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Fatty acids in Moringa oleifera oil

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Abstract

The research work was conducted to investigate the total fatty acid contents in Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed kernels oil by GLC. The oil was found to contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The dominant saturated fatty acids were Palmitic acid (12.51 %) and Lauric acid (1.97 %). The percentages of other fatty acids in Moringa oleifera seed kernel oil were Stearic acid (2.09 %), Linoleic acid (1.27 %) and Linolenic acid (1.75 %). Oleic acid (74.99 %) was the most abundant of the unsaturated fatty acids found in Moringa oleifera seed kernels oil. The above chemical composition of the oil recommends its use in pharmaceutical preparation preferably in skin treatment/creams.

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... Moringa spp., from Moringaceae family, is a widely distributed plant species (Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002;Ashraf and Gilani, 2007). Moringa is considered as a useful plant in tropical and subtropical regions and different parts (flower, fruits and roots) of this plant are considered edible (Rahman et al. 2009;Abd El Baky and El-Baroty, 2013). ...
... In previous study, the Moringa oleifera oil of cold press contained 0.13% lauric, 6.34% myristic, 5.70% stearic, 71.60% oleic, 0.77% linoleic, 0.20% linoleinic, 3.52% arachidic, 2.24% eicosenoic and 6.21% behenic (Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002). Ashraf and Gilani (2007) reported that M. oleifera seed oil contained 2.09% stearic, 1.27% linoleic, 1.75% linolenic, 74.99% oleic acids. In other study, Anwar and Rashid (2007) determined 5.51-6.50% ...
... Moringa peregrina oils contained about 70.5% oleic acid (Tsaknis et al., 1998). The fatty acid composition of Moringa oil due to high oleic acid content was similar to that of olive (Tsaknis et al., 1998;Anwar and Rashid, 2007;Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002;Ashraf and Gilani, 2007). ...
Article
The current study presents physico-chemical attributes, fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol compositions in oils obtained from Moringa seed using either cold-press or Soxhlet extraction systems. Moringa oleifera and M. peregrina seed oils, recovered using cold press (CP) and Soxhlet extraction (SE) techniques, contained substantial amount of oleic acid (75.49 and 74.62% in CP 73.83 and 71.67% in SE) showing significant (p < .05) differences. Palmitic acid contents of M. oleifera and M. peregrina oils were 9.58 and 11.74% in case of CP and 12.27 and 12.84% in SE. The α-tocopherol contents of M. oleifera and M. peregrina oils obtained using these two techniques were 139.61 and 137.89 mg/kg in CP and 142.74 and 151.67 mg/kg in SE systems. Stigmasterol contents of M. oleifera and M. peregrina oils obtained with cold press and Soxhlet extraction system were found as 19.62 and 17.84% to 18.54 and 15.41%, respectively.
... M. olifeira is traditionally used to stimulate diuresis, to relieve spasms, for treating the symptoms of diabetes mellitus, as a cardiac stimulant, as an antimicrobial and antiparasitic substance, and for treating many other conditons [160]. The edible oil from the seeds is called ben oil because of its high contents of the fatty acid behenic acid [161,162]. Ben oil is included in moisturizing and emollient oils for therapeutic massages and is used as a carrier oil for aromatherapy [161,162]. Ben oil as well as M. olifeira leaf extracts also contain substantial quantities of vitamins A, C, and E as well as β-carotene and polyphenols which may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties [163,164]. ...
... The edible oil from the seeds is called ben oil because of its high contents of the fatty acid behenic acid [161,162]. Ben oil is included in moisturizing and emollient oils for therapeutic massages and is used as a carrier oil for aromatherapy [161,162]. Ben oil as well as M. olifeira leaf extracts also contain substantial quantities of vitamins A, C, and E as well as β-carotene and polyphenols which may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties [163,164]. For these reasons, both the seed oil and leaf extracts are included in creams, lotions, balms, soaps, scrubs, body oils, moisturizers, hair care products, and sunscreens [161,162,[165][166][167]. ...
