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Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries

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... Risk of preweaning malnutrition is further complicated with dams with twins or triplets (Goetsch et al., 2011). Post-weaning requirements are also different due to the inclusion of forages into the diet as well as to meet nutritional requirements based on target growth rate (Kearl, 1984). Breeding generally requires a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5 -4 (BCS scale of 1 -5) (Hifzan et al., 2012). ...
... A least cost feed formulating ration module with solver function was developed using Microsoft Excel programme in ration formulation to meet or achieve the closest to the requirements of Katjang x Boer goats at different stages of production by inserting data of proximate analysis of commonly available raw materials such as palm kernel expeller (PKE), distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), wheat pollard, grain corn, soybean meal, rice hull, molasses, soybean hull, broken rice, skim milk, crude palm oil, limestone, urea and forage (Bracharia humidicola) collated by Predith et al. (2018) and Yusoff et al. (1990). Daily nutrient requirements for different stages of growth of goats were based on Kearl (1984) as presented in Table 1. ...
... They were fed ad libitum up to 101 days of age with an average birth weight of 2.1 ± 0.17 kg. Dams were fed 3.5% dry matter intake (DMI) for both treatment groups of 60% forage and 40% concentrate (Kearl, 1984). Dams and kids were dewormed and vaccinated prior to experimentation according to standard farm protocols. ...
... Lambs were on average 22.83 ± 0.29 kg as the initial body weight and aged 5 months. All animals fed concentrate feed mixture to cover 70% of their growth requirements (Kearl, 1982). However, the experimental fodders were offered ad lib. ...
... Lambs were on average 22.83 ± 0.29 kg as the initial body weight and aged 5 months. All animals fed concentrate feed mixture to cover 70% of their growth requirement as recommended by Kearl (1982). However, the experimental fodders were offered ad lib. ...
... Although, higher significant Ca intake and excrete via feces in both R1 and R2 groups as compared with control, all the lambs retained relatively similar amounts of calcium. These finding may because of high availability of Ca where the amount of Ca retained as a relative to that level recommended by Kearl (1982) represent about 171.4, 148.7 and 174.0 %, for T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. ...
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he present study was conducted at Maryout Research Station, Desert Research Center. It was applied in two experiments (Agronomy and fodder evaluation experiment and animal growth experiment) to determine the response of sorghum quality and consequently the animal performance to the application of combined N and P fertilizer in newly reclaimed soil. The first experiment was for evaluating sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor L.) that sorted with nine treatment combinations (from T1 up to T9) comprising of three nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers levels (N 80.4 , N 100.5 and N 120.6 kg/feddan vs. P 20.2 , P 30.2 and P 40.3 kg/feddan) in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results of the agronomy experiment with considering the ISDMD, NEg and the cost of treatments, showed that two treatments (N 120 P 30 and N 100 P 40) could be nominated to the second experiment which was their evaluation as feeds for the growing Barki lambs as compared to control treatment (N 80 P 20). So, two treatments and control were sorting again in the next summer season to evaluate their nutritive values by using 15 growing Barki lambs (5 lambs/ treatment) in a completely randomized block design. Lambs were on average 22.83 ± 0.29 kg as the initial body weight and aged 5 months. All animals fed concentrate feed mixture to cover 70% of their growth requirements (Kearl, 1982). However, the experimental fodders were offered ad lib. So the experimental animal groups were allowed for three rations for 85d as follows; R1: CFM + sorghum forage of T1 (N 80 P 20) ad lib., (served as a control), R2: CFM + sorghum forage of T6 (N 120 P 30) ad lib, and R3: CFM + sorghum forage of T8 (N 100 P 40) ad lib. The results indicated that; Average daily gain differed significantly (P= 0.016) being values 158, 185 and 192g for lambs fed R1, R2 and R3, respectively. Animals in R2 and R3 consumed a higher (P=0.042) amount of sorghum compared with the control one. There is a significant effect (P< 0.05) of sorghum treatments on feed conversion ratio (FCR), where sheep fed R1 or R2 had better FCR as g DM/ g gain or g TDN/ g gain than those fed control sorghum ration. However, R1 revealed better FCR as g DCP/g gain as compared with the other groups. The digestibilities of DM, CP and CF were higher (P<0.05) for R2 and R3 compared to the control one. However, digestibilities of EE and NFE were not affected (P>0.05) by the experimental rations. Both R2 and R3 were the better (P<0.05) for both TDN and DCP values as compared with the control ration. Higher (P<0.05) N balance was observed with R2 than control. All lambs retained relatively similar (P>0.05) amounts of calcium. However, higher P content in sorghum of R2 and R3 revealed significantly higher P intake (P<0.05) and also P retained (P<0.05). The revealed insensible water loss (IWL) of the three groups was significantly different being values 144, 172 and 176 g/kg 0.82 for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. The rumen pH value of animal group fed control ration (R1) was significantly (P≤0.001) higher than other groups at all the sampling time. Animals who received R2 ration showed the highest NH 3-N values at 3h (P<0.01) and 6h (P<0.05) post-feeding as compared to the other groups; however R3 group showed the highest (P<0.05) value at zero hour post-feeding as compared to the groups. At 6h post-feeding, animals fed R2 showed the highest (P<0.05) TVFA value (22.14meq/dl) as compared to the other groups (19.68 and 21.45 meq/dl for R1 and R3, respectively). It could be concluded that both of the sorghum treatments; N 120 P 30 and N 100 P 40 kg/fed; are in the same nutritive values and similar growth rate for Barki lambs but because of higher P drain away to the land below in case of N 100 P 40 ration so it is recommended for N 120 P 30 to be a better fertilizer rate for the fodder consumed by the Barki T Kewan et al. 36 lambs and also for its potential to reduce the environmental pollution with the high level of P compared to the other treatment.
... Considering this into account, the research is divided into two phases: the first is developing nutritional equations for various body weights and average daily gains, and the second is determining the lowest cost ration. The regression equations are derived for goat nutrients requirements using the data from Mandal et al. (2005) & Kearl (1982. Derived regression equation is used to find the nutrient requirement of Indian goat (Osmanabadi) whose average BW is 45-55 kg and ADG 130-140 (g/day) located in Maharashtra and neighbouring states of Karnataka, Telangana (Nirmal, 2021). ...
... These studies were carried out in India in a range of locations and circumstances. The data on intake of DMI and ME for different body weight and average daily gain are taken from ICAR (2013) and Kearl (1982). The details of DMI (kg/day), CP (g/day), TDN(g/day) and ME (Mcal/day) are shown in Table S1, whereas data about the feeds and their composition are taken from NRC (2001) and shown in Table 1. ...
... The nutritional data collected may also be affected due to methodological differences (Castro-Montoya & Dickhoefer, 2020). According to Mandal et al. (2005), the database in Kearl (1982) was based on a few publications on Indian animals and used protein requirement estimations derived from nitrogen balancing tests or studies with nonproducing animals, which could explain the disparity between the two databases (Cannas et al., 2019) provided in Table 6. ...
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An elaborate multiple regression analysis was done to arrive a nutrient requirement equation for goat including dry matter intake, DMI (kg/day), total digestible nutrient, TDN (g/day) and crude protein, CP (g/day) based on animal body weight (BW)(kg) and average daily gain (ADG)(g/day). The derived equations were highly significant (p < 0.001) and had high R2 (0.99) values. The estimated values of TDN, CP and DMI are compared with NRC (1981), Kearl (Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries, All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, 1982), as well as ICAR (Livestock Management, 2013). The estimated total TDN and CP requirements at different body weights and ADG are close to the values of recommended feeding standards of Mandal et al. (Small Ruminant Res., 58, 2005, 201). The estimated DMI values are close to the values of ICAR (Livestock Management, 2013) but lower (26.5%–43.8%) as compared to NRC (1981). Regressed values are used to develop a linear programming (LP) model and a stochastic model (SM) for least‐cost ration formulation for the Indian goat breed, whose average BW is about 45 kg and ADG is 130 (g/day), and which is solved using LP simplex and Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG) nonlinear of Microsoft Excel. The models satisfy the nutrient requirement calculated by regression equations with minimum specified level of variation (usually 5%–10%) in CP and TDN. Both methods adequately meet the nutritional requirements. Therefore, an electronic sheet is developed in Excel to calculate DMI, TDN and CP for different body weights, ADG and formulate the ration by LP and stochastic model.
... Contoh pakan dianalisis di Laboratorium Kimia, Balai Penelitian Ternak Ciawi untuk melihat kadar gizi pakan (AOAC, 1990). Kecukupan zat-zat gizi diketahui dari jumlah konsumsi masing-masing zat gizi dibandingkan dengan standar kebutuhan zat gizi sapi induk menurut Kearl (1982) untuk pertumbuhan, kebuntingan, dan laktasi. Sementara pengumpulan data reproduksi dilakukan berdasarkan recording peternak, petugas inseminasi buatan, serta paramedis yang bertugas di lokasi setempat selama periode 2016-2020. ...
... Hasil uji laboratorium Loka Penelitian Sapi Potong (2016), menunjukkan bahwa kadar BK bungkil inti sawit 90,57%, sementara kadar BK rumput liar 18,00%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi BK pada semua pola pemeliharaan telah terpenuhi baik untuk pertumbuhan, kebuntingan, maupun untuk laktasi berdasarkan Kearl (1982). ...
... Walaupun konsumsi BK pada pola pemeliharaan semi intensif lebih tinggi dibanding pola pemeliharaan lainnya, akan tetapi karena kadar protein pakannya lebih rendah, sehingga total protein yang dikonsumsi oleh induk sapi pada pemeliharaan semi intensif lebih rendah. Jika dibandingkan dengan standar kebutuhan nutrisi menurut Kearl (1982), konsumsi protein pada pemeliharaan intensif hanyamemenuhi kebutuhan pertumbuhan dan kebuntingan. Sementara pola pemeliharaan semi intensif dan ekstensif hanya memenuhi standar kebutuhan untuk pertumbuhan, belum dapat memenuhi kebutuhan kebuntingan dan laktasi, sebagaimana dinyatakan Kearl (1982) kebutuhan protein sapi indukan dengan berat badan 250 kg, kebutuhan untuk pertumbuhan, kebuntingan, dan laktasi masing-masing adalah 486 g/hari, 579 g/hari, dan 650 g/hari. ...
