and 37% had difficulty defining the term. The results also revealed diagnostic information concerning British consumers' salient ethical beliefs relating to dining at green restaurants, such as perceived personal and environmental benefits, concerns, reference groups, facilitators, and barriers. There was substantial ambiguity regarding the knowledge of green restaurant initiatives amongst consumers. Increasing knowledge by promoting informative and educative green initiatives could be employed by restaurants to raise the general public's awareness of ethical approaches adopted. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Sürdürülebilir/yeşil uygulamalar, restoran sektöründe yoğun biçimde uygulanmadığından (Wang vd., 2013), çevresel bozulmanın önlenmesi açısından restoran sektörüne daha fazla sorumluluk yüklenmiştir (Tan vd., 2019). Bu nedenle, restoran endüstrisinde yeşil uygulamalar giderek daha fazla benimsenmektedir (Teng vd., 2014;Namkung ve Jang, 2014;Kwok vd., 2016;Park vd., 2020;Arun vd., 2021). ...
... Bu bağlamda restoran işletmeleri rekabet gücünü artırabilmek için birtakım yeşil uygulamaları benimseyebilmektedir. Bu uygulamalar, restoranların maliyetlerini azaltabilir, finansal ve operasyonel katkı sunarak uzun vadede bazı rekabet avantajları sağlayabilir (Ma ve Ghiselli, 2016). Ayrıca, restoranların çevresel performanslarını ve kurumsal imajlarını geliştirebilmektedir (Schubert vd., 2010;Perramon vd., 2014;Namkung ve Jang, 2014;Tan vd., 2019). Bununla birlikte, çalışan bağlılığı artabilmekte ve çevre bilincinin gelişmesine yönelik önemli kazanımlar elde edilebilmektedir (Yarış, 2018). ...
... ➢ Yöneticilerin yeşil uygulamalara ilişkin tutumlarını ve davranışsal niyetlerini belirlemeye yönelik çalışmalar (Choi ve Parsa, 2006;Schubert vd., 2010;Jang vd., 2011;DiPietro vd., 2013;Dewald vd., 2014;Kwok vd., 2016;Line vd., 2016;Lo vd., 2017), ➢ Restoran endüstrisindeki yeşil pazarlama uygulamalarını belirlemeye ve bu uygulamaların finansal performansla ilişkisini ortaya koymaya yönelik çalışmalar (Ham ve Lee, 2011;Ma ve Ghiselli, 2016), ➢ Restoranlarda çevresel yönetim çalışmalarının çevreye yönelik etkisini inceleyen çalışmalar (Kasim ve Ismail, 2012), ➢ Yeşil restoran uygulamalarının marka değeri oluşumuna etkilerini belirlemeye yönelik çalışmalar (Namkung ve Jang, 2013), ➢ Yeşil tedarik zinciri yönetimi kapsamında restoranlar için yeşil yönetim standartlarının belirlenmesine yönelik çalışmalar (Wang vd., 2013), ➢ Tüketicilerin yeşil restoran uygulamaları için daha fazla ödemeye istekli olup olmadıklarını tespit etmeye yönelik çalışmalar (Namkung ve Jang, 2014;Lita vd., 2014), ➢ Sürdürülebilir uygulamaların yeşil imaj ve müşteri tutumlarına etkisini belirlemeye yönelik çalışmalar (Jeong vd., 2014), ➢ Tüketicilerin çevreyle ilgili olan endişelerinin yeşil restoranları ziyaret etme üzerine etkisini tespit etmeye yönelik çalışmalar (Teng vd., 2014), ➢ Yeşil uygulamalara ilişkin tüketici algılarının belirlenmesine yönelik çalışmalar (Doğan vd., 2015; Jang vd., 2017; Sarmiento ve Hanandeh, 2018; Tan vd., 2019; Park vd., 2020), ➢ Tüketicilerin yeşil restoranlardan beklentilerini tespit etmeye yönelik çalışmalar (Jang vd., 2015;Sarmiento ve Hanandeh, 2018), ➢ Yeşil restoranlarda hizmet kalitesinin ölçülmesine yönelik çalışmalar (Chen vd., 2015;Kurnaz ve Özdoğan, 2017), ➢ Restoran çalışanlarının yeşil davranış belirleyicilerini tespit etmeye yönelik çalışmalar (Wang, 2016), ➢ Yeşil Nesil Restorancılık programını inceleyen çalışmalar (Kurnaz ve Özdoğan, 2018; Akar Şahingöz ve Güleç, 2019), ➢ Restoran yöneticilerinin sürdürülebilir uygulamaları benimseme niyetlerine yönelik çalışmalar (Raab vd., 2018) ve ➢ Yeşil Nesil Restoranlara yönelik çevrimiçi müşteri yorumlarını inceleyen çalışmalar (İpar vd., 2020) öne çıkmaktadır. ...
... Willingness to pay is the monetary sacrifice that a consumer is willing to compromise in exchange for the benefits received (Sadik-Rozsnyai and Bertrandias, 2019). Price premiums, reflecting the excessive prices charged over and above the reasonable price that is justified by the true value of the product, could be indicators of consumer willingness to pay more (Namkung and Jang, 2017). In this study, willingness to pay refers to consumer acceptance of paying a price premium for robot-delivered services that could be either higher, lower or the same as the price for human-delivered services. ...
... Various approaches have been adopted by previous researchers to measure consumer WTPp, including Vickrey fifth-price full bidding auction (Vecchio, 2013), discrete choice analysis (Masiero et al., 2015), conjoint analysis (Arenoe and van der Rest, 2020), contingent valuation (Veisten, 2007), agreement/disagreement scale and predetermined price anchors (Namkung and Jang, 2017). In the field of automated technologies, Cunningham et al. (2019) used a four-point Likert scale to assess the willingness of consumers to pay for fully autonomous cars compared to manually driven cars (1 = less, 2 = the same, 3 = more and 4 = much more). ...
Purpose This study aims to simultaneously examine the influence of demographic, psychographic and situational factors on consumers’ willingness to pay a price premium (WTPp) for robotic restaurants and to profile market segments based on consumers’ WTPp levels (positive, neutral and negative). Design/methodology/approach Using an online survey, the data were gathered from a sample of 897 Thai consumers who had dined at a robotic restaurant in the past 12 months. Structural equation modeling, chi-square tests and the one-way analysis of variance were used for data analysis. Findings Demographic (gender, age, income and marital status), psychographic (perceived advantages/disadvantages, personal innovativeness and personality traits) and situational factors (perceived health risk and self-protection behavior) significantly influence consumers’ WTPp for robotic restaurants. The positive price premium group differs significantly from the neutral and negative price premium groups in terms of demographic, psychographic and situational profiles. Practical implications The findings of this study help restaurateurs target the correct customers and set up appropriate price fences to safeguard profits and maximize return on investment. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature on technology-based services and hospitality by heeding the calls made by Ivanov and Webster (2021) and providing much-needed empirical evidence of possible changes in consumers’ WTPp for robot-delivered services in restaurants due to COVID-19.
... Therefore, most hotels are now using a system whereby, when guests leave the room, all the energy appliances will shut down except for refrigerators, alarm clocks and other essential appliance. This is because customers oft en simply leave the room without switching off the appliances (Alexander, 2002) As noted above, environmentrelated for product and services are now the serious demand of the society (Namkung and Jang, 2017). To satisfy this demand, the management of hotel have to understand and perform well this issue in the practice (Han et al., 2011). ...
... In the same vein, they indicated that GP stimulates customer loyalty for the hotel (Yusof et al., 2017) or customer willingness to pay (Kang et al., 2012), or pay more for the restaurant if customer perceived the green practice (Namkung and Jang, 2017). The more hotel performs well the green activities, the more customer perceive hotel brand reputation in the practice (Han et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this research is to propose and test a conceptual model that clarifies the relationship between green performance of hotels and customer loyalty with the mediating role of relationship quality. The data collected from 200 homestay tourists in Moc Chau national tourism area, Son La province, Vietnam through questionnaire survey was tested by applying partial least squares wit h SmartPLS software. Analytical results showed that the higher tourists perceive the homestay green performance, the tighter the relationship quality they have towards the homestays, which in turns stimulates their loyalty behavior. The evidence also indicated that relationship quality contributes as the partial mediator in the relationship between green practice and tourist loyalty. The theoretical and managerial contribution, as well as the limitation and future research direction were also discussed in the paper.
... Results from recent studies have found that showing a concern about the environment is the most influential explanatory variable of WTP in green restaurants (Namkung & Jang, 2017;Sarmiento & El Hanandeh, 2018;Shin, Im, Jung, & Severt, 2019). For instance, Namkung and Jang (2014) showed that 68.3% of the respondents showed a predisposition to pay extra for green products in restaurants. ...
... In addition, younger consumers were found to more strongly believe that green restaurants are healthier than non-green ones (Schubert, Kandampully, Solnet, & Kralj, 2010). Similarly, health-conscious consumers were located in the highest WTP group for green restaurants (Dutta et al., 2008;Namkung & Jang, 2017), and a recent study has found health-conscious millennials showing the highest level of WTP for green restaurants (Jang et al. 2011). Thus, the following hypothesis that millennials' selfidentification with health is positively related to WTP is proposed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The hospitality industry is currently witnessing an increase in the number of restaurant companies with sustainable business models. This research explores the determinant factors of millennials’ willingness to pay (WTP) by looking at the qualitative decision of whether to pay more and the quantitative decision of how much extra to pay. While literature has investigated the factors that lead people to choose green restaurants, no analysis that simultaneously considers the qualitative and quantitative decisions has been conducted for the millennial generation. This study fills this gap by estimating the Heckit model, which (1) allows us to simultaneously model both decisions and detect their determinants—“green consumerism,” “health consciousness,” “income,” and two psychographics (“green restaurant preference” and “predisposition to make an effort in terms of time and distance”)—and (2) permits the control of sample selections bias, which turns out to be a critical issue in this research.
... Along with traditional restaurant attributes such as food quality, service quality, atmosphere, convenience, and price, which have been considered to be important attributes for every restaurant customer, new attributes (e.g., vegetarian menu options) aligned with customers' unique beliefs may have a relationship with customer satisfaction and behavior intentions. Previous studies have tested the effects of attributes reflecting a customer's unique belief on customer satisfaction and behavior intentions in the context of food-related purchases, such as organic food products (Batte et al., 2007), green restaurant practices (Namkung & Jang, 2017;Nicolau et al., 2020), and locally produced food in a restaurant (Alfnes & Sharma, 2010). For example, Sulek and Hensley (2004) found that offering healthy food, low-fat menu items, smaller portion sizes, and menu items with more green vegetables positively affects customer satisfaction. ...