... Ben oil as well as M. olifeira leaf extracts also contain substantial quantities of vitamins A, C, and E as well as β-carotene and polyphenols which may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties [163,164]. For these reasons, both the seed oil and leaf extracts are included in creams, lotions, balms, soaps, scrubs, body oils, moisturizers, hair care products, and sunscreens [161,162,[165][166][167]. Ben oil is also used as a base for perfumes because of the capacity of behenic acid to neutralize malodors [167]. ...
... arachidic acid. In a previous study, the dominant saturated fatty acids of Moringa oleifera oil were palmitic acid (12.51%) and lauric acid (1.97%) [13]. The percentages of other fatty acids in Moringaoleifera seed kernel oil were stearic acid (2.09%), linoleic acid (1.27%) and linolenic acid (1.75%). ...
... The percentages of other fatty acids in Moringaoleifera seed kernel oil were stearic acid (2.09%), linoleic acid (1.27%) and linolenic acid (1.75%). In addition, oleic acid (74.99%) was the most abundant of the unsaturated fatty acids found in Moringa oleifera seed kernel oil [13]. According to Compaore et al. [14], the major saturated fatty acids were behenic,arachidic, stearic and palmitic acids and the main unsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid with small amounts eicosenoic and palmitoleic acids of M. oleifera. ...
Article
Palmitic acid contents of oils ranged from 10.80% (M. molaite) to 17.06% (M. peregrina). Stearic acid contents were found to be between 1.96% (M. peregrina) and 2.77% (M. oleifera). While the lowest oleic acid was found in M. peregrina oil (7.14%), the highest oleic acid was found in M. molaite (51.05%). In addition, linoleic acid contents of moringa leave oils varied from 18.09% (M. oleifera) to 22.66% (M. molaite). Also linolenic acid contents of oil samples were found to be between 7.40% (M. molaite) and 32.53% (M. peregrina).Density (24 degrees C; mg/ml) 0.9037- 0.9068, refractive index (nD 40 degrees C) 1.4581-1.4601, iodine value (I-2/100g) 67.8-71.3, acidity (oleic,%) 2.17-3.21, saponification value (mg KOH/g) 171.7-178.1 and peroxide value (meq O-2/Kg) 1.97-2.61 of Moringa sp. leaf oils were determined.
... After the methylation of fatty acids (FAs), the main fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were oleic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic and arachidic, with values of 78.72%, 6.27, 5.63, 3.72 and 3.29%, respectively. The main FAMEs from M. oleifera oil were oleic and palmitic at percentages of 74.99 and 12.51%, respectively [56]. FAs of oleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic with values 77.40, 12.97, 2.95 and 1.40%, respectively, were found in moringa seed FO [57]. Figure 1 shows all the studied visual and chemical parameters of strawberry fruits treated with EOs and FO and different periods of storage. ...
Article
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This work investigates an experimental study for using low-cost and eco-friendly oils to increase the shelf life of strawberry fruit. Three natural oils were used: (i) Eucalyptus camaldulensis var obtuse, (ii) Mentha piperita green aerial parts essential oils (EOs), and (iii) Moringa oleifera seeds n-hexane fixed oil (FO). Furthermore, a mixture of EOs from E. camaldulensis var obtusa and M. piperita (1/1 v/v) was used. The treated fruits were stored at 5 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 18 days. HPLC was used to analyse the changes in phenolic compounds during the storage periods. The effects of biofumigation through a slow-release diffuser of EOs (E. camaldulensis var obtusa and M. piperita), or by coating with M. oleifera FO, were evaluated in terms of control of post-harvest visual and chemical quality of strawberry fruits. The post-harvest resistance of strawberry fruits to Botrytis cinerea fungal infection was also evaluated. As a result, the EO treatments significantly reduced the change in visual and chemical quality of strawberry fruit. Additionally, changes in the titratable acidity of moringa FO-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. EO treatments improved total soluble solids, total phenols, ascorbic acid, antioxidants and peroxidase. E. camaldulensis var obtusa and M. piperita (1/1 v/v) EO-vapour fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to other treatments in all tested, in two experiments. The lowest colour change (ΔE) was observed inthe fruit treated with E. camaldulensis var obtusa EO and M. oleifera FO. HPLC showed changes in phenolic compounds' concentration, where p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid and ellagic acid were mostly identified in the fruits treated with the oils. SEM examination confirmed the potential decrease in fungal growth as the fruits were treated with EOs. In conclusion, the treatment of EOs during different storage periods showed promising characterisations for strawberry fruit quality. Citation: Abd-Elkader, D.Y.; Salem, M.Z.M.; Komeil, D.A.; Al-Huqail, A.A.; Ali, H.M.; Salah, A.H.; Akrami, M.; Hassan, H.