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Nutritional status and reproductive performance of Bali cows in smallholder farming integrated system of palm oil-cattle. This study aimed to determine the status of nutritional adequacy and reproductive performance of Bali cows on smallholder farms in an integrated system of oil palm-cattle. The cattle were raised under intensive, semi-intensive and extensive management. The research was conducted from August 2020 to January 2021 in Sungai Selan and Romadon Village, Sungai Selan District, Central Bangka Regency, Bangka Belitung Islands Province. The material used was 127 Bali cows which were reared under a full intensive management (34 heads), semi-intensive management (48 heads), and extensive management(45 heads). The parameters observed were the daily nutrients consumed, and the reproductiveability, which included by age, body condition score, age at puberty, age at first mating, service per conception, age at first birth, calf birth weight, age of weaning, postpartum lust, and calving interval. Research result showed that the protein consumption of cows reared in an integrated system of oil palm-cattle under semi-intensive and extensive managementdid not fulfill the requirements for pregnancy and lactation. In addition, the extensive management also found to be lacks of Calsium for pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore the intensive rearingmanagementscused delayed age at first mating, increased S/C, increased age at first birth, slightly increased calf birth weight, and reduced calf weaning age. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui status kecukupan nutrisi dan kinerja reproduksi induk sapi Bali pada peternakan rakyat melalui sistem integrasi sawit-sapi yang dipelihara dengan pola intensif, semi intensif dan ekstensif.Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus 2020 sampai dengan Januari 2021 di Kelurahan Sungai Selan digunakan adalah induk sapi Bali sebanyak 127 ekor yang dipelihara dengan sistem integrasi sawit-sapi dengan pola intensif, semi intensif, dan ekstensif masing-masing sebanyak 34 ekor, 48 ekor, dan 45 ekor. Parameter yang diamati adalah nutrisi pakan harian yang dikonsumsi, dan reproduksi yang meliputi umur, body condition score (BCS), umur pubertas, umur pertama kawin, service per conception (S/C), umur beranak pertama, berat lahir pedet, umur sapih pedet, berahi setelah melahirkan, dan selang beranak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi protein induk sapi Bali yang dipelihara pada sistem integrasi sawit-sapi dengan pola pemeliharaan semi intensif dan ekstensif belum memenuhi kebutuhan untuk kebuntingan dan laktasi. Selain itu pada pola ekstensif menunjukkan kekurangan kalsium (Ca) untuk kebuntingan dan laktasi. Pola pemeliharaan intensif menundaumur pertama kawin, meningkatkan S/C, meningkatkan umur beranak pertama, meningkatkan berat lahir pedet, mempercepat umur sapih pedet. Kata kunci: Status nutrisi, sapi Bali, performan reproduksi, integrasi sawit-sapi
... Dry material consumption in this study was quite high. The dry material requirement for young bulls with a live weight of 200 kg was 5.6 Kg, equivalent to 2.8% of live weight [11]. This is because the lightness of the palatability factor is quite high, as stated [12] that the level of livestock consumption is strongly influenced by palatability and the balance of macro and micro nutrients in the ration. ...
... The availability of protein in beef cattle feed is very important because protein is the main component of body organs, enzymes, hormone transporters and so on [11]. Table 2 shows that there is no significant difference in the substitution of grass with Gamal and Cassava leaves on protein consumption. ...
... The results of the Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development laboratory analysis (2020) show that the protein content of field grass is quite high, ranging from 10-13%. The amount of protein consumed in this study is also in accordance with the opinion [11], that young bulls with a live weight of 200 Kg, if consuming 554 g/day of protein can produce 0.5 kg/day of weight gain. ...
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Gliricidia (Gamal) is a high protein forage source. Gamal contains 24-25% crude protein. In Bangka Belitung Islands, Gamal is deliberately cultivated as a climbing pole and shade for pepper plants. Usually, Gamal shoots are trimmed once every three months, the leaves can be used as feed. Apart from Gamal, Cassava leaves are also a nutritious feed ingredient. Cassava leaves contain 23.04% crude protein, 24.86% dry matter, and 64.87% dry matter digestibility. This study aims to determine feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of young Bali bulls into small farmers. This research was conducted in Simpang Perlang Village, Central Bangka Regency from June to October 2016. The sample used was 24 young Bali bulls aged 1-3 years with an average live weight of 186.3 kg, which were grouped into 4 (four) feed treatments and 2 (two) age groups, namely 1-2 years and 2-3 years, where each was given 3 (three) replications. Data was analyzed using a completely randomized design and the DMRT test. The results showed that the feed factor and age factor significantly (P < 0.05) had an effect on feed consumption, body weight gain, and FCR.
... Digestibility of nutrients was measured by using the acid-insoluble ash method for internal markers as noted by Van Keulen and Young (1977). Metabolizable energy intake and microbial CP were estimated according to Kearl's (1982) equation based on digestible OM intake (DOMI): ME (Mcal/d) = 3.8 × DOMI and microbial CP = kg of DOMI × 0.130. ...
... However, the total VFA concentration of animals that received 25% HOPFP replacement of the concentrate was significantly greater than that of animals that received 75% HOPFP (P < 0.05) at 4 h after feeding but not that of animals that received 0 and 50% HOPFP. There was no significant dif- (Kearl, 1982); ME (Mcal/d) = 3.8 × DOMI; MCP = microbial CP = kg of DOMI × 0.130 (Kearl, 1982); Lin = linear; Qua = quadratic; Cub = cubic. ference in the VFA concentration or methane production (P > 0.05) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% HOPFP ( Table 6). ...
... However, the total VFA concentration of animals that received 25% HOPFP replacement of the concentrate was significantly greater than that of animals that received 75% HOPFP (P < 0.05) at 4 h after feeding but not that of animals that received 0 and 50% HOPFP. There was no significant dif- (Kearl, 1982); ME (Mcal/d) = 3.8 × DOMI; MCP = microbial CP = kg of DOMI × 0.130 (Kearl, 1982); Lin = linear; Qua = quadratic; Cub = cubic. ference in the VFA concentration or methane production (P > 0.05) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% HOPFP ( Table 6). ...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the influences of feeding high-quality oil palm frond pellets (HOPFPs) as a replacement for concentrate on the DMI, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation, milk production, and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Material and Methods: Four, multiparous 75% Holstein Friesian cows were assigned in a 4×4 Latin Square Design to receive HOPFPs as a replacement for concentrate at 0, 25, 50, and 75% (DM basis). Cows were fed concentrate + HOPFPs at a 2:1 ratio of daily milk production to diet, and urea-treated rice straw (5% urea, UTRS) was fed ad libitum as roughage. Results and Discussion: Concentrate + HOPFPs feed intake, total DMI (kg/d and %BW), nutrient digestibility, and nutrient intake of DM and OM were significantly greater in cows that received 25% HOPFP than those in other groups (P < 0.05). There was a quadratic (P < 0.05) effect of HOPFP level on total VFA (4 h post-feeding) and milk yield, with greater values in cows fed 25% HOPFP due to the greater feed intake and digestibility of DM and OM. Cows fed with 0, 25, and 50% HOPFP had higher milk fatty acids in terms of C14:0, C16:0, and C18:2n6, whereas milk composition and the other fatty acids in milk were not altered among the groups (P > 0.05). Implication and Application: HOPFPs can be used as an alternative feed resource for lactating dairy cows. Practically, smallholder farmers with low- and medium-producing dairy cows could use the findings.
... Crushed barley grains was used as concentrate supplement for all ewes throughout the experiment. The barley grains was offered daily in equal two meals (09:00 AM and 14:00 PM) to cover 75% of total energy requirements of ewes based on their physiological stage (Kearl, 1982). Berseem (Trifolium Alexandrinum) hay (BH), and Atriplex halimmus as fresh (FA) or silage (AS) forms were offered ad-lib to cover the remaining requirements of the ewes according to their physiological condition. ...
... 8.60 and 64.18, 7.68 %, respectively). Also, Khattab (2007) concluded that TDN% for diets based on barley grain covered100% of energy requirement (according to Kearl, 1982) and roughages as Berseem hay and fresh or silage Atriplex was significantly different being values 67.87a, 60.14c and 62.54b%, respectively. The corresponding values of DCP % were 9.02, 9.52 and 9.00 (P<0.05). ...
... recorded for sheep fed on FA or AS diets, mainly attributed to high moisture content of that feeds. These in contrast with that reported by Khattab (2007) who concluded significant differences in drinking water (l/d) for ewes fed diets based on barley grain; offered as 100% of energy requirement that recommended by Kearl (1982); and roughages of hay and fresh or silage of Atreplix foliage, the values were 6.11, 4.62 and 4.84 respectively. In addition, Ben Salem et al. (2002) found that drinking water consumption increased substantially when Atriplex was associated to barley as a supplement. ...
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The aim of study was to investigate the effect of different types of roughage (hay, green and silage) and yeast added to the barley grain on the productive performance of the Barki ewes during the gestation and suckling periods. Eighty-four Barki ewes, 3-4 years of age and 42.93±0.19 kg of average body weight, were randomly assigned to six groups (14 ewes in each) before the mating season. A factorial design was used for 3 × 2 treatments based on Berseem hay (BH), and either fresh Atriplex halimus (FA) or silage (AS) in the absence (Y-) or presence (Y+) of 5g/ewe/day of the dry yeast. All ewe groups recorded gain in their live body weight (LBW) during early and late gestation period. The highest loss in LBW was recorded for BH and Y+ during the suckling period. The AS was the highest consumed roughage followed by BH and then FA during the gestation and suckling periods. The addition of yeast (Y+) resulted a reduction of roughage intake than control one (Y-) during both gestation stages but the total milk yield (TMY) was significantly higher for BH followed by FA and AS. Also, Y+ significantly increased (P<0.05) the TMY (423) compared to Y- (384) treatment. Milk fat content was not affected by roughages type, yeast addition or their interaction. However, milk protein content was significantly higher for BH (5.14%) than the other types of roughage. Silage (AS) was better than other roughages in conversion efficiency to milk and also Y+ was better than Y-. Yeast addition to ewes diets increased birth weight of their lambs compared to un-supplemented one (Y-). It could be concluded that weaning weight relative to that in hay group was 93.6% and 80.4% for AS and FA, respectively. Generally, adding yeast to different roughage diets during suckling period led to a significant increase in weaning weight. Furthermore, the economic efficiency (EE) was higher (P<0.05) in both FA and AS compared to BH. Also, yeast addition (Y+) resulted in higher EE (P<0.05) in compared to Y-.