... However, food should be reasonably priced to satisfy both vegetarian and non-vegetarian customers at restaurants. In addition, extending findings of existing literature pertaining to the effects of restaurant attribute reflecting a customer's unique belief on customer satisfaction to vegetarian customers (Alfnes & Sharma, 2010;Batte et al., 2007;Namkung & Jang, 2017), this study showed that vegetarian menu options are the most significant attribute affecting vegetarian customer satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Considering the significant number of vegetarian customers and the global trend of reducing meat consumption, the primary objective of this study is to examine the effects of six restaurant attributes, namely, food quality, service quality, atmosphere, convenience, price, and vegetarian menu options, on the customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions (i.e., willingness to pay more and revisit intention) of vegetarian customers. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that, among the attributes, only price and vegetarian menu options had significant positive effects on vegetarian customers’ satisfaction, and the relationship between vegetarian menu options and revisit intention was mediated by customer satisfaction. In addition, customer satisfaction significantly increased both customers’ willingness to pay more and their revisit intention. This research expands the knowledge about vegetarian customers and provides useful insight for restaurateurs.
... Prior studies show that setting up and operating a green restaurant is financially taxing for the restaurant (Baloglu et al., 2020), meaning that green restaurants have to charge a price premium to ensure that they can compete with their non-green counterparts (Choi & Parsa, 2006). Moreover, consumer willingness to pay this premium has received much attention in recent years (Dutta et al., 2008;Hu et al., 2014;Namkung & Jang, 2017;Nicolau et al., 2020;Shin et al., 2019). However, managers and employees may be over-optimistic about consumers' willingness to pay (Kwok & Huang, 2019). ...
... It is one of the core components of TRA and TPB. As a consequence, consumers' attitudes (Filimonau, Matute, et al., 2020;Namkung & Jang, 2017;Tan et al., 2018), and attitude toward waste reduction . All three factors were found to have a significant relationship with green adoption behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Issues regarding green restaurants have received significant scholarly and practitioner attention in the last decade, particularly concerning why consumers adopt green restaurants. Although several reviews exist on green hospitality, a comprehensive review of the literature on consumers' green restaurant adoption is currently lacking. The following systematic literature review examines 50 research studies published on the consumer adoption of green restaurant services to address this gap accordingly. Through a detailed content analysis, the research profile and thematic analysis are presented. The review further identifies four key thematic foci: (a) consumer behavior variables studied, (b) antecedents internal to the consumer, (c) antecedents due to the perception of external factors, and (d) moderators. Limitations and gaps from each of the themes are offered with potential future research questions. The novelty of the review lies in the development of a “green restaurant adoption research framework” that cuts across multiple theoretical perspectives to summarize why consumers adopt green restaurant services.
... Kesanggupan untuk membayar (WTP -willingness to pay) adalah jumlah maksimum yang sanggup dibayar oleh pelanggan terhadap suatu produk atau perkhidmatan yang ditawarkan (Namkung & Jang, 2017). Keadaan ini telah menjadikan kesanggupan untuk membayar oleh seseorang sebagai faktor penting dalam menentukan harga terbaik untuk dibayar terhadap sesuatu produk atau perkhidmatan. ...
... Dalam bidang pelancongan, terdapat beberapa kajian tentang kesanggupan untuk membayar telah dilakukan, antaranya isu yang berkaitan dengan aspek pemuliharaan dan perlindungan kawasan semula jadi (Casey et al., 2010;Subade & Francisco, 2014;Bruner et al., 2015), perkhidmatan ekopelancongan (Cheung & Jim, 2014), produk lestari (Werhrli et al., 2011), destinasi pelancongan lestari (López-Sánchez & Pulido-Fernández, 2014), pelancongan dan perubahan iklim dan cuaca (Araña, 2013), pelancongan berasaskan alam semula jadi (Luzar et al., 1998) dan sebagainya. Beberapa kajian lain turut dijalankan yang menyokong kerelevanan WTP yang menunjukkan wujudnya kumpulan pelancong yang sannggup membayar lebih untuk hal berkaitan dengan kelestarian daripada perspektif yang berbeza (hotel, pengangkutan, produk dan sebagainya (Dodds et al., 2010;Namkung & Jang, 2017;Choi & Titchie, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The state of Sabah is rich in various tourist attractions based on culture, environment, history and festivals. There are these tourist destinations that charge an entrance fee and vice versa. The concept of willingness to pay (WTP) is important in economic studies, especially in the tourism sector. However, studies on this issue are still lacking and limited. This article examines the payment rate and willingness to pay among visitors who visited the selected tourist destinations in Kundasang and Ranau of Sabah. The research approach used was evaluation and case study. Research methods involve interviews using questionnaire and observations. For that, a total of 150 respondents were involved in this study. The results of the study showed that four of the tourist destinations studied charge three types of fee which are entrance fee, activities and services. Most of the respondents think that the rate charged by tourism premises is reasonable (57.3%). Among the respondents' proposal is that the existing payment rate should be maintained at 44 respondents (37.9%), the rate should be reduced - 12 people (10.4%) and the payment rate should be increased for foreign tourists - 15 people (12.9%). As an implication, the results of this study are important to tourism operators and state economic development planners to ensure that tourism destinations in the state are more competitive and sustainable by offering affordable rates with the quality of services and products offered.
... For example, Xu and Jeong (2019) adopted construal level theory to frame green advertisements and investigated how message framing influenced restaurant customers' intentions toward dining at restaurants. Previous studies have mostly focused on how to upsell green foodservice (e.g., Namkung and Jang, 2017), while a few studies investigated the effects of green demarketing in green restaurant promotions. As many customers are skeptical of green advertisements (e.g., Cheng, et al., 2020;Fowler and Close, 2012), it is necessary to develop more effective communication strategies that can help effectively deliver green messages and promote green foodservices. ...
... Moreover, price is an important factor that can impact customers' perceptions of green demarketing advertisements (Royne et al., 2012). In the context of green marketing, because green services are embedded with environmental value, customers may prefer to pay more for green services (Namkung and Jang, 2017). However, green demarketing is a strategy that attempts to suppress consumption, which may evoke a sense that companies would like to give a portion of their profits to protect the environment. ...
Article
Food overconsumption is increasingly a concern even as consumers are growing skeptical of companies’ green marketing techniques. Accordingly, green demarketing strategies, which aim to lower consumer demand, have become more prevalent in recent years. Using an online experiment, the current research investigates how green demarketing strategies (vs. green marketing strategy) affect consumers’ level of skepticism toward restaurants’ green practices and influence their dining intentions toward restaurants. Moreover, this study examines how different benefits (health vs. environment) associated with green practices and restaurants’ green reputations (high vs. low) influence the effect of green demarketing (vs. marketing) strategies. The results reveal that although green demarketing may not independently outperform green marketing, when green demarketing was practiced by restaurants with low green reputations to promote environment-associated benefits, consumers exhibited a similar or even lower levels of skepticism and higher dining intentions. This study also provides implications for effective marketing communication in the context of green demarketing.
... The effectiveness of TPB theory to analyze young Indian consumer's green hotel visit intention. Namkung and Jang, 2017 Green practices in restaurants and customers willingness to pay more. del Rosario et al., 2017 The effectiveness of eco innovation and organizational culture in hotel industry. ...
Thesis
The study re-conceptualized how defensive green marketing is operationalized through the pressure from different parties to obtain environmental sustainability in hotel industry of Bangladesh. The study examined the relationships among different factors of green marketing (regulatory pressure, customer pressure, competitor pressure and pro-environmental behavior) and environmental sustainability (environmental performance and economic performance).
... Although hotels are not among frontier industries adopting the sustainability, hospitality scholars studied a separate dimension of sustainability such as the environmental or social aspect (e.g. Namkung & Jang, 2017;Martinez & del Bosque, 2013). Olya, Altinay, Farmaki, Kenebayeva, and Gursoy (2020) extend the current knowledge of hotels' sustainability by inclusion of three dimension of sustainability (social, economic, and environmental) in a predictive model to understand the interplay between guest familiarity with the three dimensions of sustainability and their satisfaction and loyalty. ...
Article
Diverse forms of environmental problems pose a serious threat to the natural environment. Environmental sustainability is the foremost topic in the contemporary tourism and hospitality industry. Environmentally-sustainable consumer behavior is an important aspect of environmental protection, which eventually benefits the society. In order to better understand environmentally-sustainable consumption and promote environmentally responsible consumer behavior, this research provides a sound conceptualization of environmentally-sustainable consumer behavior, and presents a systematic review and perspective on theories (theory of reasoned action, norm activation theory, theory of planned behavior, model of goal-directed behavior, and value-belief-norm theory) established in tourism and environmental psychology. In addition, this study introduces the essential drivers of environmentally-sustainable consumer behavior (green image, pro-environmental behavior in everyday life, environmental knowledge, green product attachment, descriptive social norm, anticipated pride and guilt, environmental corporate social responsibility, perceived effectiveness, connectedness to nature, and green value). Lastly, this paper provides the values of the latest studies on the special issue of environmental sustainability and consumer behavior in tourism and hospitality. This study as an introductory paper along with other articles in this special section help enable a collaboration platform across tourism and hospitality fields in pursuit of universal goals for promoting pro-environmental consumption and environmental sustainability.
... More than that, he becomes vigilant on practices related to the production, processing, storage and distribution of these products. (Namkung, Jang, 2017 ;Wang, Gao, 2017). The very degree of his conscience sometimes pushes him to accept to pay more to consume products in accordance with his attitude and predefined criteria, as the founding principle of "willingness to pay". ...
Article
Full-text available
Aware of the need to take into consideration consumer behavior in order to define adequate offers according to their attitudes and expectations, as well as to promote the image of local products by moderating their specificities according to consumer needs, not only the scientific community, but also the professional community have been working on the analysis and evaluation of consumer perception, as a process capable of identifying and clarifying the factors influencing the consumer's purchase decision, which are often characterized as a black box. The analysis of consumer perception, as it has been conducted in several areas and has approved its usefulness, we thought to mobilize it as a process especially in understanding the factors that can moderate the decision to buy date products labeled in the region of Daraa-Tafilalet in Morocco, in order to clarify the determining factors that need to be questioned when analyzing consumer perceptions, with the aim of promoting a future project to add value to date products in the region of Daraa-Tafilalet in Morocco, within the framework of an international project called ValueTeam/ArimNet2 in collaboration with Moroccan, French, Algerian and Tunisian partners. To do so, we have mobilized the systematic literature review as a research method, based essentially on the mobilization and analysis of 43 recent scientific publications, and other related publications, published between 2016 and 2020, which allowed us to build a battery of basic variables, capable of characterizing the factors influencing consumers' purchasing decisions.
... The customers of hotels pressurize to adopt green marketing and to increase environmental performance through hotel activities and practices. Whereas a strong willingness from the consumers is visible to support the green marketing practices and to favor environmentally friendly hotels, the owners and the managers of hotels are coming forward to adopt environment friendly practices and activities and thriving to have eco labeling or eco design (Namkung and Jang, 2017). Moreover, businesses with greater success face thorough scrutiny from the different stakeholders that also includes the pressure from the competitors (Zhu and Sarkis, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to examine the environmental performance of upscale hotels in light of institutional theory from the perspective of customer pressure and competitor pressure. Data were collected from 140 hotel managers considering the upscale hotels' (3-Star, 4-Star, and 5-Star) in Bangladesh. A quantitative research approach was used. Structured questionnaire was used through drop-off and pickup (DOPU) method to collect the data. The data were analyzed by using structural equation modelling with the help of Partial Least Square (PLS) software. According to the findings, competitor pressure and customer pressure are positively related with environmental performance of upscale hotels. So, it can be posited that customer and competitor pressure are the significant predictors of environmental performance for upscale hotels in developing country.
