Article

Social Learning Theory

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The final strand draws on the works of Bandura (1977;, Giddens (1984) and Emirbayer and Mische (1998), in illuminating agency as a central theme in the analysis of children's leisure-time. According to Corsaro (1997), in order to determine a child's agency one must examine the child's engagement with the societal constraints they encounter. ...
... This research focuses primarily on children's agentic ability to interact with the social structure of the family. The concept of agency has been associated with theories of determinism (Baldwin, 1988), free will (Heidegger, 1977) and self-efficacy ( Bandura, 1977) and has been discussed by a number of disciplines including, philosophy (Kernohan, 1989), geography (Gregory, 1981), psychology (Williams, 1994) and sociology (Fuchs, 2011, Giddens, 1984. ...
... Self-efficacy and agency are interrelated, where self-efficacy is a belief and agency is an action (Cherry, 2011;Bandura, 1977). It is my contention that children have to believe that they are capable of changing their experience before they can take the appropriate action. ...
Thesis
This research provides an interpretive cross-class analysis of the leisure experience of children, aged between six and ten years, living in Cork city. In line with Byrne et al. (2006), this study defines leisure-time as an incorporation of both structured and unstructured activities in which the child participates outside of school hours. This study focuses on the cultural dispositions underpinning parental decisions in relation to children’s leisure activities, with a particular emphasis on their child-surveillance practices. In this research, child-surveillance is defined as the adult monitoring of children by technological means, physical supervision, community supervision, or adult supervised activities (Nelson, 2010; Lareau, 2003; Fotel and Thomsen, 2004). This research adds significantly to our understanding of Irish childhood by providing the first in-depth qualitative analysis of the surveillance of children’s leisure-time. Since the 1990s, international research on children has highlighted the increasingly structured nature of children’s leisure-time (Lareau, 2011; Valentine & McKendrick, 1997). Furthermore, research on child-surveillance has found an increase in the intensive supervision of children during their unstructured leisure-time (Nelson, 2010; Furedi, 2008; Fotel and Thomsen, 2004). This research bridges the gap between these two key bodies of literature thus providing a more integrated overview of children’s experience of leisure in Ireland. This thesis provides a detailed analysis of the social and cultural influences that encourage parents’ adoption of surveillance practices. Using Bourdieu’s (1992) model of habitus, field and capital, the dispositions that shape parents’ decisions about their children’s leisure time are interrogated. The holistic view of childhood adopted in this research echoes the ‘Whole Child Approach’ promoted by the National Children’s Strategy (2000). That is, it analyses the child within a wider set of social relationships including family, school, and community, while maintaining the centrality of the child-parent relationship. Underpinned by James and Prout’s (1990) paradigm on childhood, this study considers Irish children’s agency in negotiating with parents’ decisions regarding leisure time. The data collated in this study enhances our understanding of the micro-interactions between parents and children and, the ability of the child to shape their own experience. Moreover, this is the first Irish sociological research to identify and discuss class distinctions in children’s agentic potential during leisure-time.
... Some scholars call for more research to identify the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of leader humility and employees' behaviors (Lin et al. 2017). This study draws on social learning theory (Bandura 1977) to identify psychological safety as an important explanation for why humble leaders are role modeled by employees. Social learning theory posits the important role of cognition in the regulation of human behaviors, supporting that "most external influences affect behavior through intermediary cognitive processes" (Bandura 1977, p. 160). ...
... Humble leaders who are willing to publicly admit their mistakes and actively seek feedback can shape employees' cognition regarding the acceptability of employing one's self and engaging in risky behaviors, as captured by psychological safety, which in turn encourages employees to solicit feedback from their direct leaders. Further, social learning theory suggests that individuals' intrinsic motivation affects the occurrence of learning (Bandura 1977). Reducing uncertainty is a crucial driving force behind feedback-seeking behavior (Anseel et al. 2015;Ashford et al. 2016). ...
... Humble leaders not only emphasize their own growth, also transparently model to employees how to develop themselves by actively listening and learning (Owens and Hekman 2012). As suggested by social learning theory (Bandura 1977), leaders with humility may serve as prominent role models for employees and consciously or unconsciously influence employee behaviors. In line with previous studies that emphasize the effect of leaders with such characteristic (e.g., Hu et al. 2018;Owens and Hekman 2016;Wang et al. 2018b), this study argues that leader humility can stimulate employees' feedback-seeking behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on social learning theory, this study theorizes how leader humility can promote employees’ feedback-seeking behavior by enhancing their psychological safety, and tests employees’ job insecurity as an important boundary. This moderated mediation model was tested by matched reports from 241 Chinese employees and their immediate leaders from various organizations. Results revealed that leader humility had a positive indirect effect on employees’ feedback-seeking behavior through increasing their psychological safety. We further found that the effect of leader humility on employees’ feedback-seeking behavior was stronger for employees in higher levels of job insecurity. These findings highlight the importance of leader characteristic and employees’ uncertainty perception in the process of seeking feedback, providing theoretical and practical implications for leadership and employees’ proactive behavior management.
... Moreover, the surfeit of complex learning theories with their complex descriptions, may hinder a HPs' understanding of the Learning Principles they need to apply in any learning process [7]. Although a guide of 10 Learning Principles, was created from the theories of Knowles [13], Gagne [11,12], Bandura [15,16] and the early cognition of learning research of Marzano et al. [17] to assist homecare nurses' patient education practice this has gained limited attention in the literature [18,19]. ...
... Table 1 shows comparisons between the frameworks of Knowles and Marzano et al. [17]). These aspects of thinking are important in helping HPs understand how they can support parent learning to manage their children's health autonomously [15]. ...
... HPs stated they had imparted the required information using a variety of teaching techniques but reported that parents were 'not taking responsibility' for their children's care. However, the authors of these publications described no Learning Principles and neglected describing aspects of Dimensions of Learning 3, 4 and 5, apparently unaware of the significance of using Learning Principles [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Health Professionals (HPs) play an important role in supporting parents to care for their children, by facilitating parents' knowledge and skills development through parent education. This is achieved through teaching, whereby planned strategies, based on principles of how people learn, enable learning. Despite Learning Principles being the fundamental tenets of the learning process, how HPs perceive and use Learning Principles in their practice is neglected in the healthcare literature. Objective To identify, describe and map the existing literature on nurses' and HPs' perceptions and use of Learning Principles in parent education practice. Method A scoping review was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach. A comprehensive search of 10 databases and the grey literature was undertaken between March and June 2017 to identify pertinent English-language publications. The search was limited to literature published between 1998 and 2017. Following a screening and inclusion criteria eligibility check, 89 articles were selected for inclusion. Results HPs' perceptions of Learning Principles were diverse, somewhat disorganised, divergent in meaning and implicit. This was until the Dimensions of Learning construct was applied to guide the analyses and mapping. This revealed that HPs, of whom 60.7% were nurses, used Learning Principles in parent education, but only referred to them in the context of Adult Learning. Enablers to HPs using Learning Principles included shared partnerships between parents and HPs, while barriers included parents' health beliefs, psychological issues and organisational assumptions about learning. Evaluation of parents' learning also represented implicit use of Learning Principles by HPs. Conclusion This scoping review is the first to examine HPs' perceptions and use of Learning Principles within parent education practice. The findings reveal a significant gap in this body of knowledge. The paucity of studies containing any explicit descriptions of Learning Principles strongly supports the need for further exploration and codification of Learning Principles, through qualitative methods, whereby a deeper understanding of what is happening in healthcare practice can be established. Keywords Pediatrics Nursing Health education Educational psychology Health professionals Parent education Learning principles Dimensions of learning
... Indeed, studying people in isolation from their environment and social space is impossible [8]. Environmental factors in social cognitive theory [9] have been considered as one of the main influential elements on individual behavior.. Environment as one of the aspects of Bandura's theory affect both cognition and behavior. Proper educational environment enhances individual academic achievement and his/her attitude toward education [10]. ...