... Fecal samples were collected by rectal grab sampling before morning and afternoon feeding and then composited by period and used as one sample. Samples of feed and fecal matter were dried at 60 C for 48 h, ground to pass through a 1-mm screen Kearl (1982). ...
... The total VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionic acid were significantly increased by increasing supplementation of fibrolytic enzyme to 2.4 g/kg DM in the TMR, which resulted in a decreased ratio of acetic to propionic acid (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among 0, 1.2, and 2.4 g/kg DM of enzyme supplementation in total VFA, propionic acid, and ratio of acetic to propionic acid, whereas a higher, 3.6 g/kg DM of fibrolytic enzyme supplementation in the TMR resulted in lower total VFA and propionic acid concentration in the rumen (Kearl, 1982); ME, metabolizable energy (Mcal/day), 3.8 Â DOMI; 1 kg DOMI, 3.8 Mcal ME/kg DM (Kearl, 1982); NDF, neutral detergent fiber; OM, organic matter; qua, quadratic; SEM, standard error of the mean; TMR, total mixed ration. ...
... The total VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionic acid were significantly increased by increasing supplementation of fibrolytic enzyme to 2.4 g/kg DM in the TMR, which resulted in a decreased ratio of acetic to propionic acid (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among 0, 1.2, and 2.4 g/kg DM of enzyme supplementation in total VFA, propionic acid, and ratio of acetic to propionic acid, whereas a higher, 3.6 g/kg DM of fibrolytic enzyme supplementation in the TMR resulted in lower total VFA and propionic acid concentration in the rumen (Kearl, 1982); ME, metabolizable energy (Mcal/day), 3.8 Â DOMI; 1 kg DOMI, 3.8 Mcal ME/kg DM (Kearl, 1982); NDF, neutral detergent fiber; OM, organic matter; qua, quadratic; SEM, standard error of the mean; TMR, total mixed ration. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of fibrolytic enzyme on nutrient utilization and milk production in dairy cows. Four multiparous early-to-mid-lactation Holstein–Friesian crossbred cows were randomly allocated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Cows were fed a balanced total mixed ration (TMR) on a dry matter (DM) basis containing 0, 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 g/kg DM of fibrolytic enzyme in TMR, where the TMR comprises 60% concentrate supplemented with a fibrolytic enzyme at 0, 2, 4, and 6 g/kg DM of concentrate, and 40% urea-molasses-treated sugarcane bagasse (UMSB) was used as a roughage source. Fibrolytic enzyme supplementation in TMR containing UMSB did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy cows (p > 0.05). There was a quadratic effect of fibrolytic enzyme levels on the digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (p < 0.05), and the maximal response was reached at 1.2–2.4 g/kg DM of fibrolytic enzyme added in the TMR. Furthermore, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat, total volatile fatty acids, and propionic acid were greater in a cow fed with 1.2–2.4 g/kg DM of fibrolytic enzyme, resulting in a lower ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid (p < 0.05). In conclusion, adding a fibrolytic enzyme in TMR containing UMSB improved nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.
... Differences among groups related on average DMI expressed as g/d, and percentages either of maintenance DMI requirement recommended by Kearl (1982) or body weight showed the same trend of significance (p< 0.5), where UTW group recorded the lowest values (586.5 g/d, 67.28% and 1.64%,respectively) but BH group recorded the highest ones (849.7 g/d, 96.13 and 2.33, respectively), in addition, both of two groups fed treated waste diets (YTW and ZTW) showed comparable values and medium between UTW and BH. The same trend was found concerning TDNI when expressed either as g/d or as a percentage of maintenance TDN requirement. ...
... Similar results were obtained by Khir, et al. (2015) who reported that TDN and DCP of pruning peach trees by-products were improved by chemical or biological treatments compared with untreated roughage. (Kearl 1982). Means with different litters within each row are significantly different (P< 0.05). ...
... Means with different litters within each row are significantly different (P< 0.05). Table (5) revealed that, UTW was underestimate of ME required for maintenance that recommended by Kearl (1982), but both of YTW and ZTW were overestimate and they are considered save for maintenance requirements for rams under desert conations. ...
... Lambs were on average 22.83 ± 0.29 kg as the initial body weight and aged 5 months. All animals fed concentrate feed mixture to cover 70% of their growth requirements (Kearl, 1982). However, the experimental fodders were offered ad lib. ...
... Lambs were on average 22.83 ± 0.29 kg as the initial body weight and aged 5 months. All animals fed concentrate feed mixture to cover 70% of their growth requirement as recommended by Kearl (1982). However, the experimental fodders were offered ad lib. ...
... Although, higher significant Ca intake and excrete via feces in both R1 and R2 groups as compared with control, all the lambs retained relatively similar amounts of calcium. These finding may because of high availability of Ca where the amount of Ca retained as a relative to that level recommended by Kearl (1982) represent about 171.4, 148.7 and 174.0 %, for T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. ...
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The present study was conducted at Maryout Research Station, Desert Research Center. It was applied in two experiments (Agronomy and fodder evaluation experiment and animal growth experiment) to determine the response of sorghum quality and consequently the animal performance to the application of combined N and P fertilizer in newly reclaimed soil. The first experiment was for evaluating sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor L.) that sorted with nine treatment combinations (from T1 up to T9) comprising of three nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers levels (N80.4, N100.5 and N120.6 kg/feddan vs. P20.2, P30.2 and P40.3 kg/feddan) in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results of the agronomy experiment with considering the ISDMD, NEg and the cost of treatments, showed that two treatments (N120P30 and N100P40) could be nominated to the second experiment which was their evaluation as feeds for the growing Barki lambs as compared to control treatment (N80P20). So, two treatments and control were sorting again in the next summer season to evaluate their nutritive values by using 15 growing Barki lambs (5 lambs/ treatment) in a completely randomized block design. Lambs were on average 22.83 ± 0.29 kg as the initial body weight and aged 5 months. All animals fed concentrate feed mixture to cover 70% of their growth requirements (Kearl, 1982). However, the experimental fodders were offered ad lib. So the experimental animal groups were allowed for three rations for 85d as follows; R1: CFM + sorghum forage of T1 (N80P20) ad lib., (served as a control), R2: CFM + sorghum forage of T6 (N120P30) ad lib, and R3: CFM + sorghum forage of T8 (N100P40) ad lib. The results indicated that; Average daily gain differed significantly (P= 0.016) being values 158, 185 and 192g for lambs fed R1, R2 and R3, respectively. Animals in R2 and R3 consumed a higher (P=0.042) amount of sorghum compared with the control one. There is a significant effect (P< 0.05) of sorghum treatments on feed conversion ratio (FCR), where sheep fed R1 or R2 had better FCR as g DM/ g gain or g TDN/ g gain than those fed control sorghum ration. However, R1 revealed better FCR as g DCP/g gain as compared with the other groups. The digestibilities of DM, CP and CF were higher (P<0.05) for R2 and R3 compared to the control one. However, digestibilities of EE and NFE were not affected (P>0.05) by the experimental rations. Both R2 and R3 were the better (P<0.05) for both TDN and DCP values as compared with the control ration. Higher (P<0.05) N balance was observed with R2 than control. All lambs retained relatively similar (P>0.05) amounts of calcium. However, higher P content in sorghum of R2 and R3 revealed significantly higher P intake (P<0.05) and also P retained (P<0.05). The revealed insensible water loss (IWL) of the three groups was significantly different being values 144, 172 and 176 g/kg0.82 for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. The rumen pH value of animal group fed control ration (R1) was significantly (P≤0.001) higher than other groups at all the sampling time. Animals who received R2 ration showed the highest NH3-N values at 3h (P<0.01) and 6h (P<0.05) post-feeding as compared to the other groups; however R3 group showed the highest (P<0.05) value at zero hour post-feeding as compared to the groups. At 6h post-feeding, animals fed R2 showed the highest (P<0.05) TVFA value (22.14meq/dl) as compared to the other groups (19.68 and 21.45 meq/dl for R1 and R3, respectively). It could be concluded that both of the sorghum treatments; N120P30 and N100P40 kg/fed; are in the same nutritive values and similar growth rate for Barki lambs but because of higher P drain away to the land below in case of N100P40 ration so it is recommended for N120P30 to be a better fertilizer rate for the fodder consumed by the Barki
... Digestible organic matter fermented in the rumen (DOMR) was calculated according to an ARC [20] as follows: DOMR (kg/d) = digestible organic matter intake (DOMI, kg/d) × 0.65, where DOMI = [digestibility of organic matter (kg/kg DM) × organic matter intake (kg/d)]/100, 1 kg DOMI = 15.9 MJ ME/kg [21]. ...
... The number of microbial purines absorbed was calculated from purine derivative excretion as described by Chen and Gomes [25]. Microbial crude protein (MCP) (g/d) = 3.99 × 0.856 × mmol of purine derivatives were excreted following the method of Galo et al. [21]. ...
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The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) adding and roughage-to-concentrate ratio (R:C ratio) on nutrients utilization, rumen fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis, and protozoal population in Thai native beef cattle. Four Thai native beef cattle, weighing an average of 120 ± 10 kg live weight, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was the level of roughage-to-concentrate ratio (R:C ratio) at 60:40 and 40:60; factor B was the levels of live yeast (LY) supplementation at 0 and 4 g/hd/d; urea–calcium-hydroxide-treated rice straw were used as a roughage source. Findings revealed that total intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) were increased (p < 0.05) by both factors, being greater for steers fed a R:C ratio of 40:60 supplemented with 4 g LY/hd/d. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen, total volatile fatty acid (VFA), and propionate (C3) were increased (p < 0.05) at the R:C ratio of 40:60 with LY supplementation at 4 g/hd/d, whereas rumen acetate (C2) and the C2 to C3 ratio were decreased (p < 0.05). With a high level of concentrate, LY addition increased total bacterial direct counts and fungal zoospores (p < 0.05), but decreased protozoal populations (p < 0.05). High-concentrate diet and LY supplementation increased nitrogen absorption and the efficiency of microbial nitrogen protein production. In conclusion, feeding beef cattle with 4 g/hd/d LY at a R:C ratio of 40:60 increased C3 and nutritional digestibility while lowering protozoal population.