... In general, arachidic, linoleic, linolenic, gadoleic, and behenic acid contents of moringa oil were found at minor levels ( Table 1). The dominant saturated fatty acids were palmitic (12.51%), lauric acid (1.97%), stearic (2.09%), linoleic (1.27%), and linolenic acid (1.75%), and oleic acid content (74.99%) was the most abundant of the unsaturated fatty acids found in Moringa oleifera seed oil (Ashraf & Gilani, 2007). ...
Article
While the peroxide values of moringa oil with rosemary extract added at the concentration of 0.1% range from 6.31 meqO2/kg (5th day) to 46.34 meqO2/kg (45th day), the peroxide values of moringa oil with rosemary extract at 0.5% concentration were found between 2.63 meqO2/kg (5.day) and 40.39 meqO2/kg (45.day). In addition, the peroxide values of moringa oil with 0.1% sage extract added ranged from 7.33 meqO2/kg (5.day) to 48.31 meqO2/kg (45.day) while the peroxide values of moringa oil with 0.5% sage extract changed between 2.85 meqO2/kg (5) .day) and 44.42 meqO2/kg (45.day). The free acidity values of moringa oil with rosemary extract supplemented with 0.1% concentration were determined between 4.94% (5.day) and 28.72% (45.day) while the free acidity values of moringa oil with sage extract at 0.1% concentration change between 5.86% (5.day) and 32.69%. (45.day). The extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity compared with the control group.
... There are many saturated fatty acids separated from MO seed kernels oil which are linoleic acid (1.27 %), linolenic acid (1.75 %), lauric acid (1.97 %), stearic acid (2.09 %), palmitic acid (12.51 %), as well as oleic acid (74.99 %). The presence of these fatty acids recommends using MO oil in pharmaceutical production preferably as skin creams [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer is the leading cause of death globally. Imitative drugs are prescribed to patients caused severe adverse effects that caused weakness and losing power of patients. Although many drugs used against several types of cancer, more specific agents with lower side effects are necessary. Natural medicinal plants are used as antitumor and chemo-preventive agents in numerous experimental models of carcinogenesis. Moringa tree have shown to be effective against several ailments including cancer which was attributed to its bioactive constituents. These phytochemical compounds proved that they have potential anticancer agents. However, proliferation and the induction of apoptosis are regulated by several mechanisms. The current review will discuss the mechanism by which Moringa could fight different types of cancer and its role as an immuneboosting agent. Asian Journal of Advances in Research 5(3): 5-26, 2020
... The polyunsaturated fatty acids: α-linolenic (α18:3w3, LNA) and linoleic (18: 2w6, LA) are known as essential fatty acids as the body is unable to produce them, and they must be obtained through the diet, while the saturated (i.e., myristic, 14:0; palmitic, 16:0; stearic; 18:0) and monounsaturated (i.e., oleic, 18:1w9; OA) fatty acids which can be synthesized de novo from other dietary precursors [44] . The major saturated fatty acids in M. oleifera seed oil are palmitic and stearic acids and the main unsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid, with small amounts of myristic, palmitoleic (16:1), LA, LNA, arachidic (20:0), eicosenoic (20:1), behenic (22:0), erucic (22:1) and lignoceric (24:0) acids [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55] (see Table 1). Moreover, the leaves and pods of M. oleifera contain LNA, LA and palmitic in high quantities. ...