... According to Bandura, although there is a reciprocal interaction between environment, behavior, and an individual, in any given moment each of these elements can be more influential than the other two. For instance, a very and Family Background on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the Middle East loud voice in environment can be the main determinant of a person's action [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study is investigating the correlation between school quality and family socioeconomic background and students' mathematics achievement in the Middle East. The countries in comparison are UAE, Syria, Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Lebanon, Jordan, and Bahrain. The study utilized data from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) of 2011. Analysis of the data used the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and the data was analyzed in two levels: student and school. Separate models were developed for each country. The final models for most of the countries suggest similar results. Comparison of explained variance in school and family levels revealed that school is a more important factor in explaining the variance of students' mathematics achievement in all countries, excluding Syria. In most of the studied countries, some variables, such as parents' education and family economic status, show a weaker correlation with academic achievement compared to school resources, educational climate, and the number of enrolments of school.
... Such couples may develop enduring drinking rituals, especially when alcohol becomes an integral part of the relationship. Next, following Bandura's (1977) social learning theory, one individual may imitate their partner's ("model's") drinking after a period of directly observing the rewards their partner obtains from drinking. ...
... A possible explanation for this lies within the difference between a behavior and a negative consequence. Following social learning theory (Bandura, 1977), a woman may emulate her male partner's heavy drinking after a period of directly observing rewards he obtains from his drinking behaviors. However, given the negative valance of alcohol problems, a woman may be less likely to imitate her husband's problematic drinking. ...
Article
Full-text available
The partner influence hypothesis postulates one partner's alcohol use influences the other partner’s alcohol use over time. While several studies have examined the partner influence hypothesis, the magnitude and gender-specific nature of partner influences on alcohol use are unclear and have yet to be examined meta-analytically. We addressed this by conducting a traditional bivariate meta-analysis and two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modelling (TS-MASEM) across 17 studies (N = 10,553 couples). Studies that assessed both romantic partners’ alcohol use at a minimum of two time-points were selected. Results suggest romantic partners do influence one another’s drinking, to a small but meaningful degree, with women (β = .19) exerting a statistically stronger (p < .05) influence than men (β = .12). Results also suggest time lag between assessment, alcohol indicator, married, and year of publication may moderate partner influence. Thus, social influences on individual alcohol use include important partner influences. These influences can serve either risk or protective functions. Given the economic, social, and health consequences associated with alcohol misuse, advancing knowledge of social risk factors for alcohol misuse is essential. Therefore, assessment and treatment of alcohol misuse should extend beyond the person to the social context. We encourage clinicians to consider involving romantic partners when assessing and treating alcohol misuse.
... (Gomez-Mejia et al., 2007) Meanwhile, as a weight which is considered as value and asset in the process of decision making, the development of socioemotional wealth in the family business might be nurturant as a process of social learning in the family. Thus, using Bandura's (1971Bandura's ( , 1989 Social Learning Theory and Social Cognition Theory, the process of development of socioemotional wealth might be influenced by social interaction among the member of the family, especially in this research in the context of a family business. More to be consistent with Prospect Theory, Social Cognition Theory also proposing that individuals make a selection, which behavior tends to result in a more beneficial outcome. ...
... Overall, this research is confirming the Social Learning Theory developed by Bandura (1971) that individuals tend to behave as a result of social interaction among family. As an extension from the previous research, this research proves that socioemotional wealth is a value and attitude that is a result of socialization to the family member in their lifetime.Furthermore, confirming Prospect Theory (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979) individuals tend to make a decision based on weight, and in a family business, the weight other than financial wealth is socioemotional wealth. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to study the impact of family conflict and socioemotional wealth toward the intention to stay in the family business. Furthermore, the study was also to test the moderating effect of socioemotional wealth on the impact of family conflict toward the intention to stay. This research was conducted quantitatively at the individual level. Samples were taken purposively from junior generation working in a family business which is a member of the Indonesia Chamber of Commerce - Surabaya Branch. The data were collected cross-sectionally, and the sum of the proper sample was 96. The data were analyzed with PLS-SEM using SmartPLS3.00. The result of this study shows that family conflict has a negative impact on intention to stay. Socioemotional wealth has a positive impact on the intention to stay. Furthermore, socioemotional wealth has a positive moderating impact on the effect of family conflict toward intention to stay. This study might be useful for a family business owner to consider the development of socioemotional wealth to smooth succession process and to maintain the intention to stay while conflict emerges. The suggestion for further research is to extend to cultural impact at the individual level or personal traits toward intention to stay on the family business.
... Una variable individual muy importante en educación es la autoeficacia, considerada como una variable psicológica y uno de los elementos centrales de la teoría cognitiva social (Bandura, 1977). La autoeficacia se refiere a la creencia de una persona, en este caso el estudiante, para organizar y ejecutar las estrategias que considera necesarias para conseguir determinados logros en una tarea dada, o enfrentar el cambio en la sociedad y el que a futuro espera en un puesto de trabajo (Bandura, 1986). ...
... La variable Índice de autoeficacia, relevada por el cart en asociación con Expectativas familiares y el Nivel de escolaridad de los padres permite desagregar los grupos 4 y 5 que presentan una brecha de 17 puntos, un aspecto importante. Diversos estudios destacan la trascendencia de la disposición del propio sujeto para lograr desempeños exitosos en el entorno escolar (Bandura, 1977(Bandura, , 1982(Bandura, , 1986(Bandura, , 1997Moreira et al., 2013). Con todo, aun cuando el factor individual -representado aquí por el IA-puede incidir para establecer diferencias, al menos para este estudio aparece subordinado a factores de naturaleza social, como las expectativas educacionales de la familia y el nivel de escolaridad de los padres. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored some of the factors that explain school performance. To attain this, Chilean students’ profiles of eighth year of primary school were identified and characterized (13.65 year old mean/ds 0.74). This was done according to their academic performance in the History, Ge­ography and Social Sciences test, and the context variables. The database was provided by the Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación de Chile (simce). The study was conducted by means of a predictive correlational quantitative design, using a classification and regression tree (cart). Parents’ high educational expectations are the most important distinguishing factor in school performance. The results are discussed in relation to previous research about these topics.
... Dewey's perspective aligns with the work of biologists Maturana and Varela (1980), who suggested that learning is being enacted and emerging through the learner's interactions with his or her world through the process of autopoiesis. The social learning theory proposed by Bandura (1977) interaction. This is partly due to the fact that the prior knowledge the team members retain allows them to construct new knowledge and assign meaning following an interaction. ...
... The works of other social learning theorists such as Albert Bandura and George H. Mead provide a valuable body of knowledge to explore our reflective consciousness and its relationship to the environment that is continually changing during the creative process.Bandura (1977) suggested:Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later oc ...