... The DMI per 100 kg LW in the present study were in the range of the feed intake suggested by Kearl (1982) and in agreement with the finding of Dung et al. (2019) fattening young male Yellow cattle with different forage sources. At the 30% MS inclusion level, the minimum FCR was observed (7.8); these results were similar to those observed for fattening young animals in both the native Yellow or Sindhi x Yellow crossed breeds (Vu et al., 2011; ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the substitution of maize silage (MS) for urea-treated rice straw (URS) in feedlot diets on finishing performance and body conformation traits of culled local Yellow cows; and to develop prediction equations for live weight (LW) of local Yellow cows using these body measurements. Twelve non-pregnant local Yellow cows (74.8 ± 23.6 months of age) were blocked by weight into 4 groups and then randomly allocated to one of three roughage treatments: 30% fresh maize + 70% URS (DM basis) (Control); 30% fresh maize + 40% URS + 30% MS (LMS); 30% fresh maize + 20% URS + 50% MS (HMS). Cows were individually supplemented with concentrate (1.1 kg DM/100 kg LW) and had free access to mixed roughage and water throughout the 12-week feeding trial, after a 2-week adaptation. Maize silage inclusion significantly increased daily feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the roughage containing 30% MS recorded the lowest feed conversion rate (7.8) and the highest final body condition score (3.43). However, LW and body measurements were not affected by the substitution (P > 0.05). Positive and significant correlations between LW and body measurements were observed. Regression analysis between chest girth (CG) and LW resulted in an equation with adjusted an R2 value of 82.0%. The multiple regression, which included CG, body length (BL) and withers height (WH) yielded the most reliable equation (adjusted R2 = 87.4%). The results indicate that MS can be a good alternative roughage source for feedlot culled local Yellow cows during winter in Northwest Vietnam. It is highly recommended that smallholder farmers raising non-pregnant Yellow cows use the regression equation: LW = 3.39 CG - 249 for prediction of LW in the absence of weighing scales.
... The sum of the maintenance energy requirements of livestock was used to calculate the total energy requirements of livestock types. To compare balance, the population of livestock was converted into tropical livestock units (TLU) using the conversion factors of (Kearl, 1982). The total available dry matter, nutrients supplied as metabolizable energy, and digestible crude protein were calculated by adding the nutrients supplied by each major feed resource category. ...
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The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of seasonality on feed balance in the Lalo kile district of the Kellem Wollega Zone of Western Ethiopia. The district was divided into two agro-ecological zones: mid and low altitude. A total of 127 respondents were chosen to be interviewed. To collect the required data in the study areas, a cross-sectional survey was used. To analyses the qualitative data, descriptive statistics were performed, while the General Linear Model (GLM) method was used to assess the impacts of seasonal feed availability and agro-ecology on dry matter yield and production constraints. The result showed that there has been seasonal fluctuation in the feed availability and the feed is generally abundant from June to September. The feed supply in terms of DM, ME, and DCP per household per year was 118.7 kg, 74,781 MJ/kg, and 118.61kg, respectively. The feed balance was negatively associated and substantially different all across the studied areas (P < 0.01). With a year's approach, the annual total feed supply exceeds only 66.13, 25.81, and 87.24 percent of the DM, DCP, and ME demands per household, respectively. As a result, total dry matter production, digestible crude protein, and metabolizable energy supply were only fulfilled for 9, 3.5, and 12 months in the research area's mid-altitude and 7, 3 and 9 months in the study area's low land altitude, respectively. The main limitations in both agro-ecologies of the research area include low production and reproduction, poor use of existing feedstuffs, and poor adoption of improved forage production. As a result, for successful livestock development in the study area, the adoption of better fodder and supplementation of productive animals should be considered.
... Attention should be paid for mineral trait of the buffaloes. According to the report of Kearl (1982) on the daily nutrient requirements of buffaloes with BW between 100 kg and 250 kg, the requirement of DM, CP, TDN, Ca and P expressed as each nutrient per BW 0.75 (g/kg) for maintenance can be calculated. The values were respectively 76.6, 5.2, 34.5, 0.1 and 0.1. ...
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Thirty small-scale farms in Chitwan district of Nepal were selected for identifying feeding characteristics and body dimensions of growing buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) which were under 24 months old, unused for dairy and draught purposes. The survey was conducted in the feed-existence period (FEP), the feed-decreasing period (FDP) and the feed-shortage period (FSP). The mean feed supply of dry matter per metabolic bodyweight (BW0.75) was higher in FDP than in FEP and FSP. The average feeding of crude protein (CP), total digestible nutrients (TDN), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) per BW0.75 was lower in FSP than in FEP and FDP. Since the lower nutrient supply in FSP may cause insufficient buffalo growth, the feed supply and buffalo body conditions in FSP should receive further attention in the survey area. The BW estimation using body dimensions may serve a significant role to show the buffalo growth. With the measured BW, heart girth (HG, cm) and hip width (HW, cm) in this survey, the formulae to estimate BW (kg) of buffaloes below 24 months old were established. The formulae can contribute to establish the comparative growth of buffaloes on the farms, because the measurement of HG and HW is possible even on small-scale farms. The periods divided by the feed existence induced different feed supplies and nutrients. Although the growing buffaloes apparently had sufficient nutrient supplies for their maintenance during FEP and FDP, the feeding of DM, CP and TDN in FSP was probably insufficient for the maintenance. The BW estimation using HG and HW measurements may assist to understand the growth condition. The outcomes of this study should contribute towards the quest of more efficient buffalo production.
... Such relationships might also be consisted in increasing the digestibility tendency of energy (Table 3), as Hristov et al. (2013) postulated decreased enteric CH 4 with increasing digestibility. The ME m requirement of RC bulls (ME m =350 kJ/kgW 0.75 ; Figure 3) at 2.5 feeding level is well below the value recommended by Kearl (1982; 493 kJ/kgW 0.75 ) but close to the value of Liang and Young (1995;335 kJ/kgW 0.75 for growing Kedah Kelantan bulls) and Subepang et al. (2019; 388 kJ/kgW 0.75 for Thai native cattle), at 1.1-2.0 feeding level. ...
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The study was conducted to investigate nutrient metabolism and semen quality of bulls fed with moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, twigs, and branches as a major concentrate ingredient. Twenty-one Red Chittagong bulls of about 204 (±50) kg initial live weight (LW) were randomly divided into three equal LW groups. They were fed maize silage as a basal feedstuff for 65 days with the supplementation of concentrate mixtures at 1% of LW, consisting of either 0, 25, or 50% moringa mash on a fresh basis. Moringa mash was a sun-dried ground preparation of leaves, twigs, and branches of moringa. The results indicated that different levels of moringa in concentrate mixtures (0, 25, and 50%) did not change daily DM intake, digestibility, and LW gain of bulls (p > 0.05). However, increasing dietary moringa (up to 203 g/kg DM) significantly decreased production cost of methane (CH 4) (methane emission [kg/kg gain] = 1.6422-[0.0059 × moringa intake, g/kg DM], n = 12, R 2 = 0.384, P = 0.032) in a similar metabolizable energy intake level (0.21 ± 0.01 MJ/kg LW). Also, higher dietary moringa significantly reduced urinary nitrogen loss (urinary nitrogen [% digested nitrogen] = 43.0-0.069 × moringa intake [g/kg DM]; R 2 = 0.3712, P = 0.034). Thus, increasing moringa by 1 g/kg DM decreased CH 4 emission by 6 g/kg gain and absorbed nitrogen loss by 0.069 %. Also, progressive motility of sperm increased significantly (33.0, 51.0, and 60.1%, respectively; p = 0.03) in bulls fed with concentrate mixtures containing moringa at 0, 25, or 50%. It may be concluded that feeding moringa mash at 203 g/kg DM may decrease energy loss as methane and urinary nitrogen loss without impacting the production of beef cattle. Feeding moringa mash to beef cattle may abate dietary energy and nitrogen loss and consequently decrease the environmental pollution.
... This was possible because the intake of dry matter in all treatments was significantly different (P<0.05). It is following the opinion of Kearl (1982) that the need for feed energy will increase with the increasing body weight of livestock. ...
... Proportionate DMI (I% BW or per kg W 0.75 ) in all the groups were comparable with the suggested value (ICAR 2013). DM intake values of 96.6 to 103.8 g/kg W 0.75 in the present experiment corroborated with the earlier findings of (Kearl, 1982;Dey et al.,2009) and clearly indicates that the supplement was palatable. Similar dry matter intake per kg metabolic body weight in sheep fed legume crop residues supplemented diet was also recorded by Ngwa and Tawah (2002). ...
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Grasspea/ Lathyrus straw (LS) was supplemented to lactating crossbred cows weighing 370.7±10.42 kg to study the influence on nutrient intake, utilization and milk yield performance of the animals. In the control group (G1), the animals were fed wheat straw plus concentrate based ration whereas in the diet of G2 and G3 wheat straw was replaced with lathyrus straw at 30% and 50% on DM basis for 90 days. All the groups were provided iso-nitrogeneous diet. Intake of dry matter (DM) was 2.36, 2.38 and 2.21 of the body weight in groups G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Dry matter(DM) and fibre digestibility was comparable among the groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) was significantly (P<0.05) higher (51.76%) in G1 or G2 (47.85%) as compared to G3 (44.98%). Milk yield and milk composition did not revealed any significant difference among the groups. The experimental results revealed that the feed cost per day was reduced significantly (P<0.05) from ` 103.98 to ` 92.68 and cost of feed per kg FCM was reduced from ` 13.70 to12.12 in cows fed 50% LS straw supplemented diet as compared to control. Thus, Lathyrus straw can be safely incorporated in the ration of dairy animals for economic milk production without having any adverse effect on feed intake, nutrient utilization and production performance of crossbred cows.