Chapter
Moringa oleifera Lam is a wild-growth small tree native of the western and sub-Himalayan tracts, India, Pakistan, Asia Minor, Africa and Arabian (1). Nowadays, this plant is cultured all around the world. M. oleifera is one of many plants used in traditional medicine systems (like Ayurvedic, Unani or Siddha) and have been gained popularity in recent times due the crescent boom of naturist and homeopathic medical practices. Since its traditional use, Moringa has been attributed to many biological activities as antihelmintic, anti-allergic, anti-ulcer, cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular and anti-diabetic activities among others (2). The broad gamma of health-benefit activities presented by M. oleifera is based on the diverse content of phytochemical compounds presents in virtually all parts of the plant. This compendium of active substances includes omega fatty acids, carotenoids, ascorbates, tocopherols, sitosterols and phenolic compounds (3) that provide the plant its particular versatility. Almost every compound has been isolated and purified from any part of the plant (root, seed, pods, etc.) by different techniques allowing identification and addressing of biological effects (1¿6). Of special interest is the treatment of dyslipidemias with this plant. Many of the phytochemicals reported for M. oleifera have known lipid metabolism-regulatory activity but at the present time, there is no a single report about the cellular mechanism by which M. oleifera exerts its effects. AMP dependant Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a regulatory protein with a key role in lipids metabolism in almost all tissues, including fat. These facts make AMPK a good therapy target to control lipid metabolism irregularities. Some of the M. oleifera extracts components that have been reported to present a regulatory activity over AMPK (7¿10) are phenolic compound and glycosides. In the present chapter, we will review the hypothetical relationship between M. oleifera extracts component and its effect over dyslipidemic diseases via AMPK activity regulation.
... The oil that is extracted from them, which is sometimes known as "ben oil", is used for a variety of purposes [9,10] . It is used as fuel for cooking purpose and burnt for light in developing countries [11] .It is also used in perfumes, as lubricant in watches and other farm machinery and for making soap [9,10,4,12] The Romans, Greeks and Egyptians extracted edible oil from the seeds and used it for perfume and skin lotion. In the 19th century, plantations of moringa in the West Indies exported the oil to Europe for perfumes and lubricants for machinery [13] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Moringa seed oil found application in skin preparations and ointments since the time of ancient Egypt. The clear yellow oil has a pleasant taste, and has been compared, in terms of quality with other seed oils. The oil of excellent quality similar to the olive oil, the Moringa seed oil finds wide application in cosmetic industry. The review focused mainly on the quality assessment of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques based on previous research reports and utilization of the seed oil in personal care formulations.
... Moringa seed oil is considered equivalent to olive oil in terms of its chemical properties and contains a large quantity of tocopherols (Tsaknis et al., 1999). Moringa seed oil can be used for rheumatism and gout, preparation of cosmetics, lubricant in watch making and precision equipment, purification of blood and enhancing cardiac function as medicine, and also for edible purpose (Ferrao and Ferrao, 1987;Nautiyal and Venhataraman, 1987;Chaudhri, 1996). A recent study by Chuang et al. (2007) reported that moringa seed oil had shown the strongest antifungal activity against a zoophilic dermatophyte causing marked inflammatory reactions in humans. ...
Article
Extraction of seed kernel oil from moringa (Moringa oleifera) was investigated with hexane, petroleum ether and acetone as the first extraction medium at various kernel particle size, extraction temperature and residence time, which were called as independent variables. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of experiments was used to study the effect of solvent type, particle size, extraction temperature and residence time of solvent on the oil yield, which was called as dependent variable. The maximum oil yield of 33.1% for hexane, 31.8% for petroleum ether and 31.1% for acetone was obtained. Among the three solvents, hexane yielded the maximum oil from moringa seed kernels. Among three process parameters studied, particle size had the most significant effect on the oil yield followed by extraction temperature and time for all the solvents. Response surface methodology technique was used to optimize the independent variables for maximum oil extraction. From the optimized values of particle size (0.62mm), extraction temperature (56.5°C) and residence time (7h), maximum oil yield obtained was 33.5%, using hexane. Optimized values of independent variables for maximum yield were varied for other two solvents. This protocol provides improved opportunities for the medicinal use of moringa oil in addition to its popularity as a vegetable in south Asia.