Book
Full-text available
This study examined the process of team creativity in the workplace as it relates to experiential, cognitive, and social factors, including organizational and cultural structures, team social dynamics, and effects on individuals. Its purpose was to understand the quality of real-time social interactions and dynamics underlying the creative process in teams. The researcher employed a case study methodology, using observation and individual and focus group interviews of a highly creative team within an organization in a creative industry. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method.
... Some researchers who have studied the impact of social skills development have reported positive effects of role-playing targeted social skills and modeling appropriate social behaviors. The use of modeling and role-play reinforces the concept of social skills and has been widely accepted as a technique for teaching a variety of social behaviors to children and youth (Bandura, 1977; McGinnis and Goldstein, 1997). Procedures that combine modeling with directive teaching strategies, such as structured learning appears to be successful in teaching specific prosocial behaviors in a wide variety of training settings from schools to juvenile detention centers (Goldstein, 1999; Nelson and Rutherford, 1988 ). ...
... In some situations, videotaping and review may be helpful. The use of modeling in the social learning process is widely accepted as a technique for teaching a variety of social behaviors to children and youth (Bandura, 1977). Cooperative learning Cooperative learning opportunities is an excellent strategy for encouraging positive peer interactions and generalization of social skills as well as promoting academic achievement (Goldstein, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this paper is to review literature associated with social skills training for students with behavioral difficulties in both the general and special education settings. Research findings presented in this review were based on data collected from books, research papers, and reports published from the 1970s to 2004 in the United States of America.
... Using Bandura's (1977) theory of reciprocal determinism, Seigfried et al. (2008) aimed to examine whether those who view, download or share IIOC differ from those who do not in their personality characteristics. Bandura (1977) proposed that behavioural, psychological and environmental factors all interact and influence behaviour. ...
... Using Bandura's (1977) theory of reciprocal determinism, Seigfried et al. (2008) aimed to examine whether those who view, download or share IIOC differ from those who do not in their personality characteristics. Bandura (1977) proposed that behavioural, psychological and environmental factors all interact and influence behaviour. Interestingly, this theory postulates that the interaction of people's conceptions, behaviour and environment bestows upon them a degree of agency; though they are not completely free in their behaviour due to these forces (Bandura, 1978). ...
... This variable is a measure of the belief that the teacher can teach and that the students can learn. Bandura (1977a;1977b) described the self-efficacy as the individual's judgment of his own competence. The concept of self-efficacy is based on Bandura (1977a) self-efficacy theory and forms the basis of the concept of teacher efficacy (Aktag and Walter, 2005). ...
... Social learning theory (SLT) proposed that antisocial behavior can be learned through vicarious experience, where an individual learns a behaviour by seeing or copying another individual's behaviour and watching the outcomes of that behaviour (Bandura, 1977). This practice involves modeling, in which an individual learns through the observation of other individuals (models), which leads to imitation if the behaviour is likely to result in desirable consequences (rewards). ...
Article
Full-text available
Antisocial behaviour refers to the destructive, harmful, negative actions or maladaptive behaviour of an individual towards other individuals or things in the society. These negative behaviours consist of unlawful activities and harm the people in interpersonal manners. Such behaviours occur due to the result of unsatisfactory social, ethical, moral, and/or psychological development of children at home, school, and/or under socialization in the society. Therefore, the present research study aimed to delve, uncover, and highlight the major causes (e.g., school related factors, parental factors, parental support, socioeconomic factors) that influence secondary school students' antisocial behaviour in province Punjab, Pakistan. The present study was descriptive survey type by method and quantitative by approach. A cross-sectional type survey was conducted to elicit the perceptions of the research subjects. All students and teachers of public sector secondary schools in province Punjab were the target population while all secondary school students and teachers in public sector schools in district Faisalabad constituted the accessible population. Through proportionate stratified random sampling technique, a sample of 150 male teachers and 400 male students of 10th grade were taken in the sample. A self-developed and structured questionnaire was used as a research instrument for data collection. Both types of statistical techniques (e.g., descriptive, inferential) were used for the data analysis. It was concluded from the results of this study that school related factors (e.g., teacher-student relationships, peers' influence); parental factors (e.g., poor father-child relationships, parental aspirations, parental negligence); parental support (e.g., empathy, guidance, material resources); and socioeconomic factors (e.g., parental income) are some of the major causes of secondary school students' antisocial behavior.
... Aprenden pues de los contenidos, tanto conductas pro-sociales, como antisociales, como información fidedigna, como estereotipos. Puede decirse que el aprendizaje ocurre de manera incidental, como lo señalara Albert Bandura (1977) en su teoría de aprendizajes sociales. Así, conjuntamente con el hogar y la escuela, el entorno mediático es una fuente de socialización. ...
Book
Full-text available
Reporte de investigación sobre el uso y gratificaciones del entorno mediático de niños de la ciudad de México .
... Observational learning is the process of learning a new task by watching someone else performing this task. It relies on multiple capabilities: learners should be able to infer the intentions of others from action observation, process others' action outcomes and combine these sources of information in order to select behaviors leading to desired outcomes later on (e.g., Bandura, 1977;Monfardini et al., 2013;Rak, Bellebaum, & Thoma, 2013). With action observation, the learner does not have to generate a simulated representation of the movement, as the key perceptual information is provided in the form of an external stimulus being observed (Ram, Riggs, Skaling, Landers, & McCullagh, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigated the effects of modeling type and reflection on the acquisition of dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs and self-reaction scores by conceptually replicating a study by Kitsantas, Zimmerman, and Cleary (2000). Participants observing a novice model were expected to surpass participants observing an expert model who in turn were expected to outperform participants who learned without a model. Reflection was hypothesized to have a positive effect. 156 High school and university students were tested three times: in a pretest, after a modeling intervention, and after a practice round. Contrary to what was expected, we found no main effects of modeling type and reflection. No interaction effects were found either. There was an effect of testing moment, indicating that participants improved dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs, and self-reaction scores over time. With these findings, we are not able to replicate Kitsantas et al. From our study, we conclude that observational learning, irrespective of the model’s skill level, combined with physical practice, yields similar results as mere physical practice.
... That reflective practice can be a behavioral process suggests that learning be more than representational; rather, it can refer to manifestations that though often cognitively derived are inherently behavioral, such as the ability to improvise. Some learning theories suggest that behavior precedes cognitive development or is in continuous reciprocal interaction with cognitive and environmental influences (Bandura, 1977;Vygotsky, 1962). When cognition precedes behavior, learners tend to compare current cognitive frames with data that challenge existing patterns or meanings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although academic provision has become associated with professional education, knowledge is delivered through standard classroom methodology associated with liberal arts education. Elsewhere, a "practice turn" has elevated experience as a basis for knowledge. This article shows how practice became detached from theory and how through praxis they can be reintegrated.
... Learning manual skills, like painting, playing the guitar or performing handicrafts by observing another person is a natural human interaction. Learning about the world from other people plays an important role throughout the lifespan and is thought to be an efficient way of learning (Bandura, 1971;Frith and Frith, 2007). In today's society, natural human interaction has expanded far into the digital realm. ...