... More than that, he becomes vigilant on practices related to the production, processing, storage and distribution of these products. (Namkung, Jang, 2017 ;Wang, Gao, 2017). The very degree of his conscience sometimes pushes him to accept to pay more to consume products in accordance with his attitude and predefined criteria, as the founding principle of "willingness to pay". ...
Article
Full-text available
Aware of the need to take into consideration consumer behavior in order to define adequate offers according to their attitudes and expectations, as well as to promote the image of local products by moderating their specificities according to consumer needs, not only the scientific community, but also the professional community have been working on the analysis and evaluation of consumer perception, as a process capable of identifying and clarifying the factors influencing the consumer's purchase decision, which are often characterized as a black box. The analysis of consumer perception, as it has been conducted in several areas and has approved its usefulness, we thought to mobilize it as a process especially in understanding the factors that can moderate the decision to buy date products labeled in the region of Daraa-Tafilalet in Morocco, in order to clarify the determining factors that need to be questioned when analyzing consumer perceptions, with the aim of promoting a future project to add value to date products in the region of Daraa-Tafilalet in Morocco, within the framework of an international project called ValueTeam/ArimNet2 in collaboration with Moroccan, French, Algerian and Tunisian partners. To do so, we have mobilized the systematic literature review as a research method, based essentially on the mobilization and analysis of 43 recent scientific publications, and other related publications, published between 2016 and 2020, which allowed us to build a battery of basic variables, capable of characterizing the factors influencing consumers' purchasing decisions.
... However, Han et al. (2011) revealed contradictory findings where education and income do not significantly influence the buying attitudes and decision-making on green purchasing. Namkung and Jang (2014) also agreed that education and income are less influential than psychographic variables: previous experience with a green restaurant, green restaurant involvement, and self-perception. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Kopitiam is a trendy local traditional coffee shop among Malaysians, offering arrays of local and authentic delicacies served in a warm and welcoming atmosphere. After years of operating, Kopitiam is gradually moving towards sustainable operations. Therefore, this study is to examine the extent of customers' intention to visit Green Kopitiam when businesses started to adopt green practices in their operations. A quantitative method was utilised to conduct this study, and 261 respondents were obtained through an online survey. The main findings of this study were obtained through ANOVA analyses. Consumers' intentions to visit Green Kopitiam were discussed using demographic profiles such as gender, age, education, and household income. Statistically significant differences were identified among the demographic profiles and discussed in the final section of this paper.
... Restaurateurs have begun to purchase local and traditional food products, as they consider them fresher, of better quality, and with a unique taste (Starr et al., 2003;Sharma et al., 2014). They see in this strategy new marketing opportunities as well as a mean to differentiate their business from other competitors, thus creating a competitive advantage (Namkung and Jang, 2017). However, the choice has been also motivated by the desire to support local economies (Frash et al., 2015), to provide an ethical and environmental footprint to the restaurant (Curtis and Cowee, 2009) and to offer customers an authentic experience based on ingredients and recipes related to the food and gastronomic heritage of specific areas (Kocaman, 2018;Home et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years, we have witnessed worldwide a renewed interest in local food products and traditional cuisine. Addressing this demand, the catering industry has played a pivotal role in reviving local food heritage and traditions. While several studies have explored the evolution of this trend in Europe, little attention has been given to this phenomenon in contemporary Africa. To partially fill this gap in the literature, we conducted an ethnographic study to investigate the role of the catering sector in recovering and promoting food and gastronomic heritage in Nakuru County, an emerging Kenyan agricultural and tourist hub. Specifically, we aimed at understanding the main drivers behind the offering and demand for traditional ingredients and recipes. Fieldwork was conducted through the analysis of 41 restaurants and hotels, and data collection was completed through semi-structured interviews with 51 professionals, including owners, food and beverage managers, and chefs. We reported 33 recipes and ingredients tied to Kenyan culinary traditions. Some differences in the role of Kenyan cuisine emerged, with the differentiation mostly linked to the customer profiles. In particular, attention toward traditional foods was more accentuated in restaurants aimed at middle-and high-income Kenyan customers and for specific products namely African leafy vegetables and indigenous chicken, locally known as kuku kienyeji. Concurrently, we discovered that the inclusion of these products on the restaurant menus implied an incipient localization of the food supply chains based on self-production or direct commercial relationships with small-scale producers. The research highlighted how the relaunch of traditional food and cuisine develops from a demand for healthy and natural products rather than a search for cultural authenticity. Based on the specificities of the local market, this fosters the creation of alternative supply strategies to cope with the poor quality of ingredients, price fluctuations, and discontinuity of the supply. In this sense, the research suggests also considering tangible factors linked to the technological and logistical conditions of the trade and safety of food to understand the drivers behind the rediscovery of local and traditional foods.
... A literatura sobre percepção de qualidade em serviços é extensa e várias pesquisas convergem para a consequência de satisfação do cliente. Os aspectos de percepção de qualidade e até mesmo a intenção de recompra do produto em decorrência dessa satisfação normalmente estão presentes nestes estudos (Namkung & Jang, 2017;Werdini, Rejowski, & Stefanini, 2014). Considerando que clientes insatisfeitos procuram outro fornecedor do serviço, a identificação dos fatores que levam o cliente a aquisição do serviço e sua satisfação é fundamental para o sucesso das empresas, portanto a satisfação e a lealdade estão intimamente relacionadas e a lealdade uma consequência da satisfação (Angnes et al., 2015;Johnson, Gustafsson, Andreassen, Lervik, & Cha, 2001). ...
... Some works integrate the perception of companies' green practices (Jayaraman et al., 2012;Jeong et al., 2014;Y. J. Kim et al., 2012;Petersen & Brockhaus, 2017), companies' green attributes (Jeong et al., 2014;Kwok et al., 2016 Lee et al., 2018), product attributes (H'Mida, 2009Nassivera & Sillani, 2017), or as part of psychological or psychographic factors, as shown in Figure 1-3 (Namkung & Jang, 2017;Siwayanan et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Widespread efforts are being made to mitigate the environmental crisis mainly driven by human activities. From a supply chain management perspective, companies improve their sustainable performance while increasing their organizational performance. Specifically, companies are interested in understanding if consumers care about their green practices because consumers are the sources of the companies’ profitability. It is supposed that consumers would be willing to pay a premium (WPP), or would have higher purchase intentions (PI), for environmentally differentiated products, but that is not always the case. Moreover, there is scant evidence regarding the integrated effect of intra- and inter-organizational Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices on green consumerism. Therefore, this study adopts two psychological approaches (i.e., protected values and halo effect) to describe the mentioned relationship in two models that encompass mediation and moderation. Data were collected from 351 Colombian university students through a behavioral experiment with three product-based conditions, and the hypothetical models were tested using two-instances repeated-measures linear regressions and non-parametric tests. The results indicated that the perceived product performance mediates the effect of the GSCM practices on consumers’ WPP and PI (halo effect). Additionally, consumers’ moral orientation toward the environment (protected values) moderates the effect of GSCM practices on consumers’ WPP, PI and perceived product performance. In other words, the study found that people who held protected values evaluate the product better not just for its green attributes, but because of their increased perception of the product performance. The contributions are centered in the role of psychological approaches in the GSCM studies to understand consumers’ preferences.
... Karavasilis et al. (2015) have found young consumers to be those who use social media extensively and are showing increasing awareness of environmental concerns by adopting green practices and sustainable cultures. Namkung and Jang (2017) believe that customers are more willing to pay a premium price sustainable products, while Zanon and Teichmann (2016) have revealed that the intention to purchase an eco-friendly product is higher when using descriptive rational adverts. When it comes to fashion, Gam (2011) finds that consumers who have higher fashion interest demonstrate stronger purchase intention towards eco-friendly products. ...
Article
The main objective is to investigate the effects of antecedents of word-of-mouth (WOM) towards sustainable fashion, using the Personality Traits theory. More specifically, this study wants to examine the impact of the Big Five personality traits on social media activities, which could affect eco-friendly behaviour and environmental concerns for fashion production. This impact is influenced by the use of WOM on sustainability in the fashion industry. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS SEM) technique is used to evaluate the internal and external measurement model with a sample size of 272. The three most active personality traits on social media are extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness. Additionally, the active use of social media has a positive impact on the optimisation of users' eco-friendly behaviour and an increase in users' concerns for fashion production. Eco-friendly behaviour and environmental concerns for fashion production are important factors that lead to the spread of WOM. This study contributes to the existing literature by evaluating the effects of the Big Five personality traits on using social networking and how will this improve the creation of WOM towards sustainability. This study is among the several scientific studies which combine the theory of Big Five personality traits with social networking, green behaviour and the WOM in a sustainability context.
... A large number of tourism facilities within the hotel industry globally tend towards such a successful working process [9][10][11]. The green economy is characterized by the following: quality [12], energy efficiency [13], exclusion of dangerous substances [14,15], recycling, a significant use of organic products, eco-labels and labeling schemes, financing via "green" and "eco" funds, and the use of renewable energy and raw materials [1,5,16], etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable development is in many ways the fundamental basis of tourism. The importance and role of sustainable tourism development in the 21st century is at the center of this paper on eco-certificates and green procurement in the hotel industry, within the field of the responsible or green economy. The green hotel economy implies the selection of accommodation in environmentally responsible hotels and other facilities, which are directing their business operations towards green procurement, eco-labeling, and the responsible economy. This paper includes quantitative research of the attitudes of 506 international tourists, who expressed their views on their needs regarding eco-hotels and the green economy in the hotel industry. This research also included the collection of data on green (responsible) businesses by surveying 100 hotels situated in the capitals of Southern Europe. Comparing results from hotels with the needs of tourists in terms of the green economy in the hotel industry, significant results were obtained that contribute to sustainable tourism development.
... Consumers who are aware of the environmental issues the world is facing today and genuinely consider it their responsibility are more likely to purchase environmentally friendly products [27]. Since green decisions often affect their immediate environment, consumers may be willing to pay extra for services with an elevated perception of a green image, such as drone deliveries [28]. To appeal to such consumers, organizations need to focus on building a green brand image. ...
Article
Full-text available
The possibility of drone usage for food delivery is met with enthusiasm by businesses as it promises instantaneous benefits such as reduced costs, improved customer satisfaction, and reduced environmental imprint. The objective of this paper is to explore consumer attitude and intention towards adopting a disruptive technology such as drone food delivery in the Indian context through motivated consumer innovativeness (MCI), green image, and perceived risk. We analyzed the questionnaire survey data collected from 310 respondents using structural equation modeling—partial least squares method. Functionally motivated consumer innovativeness and cognitively motivated consumer innovativeness were found to be significant positive predictors of consumer attitude and intention. Perceived privacy risk was found to have a significant negative influence on attitude. Green image had a significant positive effect on attitude towards drone usage. Other components of MCI namely, hedonic and social as well as performance and delivery risk did not show a significance influence. This study, to our knowledge, is first of its kind in India, a populous country with an established and booming economy, where the enabling and impeding antecedents of drone food delivery usage intention is simultaneously studied. The findings of this research will mainly benefit food delivery companies in framing successful drone food delivery strategies.