... The other three groups were fed on the same basal diet and supplemented with one of three EO as follow: Control diet plus 2 ml/h/day of Anise (Pimpinella anisum) (AEO) or plus 2 ml/h/day of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) (CEO) or plus 2 ml/h/day of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) (TEO). The requirements during pregnancy and lactation were calculated according to the recommended feeding standards of Kearl (1982). The animals, adult and young, were weighed weekly before morning feeding till the end of lactation. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anise, clove and thyme essential oils (EO) supply on ewes performance during late pregnancy and lactation. Forty Barki ewes (33.5±2.15 kg BW and 2-3 years old) were allocated into four equal groups, 10 animals each and received the same basal diet, berseem hay and concentrate supplement. Control ewes were fed their basal diet without oil supplementation (control group) while the other groups were supplemented with one of the three EO as follow; control diet plus 2 ml/day of anise EO (Anise group), 2 ml/day clove EO (Clove group) or 2 ml/day thyme EO (Thyme group). The oils were daily introduced individually to dams from late pregnancy period till weaning time. The results revealed a similar body weight among treatments during the late pregnancy and lactation period. The clove EO supply significantly improved (P<0.05) milk yield at certain stages of lactation in comparison with other experimental groups. Thyme EO significantly (P<0.05) increased milk total solids, solid not fat, protein and lactose, while the three EO increased (P<0.05) the total anti-oxidant capacity (P<0.01) compared to control’s milk and numerically increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids profile, especially Linolenic C18:3n-3 (omega – 3) fatty acids that benefits consumer’s health. The digestibility trial was performed at the end of lactation in which a similar feed intake was recorded among treatment. The digestibility was significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01) affected by the EO supply, except for crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. The nitrogen excretion via feces was reduced (P<0.01) and nitrogen retention increased (P<0.05) by the clove EO supply. Ruminal pH and ammonia –nitrogen did not affected by sampling time (P>0.05) while EO supply decreased pH (P<0.05) and ammonia increased (P<0.01) with anise and clove EO supply. Volatile fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) at 4 h post feeding and affected (P<0.05) by treatment × time interaction. Normal renal function and hepatic enzymes with EO supply, but decreased levels (P<0.01) of serum total protein with clove and thyme supply were obtained. Reduced levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) (P<0.01) were recorded with EO, whereas total lipids (TL) and lipase activity increased (P<0.01) with clove and thyme supply. Anise EO supplementation has variable effects on blood metabolites. Clove and thyme EO supply to dams affecting positively (P<0.01) their lambs growth rate till weaning. Therefore, the presence of EO in Barki ewes nutrition could be considered as a promising and useful alternative feed supplement to enrich the nutritional properties of the dairy products and consequently adding value and benefits to the animal products for consumer health.
... Expect for D. dichrophylla in spring, all other browse species in the study area have their CP level higher than the minimum recommended (7%) for ruminant maintenance and growth (NRC, 2001;NRC, 2007). The browse species had moderate to high CP content, than the minimum level of 7 to 8% required for optimum rumen function and feed intake in ruminant livestock (Kearl, 1982;Van Soest, 1994). In addition, plants species with high protein content can enhance intake, digestibility (Washaya et al., 2018) and used as supplement with low quality feed such as grasses and crop residues (Baloyi et al., 2006;Gusha et al., 2013). ...
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The use of browse plants as livestock feed during the dry season can improve deficiency of certain nutrients and sustain livestock production under small-scale farming system. This study was conducted to investigate the seasonal variation of nutrients of four browse species in the Eastern Cape Province. Samples (2kg) of fresh leaves from Vachellia karoo, Prunus persica, Vepris lanceolata and Diospyros dichrophylla were collected during winter, spring and summer. The experiment was a completely randomized design with three replicates for each species in each season. The chemical composition of these samples was determined using standard laboratory analytical techniques. The results indicate that, crude protein (CP) content range from 1.84% to 19.9% for winter and spring respectively. The average CP content was higher (P < 0.05) 16.0% in P. Persica compared to 15.29, 13.28 and 6.47% for V. lanceolata, V. karoo and D. dichrophylla respectively. A range of 1.06% to 34.9% and 5.9% to 20.5% values were recorded for ether extract (EE) and ash respectively, while the mean values for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) ranged from 17.4 to 69.54 and 17.59 to 37.11 respectively. The condense tannin (CT) content of browse species were observed to vary widely (P < 0.05) ranging from 0.12% (P. persica) to 28.89% (V. Karoo). The Ca, Na, P, and Fe contents were influenced by species while the Mg, Na, P, K Zn, Cu differed among seasons (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that Vachellia karoo, Prunus persica, Vepris lanceolata contained adequate levels of nutrients to support ruminant animal production while Diospyros dichrophylla does not.
... The highest average value is in the P0 treatment of 72.67%, then followed by P1 treatment of 68.46%, then followed by P2 treatment of 63.74% and the lowest in treatment P3 amounted to 58.96%. The effect of giving BSF maggot flour on the digestibility of BSF maggot protein can be seen from the results of the analysis of This range value indicates that the BSF maggot used in this study is of low, medium and high quality there are 3 categories of feed quality based on digestibility, namely: the digestibility value in the range of 50% -60% is of low quality, between 60% -70% of medium quality and above 70% of high quality [10] Further analysis of the orthogonal polynomial equation between BSF maggot age and protein digestibility Based on the orthogonal polynomial analysis, it shows that the equation follows a linear pattern, Y = -0.655x + 82.00 (R2 = 0.99), and indicated that the digestibility value of BSF maggot protein decreases at an older age. ...
... Eucalyptus oil (EUO) was obtained from "El Hawag for Natural Oils" -El Nasr City -Cairo, Egypt. Four experimental diets were formulated as total mixed ration isonitrogenous and iso-caloric to cover the recommended requirements of lactating buffaloes according to Kearl (1982). Animals in the 1 st group (G1) got the basal diet consisting of concentrate feed mixture (CFM), fresh berseem (FB), rice straw (RS), and corn silage (CS) to be 40:60 concentrate: roughage ratio. ...
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Sixteen lactating Egyptian buffaloes randomly assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil naturally protected in the form of leaves (EUL) or mature seed capsules (EUS) or unprotected crude oil (EUO). The control group (G1) got the basal diet consisting of concentrate feed mixture (CFM), fresh berseem (FB), rice straw (RS), and corn silage (CS) to be 40:60 concentrate: roughage ratio. In the G2, G3, and G4 animals fed the basal diet with a supplement of 200 g/head/day of EUL, EUS, or 4 ml EUO, respectively. Supplement of EUL or EUS increased NH3-N, SCFA's, and acetic acid concentrations in-vitro than EUO. While C2/C3 ratio decreased (P<0.05) with supplement EUL or EUS compared to EUO or control diet. The total bacteria count, and cellulolytic bacteria increased (P<0.05) with supplement EUL or EUS, compared to EUO. While protozoa count increased with supplement EUO compared with EUL, EUS, or control. Methane production and degradability of NDF were lower (P<0.05) with the supplementation of EUS, EUL, or EUO compared to the control diet. Milk fat decreased (P<0.05) with EUO-supplement than the control diet, while an adverse trend was shown for lactose. No differences were found for feed conversion among EUS, EUL, or EUO. Total protein and albumin increased (P<0.05) with supplement EUL or EUS compared to EUO. Supplement EUO increased (P<0.05) AST, ALT, glucose, and creatinine. Blood urea increased (P<0.05) with feeding EUL or EUS compared to EUO, but no difference when compared to the control group. The supplementation of EUL, EUS, or EUO decreased (P<0.05) DM, OM, and CP digestibility compared to the control diet. Digestibility of EE with EUL, EUS, or EUO was higher (P<0.05) than the control diet, while it was higher (P<0.05) with supplementing EUL or EUS than supplementing EUO to the diet. Digestibility of NDF and ADF decreased (P<0.05) with supplement EUL, EUS, or EUO compared to the control diet. Feeding EUS increased (P<0.05) digestibility of NDF and ADF compared to EUL supplementation, which was increased (P<0.05) than feeding EUO. Feeding EUS increased values of TDN and DCP compared to EUL, which was higher than EUO. Finally, the results of the current study confirm that the effect of a supplement of EUO naturally protected in the form of leaves or seeds mitigates the negative effects of directly supplementing crude eucalyptus oi
... The sum of the maintenance energy requirements of livestock was used to calculate the total energy requirements of livestock types. To compare balance, the population of livestock was converted into tropical livestock units (TLU) using the conversion factors of (Kearl, 1982). The total available dry matter, nutrients supplied as metabolizable energy, and digestible crude protein were calculated by adding the nutrients supplied by each major feed resource category. ...
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The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of seasonality on feed balance in the Lalo kile district of the Kellem Wollega Zone of Western Ethiopia. The district was divided into two agro-ecological zones: mid and low altitude. A total of 127 respondents were chosen to be interviewed. To collect the required data in the study areas, a cross-sectional survey was used. To analyses the qualitative data, descriptive statistics were performed, while the General Linear Model (GLM) method was used to assess the impacts of seasonal feed availability and agro-ecology on dry matter yield and production constraints. The result showed that there has been seasonal fluctuation in the feed availability and the feed is generally abundant from June to September. The feed supply in terms of DM, ME, and DCP per household per year was 118.7 kg, 74,781 MJ/kg, and 118.61kg, respectively. The feed balance was negatively associated and substantially different all across the studied areas (P < 0.01). With a year's approach, the annual total feed supply exceeds only 66.13, 25.81, and 87.24 percent of the DM, DCP, and ME demands per household, respectively. As a result, total dry matter production, digestible crude protein, and metabolizable energy supply were only fulfilled for 9, 3.5, and 12 months in the research area's mid-altitude and 7, 3 and 9 months in the study area's low land altitude, respectively. The main limitations in both agro-ecologies of the research area include low production and reproduction, poor use of existing feedstuffs, and poor adoption of improved forage production. As a result, for successful livestock development in the study area, the adoption of better fodder and supplementation of productive animals should be considered.
... This means that using barley straw for soil mulch is associated with a reduction in soil loss of 17.7 t/ha/yr, or 36%, compared to not using barley straw for mulching in our study. Factors such as heavy concentrated rainfall, steep topography, deforestation, over-grazing, use of marginal land and agricultural intensification can accelerate soil erosion in mixed crop-livestock farming systems in Ethiopia [27,45]. ...
... The DM requirements of the sheep population were calculated according to Kearl (1982). ...