Article
Full-text available
While learning from an instructor by watching a ‘how-to’ video has become common practice, we know surprisingly little about the relation between brain activities in instructor and observers. In this fMRI study we investigated the temporal synchronization between instructor and observers using intersubject correlation in the naturalistic setting of learning to fold origami. Brain activity of blindfolded instructor during action production was compared to the observers while they viewed the instructor's video-taped actions. We demonstrate for the first time that the BOLD activity in the instructor's and observer's brain are synchronized while observing and learning a manual complex task with the goal of reproducing it. We can rule out that this synchrony originates from visual feedback. Observers exhibiting higher synchrony with the instructor in the ventral premotor cortex, while viewing the video for the first time, were more successful in reproducing the origami afterwards. Furthermore, changes in instructor-observer synchrony across observational learning sessions reside occurs in cerebellar areas, as well as differences in instructor-observer synchrony between learning and the counting folds, our non-learning control. Not only known cerebellar motor production areas show synchrony, shedding new light on the involvement of the cerebellum in action observation and learning.
... Moreover, the emotion and stress of marital relationships and inter-parental conflict affect other relationships in the family system, such as the parent-child relationship (Erel and Burman 1995;Krishnakumar and Buehler 2000). Based on social learning theory (Bandura 1977), negative and harsh parenting behaviors are associated with children's aggressive behaviors via observational learning, modeling, and coercive family processes (Parke et al. 1988;Patterson 1982). Thus, we hypothesized that children who experienced higher levels of physical and psychological violence and neglect as well as dysfunctional family environments (exposure to inter-parental violence and parental substance use) have higher risk of being aggressive and bullying others than children who have not had these experiences. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to examine the associations between child maltreatment (physical and psychological neglect and abuse), dysfunctional family environment (inter-parental violence, parental substance abuse), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and children’s bullying perpetration, and the potential mediating effect of PTSD in the associations. We collected data using a self-report questionnaire with a nation-wide, proportionately stratified random sample of 6233 fourth-grade students in Taiwan. We performed hierarchical regression analysis and mediation analysis to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that parental substance abuse, physical and psychological neglect, physical and psychological abuse, witness of inter-parental violence, and PTSD are positively associated with child bullying (p < .001), after controlling for gender. These variables, referred to as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), explain 23% of the variance, and the results are statistically significant. PTSD fully mediated the relationship between psychological neglect and child bullying and partially mediated the associations between other ACE variables and child bullying. Children with higher levels of bullying perpetration reported more family violence and neglect at home and parental substance abuse problems. These ACEs also indirectly affect child bullying through PTSD. Among school-age children in Taiwan, children who had these adverse experiences were more likely to have PTSD symptoms, which in turn can lead to externalizing problems that increase the risk of exhibiting bullying perpetration toward others. In addition to behavioral modeling and corrections as strategies to combat bullying in schools, prevention and intervention efforts should address and screen for ACEs and tackle psychological problems.
... Šī informācija kalpo kā ceļvedis darbībai nākotnē. Iemācīšana notiek grupā: ģimenē, darbā un draugu vidē [5,[40][41]. Savukārt medijiem ir maza loma. ...
Article
Full-text available
Globalizācijas apstākļos, sevišķi pēdējos gados, izteikti strauji attīstās kibernoziegumi. Kopējā noziedzības struktūrā tie ieņem aizvien redzamāku vietu. Kibernoziedzības kriminoloģisko aspektu analīzei ir veltīts Aldonas Kipānes raksts, kura nozīmību akcentē fakts, ka kriminoloģiskā analīze ir kibernoziegumu apkarošanas un novēršanas pamatā. In the face of globalisation, especially in recent years, cybercrime is evolving rapidly. This has taken a more recognisable place in the overall structure of crime. Criminological analysis of cybercrime is what the article by Aldona Kipane explores, the importance of which is accentuated by the fact that criminological analysis is the basis of combating and preventing of cybercrime.
... Brockhaus (1982) reviewed a number of psychological characteristics and conclude that need for achievement, internal locus of control and a risktaking propensity as attributes contributing to the success of new business start-ups. Bandura (1977) pointed to the fact that 'people's level of motivation, affective status and actions are based more on what they believe than on what is objectively true'. An individual's perception of self-efficacy has a strong influence on how he or she will act and how the available knowledge and skills will be utilized. ...
Article
This paper provides a list of 100 critical successes characteristic (CSCs) of the entrepreneur that may influence the success of entrepreneurship at Indian SMEs. One close ended questionnaire was used to collect the data from the 30 Indian entrepreneurs those who are having experience of managing Indian enterprise (Indian SMEs). The data collected were analyzed using statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics test.
... The person with GAD may resort to a dialogical expression of thanksgiving even before experiencing a total sense of security, behaving "as if" deliverance is there when it is not yet actualized: "I thank you, God, the God of peace, for being there for me, keeping my heart and mind in check." Anteceding Bandura's social learning theory (Bandura, 1977), Paul presented himself as an observational model for vicarious learning, providing an example of the positive qualifiers used above to encompass the necessary heart-mindset to face anxiety and stress. He reminded these believers that, what they have been taught, learned, seen exemplified in his character and conduct (Philippians 4:9). ...
Article
A heuristic derived from an appeal to Scripture as an epistemological source of data is proposed, from which principles are extracted and interpreted, and integrated with psychological theory and research. It represents an effort to expand the utilization of conceptual integration in the domain of Christian counseling in particular. A key text is drawn from the apostle Paul’s letter to first-century Christians (Philippians 4:5–9) in view of its relevance in treating anxious conditions from a transdiagnostic perspective. The distinction is made between the scriptural use of the construct “anxiety” in the neo-testamentary context and present-day definitions framed in DSM-5 terms. The authors postulate the need to develop a faith-based heart-mindset, entrained and anchored in God—a relational subject and love object—that may provide a believer with intrinsic assurance of God’s peace that “surpasses understanding” and empowers their mindful, metacognitive-executive control system, potentiating an adaptive coping process. This approach draws from CBT, MC, and ACT principles, and resonates with Barlow’s transdiagnostic model in particular. An integrated, emergent dimension is introduced—“perichoretic thirdness”—defined in theological-psychological terms, where reliance on God’s transcending/immanent, coparticipatory presence empowers the metacognitive-executive feedforward control system of a believer in enacting purposive, adaptive responses vs. anxiety.
... Second, there are different levels of social interactions in single-person and shared offices, and research suggests that group dynamics and social norms significantly affect employees' motivation to save energy (Staddon et al., 2016). Social cognitive theory posits that people can acquire a new behavior by observing a model performing the behavior and by observing the consequences of that behavior (Bandura, 1977). This type of social learning is likely to occur more often in shared offices than in single-person offices. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing energy consumption in office buildings is critical for improving energy efficiency and decarbonization at the large scale. This study (N = 854) investigated the influence of social-psychological factors on energy-saving intention and behaviors in single-person versus shared offices based on the extend model of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). We found that ascription of responsibility, a variable added to the TPB, is the strongest predictor of energy-saving intentions for both single-person and shared offices. Interestingly, while injunctive norms are an important predictor of behavioral intention for single-person offices, descriptive norms are an important one for shared offices. Energy-saving intention mediates the influences of the aforementioned variables on energy-saving behaviors. Contrary to our hypotheses, perceived control over energy-saving and perceived ease of access to building control features have no direct impacts on energy-saving behaviors in single-person offices, while they have impacts on energy-saving behaviors in shared offices. This study provides useful insights for building designers and occupant behavior and energy modeling researchers.