... This shift is important since, in order to thrive in the future, businesses should have the ability to efficiently use their resources and develop their expertise to address the challenges of environmental constraints (Menguc and Ozanne 2005). Opportunities for environmentally sustainable actions by smaller businesses are also supported by the growing number of consumers who are willing to pay extra for eco-friendly products (Gregory-Smith et al. 2017;Namkung and Jang 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The depletion of natural resources as a byproduct of widespread, global economic growth has urged entrepreneurs to think about the environment when starting or conducting business. However, several of these smaller-sized firms struggle with implementing environmentally conscious business practices, especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), which represent more than 95% of all private sector firms. This study uses a survey method to assess and better comprehend the key drivers and barriers of green business practices by SMEs in the State of Ohio (USA). Results from our study show that a majority of respondents reported that they have implemented green practices, broadly defined, within their business. The two main drivers for deciding to engage in such practices are internal motivations and the opportunity to obtain a better public image. However, respondents also noted a lack of capital as the central barrier to implementing green business practices. We also observe that smaller firms, and firms located in urban areas, are more familiar with green business practices than larger firms and firms that are located in rural areas. Our results can be used by government and business actors alike, especially in states comparable to Ohio, as a benchmark to consider better strategies, programs, and policies for implementing green business techniques. Overall, this research helps to better discern best practices and ways to develop more prosperous SMEs without undermining the quality of the environment. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10669-021-09821-3.
... For example, Levy and Duverger (2010) found that the more respect hotel guests have for local historical sites, communities, and natural ecology, the higher their perception of sustainability is and their loyalty is positively affected. Namkung and Jang (2017) believe that when customers perceive that restaurants value green practices, they will be willing to pay more. Kim et al. (2018) considered natural scenic spots as sample areas, and they discovered that tourists love to revisit local areas that are under sustainable development and this affects word of mouth in a positive way. ...
Article
This study investigated the relationship among tourists’ perceived sustainability, aesthetic experience, and behavioral intention toward reused heritage buildings by employing stimulus–organism–response theory. There were 354 valid questionnaires collected from the Sputnik Lab in Tainan, Taiwan. A positive correlation was found between tourists’ perception of sustainability and aesthetic experience. When tourists perceived higher aesthetic experience, they also had stronger behavioral intention. Structural equation modeling analysis verified that the aesthetic experience of tourists had mediating effects between perceived sustainability and behavioral intention in the reused heritage space. The reuse of space should be attached significantly to the aesthetic display of space and service so as to promote such scenic spots and increase tourists’ intention to revisit through word of mouth.
... Shortly after the industrial revolution, environmental concerns began to emerge, especially from harmful emissions and discharges from industries which marked the onset of health problems and encroachment of the natural environment. Society has now become more concerned about the environment and thus clients are more willing to spend money on products perceived to enhance environmental protection (Namkung, & Jang, 2017). In the tourism business, the term sustainable tourism, ecotourism, and alternative tourism have been among the recent debates gaining popularity (Alhammadi & Nobanee, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
In a complex business environment, business entities are daily faced in the mix of sustaining their financial performance as one of the essential companies of survival, profitability, and growth. At the center of corporate goals is financial sustainability to meet present needs without compromising future needs. This calls for concise decision-making in balancing objectives and resources. Presently, sustainable tourism has been recognized on a global scale as a conduit for attaining environmental and social goals, particularly biodiversity conservation and poverty eradication. With increased sustainability importance and green certification witnessed in the last decade, businesses entities have been presented with both internal and external pressures to implement eco-friendly management strategies and programs to establish an internal green organizational atmosphere in favor of the green external environment. This research paper aims to assess the financial sustainability of the tourism sector in Malaysia. Malaysia recognizes the importance of sustainable tourism not only as a channel for national integration and unity but as also its contribution to social and economic development. Sustainable development in the tourism sector is considered a pillar to boost economic growth and environmental protection. The main goal of tourism entities is shown through financial performance, an essential component for sustainability, growth, and survival.
... For example, Orsato [143] explained that GPEB was choosing eco-friendly transportation, rejecting the disposing of goods, or joining in low-carbon and green travels. Furthermore, Namkung and Jang [144] presented three dimensions of GPEB: guests' willingness to protect the destination environment, awareness of reducing pollution, and intention to participate in low-carbon consumption. In this study, GEPB refers to eco-friendly and green consumption behaviors in hotels and guests' daily lives. ...
Article
Full-text available
To develop the hotel industry’s competitiveness, research on satisfaction and revisit intentions has always been important. More research has recently focused on guests’ pro-environmental behaviors and low-carbon management in the hotel industry. This research creates a recreationist-environmental fit satisfaction-revisit intention model based on the recreationist-environmental fit theory. This study surveyed seven green-standard hotels in Sanya, China, and tested the moderating effect of guests’ environmental behavior on their satisfaction and willingness to revisit. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents who had visited the surveyed green-standard hotels. Two hundred and forty-five valid questionnaires were collected with the hypotheses developed and examined using the SEM and HMR methods. The results indicated that the suitability of a leisure environment could positively impact guest satisfaction, which positively affected their willingness to revisit. In addition, this study proved the moderating effect of guests’ pro-environmental behaviors between satisfaction and revisit intentions.
... Even though hospitality research has analysed some of the issues relevant to pro-environmental behaviour in hospitality and tourism contexts (e.g., Gao et al., 2016;Miao and Wei, 2016;Namkung and Jang, 2017;Kang and Namkung, 2018;Rhou and Singal, 2020), our understanding of sustainable behaviour within the coffee shop industry remains limited. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of hospitality firms attempt to foster sustainable practices among their customers. Amongst these, incentives for customers to bring their own reusable products stand out. In this study, we first analyse whether consumers are willing to bring a reusable coffee cup (RCC) under the condition of a monetary incentive (qualitative decision) and the minimum discount required for individuals to be willing to use an RCC (quantitative decision). Second, we analyse the explanatory factors impacting these two decisions. Several factors are proposed to explain an individual's willingness to bring an RCC including their environmental knowledge and involvement, and personal restrictions for using an RCC. An empirical application, conducted on 1,371 individuals using a Heckit model, allows us to conduct a joint modelling and provide a novel methodological contribution to the study of the willingness, and barriers, of individuals towards the use of RCCs in the coffee shop industry.
... ., 2017; Tan vd., 2019; Park vd., 2020), • Yeşil Nesil Restoran programını inceleyen çalışmalar(Kurnaz ve Özdoğan, 2018; Akar Şahingöz ve Güleç, 2019), • Tüketicilerin yeşil restoranlardan beklentilerini tespit etmeye yönelik çalışmalar(Jang vd., 2015;Sarmiento ve El Hanandeh, 2018), • Yeşil restoranlarda hizmet kalitesinin ölçülmesine yönelik çalışmalar(Chen vd., 2015;Kurnaz ve Özdoğan, 2017), • Tüketicilerin yeşil restoran uygulamaları için daha fazla ödemeye istekli olup olmadıklarını tespit etmeye yönelik çalışmalar(Namkung ve Jang, 2014; Lita vd., 2014),• Restoran endüstrisindeki yeşil pazarlama uygulamalarını belirlemeye ve bu uygulamaların finansal performansla ilişkisini ortaya koymaya yönelik çalışmalar(Ham ve Lee, 2011;Ma ve Ghiselli, 2016), • Tüketicilerin çevreyle ilgili olan endişelerinin yeşil restoranları ziyaret etme üzerine etkisini tespit etmeye yönelik çalışmalar(Teng vd., 2014), • Yeşil restoran uygulamalarının marka değeri oluşumuna etkilerini belirlemeye yönelik çalışmalar(Namkung ve Jang, 2013), • Restoran yöneticilerinin sürdürülebilir uygulamaları benimseme niyetlerine yönelik çalışmalar(Raab vd., 2018), • Yeşil sertifikalı restoranlara yönelik çevrimiçi müşteri yorumlarını inceleyen çalışmalar(İpar vd., 2020), • Restoran çalışanlarının yeşil davranış belirleyicilerini belirlemeye yönelik çalışmalar(Wang, 2016) ve • Restoranlarda çevresel yönetim çalışmalarının çevreye yönelik etkisini inceleyen çalışmalar(Kasim ve Ismail, 2012) öne çıkmaktadır. ...
... Likewise, although some work has found positive effects of eco-friendly attributes on consumption behavior (Carley & Yahng, 2018;N. Lee et al., 2012;Namkung & Jang, 2017), other work has found this labelling has only a weak effect on consumption (Amendah & Park, 2008;Grunert et al., 2014). ...
Article
There are many ways consumers' morality has been shown to impact their marketplace behavior. We present a theoretical framework for how to conceive of and study marketplace morality in an attempt to unify these disparate findings. First, we describe two common conceptualizations of marketplace morality: (a) the attribute‐level approach (where a product attribute fits within a category that is normatively considered moral) and (b) the person‐level approach (where consumers differ in the extent to which they dispositionally value morality). We then introduce a third conceptualization: (c) the attitude‐level approach (where consumers differ in the extent to which they see their relevant attitude as based in their morality). Through this approach, we demonstrate morality's predictive utility for consumers' marketplace behaviors and help explain why other research could have found mixed evidence for its influence. Moreover, we use this approach to illuminate four contexts in which consumers' morality is more likely to influence marketplace attitudes and thereby impact their behavior: when the consumer's attitude is emotional, value‐relevant, identity‐relevant, and/or conceived in a negative valence. We conclude with a discussion of some of the unique challenges to attitude moralization in the marketplace as well as implications for managers promoting morally positioned purchases.
... Nonetheless, a foray into extant literature reveals that the majority of past studies focussed solely on one dimension of sustainability such as the environmental or social aspect (e.g. Namkung & Jang, 2017;Martinez & del Bosque, 2013). Only a handful of studies have investigated the effects of all three sustainability dimensions within hotel settings (i.e. ...
Article
This study investigates the effects of hotel's sustainability practices in three areas of sustainability and familiarity with those practices on hotel guest satisfaction and loyalty in the Kazakhstan hotel industry. Using a structural equation modelling (SEM) and fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), findings reveal that social and environmental dimensions play positive roles on guests' satisfaction and loyalty while the economic dimension and familiarity are not significantly related to guest loyalty, although they are likely to improve guest satisfaction. Furthermore, results of the analysis of the necessary conditions to achieve the expected model outcomes indicate that all three sustainability dimensions are necessary for sustainability efforts to have the most positive effect on guest satisfaction and loyalty. Results also indicate that although familiarity alone is insufficient, its combination with the social dimension increases guest satisfaction and loyalty. Findings provide theoretical and practical insights into sustainability practices in the hotel industry.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore factors affecting consumers’ green purchase behavior in the context of a developing nation, India. We proposed an integrated model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Social cognitive theory, combining with independent factors the perceived environmental knowledge, personal norm, recycling participation, perceived value, and willingness to pay to predict individuals’ green purchase intention. A total of 466 valid responses were collected from India with the help of a questionnaire survey. Evaluation of the research model was carried out through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), and SPSS PROCESS macro was used to test the mediation effect. The findings explored three factors of TPB, recycling participation, personal norm, perceived value, and environmental knowledge significantly influenced consumers’ green purchase intention. A positive mediation effect was also found regarding consumers’ green purchase intention. But willingness to pay, negatively influenced consumers’ green purchase intention.