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Abstract This study was carried to characterize available feed resource, feeding system and feed balance of sheep in Arba Minch Zuria District of Gamo zone, Southern Ethiopia. The district was selected based on its high potential for sheep production and urgent need of feed resource assessment for sheep production. Assuming there might be feed and feeding system variability across agro-ecologies (AEZ), the study district was stratified into three distinctive agro-ecologies, namely highland (HL), midland (ML) and lowland (LL). Following probability proportional to size sampling technique, a total of 138 households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. In addition, a Focus Group Discussion with 12 households was conducted in each agro-ecology. The data obtained through these tools were analyzed using SPSS version 20. One-way variance analysis was used for the continuous data, whereas statistical variations in categorical data were tested using chi-square and t-test, with significant differences at P<0.05. The major reported available feed resources for sheep were pasture, crop residue and crop aftermath grazing in both wet and dry seasons. Feeding systems widely practiced in all AEZs were tethering, stall feeding and free grazing system in both dry and wet seasons. The dry matter (DM) production of feed from pasture, crop residues, crop aftermath, foliage of fodder trees and shrubs in the study area was 115,416.5 tons per year. The total feed DM requirement for 129,736.2 TLU was 295,928.27 tons per year. From the total tropical livestock units (TLU) of the district, sheep accounts about 2,925.5 TLU and requires 6673.1 tons of feed annually. The total DM produced per year in the district can only supply the animals for approximately 6 months; in the rest of the year, animals suffer from feed shortage. Therefore, introduction and use of best practices, conservation techniques and alternative feed production technologies are highly recommended. Key words: Feed availability, Feeding practices, Feed requirement, Sheep
... Animals were given no fat or 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum and have recorded that the mean IGF-I plasma levels increased between 30 and 60 DIM (P< 0.01), but no significant differences were observed between the treatment groups, although the mean IGF-I concentration tended to diminish with increasing fat. Singh (2015) was recorded that the IGF-1 levels were not influenced by fat feeding in spite of increased GH concentrations in an experiment on fifteen early lactating Murrah buffaloes, divided into three groups of five animals each having average milk yield up to 5 kg/d (T1) and the two groups (T2 and T3) of buffaloes having milk yield of 9-10 kg/d fed with balanced ration as per Kearl (1982) feeding standards. The third group (T3) was supplemented with prilled fat @ 75 g/day/animal in addition to basal ration from 6th day of postpartum to 45th day and 150 g/d/animal till the experimental period of 120 days. ...
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In dairy the stages of pregnancy and lactation especially the period of transition which is between late pregnancy (-3 weeks) and early lactation (+3 weeks) greatly modify the metabolism in animals and induce high stress and presents huge metabolic challenges in terms of energy balance, blood metabolites and hormonal changes. The loss in the Body Condition Score (BCS) is the consequence of the negative energy balance (NEB) seen just after parturition. The levels of non-esterified fatty acids and higher β- hydroxybutyrate concentrations are indicative of lipid mobilization and fatty acid oxidation. Average to high yielding dairy animals under NEB will mobilise the body reserves to support lactogenesis and milk production resulting in metabolic disorders and sub-optimal milk yield. Various forms of fats like bypass fat and prilled fat addition to the diets is a practicable option to alleviate NEB and to improve lactating animal performance. The present review discusses the effects of various fat supplements on blood metabolites and plasma hormones in milch animals.
... Animals were given no fat or 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum and have recorded that the mean IGF-I plasma levels increased between 30 and 60 DIM (P< 0.01), but no significant differences were observed between the treatment groups, although the mean IGF-I concentration tended to diminish with increasing fat. Singh (2015) was recorded that the IGF-1 levels were not influenced by fat feeding in spite of increased GH concentrations in an experiment on fifteen early lactating Murrah buffaloes, divided into three groups of five animals each having average milk yield up to 5 kg/d (T1) and the two groups (T2 and T3) of buffaloes having milk yield of 9-10 kg/d fed with balanced ration as per Kearl (1982) feeding standards. The third group (T3) was supplemented with prilled fat @ 75 g/day/animal in addition to basal ration from 6th day of postpartum to 45th day and 150 g/d/animal till the experimental period of 120 days. ...
... The sum of the maintenance energy requirements of livestock was used to calculate the total energy requirements of livestock types. To compare balance, the population of livestock was converted into tropical livestock units (TLU) using the conversion factors of (Kearl, 1982). The total available dry matter, nutrients supplied as metabolizable energy, and digestible crude protein were calculated by adding the nutrients supplied by each major feed resource category. ...
... Total digestible nutrient (TDN) was estimated according to the following equations: TDN for silage (% dry matter (DM)) = − 17.2649 + (1.2120 × %CP) + (0.8352 × %NFE) + (2.4637 × %EE) + (0.4475 × %CF); TDN for concentrate (%DM) = 40.3227 + (0.5398 × %CP) + (0.4448 × %NFE) + (1.4218 × %EE) − (0.7007 × %CF) as well as metabolizable energy (ME) values were estimated according to Kearl (1982); ME (MJ/kg DM) = [− 0.45 + (0.04453 × %TDN)] × 4.184. Fat corrected milk (FCM) was measured using software of Progressive Dairy Solutions. ...
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Article Info AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES The dietary crude protein (CP) supply was optimized for indigenous lactating buffaloes in Bangladesh. Twelve buffaloes (age 4 yr) with an average daily milk yield of 2.33-3.03 kg/d and average ± SD body weight of 390 ± 10 kg were divided into three groups (each with four animals) that were randomly assigned to three levels of CP in the concentrate feed mixture: 14.22%, 15.62%, and 17.81% (dry matter basis) in a completely randomized design. The total duration of the study was 100 d with an initial 10 d of adjustment. The diets were formulated to ensure the same energy level. The dietary protein level showed no effect on dry matter intake (p > 0.05). The nitrogen intake of buffaloes increased linearly (p = 0.01) with increasing CP levels. The milk yield tended to increase in a quadratic fashion. No effect was observed (p > 0.05) on the milk protein, fat and lactose contents. The level of plasma urea nitrogen increased (p < 0.05) when the dietary CP levels were raised, whereas the glucose, protein, albumin, globulin, calcium and triacylglycerol levels remained unchanged (p > 0.05). The nitrogen efficiency of lactating buffaloes increased (p < 0.05) by optimizing dietary protein nutrition accurately to each animal's requirements. The milk amino acid composition was unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary CP supplies. In conclusion, the 15.62% CP level resulted in higher milk production (p < 0.05) and high nitrogen efficiency (p < 0.05) in the indigenous lactating buffaloes under the study conditions.
... The other seven animals were fed mixture contained 50% A. nummularia, 25% S. bicolor and 25% P. glaucumad libitum with 40% of concentrate feed mixture (mixture group). Alfalfa and concentrate feed mixture were given to cover energy maintenance and production requirements of ewes and does according to the nutritional requirements of Kearl (1982). The chemical composition of mixture of A. nummularia, S. bicolor and P. glaucum and fresh alfalfa (Table 1) ...
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Abstract: The study was carried out at South Sinai Research Station, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt. Twenty eight pregnant Barki sheep and Shami goats were used to evaluate the effects of feeding cultivated salt-tolerant forages mixture, old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia L.), Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and pear millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) on feed intake, nutritive value, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, body weight changes, rumen and blood parameters. Animals were randomly assigned into two equal groups (14 animals each specie). Seven animals of each species were used as control and fed fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with concentrate diet (mixture group). The other seven animals were fed mixture contained 50% A. nummularia, 25% S. bicolor and 25% P. glaucumad libitum with concentrate diet (mixture group). Data showed that values of dry roughage and total DMI (g/KgW0.75 /d) were insignificant between both species and was higher for control group vs. mixture group. However, digestibility coefficients of CP and CF were higher for goats than sheep but were insignificantly differences in DM, OM and EE digestibility between both species. Also goats had higher in DCP% vs. sheep but were no significant differences in TDN, DCP intake (g/h/d) and TDN% among ewes and does. Nitrogen intake, excretion and balance (g/KgW0.75) were higher for control group vs. mixture group but was insignificantly differences between both species. Animals fed mixture group consumed water more than those fed a control group while urine, faces and total water execration were higher for same animals vs. control group. Sheep had higher ruminal TVFA's (m. equiv. /100 ml) than goats and was greater for control vs. mixture group but values of rumen ammonia (NH3-N mg/100 ml) were insignificantly between two species and treatments. However, significantly differences of NH3-N were detected in interaction between species and treatments. Animals fed Salt-tolerant plants mixture had higher values of body weight change (kg) and relative body weight (%) of mid pregnancy than those fed alfalfa. Values of glucose, total lipids and creatinine were significant in interaction between species and treatments. On the other hand, insignificant differences were observed in other blood parameters between species, treatments and interaction between species and treatments. Under arid and saline conditions in Sinai we could be recommended a mixture contained some cultivated salt-tolerant forages as a non-traditional feed resources which can improve small ruminants performance. [Helal H. G., Eid E. Y, Nassar M. S, Badawy H. S. and El Shaer H. M. Comparative nutritional studies of ewes and does fed salt tolerant plants under desert condition. Nat Sci 2018;16(6):62-72]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj160618.10
... The other nine animals were fed ad libtum sun-dried chopped mixture contained 50% Acacia saligna, 25% Prosopis juliflora and 25% Leucaena leucocephala with concentrate diet. Diets were fed to cover total requirements of ewes and do as recommended by [20]. The chemical composition of mixture A. saligna, P. juliflora and L. leucocephala (Table 1) was determined according to [21]. ...
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This research was performed to compare the nutritional studies of Barki sheep and doe Shami goats fed on mixture of forage tree legumes and its effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nitrogen utilization, body weight change, some parameters of rumen and blood. Our study was carried out at South Sinai Research Station (Ras Suder), South Sinai Governorate, Egypt. Thirty-six pregnant Barki sheep and Shami goats were randomly allocated into two equal groups (18 animals each specie). The first group (G1) of each species fed alfalfa with concentrate diet and served as control. The second group (G2) fed ad libtum sun-dried chopped mixture contained 50% Acacia saligna, 25% Prosopis juliflora and 25% Leucaena leucocephala with concentrate diet. Results indicated that overall roughage and total DM intake (g/Kg W 0.75 /d) were similar between both species but animals fed G2 showed lower (P<0.05) in roughage and total DM intake than those fed G1. The results also showed that goats had higher (P<0.05) overall dry matter (DM), crud protein (CP) and crud fiber (CF) digestibility than sheep but overall nitrogen intake (NI) was similar between both species and was higher (P<0.05) for animals fed G1 vs. those fed G2. Also, nitrogen balance was similar between both species and was insignificant higher for those fed G1 vs. G2. Goats had higher (P<0.05) overall ammonia NH3-N than sheep but sheep had higher (P<0.05) overall ruminal TVFA´s than goats as well as animals fed G2 showed lower (P<0.05) NH3-N and TVFA´s than those fed G1. Values of body weight change (kg) and relative body weight (%) of end pregnancy were insignificant between both species and feeding treatments. Sheep had slightly insignificant lower concentrations of overall total protein and globulin than goats and was also slightly insignificant higher concentrations of overall urea and creatinine than goats while goats recorded insignificant higher values of overall AST and ALT than sheep. It was concluded feed utilization of tree legumes mixture as animal feeds in saline affected and soils could be an appropriate option for alleviating the desertification difficulties and provide alternatives as good feed resources especially in droughts when the other traditional food resources are shortage.