... Selain itu, Bapak Soleh juga mengelola lahan padi organik miliknya secara langsung seluas 3.000 m². Melalui proses pengelolaan lahan padi organik secara langsung di lapangan oleh Bapak Soleh, juga memungkinkan para petani lain untuk belajar secara langsung dan bertukar gagasan melalui proses belajar sosial (social learning) sebagaimana dikonsepkan oleh Bandura (1977) di mana ada tokoh penting yang menjadi panutan dan berperan sebagai role model. Selain sebagai ketua kelompok, Bapak Soleh juga dapat melakukan monitoring dan mendorong para anggota untuk saling memonitor praktek usahataninya sehingga memenuhi standar praktik pertanian organik. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organic farming has been remarkably evolving in many areas of Indonesia for responding environmental issues and producing healthy foods. Organic rice is a type of organic farming product of a system which has been widely practiced including in Sawangan Village Magelang District as one of pioneering area on organic rice development in Central Java Province. This study is directed to analyze supporting factors, various problems faced on the development of organic rice and opportunity for getting international organic certification. A study has been done through household interview (30 farmers), indepth interview with key informants and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) at agricultural office of Magelang District. Data analysis used in this study are statistical descriptive and categorical qualitative. Results of the study show that: (1) performance of organic rice gradually getting better and productivity level has been getiing closer to conventional high external input rice farming, (2) supporting factors on improvement of organic rice include healthy rice production initiated through integrated pest management,transformative group leadership, supports from related stakeholders, high economic incentive, improvement of market networking, product certification, ICT application and favourable natural resource endowment, (3) Problems faced on the development of organic rice include variety of product quality among farmers, price variety and fluctuation, difficulty in organic seed access, mixing area of organic and anorganic rice farming, (4) Strategies for improving opportunity to get international organic sertification include innovation on product diversification, application of fresh product certification, modernization of machine for rice processing.
... Social learning is another theory informing how behavior problems may develop in young children and suggests young children learn behaviors through observation and function as a result of reinforcement and punishment by parents [18]. Specifically, according to Patterson's [19] coercive cycle, children and parents both negatively reinforce negative behaviors in one another. ...
... As such, several theories conceptualize how aggressive behavior is learned and maintained across contexts of a youth's life. Intergenerational Transmission of Violence (ITV) builds on Social Learning Theory (Bandura and Walters 1977) to suggest that children who witness violence as an effective and normalized means of goal attainment in their home often observationally learn to perpetuate this behavior (Black et al. 2010;Ehrensaft et al. 2003). The home is often the primary or complete socialization context during early childhood, such that these learned patterns can become Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-020-00142-8) ...
Article
Full-text available
Aggression among peers during adolescence is associated with deleterious developmental outcomes. Family violence has been strongly associated with many forms of aggression - such as verbal and physical aggression. Yet, associations between sibling and peer aggression at school and the protective role of school belonging remain understudied. Thus, the present study addresses this gap. Middle school students (N = 1611) completed self-report surveys four times across 2 years in a U.S. Midwest state. A multi-level within- and between-person longitudinal design was employed to examine associations among sibling aggression perpetration, witnessing intrafamilial violence, and verbal and physical peer aggression at school. Also, the moderating effect of school belonging between family violence and peer aggression was also investigated. Higher levels of sibling aggression were associated with higher verbal peer aggression at both within- and between-person levels. Family violence was associated with higher verbal and physical peer aggression, but only at the between-person level and not within-individuals. Higher school belonging was associated with less verbal and physical peer aggression overtime. School belonging moderated the relation between sibling aggression and verbal as well as physical aggression; higher within-person level sibling aggression was associated with lower verbal and physical aggression when students reported a strong sense of school belonging. Aggression prevention programs that focus on fostering school connectedness may mitigate the transmission of violence from home to school.
... Le processus d'apprentissage social (Bandura, 1976 ;cité par Carré, 2004, p.23), de partage social (Rimé, 2009) et de conformisme (Kelman, 1958), par l'intermédiaire de la transmission d'informations, est un facteur qui explique la construction du sens, « les ressources de la production de sens » étant « les phrases, les définitions, les concepts, ou les interprétations » (Rimé, 2009, p.324). Le sens est ainsi le « produit de mots qui se combinent en phrases en vue de transmettre quelque chose à propos de l'expérience en cours » (Weick, 1995, p. 106 (1) contribuent à la production d'un sens positif donné à l'expérience et, (2) concourt à l'intégration de l'expérience émotionnelle négative, et par conséquent du sens négatif, notamment lorsque la situation ne peut pas être changée. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Positivity, a common and latent factor between self-esteem, optimism and life satisfaction, is the "basic disposition" of positive affect. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the influence of positivity on mental health. It is made up upon three objectives : - (1) to define the place of positivity in the subjectivity of mental health by proposing : (a) to conceive the structure of the cognitive dimension in a multidimensional way, involving the presence of the dimensions of positive cognition and negative cognition, (b) adapt and validate the positivity scale of Caprara and collaborators (2012) in French, (c) a model of mental subjectivity composed of four dimensions : positive cognition, negative cognition, positive affect and negative affect. - (2) to determine the role of positivity among the other indicators of positive mental health by exploring : (1) the major influence of positivity on positive psychological functioning, positive affect and negative affect, (2) the function of positivity in the influence of autonomous motivational regulation of behaviors on happiness. - (3) to identify the role of positivity in the effect of functional emotional regulation on the affective sphere of mental health, both in positive and negative situations. Finally, this thesis presents a meta-model explaining the place and the preponderant influence of positivity on mental health. Based on the meta-theory of self-determination, a theoretical articulation will be put forward, reflecting the development of positivity in a similar way to that of the human being.
... Master's students could easily be trained and then deployed to the classrooms to deliver the intervention as part of their coursework. Similar to how adolescents perceived the doctoral candidates who delivered the intervention in the efficacy trial, adolescents might see the master's students as potential role models (Bandura, 1977) and as experts coming from the university to provide them with insights from research. As individuals from outside of school, master's students might also represent an additional source of information with respect to the usefulness of math skills. ...
Preprint
Relevance interventions have shown a great potential to foster motivation and achievement (Lazowski & Hulleman, 2016). Yet, further research is warranted to test how such interventions can be successfully implemented in practice. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in ninth-grade mathematics classrooms to test the effectiveness of a relevance intervention, which was previously shown to be efficacious when implemented by researchers. A total of 78 classrooms (N = 1,744 students) were randomly assigned to one of two intervention conditions or a waitlist control condition. The intervention was implemented by master’s students or the regular math teachers. Intervention effects were evaluated using self-reports, teacher ratings, and achievement tests 4 weeks and 3 months after the intervention, controlling for the initial levels of the outcomes. Compared with the control condition, both intervention conditions showed similar positive effects on utility value. Unexpectedly, students in both intervention conditions also reported higher perceived cost compared with students in the control condition after the intervention. When the intervention was implemented by master’s students, additional effects on students’ growth mindsets and a standardized achievement test could be observed. Only small differences in effectiveness were observed between the intervention conditions, although master’s students showed a higher level of adherence to the intervention script. In both intervention conditions, higher levels of adherence and lower levels of discipline problems were associated with more positive changes in utility value. Overall, the intervention thus showed mixed effects. Future research should therefore continue to examine the conditions under which relevance interventions work in practice.