Based on a qualitative exploratory study that combined three sources of qualitative data: interviews, archival data, and observational notes this research aims to explore the dimensions of sustainable food experiences offered in the luxury gastronomic industry. Our research indicates two critical findings. First, chefs’ definition of sustainable luxury food experiences should encompass both functional (e.g., sustainable and healthy food, eco-friendly practices) and experiential (e.g., sensory, creativity, pleasure, aesthetics) aspects. Second, Michelin-starred chefs’ motivations to adopt and promote sustainability incorporate, in addition to extrinsic factors (Planet and people), intrinsic factors (plate, pleasure, and place) not addressed previously in the literature. Our study enriches the literature on sustainable hospitality overall, and in particular in luxury restaurants by considering an emic perspective centered on the way the principal actors (chefs) define and implement sustainability in a new service and hospitality sector: the luxury gastronomy sector.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
امروزه تحقیقات در تمایل رفتاری (قصد رفتاری) در صنعت هتلداری توجه زیادی از محققان را به خود جلب کرده‌اند. در نتیجه هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر هنجارهای ذهنی، کنترل رفتاری درک شده و نگرش بر تمایل رفتاری در صنعت هتلداری می¬باشد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق مشتریان جوان هتل‌های بین‌المللی 5 ستاره لاله و پارسیان استقلال در شهر تهران است که نامحدود می¬باشند. برای به دست آوردن حجم نمونه از روش نمونه¬گیری دردسترس و فرمول ¬کوکران استفاده گردید و برای جمع¬آوری داده¬ها نیز پرسشنامه استاندارد بکار برده شد که روایی آن از طریق روایی سازه و تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و پایایی آن نیز با آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه گردید. تحقیق حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از نظر نحوه گردآوری¬داده¬ها، توصیفی- پیمایشی است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده¬ها از مدل¬سازی ¬معادلات ¬ساختاری و نرم¬افزار LISREL استفاده شده است. نتایج به دست آمده از پژوهش نشان داد که هنجارهای ذهنی، کنترل رفتاری درک شده و نگرش تأثیر مثبت معناداری بر تمایل رفتاری دارد.
Article
Background With increasing pressure on the Earth’s finite resources, there is significant demand for environmentally sustainable practices in foodservice. A shift to sustainable foodservice operations can decrease its environmental impact and may align with consumer expectations. Objective This systematic review explored consumer expectations (attitudes pre-intervention) and responses (behaviour, cognitive attitudes and affective attitudes post-intervention) towards environmentally sustainable initiatives of foodservice operations. Methods A systematic search following PRISMA guidelines was conducted across MEDLINE, EMABASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. English and full text research articles published up to November 2019 were identified. Consumers’ expectations and responses to interventions were extracted. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Results Thirty-four studies were included and given the heterogeneity of the studies; results were synthesized narratively. The main outcomes analyzed included changes in behaviour and attitudes (cognitive and affective) including knowledge and satisfaction. Intervention strategies were interpreted and categorized into three groups: food waste reduction, single-use item and packaging waste reduction, and initiatives related to menu, messaging and labelling. Most studies resulted in significant pro-environmental changes towards decreasing food waste, decreasing single use-item and packaging waste, and engaging consumers in sustainable eating. Conclusions There are a range of successful environmentally sustainable strategies that when implemented by foodservices can have a mostly positive impact on consumer attitudes and responses. However, positive consumer attitudes did not always translate to changes in behavior. Foodservices should carefully consider implementing interventions which support changes in consumer behavior.
Research
Full-text available
Özet Yapılan araştırmanın amacı, yeşil yönetim yaklaşımı ile çevreci uygulamalar gerçekleştiren otellerde konaklayan turistlerin, yeşil otellere yönelik algılarının, çevreci davranış eğilimleri üzerine olan etkilerinin belirlenmesi ve turistlerin çevreci davranış eğilimlerinin yeşil otellere yönelik davranışsal niyetlerine etkilerinin tespit edilmesidir. Bu kapsamda gerçekleştirdikleri çevreye duyarlı uygulamalar ile T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı tarafından yeşil yıldız sertifikasına uygun görülen otel işletmelerinde konaklayan 681 turistten elde edilen veriler, SPSS 21 ve AMOS 21 istatistik paket programları yardımıyla analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, turistlerin çevreci davranış eğilimleri üzerinde, yeşil otel tercihlerine yönelik algılarının etkisi olduğu; ayrıca çevreci davranış eğilimlerinin de, turistlerin yeşil otellere yönelik davranışsal niyetlerini önemli ölçüde etkilediği görülmüştür. Araştırmanın sonunda elde edilen bulgulara yönelik sonuçlar değerlendirilerek alana ve uygulayıcılara öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Yeşil Turist, Yeşil Otel, Yeşil Turizm, Yeşil Pazarlama. Abstract The aim of this research is to determine the impact of tourists perceptions about green hotels, staying in hotels that used environmentalist applications with green management approach, environmental behavioral tendencies and to determine the impacts of green behavioral intentions of tourists on green hotels. In this context, the data obtained from 681 tourists staying in hotel establishments that were deemed worthy of green star certification by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism with the environmentally sensitive practices they carried out were analyzed with the help of SPSS 21 and AMOS 21 statistical package programs. As a result of the research, it is observed that the perceptions of the green hotel preferences of the tourists on the greener behavior tendencies; Also, environmental behavior tendencies have also significantly affected the behavioral intentions of tourists towards green hotels. At the end of the study, the results of the findings were evaluated and suggestions were presented to the field and practitioners..
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, employee behavior that has emerged as one of the most crucial factors that determine the success of organizations in general, and in tourism industry in particular. Previous researchers indicated that it is necessary to shed light on the mechanism influence of determinant factors on organizational citizenship behavior in the tourism industry. So that the main purpose of this study is to examine the mechanism of employees’ perceptions of green performance of hotels influence their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) with the serial mediating effects of psychology (perceived pride) and emotion (affective commitment) of employees working in the hotel. A conceptual research model is developed and then empirically examined using PLS - SEM. The study data was collected from 209 employees working in hotel at Moc Chau national tourism area (Vietnam) via a questionnaire survey. The results show a positive correlation between employees’ perception of green performance of their hotel and their OCB. Interestingly, employees’ perceived pride and affective commitment act as serial mediators in the relationship correlation between employees’ perception of green performance of their hotel and their OCB. This study offers new insight for researchers and managers in the hospitality industry in term of ―go green‖ tendency.
Article
Full-text available
Destination image formation theory postulates that the way tourists perceive a destination – the destination’s image – affects tourists’ destination choice. Organic destination image – which develops naturally, without an active effort by anyone to shape destination image – is more powerful than destination image induced through marketing because tourists are sceptical about the information conveyed to them through marketing communication channels. Theory predicts that destinations cannot control organic image. We challenge this assumption by hypothesizing that visible environmental initiatives at the destination are positively associated with the organic destination image of being environmentally sustainable. Results indicate that destinations may indeed be able to proactively and deliberately manage their organic image. Tourists who notice pro-environmental initiatives at the destination and pay attention to them perceive the destination as more environmentally friendly and sustainable when they depart. With organic image being a key driver of destination choice, implementation of pro-environmental initiatives becomes a rational marketing investment. This is particularly important given the increasing environmental concern of consumers. The invaluable side effect of redirecting “green marketing dollars” towards “green action dollars” is the improved environmental performance of the destination, which contributes to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
Thesis
As more international chains entered China, competitiveness to attract and retain customer are intensified. The aims of this research were to determine and analyze the influence of restaurant attributes toward customer loyalty with a mediating effect from customer satisfaction in the full-service foreign restaurant in China. The study uses the judgement non-probability sampling method where an electronic survey is distributed online to 273 (n=273) respondents aged ranges from 17 to 55 and above who had dined at an Indonesian restaurant, Bali Bistro in Shanghai. The research findings derived from structural equation modelling show that restaurant attributes have significant influence toward customer satisfaction and customer loyalty except for (1) service quality and (2) authenticity. The most significance among all valid reliable is food quality, followed by price and ambiance. It is also found that customer satisfaction has a significance influence towards customer loyalty despite of being the only measurement towards customer loyalty. Thus, managers and entrepreneurs of full-service foreign restaurant should emphasize on improving food quality, prince and ambiance in order to survive the competitive market of China. In order to intensively diagnose this topic, it would be recommended that psychographics is implement in future studies as consumer behavior and taste preferences are different in every region of the country.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to increase existing knowledge of consumers’ sustainable products via converging and testing social identity and value-belief-norm theory used in sustainable behaviour literature. More specifically, the present paper incorporated consumers’ orientation towards a lifestyle of health and sustainability (COLOHAS), attitude towards sustainable products’ (ATSP’) purchase, perceived consumer effectiveness and perceived knowledge about sustainability issues as a conceptual framework to understand comprehensively consumers’ willingness to pay premium price (WPPP) for sustainable products. Design/methodology/approach The data were gathered through a survey of 850 customers residing at Delhi-NCR and buying sustainable products. Data were analysed using the structural equation modelling approach. Findings The results show that perceived consumer effectiveness has a greater descriptive value on their WPPP than do their ATSP’s purchase and perceived knowledge about sustainability issues. Additionally, both dimensions (health consciousness and value orientation towards sustainability) of COLOHAS have been found to have a significant and positive influence on consumer ATSP. Research limitations/implications The empirical results offer managers with better insights on how COLOHAS, perceived effectiveness and perceived knowledge about sustainability issues influences their WPPP for sustainable products. Originality/value This study adds to the body of literature by emphasizing those cognitive processes that influence the customers’ WPPP for sustainable products. Therefore, this paper presents important information to the managers and marketers about the sustainability aspects.
Article
Despite the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in promoting healthy food consumption choices on the part of individual companies, little research has been conducted from these perspectives of the customers. This absence is especially significant considering how CSR influences customers’ perceptions, behavioral intentions in service encounters, and the role of brand equity in the restaurant industry. To fill this research gap, the current study sought to examine the impact of consumers’ perceptions of CSR, including their health-focused practices, on dining intentions in restaurants within the Unites States. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and the results revealed that CSR has a positive correlation with customer satisfaction, and that both customer satisfaction and trust are significantly related to brand equity. Consumers’ perceived importance of CSR, their satisfaction with and trust toward the company, and brand equity all have significant impacts on their revisit intentions to restaurants.
