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The genus Inula (Asteraceae) in India

Authors:
  • Department of Botany DDU gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur

Abstract and Figures

A revision of Inula L. in India is provided based on field studies, and examination of herbarium collections. Twelve species of Inula are recognized in India: I. acuminata, I. britannica, I. clarkei, I. falconeri, I. hookeri, I. kalapani, I. macrosperma, I. obtusifolia, I. orientalis, I. racemosa, I. rhizocephala and I. royleana, of which two are endemic, I. kalapani and I. macrosperma. A key to the Indian species, descriptions and illustrations are provided along with data on flowering and fruiting, distribution, habitat, chromosome number, and ethnobotanical uses.
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Rheedea
Vol. 23(2)
113-127
2013
The genus
Inula
(Asteraceae) in India
Shweta Shekhar, Arun K. Pandey* and Arne A. Anderberg1
Department of Botany, University of Delhi-110007, Delhi, India.
1Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History
P.O. Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden
*E-mail: arunkpandey@botany.du.ac.in
Abstract
A revision of
Inula
L. in India is provided based on field studies, and examination of herbarium collections.
Twelve species of
Inula
are recognized in India:
I. acuminata
,
I. britannica
,
I. clarkei
,
I. falconeri
,
I. hookeri
,
I. kalapani
,
I. macrosperma
,
I. obtusifolia
,
I. orientalis
,
I. racemosa
,
I. rhizocephala
and
I. royleana
, of which
two are endemic,
I. kalapani
and
I. macrosperma
. A key to the Indian species, descriptions and illustrations
are provided along with data on flowering and fruiting, distribution, habitat, chromosome number, and
ethnobotanical uses.
Keywords: Inulinae, Taxonomy
Introduction
The genus Inula L. (Inuleae-Inulinae) includes
c. 100 species mainly distributed in warm and
temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and Africa
(Anderberg, 2009; Chen & Anderberg, 2011).
Anderberg (1991), transferred a number of species
to genera like Duhaldea DC., Iphiona Cass. and
Dirichia Greuter. Kumar & Pant (1995) included
20 species in their treatment of Inula in India.
According to Karthikeyan et al. (2009), the genus in
India is represented by 17 species and 2 varieties.
The genus Inula was rst described by Linnaeus
in Species Plantarum (1753), where he enumerated
13 species. However, later workers (Adanson,
1763; de Candolle, 1836; Bentham & Hooker, 1873;
C.B. Clarke, 1876; Hooker, 1881; Grierson, 1975;
Rechinger, 1980; Kumar & Pant, 1995) broadened
the generic circumscription of Inula and included
more taxa in it. Several of the sections recognized
by earlier workers have been demonstrated to be
more distantly related to Inula s. str. Recently, Chen
and Anderberg (2011) reported 19 species of Inula
and 7 species of Duhaldea from China of which 5
species of Inula and 4 species of Duhaldea occur in
India. Analyses of phylogenetic relationships based
on DNA sequence data (Pornpongrungrueng et
al., 2007; Englund et al., 2009) have shown that the
Duhaldea is in the basal clade of the Inuleae-Inulinae
whereas Inula (s. str.) is in a more derived group.
Thus, out of 20 species of Inula in India (Kumar &
Pant, 1995), only 12 can be retained in Inula (s. str.)
and of the remaining 8, 6 belong to Duhaldea, 1 to
Dirichia and 1 to Iphiona (Anderberg, 1991). This
paper deals with the critical examination of Inula s.
str. found in India.
The genus Inula (s. str.) comprises annual, biennial
or perennial herbs. In India, the genus is distributed
in Trans Himalaya, Western Himalaya and the
Northeastern regions. Some species are glandular-
hairy and aromatic (I. racemosa, I. royleana, I.
orientalis). The owering heads (capitula) are
heterogamous and radiate (Fig. 1) and both rays
and disc orets are yellow. The capitula are
usually arranged in terminal corymbs or cymes
but in some taxa they are solitary and pedunculate
(I. orientalis, I. racemosa, I. royleana) or sessile and