... The goal of the reimbursement following completion of the study is to have an incentive structure, an extrinsic reward, i.e. an reward coming from something exterior to the person [27]. By anticipating a reward, this may facilitate the self-regulatory processes [26] required to be compliant to the SCREENS trial protocols. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: During the recent decade presence of digital media, especially handheld devices, in everyday life, has been increasing. Survey data suggests that children and adults spend much of their leisure on screen media, including use of social media and video services. Despite much public debate on possible harmful effects of such behavioral shifts, evidence from rigorously conducted randomized controlled trials in free-living settings, investigating the efficacy of reducing screen media use on physical activity, sleep, and physiological stress, is still lacking. Therefore, a family and home-based randomized controlled trial - the SCREENS trial - is being conducted. Here we describe in detail the rationale and protocol of this study. Methods: The SCREENS pilot trial was conducted during the fall of 2018 and spring of 2019. Based on experiences from the pilot study, we developed a protocol for a parallel group randomized controlled trial. The trial is being conducted from May 2019 to ultimo 2020 in 95 families with children 4-14 years recruited from a population-based survey. As part of the intervention family members must handover most portable devices for a 2-week time frame, in exchange for classic mobile phones (not smartphones). Also, entertainment-based screen media use during leisure must be limited to no more than 3 hours/week/person. At baseline and follow-up, 7-day 24-h physical activity will be assessed using two triaxial accelerometers; one at the right hip and one the middle of the right thigh. Sleep duration will be assessed using a single channel EEG-based sleep monitor system. Also, to assess physiological stress (only assessed in adults), parameters of 24-h heart rate variability, the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol slope will be quantified using data sampled over three consecutive days. During the study we will objectively monitor the families' screen media use via different software and hardware monitoring systems. Discussion: Using a rigorous study design with state-of-the-art methodology to assess outcomes and intervention compliance, analyses of data from the SCREENS trial will help answer important causal questions of leisure screen media habits and its short-term influence on physical activity, sleep, and other health related outcomes among children and adults. Trial registration: NCT04098913 at https://clinicaltrials.gov [20-09-2019, retrospectively registered].
... Tip 2 -Develop and disseminate the shared purpose, vision, and work Embracing theoretical principles and worldviews can help underline the shared purpose and ground rules for a group. Social learning theory (learning as a process that occurs in a social context) is applicable to communications and relationships among members of a global CoS seeking to co-create and disseminate new knowledge (Bandura 1977;Burford 2012). Transformative learning (learning that transforms frames of reference to make individuals more reflective, open, inclusive and willing to change) can also be applied to motivate participants to be agents of change (Mezirow 1997;Halman et al. 2017). ...
Article
Scholarship in Health Professions Education is not just original research, it also includes study of educational processes, and application of new knowledge to practice. The pathways to successful scholarship are not always clear to novice educators. In this article, we describe strategies to establish a Community of Scholars (CoS), where more experienced and senior members guide junior members in scholarship to advance the field. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's concepts of Communities of Practice (CoP), we describe twelve practical tips, which include generation of a shared vision, formation of a global community of scholars, engagement in scholarly initiatives, and development of a professional identity, categorised under three major steps: establish, grow, and sustain the community. The tips embrace inclusivity for diverse cultural contexts which further provide opportunities for Health Professions Educators, interested in forming communities of practice , to work on scholarly outputs and add value to the professional arena.
... Learning as a theoretical framework is synthesized from the theories of social learning and the power of context. Learning supports the importance of how people teach, learn, and model other people and environments (Bandura 1977), in this specific instance, work environments. Learning couples with Socialization in explaining environmental factors within a business environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ethical decision-making (EDM) process that leaders should follow to avoid scandals and unethical behavior is often overlooked. In addition, visit few studies have focused on EDM within higher education. Yet, educational leaders have an ethical responsibility due in part to increasingly diverse student populations enrolled that is having an impact on the growth of educational institutions. This exploratory study used the Delphi research technique to identify an EDM definition that leaders use to make ethical decisions and identify the environmental factors that influence their decisions as well as an EDM model within the U.S.
... Self-regulation is one of the important concepts of Social Learning Theory developed by Albert Bandura. Bandura (1977) defines "self-regulation" as adapting his/her behaviors to his/her criterion if the individual is required to make a judgement by observing his/her own behaviors and comparing them with his/her own criterion. In his "Social Learning Theory", Bandura argues that human behaviors are not only controlled by external reinforcements or punish ...
... The vast majority of studies that have examined the emergence of interindividual differences in children's sympathetic responses have been conducted in the family context. Based on the theories of social learning (Bandura, 1977) and attachment (Leerkes, 2011;Stern & Cassidy, 2018), responsiveness to a child's distress should be linked closely to his or her development of sympathy. Children who experience being comforted when they are sad, anxious, or the like, learn that they can express feelings of helplessness or distress without shame. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a three‐wave longitudinal study of 85 children (43 girls) at 5, 6 and 7 years of age, the role played by child personality (inhibition, aggressiveness) and adults’ responsiveness to distress in children's sympathy was examined. At all three times, sympathy was measured via standardized observations as well as children's self‐reports. Child inhibition and aggressiveness were assessed with reports by teachers at T1 and T2. Parents’ and teachers’ responsiveness to distress were inferred from interviews with the children at T1 and T2. Longitudinal analyses via latent regression using structural equation models showed that earlier sympathy explained most of the variance in later sympathy. Additionally, higher inhibition at T1 predicted less sympathy at T2. Higher sympathy at T1 predicted more adult responsiveness at T2. Higher aggressiveness at T2 predicted less sympathy at T3. Within time, at T1, sympathy was positively related to adults’ responsiveness. At T2, inhibition and sympathy were negatively related. The discussion focuses on the question of how child personality as well as parental and non‐parental socialization experiences work in concert to explain interindividual differences in sympathy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Dopuščeno je napredovanje v individualnem tempu. Bandura (1977) je že v sedemdesetih letih v okviru svoje teorije socialnega učenja vpeljal tehniko modeliranja. Otrok se uči z opazovanjem modela, ki se obnaša na določen način, kar lahko spremeni njegovo obnašanje. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. If it is not treated, the symptoms aggravate over time and continue into adulthood. Early treatment is important, because an untreated anxiety disorder often results in lower academic efficiency, school abandonment and social isolation. Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective method of treatment, and the main principles thereof are presented in this article.
... Dimensi tersebut diantaranya adalah tingkat kesulitan (Level), keluasan bidang tugas (Generality), dan tingkat kekuatan (Strenght). Sementara untuk sumber efikasi diri yakni pengalaman dalam mencapai prestasi (mastery experience), pengalaman orang lain (vicarious experience), persuasi verbal, keadaan psikologis dan fisiologis (Bandura, 1977). Alasan memilih teori berdasarkan dimensi dan sumber efikasi diri dalam penyusunan skala efikasi diri akademik praktikum konseling adalah merupakan konsep dasar teoritis dari efikasi diri. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to analyze the academic self-efficacy scale at counseling practicum up to the item and item level. The method in this study uses a quantitative method, aimed at 18 undergraduate students of the fifth semester guidance and counseling study program at Nusantara University PGRI Kediri. Data collection techniques in this study were in the form of a scale developed by researchers, namely the academic self-efficacy scale of counseling practicum. Analysis of the data used is the Rasch analysis which aims to provide overall information about the quality of student response patterns and quality on the academic self-efficacy scale of counseling practicum. The result of the analysis showed that were 27 items of counseling practicum academic self-efficacy scale items that were declared valid and reliable, along have been validated by three experts. The item separation value of 3,29 is rounded to 3, meaning that there are three types of items on the academic self-efficacy scale in counseling practice, namely: (1) difficult academic self-efficacy scale items, (2) medium academic self-efficacy scale items, (3) easy academic self-efficacy scale items.