... live body weight and fed sprouted green fodder. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (7 animals each) and fed one following treatments: (G1, G2 and G3) with concentrate feed mixture (CFM) to cover 40% of their maintenance energy requirements (according to the recommendations of [21]. Concentrate feed mixture contained: 94. 28 . ...
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The present research was aimed to study the effect of sprouted barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) on different levels of olive cake (OC) and barley straw as media. A laboratory study was conducted to show the performance of sprouted barley grain on tested roughages media by fodder yield and conversion ratio values; followed by five digestibility trials which conducted to evaluate the digestibility of experimental roughages by using twenty five desert male goats (20 months old) with average 22.50±2.54kg live body weight. Animals were randomly divided into five equal groups of 5 animals each to receive one of the following experimental roughages G1: alfalfa ad libitum as (control); G2: sprouted barley grains on 75% olive cake (OC) + 25% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G3: sprouted barley grains on 50% olive cake (OC) + 50% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G4: sprouted barley grains on 25% olive cake (OC) +75% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G5: sprouted barley grains on 100% barley straw (BS) ad libitum. The best treated group from the results of digestibility trail was conducted feeding trail. Results showed that the treatments with sprouted barely increase CP, ash and C.CHO contents while DM, OM, EE, CF, NDF, ADF and ADL contents were decreased. Sprouted barely on olive cake or barley straw revealed a significant (P≤0.05) improvement in OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose digestibility. Nutritive values expressed as TDN g/Kg BW and DCP% increased significantly (P≤0.05) in treated groups G1 and G2 followed by G3, G4 and the lowest values were in G5. Also, goats fed the four sprouted mixture recorded higher significantly (P≤0.05) of N balance compared with G1 (control group) with insignificant differences in Na and K balance (g/kg BW) values between studied groups. Goats fed sprouted barely had significantly (P≤0.05) higher values of total volatile fatty acids (VFA's) and ruminal ammonia (NH3-N) concentration post feeding with 3 hours. Serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinin were increased (P≤0.05) compared with untreated roughages. Feed cost LE/gm gain was improved by goats fed on G2 and G3 with percent (34.15 and 32.52% respectively) in compared to control diet. Relative economical efficiency was improved by 90.77% in G2 comparison with the control diet. In conclusion we can produce green fodder by utilizing dried olive cake and barley straw by simple methodology using crop sprouts barley without any harmful effect on goats.
... Studies of the chemical compositions, N fractions, and in vitro digestibility have been recommended to elucidate the nutritive values of forage for ruminant feeding regimes [34,35]. The analyzed CP, NDF, and ADF levels for the GMSH crop were consistent with those for SH plant materials reported by Lepcha et al. [36]. ...
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Sunn hemp (SH, Crotalaria juncea, L.) is a tropical multiple-purpose legume. The green manure SH (GMSH) crop might display protein ecology in sustaining ruminants; however, its silage features remain unclear. To efficiently prepare GMSH crop silage, additive treatments consisting of control (no additive, CON), molasses (MO), Acremonium cellulase (AC), and Lactobacillus casei TH14 strain inoculant (TH14) were implemented using a completely randomized design. Repeated measurements were done after silage (AE conditions) in a small-scale silo system for 120 days and after aerobic instability (AE + AIS conditions). Briefly, ensiling loss and aerobic stability ranged from 150 to 175 g/kg and 8.3 to 104 days, respectively. In AE conditions, the pH ranged from 4.33 to 5.74, and MO or AC was desirable (p < 0.01) for lactic acid fermentation. AC reduced the fiber contents. MO increased soluble non-protein nitrogen by decreasing insoluble nitrogen. TH14 increased the ammonia nitrogen level and in vitro methane production. In AE + AIS conditions, AC led to more air damage to the chemical compositions and reduced digestibility in vitro. The results show that an optimization of additives could effectively modify GMSH crop silage to make it a good protein roughage source; however, more studies are required for effectively feeding ruminants.
... From day 22 until weaning (8 weeks), kids were offered star grass hay ad libitum and a Lacto pre-starter (50-200 g/kid; RALTEC TC-01, Serveram S.L., Barcelona, Spain [Supplementary (Kearl, 1982). Adjustments were made biweekly, after determining body weight before the morning feeding. ...
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Leucaena leucocephala represents a local protein source in tropical ruminant diets. However, its full exploitation is impaired by mimosine, unless it is degraded by the rumen microbial community. Recently, the ruminal bacterial communities of newborns were persistently modified through prenatal or postnatal dietary interventions. Such early-life interventions might enhance adaptation of ruminants to Leucaena leucocephala , which was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design trial that tested both supplementation of L. leucocephala in the late pregnancy diet of goat does, and supplementation of live yeast to their newborns. The composition of ruminal bacteria, immune status, as well as organic matter digestibility (OMD) and performance of kids were studied during and after the intervention. Ten pregnant goats were divided into two groups: the D+ and D– groups, which either received or did not receive 30 g of L. leucocephala forage meal during the last 7 ± 0.5 weeks of gestation. Twins from each goat were divided into the K+ and K– group (supplemented with or without 0.2 g/d of live yeast from day 3 until weaning at 8 weeks). Rumen samples were collected from 4-, 8-, 14-, and 20-weeks old kids to assess the bacterial community, while immune parameters (white blood cells, immunoglobulin M and G, and chitotriosidase activity) were measured in blood and saliva sampled at 4-, 8-, and 20-weeks. We found a stimulatory effect of the prenatal exposure on the post-weaning dry matter intake of the L. leucocephala supplemented diet, resulting in a higher daily gain and final body weight at 20 weeks in the D+ vs . D– group (406 vs . 370 g DM/d, 85.4 vs. 78.6 g/d, and 15.2 vs. 13.8 kg, respectively). Moreover, Ruminococcus represented a greater proportion of the rumen bacterial community of the D+ vs. D– kids (5.1 vs. 1.6%). Differences in the immune status were relatively small and not thought to be a driving factor of differences in animal performance. Furthermore, postnatal supplementation of live yeast favored maturation of the rumen bacterial community (i.e., greater abundance of Bacteroidetes, in particular Prevotella , and reduced abundance of Firmicutes) and protozoa colonization. Concomitantly, OMD was enhanced post-weaning, suggesting effects of the early-life intervention persisted and could have affected animal performance.
... Total digestible nutrient (TDN) was estimated according to the following equations: TDN for silage (% dry matter (DM)) = − 17.2649 + (1.2120 × %CP) + (0.8352 × %NFE) + (2.4637 × %EE) + (0.4475 × %CF); TDN for concentrate (%DM) = 40.3227 + (0.5398 × %CP) + (0.4448 × %NFE) + (1.4218 × %EE) − (0.7007 × %CF) as well as metabolizable energy (ME) values were estimated according to Kearl (1982); ME (MJ/kg DM) = [− 0.45 + (0.04453 × %TDN)] × 4.184. Fat corrected milk (FCM) was measured using software of Progressive Dairy Solutions. ...
... The nutritional content of the leaves of Sonneratia alba and Avicennia lanata is sufficient for the goat's crude protein for growth and fattening. This is in accordance with a reference from [3], that the requirement for goat crude protein which has a body weight of 15 kg with 0-75 grams of body weight gain is 7.50-11.00%. ...
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S. alba leaves and A. lanata leaves are forages that grow in mangrove ecosystems which are considered potential to support the performance of goat jawarandu. This study aims to determine the effect of the leaves of S. alba and A. lanata on the performance of jawarandu goats. This research was conducted in Environment XII of Seberang Fishermen Village, Belawan I Village, Medan Belawan District, Medan City. The study lasted for 3 months, starting in July to October 2019. The research method was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 4 replications so that there were 12 male goats that were kept with an average initial body weight of 14.65 ± 1.65. The treatments given were leaves of S. alba and A. lanata with a ratio of P1 (100: 0); P2 (50:50); and P3 (0: 100). The research parameters are Feed Consumption, Average Daily Gain , and Feed Conversion. The results showed that the utilization of the S. alba and A. lanata leaves had a significant effect on feed consumption and average daily gain, but did not significantly effect on feed conversion. It can be concluded that the utilization of S. alba leaves gives a greater effect on the performance of goat jawarandu compared to A. lanata leaves or combination feed.
... Ingredients were formulated based on the nutrient requirements for 5 month old lamb with body weight 20 kg anddaily weight gain 150 g head 1 day 1 which was recommended by Kearl (1982). The feed ingredients and nutrient content can be seen in Table 1. ...
... Eucalyptus oil (EUO) was obtained from El Hawag for Natural Oils, El Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Four experimental diets were formulated as total mixed ration (TMR) isonitrogenous and iso-caloric diets of lactating buffalo as recommended by Kearl (1982). Animals G 1 received the basal diet consisting of a concentrate feed mixture (CFM), fresh berseem (FB), rice straw (RS), and corn silage (CS) at a 40:60 concentrate: roughage ratio. ...
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This study was designed to investigate the influence of naturally protected eucalyptus oil supplementation in a form of leaves (EUL) or mature seed capsules (EUS) compared to crude eucalyptus oil (EUO). The control group (G1) received a diet containing concentrate feed mixture, fresh berseem, rice straw, and corn silage, whereas the G2, G3, and G4 animals have a diet supplemented with 200 g/head/day of EUL or EUS or 4 mL/head/day EUO, respectively. Supplementation of EUL or EUS increased NH3-N, short-chain fatty acids, and concentrations of acetic acid in vitro. Bacterial total count, protozoa, and cellulolytic bacteria increased (P < 0.05) with EUL and EUS supplementation. Methane production dropped (P < 0.05) with EUS, EUL, and EUO supplementation. Milk fat decreased (P < 0.05) with EUO supplementation, while an adverse trend was shown for lactose. No differences in feed conversion were found among EUS, EUL, and EUO. Blood total protein, albumin, and urea increased (P < 0.05) with supplementation of EUL or EUS compared to EUO. EUO supplementation yielded increased (P < 0.05) AST, ALT, glucose, and creatinine. Supplementation with EUL, EUS, or EUO decreased (P < 0.05) DM, OM, and CP digestibility, while digestibility of EE with supplementation by EUL, EUS, or EUO was higher (P < 0.05). The digestion coefficient of NDF and ADF decreased (P < 0.05) with supplemental EUL, EUS, or EUO compared to the G1 diet. Feeding EUS increased the values of TDN and DCP compared to EUL, which increased than EUO. Our results confirm that the naturally protected form of leaves or seeds mitigates the undesirable effects of directly supplementing crude eucalyptus oil.