Article
Bottled water entails an environmental sustainability challenge, and the restaurant industry is a large-scale contributor to this problem as it seems to be reluctant, at least in some countries, to substitute tap water for bottled water. There are two plausible reasons for this; one is that the industry might assume that customers prefer bottled water, mainly because of its taste, and the second is that restaurateurs may be unwilling to forgo the high economic margin from bottled water sales. In this context, filtered water may represent a solution as it is a greener option than bottled water and tastes better than tap water. However, does it represent a satisfying taste option for diners? Moreover, are restaurant consumers willing to pay for filtered water? Given the importance of the answers to these questions, this study proposes to examine whether there are differences between filtered and bottled mineral water regarding their expected and actual taste and customers’ willingness to pay. To this end, this study employed three different experimental groups in an actual fine-dining restaurant in Barcelona. The results show that consumers derive a positive payoff by drinking a more environmentally sustainable option and may even be willing to pay for filtered water. However, there is still room for improvement in filtering systems in regard to the taste of water. These results entail important managerial implications for the restaurant industry since it can become more environmentally sustainable without losing economic profits.
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three green supply chain management (GrSCM) dimensions (i.e., green management, green food, green environment, and equipment) on operational performance, competitive advantage, and firm performance, in a convenience sample of international quick-service restaurants (QSRs) in Egypt. The hypotheses of the study were tested empirically by employing a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 600 questionnaires were randomly distributed by hand to QSR managers and supervisors, and 478 usable questionnaires were personally retrieved, representing a usable response rate of 79.7%. The obtained data were analyzed using one-way independent ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM results revealed that the green management dimension had a significant positive effect on a restaurant's competitive advantage while the green environment and equipment dimension had a significant positive effect on operational performance. Additionally, the operational performance had a significant positive effect on firm performance. The study has significant theoretical and practical implications.
Book
Full-text available
An ecofeminist criticism of neoliberalism, this book uses economic growth, CSR and the press coverage of environmental affairs as a case study. The author argues that CSR is part of a wheel of neoliberalism that continually perpetuates inequality and the exploitation of women and Nature. Using an ecofeminist sense-making analysis of media coverage of food waste, global warming, plastic, economic growth and CSR, the author shows how the press discourse in writing is always similar and serves to preserve the status quo with CSR being just a smokescreen that saved capitalism and just one cog in the wheel of neoliberalism. While available research offers perspectives from business and public relations studies, looking at how CSR is implemented and how it contributes towards the reputation of businesses, this book explores how the media enforce CSR discourse while at the same time arguing for environmental preservation. The book presents a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to explain how and why CSR is being pushed forward by the news media, and how the media preserves the status quo by creating moral panic on environmental issues while at the same time pushing for CSR discourse and economic growth, which only contributes towards environmental degradation. The original research presented in the book looks at how the media write about economic growth, plastics, food waste, CSR and global warming. This interdisciplinary study draws on ecofeminist theory and media feminist theory to provide a novel analysis of CSR, making the case that enforcing CSR as a way to do business damages the environment and that the media enforce a neoliberal discourse of promoting both economic growth and environmentalism, which does not go together. Examining the UK media as a case study, a detailed methodological account is provided so that the study can be repeated and compared elsewhere. The book is aimed at academics and researchers in business and media studies, as well as those in women’s studies. It will also be relevant to scholars in business management and marketing.
Article
Purpose Previous research on sustainability in the foodservice industry has emphasized its environmental, social and economic dimensions predominantly studied within a Western context or in developed countries. This paper aims to question this positioning by considering the MEA (Middle East and African) context. Second, this paper examines sustainability forms according to the type of restaurant and explains how these forms compare with and contribute to the broader scholarship on sustainability in the service marketing literature and practice. Design/methodology/approach The paper follows a phenomenological perspective and a grounded theory approach. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 40 owners of different types of restaurants (traditional, modern and fast-food) in the capital city of Lebanon, Beirut. Findings This paper identifies four dimensions that are expressed in different ways depending on the type of restaurant. This paper also found that sustainability in the foodservice industry in the MEA region has some differences and similarities relative to the literature where current studies mainly focus on the Western context. While the most dominant form of sustainability in the MEA context is related to the social dimension implemented by restaurants through philanthropy and community support activities, the less important aspect refers to activities about ecology and environmental protection. Research limitations/implications The research highlights that sustainable activities in the MEA context are shaped by deep-rooted traditions of philanthropic offerings and community-based activities profoundly embedded within the Arab region. Second, the study contributes to current practices and research related to the foodservice literature by emphasizing the dynamics of the change in terms of sustainability perceptions across different kinds of restaurants and how the type of restaurant can affect the adoption and implementation of sustainable activities. The limits of this study are related to its small sample size and the exclusion of psychographic factors, such as age and gender, which can deepen the knowledge of sustainable actions implemented by female and male restaurant owners and people of different age ranges. Social implications With its focus on the foodservice industry in the MEA underpinning restaurateurs’ lack of ecological sustainability, this research shows that nongovernmental organizations could play a vital role in terms of raising awareness about ecological issues and how restaurateurs can be involved in eco-friendly initiatives. Originality/value The paper contributes to the foodservice literature and the emerging research on sustainability in restaurants by presenting an approach based on examining sustainable restaurants in a developing country context. The paper does so by adopting a restaurant owner’s perspective and analyzing three types of restaurants, namely, traditional, modern and fast-food restaurants.
Article
This study calculated the carbon footprint of a local pizza restaurant chain in Izmir, Turkey, based on its operational energy consumption. In Turkey, country-specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have not yet been determined and based on legislation, only industrial companies with high emissions are compelled to develop GHG inventory reporting. The study faced several limitations. First, suppliers lack usable carbon footprint information. Second, there are three other local pizza chains in Izmir, which are similar to the one in this case study having more than 10 branches and offering take-home delivery. However, it was also not possible to obtain data from them to make comparisons. Finally, since the case restaurant did not integrate environmental management systems into its organizational structure, it was not possible to use carbon emission assesments under ISO 14064 or PAS 2050. Consequently, because the only reliable data were for the restaurant’s energy consumption our results should be interpreted cautiously when comparing with other types of restaurants in other countries and unavoidable errors should be considered. The Tier 1 approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used to calculate the restaurant’s carbon footprint. Five years of data (2015–2020) were collected from utility bills and purchasing records, which were then converted into CO2 equivalents. Based on this energy consumption data, the restaurant’s carbon footprint was calculated as 1,919.818 tCO2e. To offset this, afforestation was proposed. Specifically, 3,062 trees would have to be planted to make its operations carbon neutral.
Article
Beaches are regarded as a core resource in coastal tourism. However, they are being eroded by environmental pollution, which has negative impacts on visitors' tourism experiences. This study proposed a framework to elaborate the effects of visitors' environmental perceptions on satisfaction and willingness to pay for environmental protection. The findings revealed that visitors' perceptions of a beach's quality had significant positive effects on their satisfaction. Furthermore, satisfaction significantly increased visitors' willingness to pay for environmental protection. In addition, visitors' perceptions of the beach environment had a direct and positive impact on their willingness to pay for environmental protection.
Article
This study aims to examine the influence of Eco-friendly Practices, Green Brand Image and Green Initiatives on the number of tourists visiting Pontianak. The type of research used in this research is quantitative by using a survey method wherein survey research using a questionnaire that will be given to respondents according to predetermined criteria. The population of this research is the consumer who has visited, received offers and made purchase decisions at least two times for Starbucks products with the sample is 100 respondents. The technique used is non-probability sampling, which is a sampling technique that does not provide equal opportunities for each element or member of the population to be selected as samples, and the purposive sampling method is a sampling technique with certain considerations. The data will be analyzed by using PASW Statistics 18 software application and the method used is multiple linear regression with the variables of Eco-Friendly Practices, Green Brand Image and Green Initiatives, and several tourists. The results show that Eco-Friendly Practices, Green Brand Image and Green Initiatives have a significant effect number of tourists visiting Pontianak.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate how green brand positioning facilitated by utilitarian environmental benefits and nature connectedness may influence green brand image, as mediated by green perceived value (GPV) and brand innovativeness and how brand type moderates these relationships. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using an online survey method, and structural equation modeling was employed to test the research hypotheses with a sample of 826 Chinese respondents. Findings The results demonstrate that utilitarian environmental benefits directly enhance green brand image. Both utilitarian environmental benefits and nature connectedness indirectly influence green brand image through GPV and brand innovativeness. Subsequently, green brand innovativeness positively affects GPV. The moderating effects of brand type on the relationships in the model are also established. Practical implications Organisations should enhance green value and brand innovativeness when adopting green brand positioning tools to strengthen green brand image and implement diverse green branding strategies between brands of physical goods and services. Originality/value Although previous studies have investigated how perceived benefits affect the development of brand image, the issue has not been examined based on the human associative memory framework from a green branding perspective. No empirical study has simultaneously included both green brand innovativeness and GPV in this formation process. Additionally, the moderating role of brand type in the model has not been explored previously.
Article
Full-text available
If service quality relates to retention of customers at the aggregate level, as other research has indicated, then evidence of its impact on customers’ behavioral responses should be detectable. The authors offer a conceptual model of the impact of service quality on particular behaviors that signal whether customers remain with or defect from a company. Results from a multicompany empirical study examining relationships from the model concerning customers’ behavioral intentions show strong evidence of their being influenced by service quality. The findings also reveal differences in the nature of the quality-intentions link across different dimensions of behavioral intentions. The authors’ discussion centers on ways the results and research approach of their study can be helpful to researchers and managers.
Article
Full-text available
Destination marketing is increasingly becoming extremely competitive worldwide. This paper explains the destination concept and attempts to synthesise several models for strategic marketing and management of destinations. It provides an overview of several techniques widely used and illustrates examples from around the world. The paper also explains that marketing of destinations should balance the strategic objectives of all stakeholders as well the sustainability of local resources. Destinations need to differentiate their products and develop partnerships between the public and private sector locally in order to co-ordinate delivery. Taking advantage of new technologies and the Internet also enables destinations to enhance their competitiveness by increasing their visibility, reducing costs and enhancing local co-operation. Destination marketing must lead to the optimisation of tourism impacts and the achievement of the strategic objectives for all stakeholders.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to examine sport tourists’ involvement with a destination that hosts a sport event to enable understanding of how a tourist–destination relationship forms. To bolster this understanding, the psychological continuum model (PCM) is applied as a framework to assess sport tourists’ involvement with a destination across four progressive stages. A questionnaire was administered to sport tourists in an international marathon event in the United States (N = 1,029). To allocate these sport tourists into distinct stages that represent an increased psychological connection to the destination, a three-step staging tool using destination involvement (DI) was applied. The findings indicate the progressive development of DI among these sport tourists results in increasingly high place attachment and revisit intentions. The results provide support for DI as an indicator that allows destination marketers to understand sport tourists’ destination attitude as well as predict behavioral intention.
Article
Full-text available
Oliver’s 1997 four-stage loyalty model proposes that loyalty consists of belief, affect, intention, and action. Although this loyalty model has recently been subject to empirical examination, the issue of moderator variables has been largely neglected. This article fills that void by analyzing the moderating effects of selected personal and situational characteristics, using a sample of 888 customers of a large do-it-yourself retailer. The results of multi-group causal analysis suggest that these moderators exert an influence on the development of the different stages of the loyalty sequence. Specifically, age, income, education and expertise, price orientation, critical incident recovery, and loyalty card membership are found to be important moderators of the links in the four-stage loyalty model. Limitations of the study are outlined, and implications for both research and managerial practice are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the hospitality marketing research published in four top hospitality journals from 2008 to 2010 for the purposes of identifying significant trends and gaps in the literature. A total of 274 articles are reviewed and classified based on research topic, industry focus, and analysis technique as well as on a number of other methodological criteria. Significant topical and methodological trends are discussed. Important topical trends are synthesized and specific directions for future research are proposed. We conclude with the presentation and discussion of an organizational framework for future hospitality marketing research.