... These social influences are crucial to the development of normative beliefs concerning the acceptability and prevalence of drinking, including the extent to which underage drinking is accepted, or even encouraged, by those in one's environment. Perhaps the most widely accepted psychological model for the formation and consequences of social norms is Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977). According to this perspective, youth acquire their behavior through observation of social role models with whom they identify. ...
Article
Objective: Evidence increasingly suggests that alcohol marketing plays a significant role in facilitating underage drinking. This article presents a review of empirical studies and relevant theoretical models proposing plausible psychological mechanisms or processes responsible for associations between alcohol-related marketing and youth drinking. Method: We review key psychological processes pertaining to cognitive mechanisms and social cognitive models that operate at the individual or intrapersonal level (attitude formation, expectancies) and the social or interpersonal level (personal identity, social identity, social norms). We use dominant psychological and media theories to support our statements of putative causal inferences, including the Message Interpretation Processing Model, Prototype Willingness Model, and Reinforcing Spirals Model. Results: Based on the evidence, we propose an integrated conceptual model that depicts relevant psychological processes as they work together in a complex chain of influence, and we highlight those constructs that have received the greatest support in the literature. Conclusions: The evidence to date suggests that perceptions of others' behaviors and attitudes in relation to alcohol (social norms) may be a more potent driver of youth drinking than evaluations of drinking outcomes (expectancies). Considerably more research--especially experimental research--is needed to understand the extent to which theoretically relevant psychological processes have unique effects on adolescent and young adult drinking behavior, with the ultimate goal of identifying modifiable intervention targets to produce reductions in the initiation and maintenance of underage alcohol use.
... Evidence for this explanation was presented in a few studies, that found a positive association between husbands' and wives' PTG among couples following wives' breast cancer (e.g., Weiss, 2004), as well as subsequent to war-related trauma (Lahav et al., 2017). Following Bandura's (1977) social-cognitive theory predictions, one might see siblings' SPTG as part of a process of vicarious learning. Thus, a sibling who viewed his or her veteran sibling as an adored role model, who experienced PTG despite struggles and agony, might have facilitated SPTG (Weiss, 2004). ...
Article
Objectives: We aimed to use a dyadic approach to assess the effects of veterans' posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) and siblings' secondary PTSS, as well as veterans' and siblings' relationship quality, on primary and secondary posttraumatic growth (PTG). Method: A volunteers' sample of 106 dyads of Israeli combat veterans and their close-in-age siblings responded to self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional, dyadic design study. Results: Veterans' primary PTG was positively associated with siblings' secondary PTG. Veterans' PTSS and siblings' secondary PTSS were associated with higher levels of primary and secondary PTG, respectively. Furthermore, among veterans, warmth in siblings' relationships was associated with higher levels of primary PTG. However, among siblings, rivalry in sibling relationships was associated with lower levels of secondary PTG. Conclusions: Both veterans' and siblings' PTSS are only related to their own PTG. Moreover, perception of siblings' relationship quality might have a differential effect on PTG among veterans and their siblings. K E Y W O R D S positive psychology, posttraumatic stress disorder, relationships
... Skinner's advance in operant conditioning moved away from Watson's physicalism by viewing the organism as the initiator of behavior and the environment not as stimuli but in its functional relations with the behavior, such that persons are cultural beings who shape the world as they are shaped by it (Skinner, 1971).3 Based partly on Rotter's introduction of subjective expectancy into learning (1954), Bandura (1977) theorized learning as a social, cognitive, and agentic process of reciprocal determinism. In learning theory, we see a movement from causal explanation with physical reductionism to the conceptualization of mental life as distinctly human, social, and agentic. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Wertz, F.J. (2018). Beyond scientism: Toward a genuine science of psychology. In R.N. Williams & E.E. Gantt (Eds.), On hijacking science: Exploring the nature and consequences of overreach in psychology. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publishing.
... One prevailing hypothesis is that child maltreatment is a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 passed down through family trees, moving from one generation to the next. This notion has been approached from multiple, albeit different, theoretical perspectives, including sociallearning [3], developmental psychopathology [4], and attachment theory [5]. However, the empirical evidence for intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM) has been mixed. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the current study a three-generational design was used to investigate intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM) using multiple sources of information on child maltreatment: mothers, fathers and children. A total of 395 individuals from 63 families reported on maltreatment. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to combine data from mother, father and child about maltreatment that the child had experienced. This established components reflecting the convergent as well as the unique reports of father, mother and child on the occurrence of maltreatment. Next, we tested ITCM using the multi-informant approach and compared the results to those of two more common approaches: ITCM based on one reporter and ITCM based on different reporters from each generation. Results of our multi-informant approach showed that a component reflecting convergence between mother, father, and child reports explained most of the variance in experienced maltreatment. For abuse, intergenerational transmission was consistently found across approaches. In contrast, intergenerational transmission of neglect was only found using the perspective of a single reporter, indicating that transmission of neglect might be driven by reporter effects. In conclusion, the present results suggest that including multiple informants may be necessary to obtain more valid estimates of ITCM.
Thesis
O jogo e a brincadeira são significantes, na medida em que encerram em si uma função social e humana. Neste século, numa sociedade cada vez mais sistémica e interconectada, experimentações da inserção de mecânicas de jogo associadas a eventos do dia-a-dia começam a ganhar relevância. A ludificação, que se distingue da gamification por ser um conceito mais abrangente, oferece a possibilidade de analisar de uma forma holística a cultura e as suas manifestações diárias através da lente do brincar (playful). É constituída por atos de brincadeira (playfulness) apropriando-se do mundo e das suas estruturas para as tornar mais ambíguas. A sua utilização com um fim crítico, critical play, e comunicacional, civic media, é analisada e aprofundada no corpo da dissertação, de forma a oferecer uma visão globalizante do seu desenvolvimento histórico e possível aplicação futura. É dessa forma salientado o carácter disruptivo da brincadeira, e as suas capacidades de desmistificação de comportamentos, tecnologias e situações tomadas por garantidas. Nesta dissertação será apresentado o projeto Labirinto Urbano. Este projeto, que explora o conceito de ludificação e como ele pode ser usado no processo de comunicação urbanístico e cívico, partiu de uma questão de investigação inicial, a saber, como é que se pode usar a ludificação para desbloquear situações de exclusão social? Neste contexto, partiu-se da investigação da literatura na área e de projetos existentes para inquirir o conceito de urbanismo unitário numa direção para a cidade lúdica. A investigação culminou na criação e produção do projeto Labirinto Urbano, que serve de contributo para uma linguagem lúdica e que visa a aplicabilidade prática dos conceitos desenvolvidos no estado da arte expostos na primeira fase da pesquisa. Assim, a dissertação LABIRINTO URBANO, Ludificação como forma de comunicação cívica e urbana, propõe uma metodologia exploratória, baseada em investigação em artes e design (arts-based research), na qual, a teoria e a prática se retroalimentam, para a criação de um projeto concreto que visa melhorar a vida das pessoas em espaço público.