... From the results of Table 1, it is possible to observe that 19% of the oil is composed of saturated fatty acids and 81% by unsaturated fatty acids, predominantly containing one double bond (78.0% of oleic acid). These results agree with those reported for MO samples collected in Pakistan [9,12] and the small differences can be related to variations in the farmer conditions, such as wheatear, soil and seed variety. In the case of MO oil, the low content of bis-allylic methylene carbons on the fatty acid chains (just 1.0% of linoleic acid and the absence of linolenic acid), may provide advantages in terms of the ...
Article
This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel.
Chapter
People from worldwide have been using plant-based substances (Natural Products) to enhance the appearance since the existence of mankind. In the ancient Egypt, around 3000 BC, there is evidence of using cosmetics, and their usages have been a necessary part in our everyday life in all cultures. Initially, natural products have been used for beauty products; occasionally augment with paints and dyes. Natural products have approached back with present trend cosmetic products which are mainly derived from plant sources. Since from longer time, plant products (Natural Products) are source of food and medicines. A broad range of natural products is used in cosmetics preparations, skin care such as treatment of dryness, treatment of eczema and acne, as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, hair care products such as hair growth imputes, hair color, scalp complaints like dandruff, and skin protection, and also toiletry preparations. Essential oils are major source of plants; essential oils have been used in preparation of perfumes, hair care substances, emollient of the skin. For example, natural products have been used in cosmetic industry avoiding side effects with traditional preparations for herbal beauty such as Emblica officinalis (Amla), Acacica concinna (Shikakai), and Callicarpa macrophylla (Priyangu) have been used strongly in skin care and hair care. Moreover, Indian women are still using natural products such as Pterocarpus santalinus L. and Curcuma longa (skin care), Lawsonia inermis L. (hair color), and natural oils such as coconut, olive, shea butter, jojoba, and essential oils in perfumes for their bodies. The present book chapter represents the importance of natural products in cosmetics.
Technical Report
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It is being presented a transversal study about the moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) mainly developed on its botanical characteristics and the review of its use. The Moringa leaf was already used hundreds of years ago in the Ayurveda medicine and it was known byEgyptian and Romans for its cosmetic use. Moringa oleifera is one of the 13 species of a unique genus composed by the Moringaceae family. Originated in the north of India, Nepal and Northwest of Pakistan, it is currently extended through the inter-tropical fringe around the globe. These trees may grow up to 12 meters high with pinnate leaves, panicled flowers, zygomorphic, pentamerous, bisexual, capsuled shaped fruit and three-winged oleaginous seeds. Moringa is cultivated in order to obtain cattle feed and foodstuff use (leaves, fruit’s pericarp and oil from the seeds). The cultivation requirements are somehow demanding in terms of soil and water amounts, being temperature the main limiting factor. Its leaves are high in protein, Sulphur amino acids (Met+Cys) and Lysine. Moringa leaves are also very rich in calcium and iron. On its leaves there is an extended antioxidant variety (polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids) and glucosinolates. Its seed’s oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (70%), less than 1% of polyunsaturated and 6.7% of behenic acid C22:0. These properties make the plant being used or potentially used as: cosmetics, in the pharmaceutical industry, water depollution, biodiesel production, biological component against fungi and agricultural plagues, animal feed, and medicinal use. For human feed it is used as an alimentary supplement in order to obtain complete proteins or to palliate calcium deficit in underfeeding populations. Its medical use is well-known on traditional medical systems, although these uses are not certificated by any laboratory or clinical research. Nowadays, many scientific experiments are taking place in order to quantify the therapeutic efficiency of this plant and its possible toxicity. The Moringa plant possesses a contrasted hypoglycemic and lipid lowering powers.“In vitro”and “In vivo”the plant is reflecting possible antitumor properties. M. Oleifera belongs to the panacea plant group, and it is suggested further research in order to discover all of its possibilities.
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Fodder trees are commonly used as food supplements during periods of food shortage for animal feed, because their a reasonable amounts of proteins, oils, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Resulted secondary compounds such as phenolics, saponins, flavonoids and essential oils play an important role as antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Oils from Moringa oleifera seeds and fruits of Cassia fistula and Ceratonia siliqua were extracted using n-hexane. Good physicochemical properties were observed in M. oleifera oil. High essential fatty acids in C. fistula oil contained Omega 6/omega 3 (WHO 5:10) (9.83%). In terms of oil bioactivity, positive antibacterial activity was found against the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed resistance to the oils. Moderate antioxidant activity was observed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay comparing with two reference standards (butylated hydroxy toluene BHT, and Vitamin C). The phytochemical compounds identified in the oils, especially in the agroforestry tree M. oleifera, are recommended as commercial ingredient formulations for human and animal feed additive and healthy.