Article
Full-text available
By considering differences in culture and economic conditions in two different countries, India and the United States, this study investigates the psychological factors (consumers' attitudes, behavioral intentions, and involvement) in relation to Green practices (GP) in the restaurant industry as measured by three concerns (health, social, and environmental). Next, the study examines how these factors affect consumers' willingness to pay for GP. Results from principal component analyses and multinomial logistic regressions with data from India (n = 196) and the United States (n = 200) (collected from customers at two comparable commercial restaurants in each country) show that there is a clear difference in consumers' attitudes, behavioral intentions, and involvement in GP and the relationship of these factors to the consumers' willingness to pay. The findings of this study showed that consumers in the United States have a higher degree of involvement in environmentally and socially responsible practices in restaurants, which have the most significant effect on consumers' willingness to pay up to 10% or higher on menu prices for GP. In contrast, consumers in India have a higher degree of involvement in health and visibility than consumers in the United States, which is the major driver of their willingness to pay more than 10% or higher on menu prices for GP.
Article
Full-text available
If service quality relates to retention of customers at the aggregate level, as other research has indicated, then evidence of its impact on customers' behavioral responses should be detectable. The authors offer a conceptual model of the impact of service quality on particular behaviors that signal whether customers remain with or defect from a company. Results from a multicompany empirical study examining relationships from the model concerning customers' behavioral intentions show strong evidence of their being influenced by service quality. The findings also reveal differences in the nature of the quality-intentions link across different dimensions of behavioral intentions. The authors' discussion centers on ways the results and research approach of their study can be helpful to researchers and managers.
Article
Full-text available
Policy-makers are interested in cost-effective and socially acceptable ways of encouraging the public to adopt more environmentally-friendly lifestyles. One area which UK policy-makers are focussing on is ‘catalyst behaviour’, the notion that taking-up a new behaviour (such as recycling) may cause people to adopt other pro-environmental behaviours. Yet, evidence for such ‘spill-over’ effects is so far limited, and it is unclear when and how cross-situational motivations (e.g., pro-environmental identity) may predict behaviour and when contextual factors are more important. We report on a postal survey (N = 551) of pro-environmental behaviours amongst the UK public. We assess the influence of pro-environmental self-identify on consistency across a range of behaviours. Pro-environmental values, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, attitudes, and demographic factors were also measured. Findings show self-identity to be a significant behavioural determinant over and above theory of planned behaviour variables for carbon offsetting behaviour. However, pro-environmental self-identity was only a significant predictor for certain other pro-environmental behaviours; background variables were also important predictors. Limitations of the study, and implications for theory and policy, are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This study specifically discusses the relationships between consumers’ knowledge of a restaurant’s sustainable practices, environmental concern, and ecological behavior and their intention to patronize a “green” restaurant. The results revealed that consumers’ knowledge of sustainable restaurant practices and environmental concerns were important determinants of consumers’ intentions to patronize green restaurants. Demographic variables, age of consumers, education levels, and income levels were found to be significant in assessing patronage of green restaurants.
Article
Full-text available
Global industrialization and the subsequent dwindling of many natural resources have become elements for product differentiation in marketing. Environmental certification programs are increasingly being recognized as significant market-based tools for linking manufacturing and consumer purchases. This research examines the relationships between intrinsic environmental motivations and the willingness-to-pay a premium for environmentally certified wood products. A conceptual model is proposed that captures the effects of perceptions, awareness and price on consumer willingness to purchase and pay a premium for environmentally certified forest products. The data suggest that there are positive correlations between the willingness-to-pay and the independent variables in the model, environmental consciousness, certification involvement and perceived importance of certification. A cluster of US consumers was identified that has a proclivity to purchase certified wood products and may be a logical target market.
Article
Full-text available
Restaurant operators who seek to increase table turns during peak periods may want to speed up the meal's pace. However, excessive speed may make customers feel rushed. A survey of 218 respondents found that too fast a pace does affect customer satisfaction with the meal experience, with fine-dining customers more sensitive to pacing issues than customers in casual or upscale casual restaurants. Regardless of restaurant type, too fast a pace during the meal itself diminishes customer satisfaction, but speed during check settlement is often appreciated. The effects on customer satisfaction of the pace of welcome, seating, and taking drink orders depend partly on the type of restaurant and on the meal type. Guests at fine-dining restaurants do not want these preprocess events to be rushed. Additionally, a faster pace during these preprocess events at dinner diminished satisfaction ratings as compared to lunch.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Eating out behaviors vary from one individual to another. However, there is no conceptually underpinned typology to explain this phenomenon effectively. This paper aims to develop a conceptually underpinned typology of eating out attitudes and to distinguish differences based on demographics and actual eating out behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – This study proposes a typology using a 2×2 matrix (high and low levels of involvement and variety seeking) and uses multinomial logistic regression to examine differences between the four groups. Findings – Age, education, the breadth of culinary exposure, and the extent of eating out are significant differentiators between the four eating out attitudes. Research limitations/implications – The typology can be investigated in cross-cultural contexts to expand the understanding of eating out behaviors underpinned by involvement and variety seeking. Both restaurants and destination marketing organizations can use the typology to better understand their customers and build effective communication and product mix strategies. Originality/value – The paper is the first in the restaurant marketing literature to examine and explain the roles of two important and highly relevant consumer behavior constructs: involvement and variety seeking. Additionally, the study provides key insights pertinent to the fast growing Indian market.
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this article is to analyse whether there are differences in green advertisement attitudes between high involved and low involved consumers, to compare high and low involvement consumer’s cognitive responses and affective responses towards advertisements and examine the extent of the importance on certain themes that both high involvement and low involvement consumers consider. Themes such as company image, environmental labels, and product recycling symbols. A random sample of 207 consumers was taken from Victoria (Australia). The study shows that there are differences between the two groups in terms of their attitude towards green advertising with respect to all the dimensions and the low involved customers appear to have a stronger disregard for the green advertising across all the perceptive measures towards green advertising. The findings provide useful insights to practitioners as to the type of themes preferred for green advertising.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of price transparency on consumers' price perceptions. Our two-dimensional information transparency framework (sufficiency and diagnosticity of pricing information) is grounded in the Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion. Real-life online hotel booking sites were used for hypothesis testing. Our results show that consumers' price fairness perceptions and willingness-to-pay are more susceptible to the influence of externally supplied pricing information when such information is presented in a high transparency context (i.e., information high in sufficiency and diagnosticity). Heightened judgmental confidence in consumers' price perceptions was also observed in the high information transparency condition. Managerial implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a cross-cultural study of organic food consumption. Relationships between health and diet concern, environmental concern, confidence in the conventional food industry, demographic characteristics, and intensity of organic food consumption of consumers from Denmark (mature organic industry) and New Zealand (novice organic food industry) are investigated. The authors evaluate the adequacy of deficit value and market development conceptual frameworks to predict priority of these concerns related to the level of organic market development.
Data
Full-text available
Managerial benefits of market segmentation have been justified; however, incorporation of this concept into restaurant management philosophy is limited, particularly in tourist resorts. A factor analytic approach undertaken in this article revealed that there were different tourist dining segments, developing their restaurant selection decisions based on different aspects of restaurant services, which requires segment-specific marketing and management strategies. The analysis identified five distinct tourist dining segments that take different sets of elements into account when making their restaurant selection decision. Marketing implications of the study findings are discussed.
Article
Closed-ended contingent valuation surveys are used to assess demands in hypothetical markets and recently have been applied widely to the valuation of (non-market) environmental resources. This interviewing strategy holds considerable promise for more general market research applications. The authors describe a new maximum likelihood estimation technique for use with these special data. Unlike previously used methods, the estimated models are as easy to interpret as ordinary least squares regression results and the results can be approximated accurately by packaged probit estimation routines.
Article
Research has shown that brands with higher deal frequency obtain a smaller market share gain on deal and have a lower expected price. However, the level of dealing must be perceived by consumers before it can affect consumer response to promotions. Hence, perception of deal frequency may affect consumer price perceptions and deal response much more strongly than the actual deal frequency. The author determines how consumer perceptions of deal frequency for a brand may be influenced by the dealing pattern of that brand and of other brands. She shows that the price consumers are willing to pay for a brand is correlated more highly with perceived deal frequency than with actual deal frequency. She also shows that the price consumers are willing to pay is correlated with the actual deal frequency of the brand for certain dealing patterns, but not for others.
Article
Who are the socially conscious consumers? This article typologically classifies socially conscious consumers and evaluates the relative sensitivity of demographic and sociopsychological variables in discriminating degree of social consciousness.
Article
The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i.e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
Article
Although brand theorists suggest that what a person knows about a company (i.e., corporate associations) can influence perceptions of the company's products, little systematic research on these effects exists. The authors examine the effects of two general types of corporate associations on product responses: One focuses on the company's capabilities for producing products, that is, corporate ability (CA) associations, and the other focuses on the company's perceived social responsibility, that is, corporate social responsibility (CSR) associations. The results of three studies, including one that measures respondents’ CA and CSR associations for well-known companies and one that uses consumers recruited in a shopping mall, demonstrate that (1) what consumers know about a company can influence their beliefs about and attitudes toward new products manufactured by that company, (2) CA and CSR associations may have different effects on consumer responses to products, and (3) products of companies with negative associations are not always destined to receive negative responses. The authors conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for marketing managers and further research.
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Article
The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i. e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
Article
Research has shown that brands with higher deal frequency obtain a smaller market share gain on deal and have a lower expected price. However, the level of dealing must be perceived by consumers before it can affect consumer response to promotions. Hence, perception of deal frequency may affect consumer price perceptions and deal response much more strongly than the actual deal frequency. The author determines how consumer perceptions of deal frequency for a brand may be influenced by the dealing pattern of that brand and of other brands. She shows that the price consumers are willing to pay for a brand is correlated more highly with perceived deal frequency than with actual deal frequency. She also shows that the price consumers are willing to pay is correlated with the actual deal frequency of the brand for certain dealing patterns, but not for others.
Article
Who are the socially conscious consumers? This article typologically classifies socially conscious consumers and evaluates the relative sensitivity of demographic and sociopsychological variables in discriminating degree of social consciousness.
Article
Although brand theorists suggest that what a person knows about a company (i. e., corporate associations) can influence perceptions of the company's products, little systematic research on these effects exists. The authors examine the effects of two general types of corporate associations on product responses: One focuses on the company's capabilities for producing products, that is, corporate ability (CA) associations, and the other focuses on the company's perceived social responsibility, that is, corporate social responsibility (CSR) associations. The results of three studies, including one that measures respondents' CA and CSR associations for well-known companies and one that uses consumers recruited in a shopping mall, demonstrate that (1) what consumers know about a company can influence their beliefs about and attitudes toward new products manufactured by that company, (2) CA and CSR associations may have different effects on consumer responses to products, and (3) products of companies with negative associations are not always destined to receive negative responses. The authors conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for marketing managers and further research.