Article
In a pilot project, professional employees working with visually handicapped persons benefitted through participation in a worksite fitness program while serving as role models for clients. The lunch hour program used the worksite's facilities, providing exercise and advice on nutrition. Possible effects on client perception, employee productivity and health improvement are discussed.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Clinical dishonesty is a complex problem that threatens the health and safety of patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between clinical dishonesty and perceived clinical stress in nursing students. Method This cross sectional correlational study was performed on 395 nursing students from 4 nursing colleges. Data were collected using a demographic information questionnaire, Nursing Student's Perception of Clinical Stressors, and a 12-item researcher-made questionnaire to evaluate the frequency of clinical dishonesty in the past semester, the frequency of witnessing dishonest behavior among peers, and the perceived severity of behavior as unethical behavior. Results In this study, 89.1% of the students had at least one dishonest clinical behavior in the last semester. Frequency of clinical dishonesty was correlated with gender, interest in the field of study, academic year, frequency of observing dishonesty among peers, perceived severity of behaviors as unethical behavior, and perceived stress of students in the clinical setting. Conclusion The frequency of clinical dishonesty among nursing students is high and needs attention. Also, considering the positive relationship between dishonesty and perceived clinical stress, it is essential to teach effective strategies to nursing students to empower them to cope with clinical stress.
Article
Full-text available
This study is situated in the paradigms of positive organizational scholarship (POS) and positive organizational behaviour (POB). It draws upon the theoretical mechanisms of social learning and emotional contagion to suggest that psychological capital may spread through work teams to impact team outcomes such as performance, innovation, and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The degree to which team psychological capital (TPsyCap) mediated the relationship between leader psychological capital (LPsyCap) and team outcomes was also tested (n = 94 teams; n = 94 leaders; n = 550 employees). Using structural equation modelling, LPsyCap and TPsyCap were both related to team-level organizational citizenship behavior, team performance, and team innovation. However, the relationship between LPsyCap and TPsyCap was not significant. These findings support the positioning of psychological capital as an important resource for optimal team functioning but also suggest that workplaces cannot expect that leaders, through their own psychological capital alone, can create team-level psychological capital. Instead, the current research suggests that other organizational initiatives and experiences are needed to enhance LPsyCap. The results contribute to a better understanding of POS and POB in general and, specifically, to the recently emerging construct of team psychological capital.
Article
Latar belakang: Persalinan dipandang dari segi psikologis merupakan suatu kejadian penuh dengan stress yang menyebabkan peningkatan rasa nyeri, takut, dan cemas. Nyeri persalinan Nyeri persalinan dapat dikurangi dengan kompres hangat. Tujuan penelitian: Diketahuinya pengaruh kompres hangat terhadap penurunan intensitas nyeri persalinan kala I fase aktif. Metode : Desain penelitian menggunakan pre experimental design dengan rancangan one group pretest posttest design. Populasi seluruh ibu bersalin kala I fase aktif di RSM Surabaya pada tanggal 03-17 Juli 2016. Jumlah sampel 50 ibu bersalin yang diambil secara accidental sampling. Data yang digunakan adalah data primer dengan metode wawancara dan observasi. Instrumen menggunakan buli-buli panas elektrik, timer, lembar checklist dan skala ukur nyeri FLACC. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji t-Test dengan tingkat kesalahan (ɑ = 0,05). Hasil: Hampir seluruhnya nyeri persalinan pre tindakan adalah sangat tidak nyaman 84,0%. Setelah dilakukan kompres hangat 70% ibu mengalami nyeri sedang. Hasil uji t-Test menunjukkan ada pengaruh kompres hangat terhadap penurunan intensitas nyeri persalinan kala I fase aktif (p=0.000). Simpulan: Ada pengaruh kompres hangat terhadap penurunan intensitas nyeri persalinan kala I fase aktif.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine if the current acceptance of consuming edible insects among Danish consumers can be measured and can be improved by an experiment on informed choice.
Article
Background Continuing professional development (CPD) is essential for life-long learning of health professionals, yet evaluations of CPD focus on a narrow range of impacts. This study explored the range of impacts that are possible from attending CPD programs that foster social learning, and applied Wenger’s social theory of learning to explain why these impacts occur. Methods Twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of past participants from two immersive CPD institutes. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Five themes were identified; (i) growing and utilising a network of like-minded individuals, (ii) forming stronger identities, (iii) applying learnings to practice, (iv) obtaining achievements and recognition, and (v) going beyond the scholar. Participants described experiencing both immediate and sustained impacts as a result of attending the courses. Concepts from Wenger’s social learning theory including peripheral membership, reification and multimembership helped to explain why these impacts occur. Conclusions The results suggest that a range of sustained impacts are possible as a result of attending CPD programs, but ongoing social learning is crucial to achieving these impacts. The social process of learning should be considered in the design of future CPD.
Chapter
The growing experimentation with multi-user virtual environments for educational purposes demands rigorous examination of all aspects of these digital worlds. While their use appears to enhance and expand traditional distance learning, educators acknowledge that barriers to access remain, including a steep learning curve for orienting users to MUVE navigation and functionality. The application of Adams’s Knowledge Development Model for Virtual Learning Environments provides a framework for the design of in-world learning opportunities and activities, many of which tend to mirror pedagogical best-practices in Real Life (RL).
Chapter
This chapter reports on the design, development, and implementation of a hybrid introductory systems analysis and design (SAD) semester long course taught at the junior/senior level. Five online instructional modules that focus on student-centered, problem-based learning (PBL) were developed. Each module parallels and reinforces the classroom session content. The classroom “seat-time” saved by having students study and complete online materials provides the instructor and students with additional time for face-to-face and electronic discussions. To further encourage PBL throughout the semester, students use an iterative approach to the SAD life cycle to analyze, design, and implement a prototypic solution to a real world problem presented by the authentic client. The use of a learning management system allows the client to participate in the course throughout the semester regardless of the physical distance between the students and the client. Instructor experiences, hybrid module development strategies, and a summary of student and client feedback are included.
Article
Corporal punishment in the setting of extracurricular school sport activities (bukatsu in Japan) has attracted public attention since 2013. Previous research studies attempted to characterize the actual conditions of corporal punishment in bukatsu. Several studies have demonstrated that direct experience with corporal punishment in bukatsu led to a favorable attitude toward corporal punishment among those that received it. However, these studies did not take into consideration extraneous variables (e.g., sex, age, aggression) that may contribute to the development of favorable attitudes. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the results of previous studies using a modified research design and statistical analysis plan. Participants were 287 individuals, aged 18 to 65 years. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that direct experience with corporal punishment in bukatsu positively influenced favorable attitudes toward corporal punishment even after controlling for several extraneous variables. Moreover, the direct effect of experiencing corporal punishment in bukatsu was fully mediated by the perceived effectiveness of corporal punishment. These results extend this field of research by complementing previous research.
Chapter
Full-text available
The manner in which electronic writing resources are viewed by first-year South African university students enrolled in an English for academic purposes (EAP) class is explored in this chapter. A group of multilingual students (N = 279) were requested to reflect on their electronic writing resource selection habits and experiences. Limited good practice was evident; however, concerns were raised about computer literacy, knowledge, resources and support. The data clearly reflect participants’ limited view of electronic writing resources, computer anxiety and even fears of using computers. Good self-directed classroom writing practice strategies are strongly recommended in such situations, suggesting that teachers need to be cognizant not merely of the linguistic needs students have but also whether or not students are able to apply their L2 knowledge effectively when frustrated by limited experiences using computers.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.