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Full-text available
The moringa leaf was already used hundreds of years ago in the Ayurveda medicine and it was known by Egyptian and Romans for its cosmetic use. Moringa oleifera is one of the 13 species of a unique genus composed by the Moringaceae family. Originated in the north of India, Nepal and Northwest of Pakistan, it is currently extended through the inter-tropical region around the globe. These trees may grow up to 12 meters high with pinnate leaves, panicled flowers, zygomorphic, pentamerous, bisexual, capsuled shaped fruit and three-winged oleaginous seeds. Moringa oleifera is cultivated in order to obtain cattle feed and foodstuff use (leaves, fruit’s pericarp and oil from the seeds). The cultivation requirements are somehow demanding in terms of soil and water amounts, being temperature the main limiting factor. Its leaves are high in protein, Sulphur amino acids (Met+Cys) and Lysine. Moringa oleifera leaves are also very rich in calcium and iron. On its leaves there is an extended antioxidant variety (polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids) and glucosinolates. Its seed’s oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (70%), less than 1% of polyunsaturated and 6.7% of behenic acid. These properties make the plant being used or potentially used as: cosmetics, in the pharmaceutical industry, water depollution, biodiesel production, biological component against fungi and agricultural plagues, animal feed, and medicinal use. For human feed it is used as an alimentary supplement in order to obtain complete proteins or to palliate calcium deficit in underfeeding populations. Its medical use is well-known on traditional medical systems, although these uses are not certificated by any laboratory or clinical research. Nowadays, many scientific experiments are taking place in order to quantify the therapeutic efficiency of this plant and its possible toxicity. The Moringa plant possesses a contrasted hypoglycemic and lipid lowering powers. In vitro and In vivo the plant is reflecting possible antitumor properties. It is suggested further research in order to discover all of its possibilities. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Ethnobotany, Natural Resources, Nutritional Supplement, Medicine.
Article
Some physicochemical properties of the oil, crude protein, sugars, and amino acids of the leaves and seed meals of two Moringa species were determined and compared using Student's T-test. The oil properties and fatty acid composition were significantly (at either p ≤ .01 or p ≤ .05) varied between the two species. The sterols and tocopherols contents of the species oil differed significantly. Most of the sterols were not detected in Moringa oleifera oil. The sugars contents were significantly different between the two species. The protein contents of M. oleifera leaves and seed meals were significantly higher than those of Moringa peregrina. Compared with M. peregrina, the M. oleifera leaves and seed meals had significantly higher amounts of amino acids. The most concentrated amino acids in the M. oleifera leaves and seed meals were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leucine whereas those in M. peregrina were threonine, serine, and proline. Moringa seed kernels contain a significant amount of oil. Moringa leaves are a good human food and animal feed. Various parts of Moringa oleifera are incorporated into the traditional food of humans. The leaves of Moringa are a good source of protein, vitamin A, B, and C. The leaf of M. oleifera contains crude protein up to 25%. In many tropical and subtropical countries, various parts of M. oleifera (leaves, fruits, immature pods, and flowers) are incorporated into the traditional food of humans.
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The objective of present study was to evaluate the vegetable oils used for commercial frying of chicken and samosa, an indigenous fried product of Pakistan. Physiochemical analysis of the excessively used vegetable oils showed that refractive index and specific gravity was affected non significantly as a result of frying operation. However, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acids and total polar compounds were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the oil used before frying as compared to the values recorded after frying operation. The oils, before and after frying of samosa and chicken exhibited the iodine values in the range of 87.9±0.07- 120.5±11 and 86.5±1.03-118.4±10.45, respectively. Stearic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid content were found to be lower in oils before frying than after frying in both the products, however, linoleic acid and linolenic acid indicated higher values in oil before frying than after frying. Total polar compounds (TPC) were shown to be significantly lower in oil before frying than after frying of samosa and chicken. TPC increased from 2.3±0.25 to 32.2.9±0.83 and 2.30±0.30 to 29.18±0.96, respectively in oils used for samosa and chicken. The higher values of TPC might be due to excessive number of frying and use of low quality oil. The study concluded that the changes in the chemical profile of excessively used oil were severe enough to cause several health hazards and rendered oils unfit for human consumption.