Article
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) make up the vast majority of businesses in Hong Kong. However, a review of the literature about environmental management and environmental management systems (EMSs) reveals that very few studies have examined EMS implementation in small- and medium-sized hotels (SMHs). This study aimed to identify the barriers to the adoption and implementation of a formal EMS by SMHs in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that nine factors can hinder the adoption of such a system by SMHs, five of which are unique to these hotels. In descending order, they are (a) lack of a sense of urgency, (b) ambiguity of EMS standards, (c) lack of qualified verifiers/consultants, (d) conflicting guidance, and (e) inconsistent support. The findings offer some explanation for the limited action taken by these hotels to improve their environmental performance. The policy implications for hotel managers who are committed to implementing an EMS are also discussed. © 2011 International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education.
Article
Sustainable consumption of hospitality products and services has become an increasingly important topic of interest in both hospitality academia and practice. Inducing pro-environmental behavior (PEB) in individuals has been recognized as one of the major challenges on the path to sustainable hospitality consumption. This research examined customers’ PEB in hotel settings. Based on a survey with a sample of 537 participants representing a broad range of demographic strata, this study identified seven dimensions of PEB as manifested in hotel settings (green consumerism, recycling, reuse, conservation, reduction, curtailing, and compromise) and examined the associations of psychological determinants with the seven PEB behavioral types. The results show that hotel customers display the least PEB when compromise of personal comfort is involved. The findings further suggest that the major determinant of PEB in hotel settings is nonenvironmental concerns, such as time and effort involved in PEB. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
Article
Environmental factors are increasingly important in the hospitality industry, with “green” operations receiving more attention from the hotel industry. As a result, major hotel brands, such as Starwood, have started environmental initiatives with far-reaching effects on the development and operation of their properties. But are consumers ready for these changes, who are they, and what benefits do they perceive as important? To answer these questions, hoteliers must understand how to position their hotel and attract the right customer. Following prior research, and adapting a psychographic segmentation approach, this study segmented respondents into shades of green, then determined their preferences for hotel offerings of products and services and the perceived benefits they seek. The results highlight the importance of environmental attitudes in the prediction of green consumer behavior. The results show that the shades of green consumers are reasonably distinct and different in terms of identifiable characteristics and behavior patterns and suggest targeting specific strategies to particular green consumer segments as a powerful operational tool in attracting and retaining more guests. © 2012 International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education.
Article
The trends of corporate social responsibility and sustainability drive many firms to adopt green marketing practices through the development of products and services targeted to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. Green movement enables firms to gain competitive advantages, improve ecological performance, reduce operational costs, and enhance corporate image. However, the pressure to adopt environmental management practices in the food service sector is insignificant compared to the manufacturing sector in Malaysia. This disparity is evident despite of the fast growing number of restaurants and widespread habit of eating out, which bring with it an increasingly detrimental environmental impact. Currently, there is limited existing research on the demand for green practices within the food service sector from the consumers' perspectives in Malaysia. This paper reviews the conceptual and empirical literatures and proposes a conceptual framework to examine how attitudes and pro-environmental behaviours influence consumers' intention towards patronising green restaurants. In addition, the theoretical and practical implications are also put forward.
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate customers' perceptions and purchase intentions related to green practices in an upscale, green certified restaurant, on a university campus located in the southeastern USA. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The survey was adapted from a previous survey conducted by DiPietro et al.. The current study used a convenience sample of 2,500 customers of the restaurant. A total of 600 surveys were completed and useable for a 24 percent response rate. The data were analysed using independent samples I-tests, ANOVAs, and correlation analysis. Findings ‐ The results revealed that customers believed that they are knowledgeable about green practices but they would still like to know more about them. Customers also expressed preferences related to restaurants that are environmentally friendly and use environmentally safe products. Moreover, female customers and people with higher education were more conscious regarding green practices. Customers who utilized green practices at home intended to visit green restaurants more often. Research limitations/implications ‐ The respondents were sampled from an upscale university restaurant, and were mostly within the age range of 50 and older (60.7 percent), which is not typical of a university foodservice operation. The restaurant used in this study catered more to faculty, staff and other professionals close to the university, and did not have a large student customer base. Another limitation of the study is that the prior knowledge and preferences of respondents regarding green practices was not measured. Because of the use of a convenience sample, the results are not generalizeable, but can be used to further research in this area. Practical implications ‐ The practical implications of the study are that restaurant managers should target more specific marketing strategies and employee training related to green practices. Green restaurants that have a high proportion of female and highly educated customers should pay attention to promoting green practices, especially in areas that are visible to the guest, as these are the respondents who had the highest preference for being informed about green practices. Originality/value ‐ The current study looked at an upscale, on-campus university restaurant that had a very highly educated and older population. Previous studies analysed fast food or casual dining restaurant perspectives. Compared to the Hu et al. model, this study found that gender influenced guest perception about return intention to the green restaurants.
Article
This study examines the effects of green practices at restaurants on customer-based brand equity formation. A survey of 512 American diners showed that implementing two aspects of green practices, food focused and environmentally focused, influenced customer perceptions of green brand image and behavioral intentions, whereas the effects of green practices on perceived quality were not significant. The relative impact of the two aspects of green practices differs by restaurant type. In upscale casual dining restaurants, green practices focused on foods were more effective in enhancing a green brand image and behavioral intentions as compared to those with an environmental focus. On the other hand, for casual dining customers the effects of green practices with an environmental focus were more convincing in terms of improving a restaurant's green brand image and behavioral intentions as compared to food focused initiatives. In relation to self-perception, the results indicated that diners with high health and environmental-consciousness responded more positively to restaurant green practices than those with a low self-perception of health and environmental-consciousness.
Article
Although consumers express concerns about the health effects of pesticide residues, consumption of organic food is minimal. A survey was conducted to investigate the role of concerns about the health and environmental effects of pesticides on consumer preference for organically produced food, and the implications for nutrition educators and the organic food market. Members of a food cooperative that stocks organic foods and residents from the same geographical region were randomly selected to receive a mail questionnaire. Compared to the general population, members of the food cooperative had stronger attitudes and concerns about food and environmental issues, and a higher preference for and more frequent consumption of organic food. Pesticide residue concern was highly correlated with the food-related environmental concern variables and was a significant explanatory variable for organic food preference in both groups. However, environmental concerns were not significant explanatory variables for either group. In both study groups, a positive attitude toward cooking and shopping was correlated with food-related environmental concerns and was a significant explanatory variable for organic food preference. The results support the hypothesis that concern about pesticide residues is a significant factor in preference for organic food. However, the connections between food choices and environmental effects are unclear to many consumers.
Article
This paper examines hotel guests’ willingness to pay a premium for environmentally friendly and sustainable practices of the U.S. hotel industry. Specifically, the goal of this research is to investigate the relationship between the level of U.S. hotel guests’ environmental concern, measured by the New Ecological Paradigm Scale (NEP) and their willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for hotels’ “green practices.” This study found that U.S. hotel guests with higher degrees of environmental concerns declare a higher willingness to pay premiums for hotels’ green initiatives. This avowed willingness supports the social identity theory and the means-end theory. In addition, based on the affect-based complementarity proposition, this study also examined the effect of hotel type on WTP in the U.S. hotel industry, and found that luxury and mid-priced hotel guests are more willing to pay premiums for hotels’ green practices than economy hotel guests.
Article
We conducted a qualitative study of the motivations and contextual factors that induce corporate ecological responsiveness. Analytic induction applied to data collected from 53 firms in the United Kingdom and Japan revealed three motivations: competitiveness, legitimation, and ecological responsibility. These motivations were influenced by three contextual conditions: field cohesion, issue salience, and individual concern. In this article, we also identify the conditions that likely lead to high corporate ecological responsiveness.
Article
Two experimental studies (a lab experiment and a study involving a real usage experience over time) reveal the existence of a strong, positive impact of customer satisfaction on willingness to pay, and they provide support for a nonlinear, functional structure based on disappointment theory (i.e., an inverse S-shaped form). In addition, the second study examines dynamic aspects of the relationship and provides evidence for the stronger impact of cumulative satisfaction rather than of transaction-specific satisfaction on willingness to pay.
Article
A multistage approach for restaurant service enables managers to determine and focus on the most critical stage of service failure to reduce customer dissatisfaction and defection. A survey of 491 diners in the United States assessed customer reaction to failures in the follow four service stages: (1) reception, (2) ordering, (3) meal consumption, and (4) checkout. The study found that in both casual dining and fine dining restaurants, service failure in stage 3 (consumption) most strongly diminishes overall customer satisfaction, followed by stage 4 (payment and exiting), stage 2 (order taking and delivery), and finally stage 1 (greeting and seating). The relative impact of service failure on behavioral intentions varies by service stage and restaurant type. In casual dining restaurants, service failure in stage 3 had the most effect in diminishing diners’ intent to come back and willingness to recommend the restaurant to others, followed by service failure in stage 4. On the other hand, for fine dining restaurants, service failure in stage 2 was the most critical influence on diners’ likelihood of returning. Additionally, stage 4 was the most important determinant in fine restaurant diners’ willingness to recommend the restaurant to others.
Article
Improper presentation of information on restaurant menus can lead to customer dissatisfaction, a loss of profitability, and could influence the ultimate failure of a restaurant operation. Although restaurateurs and customers do agree that information on restaurant menus is important, debate exists on what specific information should be provided. Currently, supporters argue for the provision of nutritional information, while critics question the ability of customers to interpret nutritional information on restaurant menus correctly. This present study, therefore, analyzes responses from 276 restaurant customers to examine information expectations of restaurant menus. A model called Customer Information Expectation of Restaurant Menus (CIERM) was developed using the guidelines set forth in the Truth-in-Menu Law and tested using a confirmatory factor analysis approach. The study found that CIERM is influenced by the factors nutrition information, product information, and food preparation. The study concludes with results, discussion, and recommendations based on the findings.
Article
This empirical article explores the effects of image congruence on customers’ postpurchasing behaviors, focusing specifically on customer satisfaction and brand loyalty in the lodging industry. Key findings indicate that social and ideal social image congruence has significant direct effects on customer satisfaction and indirect effects on attitudinal brand loyalty. The proposed model is tested following a systematic approach to mediation analysis as part of a structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the article discusses the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings as well as future research ideas.
Article
The purposes of this study were to identify environmental practices and concerns of conference center administrators. A questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, and administered as part of the needs assessment. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used to analyze data. Of the 348 questionnaires sent, 211 were completed and returned for a 60.6% response rate. Recycling was implemented by 85.8% of the respondents; 27% of the conference centers have implemented an energy conservation program. Most centers’ recycling programs did not generate a profit. The majority (54.1%) reported implementing a recycling program to help avoid waste disposal fees. This descriptive study provided information about conference center administrators’ environmental practices and concerns.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to look at how companies obtain a greener strategy. Design/methodology/approach – This paper looks at the greening of corporate strategy in brands, setting standards, green marketin and networking resources. Findings – The paper finds that there will be a low carbon economy soon to which companies will need to adapt. Sustainability is very important. Originality/value – This paper provides useful suggestions as to the future of green marketing.