... All the goats were placed in individual cages and received experimental diets at a level start of 3% body weight on a dry matter basis. Kearl (1982) stated that the nutrient requirement of goat (BW10-20 kg, ADG 75 g) is about 3.1-3.5% of body weight). The goats were obtained from the farmers who have kept the previous extensification. ...
... The feed used was complete silage composed of natural grass, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, Pennisetum purpuphoides, corn flour and bran pollard. The ration was prepared on the basis of the needs of young goats with a body weight of 10 kg (Kearl, 1982). Furthermore, the male Kacang goats were given mineral premixes to avoid mineral deficiencies. ...
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Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of spineless cactus (0%, 33%, 66% and 100%) used as a substitute for wheat bran in buffalo diets on quantitative and qualitative traits of the meat and carcass. Methods: Twenty Murrah buffaloes at 18 months of age, with a mean initial weight of 292.9±57.3 kg, were randomly allocated to four treatments with five replicates. The animals were slaughtered after 90 days in the feedlot. The effects of spineless cactus as a replacement for wheat bran in the diet of the buffaloes on the carcass and meat traits, slaughter weight, carcass yield and carcass measurements were studied. Results: Increased spineless cactus levels led to linear reduction in average daily gain, slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, compactness index and in the amount of muscle in the carcass, and there is no difference between the control treatment and the 33% replacing level for these parameters. The quality of the meat was not influenced by the treatments. Conclusion: Spineless cactus can replace wheat bran by up to 33% in sugarcane-based diets for buffaloes, without influencing quantitative and qualitative traits of the meat and carcass.
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The paper aimed to verify the possibility to improve the utilization of agro-industrial by products which is one of the main targets of a future sustainable agriculture. Research on the use of discarded-durian peel in goat nutrition, ensiled with various additives, seems to be interesting from a scientific and application point of view, especially in regions where the production and availability of Durian is important from an economic point of view. For this reason, it can be stated that the work presented for evaluation brings new elements, and importantly, indicates a need for further research in this area.
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A study to compare smallholder farmer capacity in providing feeds and nutrients for dairy cattle have been done in 5 different population density villages (Boyong, Tunggalarum, Cemoroharjo, Kemiri and Tambakrejo) of Sleman regency, DIY province. Forty cattle have been observed and 15 farmers have been interviewed. Feeds offered have been identified, weighted, sampled and analyzed for their proximate compositions and minerals. Nutrients requirement and balance of each cow has been calculated. The result showed that type and amount of feed offered related to the village typological area. Farmer in Tunggalarum provided sufficient nutrient and balanced ration with forage to concentrate ratio 55:45. The study concluded that the less population densities, the higher dairy farmer capacities in providing feeds and nutrients for their cattle. Keywords: Nutrient balance, dairy cattle, typological area, requirement, traditional
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Ruminal pH is an important physiological parameter that regulates microbe activity; optimizing ruminal pH may improve rumen fermentation and milk production. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or selenium (Se) in mineral salt block (MSB) supplementation on ruminal pH, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition in Holstein Friesian crossbred dairy cows. Four crossbred dairy cows with an initial weight of 456 ± 6 kg in mid-lactation were assigned at random using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experiments were divided into four periods, each lasting 21 days. Each cow was fed a basal diet supplemented with a different type of mineral salt block: a control with no MSB supplementation, and MSB groups with MSB containing NaHCO3 (MSB-Na), MSB containing Se (MSB-Se), and conventional commercial MSB (MSB-Com). MSB-Na contained NaHCO3 (500 g/kg) to prevent acidosis, MSB-Se contained organic Se (15 mg/kg) as an antioxidant, and MSB-Com was a positive control mineral salt block. The results show that there was no significant difference in feed intake between treatments, but there was a significant difference in mineral salt intake between treatments (p < 0.05). Supplementing mineral blocks had no effect on nutrient intake or apparent digestibility (p > 0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between treatments at 0 and 1 h post-feeding, but at 2 and 4 h post-feeding, ruminal pH in cows fed MSB-Na and MSB-Se was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than it was in cows fed MSB-Com and the control. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetic, propionic, butyric, and ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were not influenced by mineral blocks supplementation. Milk yield, milk composition and energy-corrected milk (ECM) were not affected by supplementing mineral blocks. However, compared with the control, the somatic cell count (SCC) in the milk was reduced (p < 0.05) by supplementation with the mineral salt block. Based on the results of the experiments, it was concluded that MSB-Na or MSB-Se supplementation improved ruminal pH while having no effect on feed intake, rumen fermentation, milk yield, or composition, though it did reduce SCC in milk. However, additional research should be conducted to investigate the effect of MSB on rumen ecology and milk production in dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.
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In general, the low-protein agro-industrial residues like cassava bagasse are cheaper but limited in feed use. However, if through an economically attractive bioprocess, these residues are transformed into nutritionally enriched products, the animal protein manufacturing cost afford to be diminished. This work aimed to establish an original biological treatment based on special yeasts for cassava bagasse enriching. Batch and Fed-Batch cultures, with raw (CB) or hydrolyzed cassava bagasse (HCB) and corn steep liquor (CSL), were used to screen promising yeasts for valorizing cassava residue. Among the four assessed yeasts (Rhodotorula sp. LABI1, Wickerhamomyces onychis LABI2, Sporidiobolus pararoseus Sia 33.1, Sporobolomyces japonicus Sia 70a), the cultures of S. japonicus Sia 70a produced more biomass when the culture medium comprised 0.5% CSL and 5.0% CB (8.6 g/L yeast biomass, biomass-substrate yield factor; YXS=0.23g/g, and maximum specific growth rate; µmax=0.03h−1). However, S. pararoseus Sia 33.1 (11.6%), W. onychis LABI2 (8-15%) and S. japonicus Sia 70a (11.8%) were responsible for higher protein content in the CB due to the yeast biomass incorporated at the end of the process. Amylases were also detected in some cultures (up to 0.4 U/mL), which could improve the cassava bagasse digestibility. These results showed bioprocessing potential by these special yeasts to convert the low-protein cassava bagasse into a nutritionally enriched product. Now a biological evaluation with animals is needed to approve this method for feed purposes.
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Shalatin–Abou Ramad—Halaib Triangle Region (SAHTR) has vital and strategic importance to Egypt. It is located at the southeastern corner of Red Sea governorate. It is characterized by broad biodiversity of both plant and animal resources. Income of most of the inhabitants in the triangle depends basically on raising, trading, and marketing of animals (mainly camels, goats and sheep). Raising such animal species is the most important economic activity for the majority of local Bedouins though coal manufacture and medicinal plants trading are practiced by few of the Bashaari people. Livestock production systems mainly depend on natural vegetation of rangelands in SAHTR. Seasonal fluctuations cause a periodical restriction in feed quality and quantity. Sheep, goats, and camels are main ruminants species in the region. The majority of offspring are born in late winter and spring seasons, while they are weaned towards the warm and dry season with insufficiently high-quality forage available as the fodder quality decreases and the available feed does not fully meet the nutrient requirements for early growth. There are numerous constraints that affect animal performance, trading and marketing. Therefore, the article focuses on classification and identification of both animal and ranges resources in the region that are critically needed to raise the social life and income of local inhabitants. General current features of animal and rangeland resources, main factors affecting animal and range production resources, constraints of animal resource production in the SAHTR and the suggested policies and strategies are also stressed.
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Halophytic plants are a fascinating group of plants that also serve as dietary feed for livestock. Their utilization is essential for sustainable agriculture and maintaining ecological balance. This book explains the nature of halophytic plants through an in-depth presentation of their botanical and nutritional characteristics. Chapters of the book highlight different aspects of halophytes on a botanical, histological, ecological and nutritional basis when utilized as animal feed components. The issues of the histo-chemical aspects of halophytes are addressed with regard to their impact on nutrient compositions and availability to animals, while the important nutrient contents of halophytes are considered in relation to their value to animals. Key Features: - 10 organized chapters on halophytic plants - Explains the relationship between botanical and nutritional characteristics of halophytes when utilized as animal feed components - Covers information about important nutrient contents and secondary metabolites in halophytes - Includes information on nutritional and feeding values for animals - Includes informative diagram and tables - Includes references for further reading This book fills a notable gap in available literature on the subject, and will stimulate researchers to pursue the many unanswered questions in the field of biosaline agriculture. This text serves as reading material for undergraduate and graduate level courses and specializations in agriculture, animal nutrition, animal physiology, botany and plant physiology. It also serves as supplementary reading for students of taxonomy, ecology, and environmental science courses. Professional and apprentice livestock farmers will also benefit from the information presented by the book.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of rice bran crude lecithin (RBCL) on nutrient digestion and balance, performance, methanogenesis, blood and rumen profile. Eighteen crossbred calves were randomly divided into three groups; RBCL-0, RBCL-8 and RBCL-12 and fed wheat straw based diet with concentrate mixture containing 0, 8 and 12 % RBCL respectively. The dry matter, organic matter and crude protein intake were comparable but tended to decrease with the RBCL levels. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, total carbohydrate and gross energy tended to decrease while crude protein and ether extract digestibility tended to increase were with RBCL levels. The fibre fractions (NDF and ADF) digestibility was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in RBCL supplemented groups in comparison to control group. The body weight gain and average daily gain tended to decrease with increasing the level of rice bran crude lecithin. The percent of nitrogen and calcium retention tended to decrease, while phosphorus retention was significantly (P < 0.01) lower with inclusion level of RBCL. The methane production (L/d, L/kgW 0.75 ) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in RBCL-12 followed by RBCL-8 as compared to RBCL-0 group. Serum biochemical did not show significant difference among dietary treatment groups. The cholesterol and blood urea concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in RBCL-12 group as compared to control group. The rumen metabolites and microbiota showed reduction in RBCL-8 group as compare to RBCL-0 group without reach to significant (P < 0.05) level. It can be concluded, that detrimental effect of present levels (8 and 12%) of RBCL was seen in the performance of crossbred calves, which was associated with decreased fibre digestibility and fermentation in rumen. Beside this, RBCL is helpful in methane mitigation for cleaner production and can be a cheap source of energy in place of corn for ruminant. Further studies in large number of livestock are warranted to explore the potential of RBCL in the ruminant ration.
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