Article
In this paper, preliminary investigations into the possible use of Moringa oleifera seed suspension for the softening of hardwater are presented. Four water sources: synthetic water (distilled water spiked with calcium chloride), naturally hard surface water and groundwater from two tube wells at different locations were used for the study. Modified laboratory jar test procedures for coagulation studies were used for the experimental runs. Water hardness from the sources varied from 300 up to 1000 mg/l as CaCO3. The mechanism for softening was found to be due to adsorption with the adsorption isotherm approximating to the Langmuir type, and conversion of soluble hardness-causing ions to insoluble products by precipitation reactions. Removal efficiency was found to increase with increasing dosage of Moringa oleifera. Higher dosages were required to achieve equivalent residual hardness for water samples with the same initial hardness but higher number of hardness-causing species in the water. Hardness removal was found to be independent of pH of the raw water.
Article
Moringa oleifera is a tropical plant whose seeds contain an edible oil and water soluble substance which has excellent coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. The efficiency and properties of Moringa oleifera as a natural coagulant in water treatment were studied and compared with alum, which is presently the most widely used industrial coagulant. It is show that the active agents in aqueous Moringa extracts are dimeric cationic proteins, having molecular weight of 13 kDa and isoelectric points between 10 and 11. The mechanism of coagulation with Moringa oleifera appears to consist of adsorption and neutralization of the colloidal charges. Compared to alum, the optimal dosage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds was almost the same (50 mg/l). In case of the non-shelled seeds, the dosage is greater (500 mg/l) for low initial turbidity waters. The purified proteins are more effective coagulants than alum. As a coagulant, Moringa is non-toxic and biodegradable. It is environmentally friendly, and unlike alum, does not significantly affect the pH and conductivity of the water after the treatment. Sludge produced by coagulation with Moringa is not only innocuous but also four to five times less in volume than the chemical sludge produced by alum coagulation. So, as a coagulant, Moringa oleifera may be a potentially viable substitute to alum.
Article
A model turbid water was treated by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, with Moringa oleifera seeds as a coagulant, using jar tests. The quality of the treated water was analyzed and compared with that of the water treated with alum. Experiments were conducted at various dosages of the crude 5% water extract of both dry, shelled and non-shelled Moringa oleifera seeds. Measurements of pH, conductivity, alkalinity, cation and anion concentrations, showed that coagulation with Moringa oleifera seeds did not significantly affect the quality of the treated water. However, concentration of organic matter in the treated water increased considerably with the dosage of Moringa solution. Since this organic matter might exert a chlorine demand and also act as precursor of trihalomethanes during the disinfection with chlorine, it is suggested that Moringa oleifera seeds be used as a coagulant in water and wastewater treatment, only after an adequate purification of the active proteins.
Article
A procedure for the digestion of fresh tissue, transmethylation of lipids, and the extraction of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMES) in one step is described. Fresh tissues or isolated lipids are heated with a reagent containing methanol:heptane:benzene:2,2-dimethoxypropane:H2SO4 (37:36:20:5:2, by vol), methanol:heptane:toluene:2,2-dimethoxypropane:H2SO4 (39:34:20:5:2, by vol), or methanol:heptane:tetrahydrofuran:2,2-dimethoxypropane:H2SO4 (31:42:20:5:2; by vol). At 80 degrees C the simultaneous digestion and lipid transmethylation takes place in a single phase. After cooling at room temperature two phases are formed; the upper one contains the FAMES ready for GLC analysis. The procedure allows the determination of the fatty acid composition of lipids from tissues containing high proportions of triacylglycerols (oil seeds), water (leaves), or both (oil fruits). Due to the complete extraction of the lipids from the tissue, their content can be determined by adding an internal standard to the sample.