densely congested at the centre of the rosulate
leaves (I. rhizocephala).
In India, Inula is well known not only for its
diverse herbal and ethnobotanical uses but also for
its biomedical properties (Parkash & Aggarwal,
2010; Jamma et al., 2012). Species such as I. kalapani
and I. macrosperma are rare and endemic where
as I. racemosa and I. rhizocephala have become
endangered due to habitat loss (Rao & Da, 1996).
Present study is based on fresh and herbarium
specimens. Field surveys were conducted in
dierent parts of India viz., Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, and
Uarakhand. Data obtained from eld survey
114 The genus
Inula
in India
.
such as ethnobotanical uses, habitat, phenology
and habit of the plants are provided along with
notes on distribution and chromosome numbers.
In the following type information from the
literature is provided for each species, but it is not
our intention at this is to be considered as formal
typications.
Inula L., Sp. Pl. 2: 881. 1753; DC., Prodr. 5: 463.
1836; Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2: 330. 1873; Boiss.,
Fl. Orient. 3: 184. 1875; Compos. Indicae 116. 1876;
Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 291. 1881; Gorschkova in
Shishkin, Fl. USSR 25: 433. 1959; Grierson in Davis,
Fl. Turkey 5: 54. 1975; Ball & Tutin in Tutin et al., Fl.
Europea 4: 133. 1976; Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 145: 77. 1980;
Anderb., Pl. Syst. Evol. 176: 97. 1991; Sarv. Kumar
& Pant in Hajra et al., Fl. India. 13: 11. 1995; Abid &
Qaiser, Candollea 56: 317. 2002; Chen & Anderb.
Fl. China 20-21: 837. 2011.
Type: Inula helenium L.
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, erect
or prostrate, generally hairy with variable
indumentum, rarely glabrous (I. kalapani). Stems
generally well-developed, often branched, rarely
simple, and exceptionally very short (I. rhizocephala).
Leaves simple, alternate, sessile or petiolate,
sometimes in a basal rosee, hairy or glabrous.
Capitula solitary, terminal or a few together
arranged in corymbs or panicles, heterogamous,
radiate, disciform or rarely discoid. Involucral
bracts multiseriate, broad or narrow, imbricate;
outer herbaceous, more or less foliaceous;
inner usually rigid and more or less scarious.
Receptacles at or slightly convex, smooth or
somewhat alveolate, epaleate. Ray orets female,
radiate to miniradiate (rarely missing), distally 2
or 3-toothed. Disc orets hermaphrodite. Corolla
tubular, yellow, 5-lobed. Anthers caudate, with
branched sagiate tails, apical appendices acute-
obtuse, endothecial tissue radial; cells of lament
collar generally longer than wide. Pollen spines
acute, rarely rounded (I. rhizocephala). Style bid;
style branches abaxially with acute sweeping
hairs, not reaching the furcation; stigmatic lines
conuent apically but basally separate. Cypselae
shorter than the corolla, ellipsoid or more or less
cylindrical, subterete, angled, slightly or distinctly
ribbed, sclerenchymatous, glabrous or pubescent;
epidermal cells each with one elongated crystal.
Pappus bristles 1–2(–3)-seriate, scabrid to
barbellate, persistent.
Distribution: Mainly temperate regions of Europe,
Asia, but also reaching sub-Saharan Africa.
Key to the species
1. Plants acaulescent; leaves in a rosee, obovate-
spathulate; capitula sessile, congested in the
centre of the leaf rosee ..11.Inula rhizocephala
1. Plants caulescent; leaves cauline, radical;
capitula terminal on stems or branches,
solitary or in corymbs …..............................… 2
2. Carpopodium indistinct; leaf base cordate ….......
....................................................... 2. I. britannica
2. Carpopodium distinct; leaf base not cordate .. 3
3. Stems thick as goose-quill, with a narrow,
membranous wing; ligules deeply 3-d ..........
.................................................. 7. I. macrosperma
3. Stems pubescent, not thick as goose quill and
not winged; ligules not deeply 3-d …............. 4
4. Outer involucre bracts broad, leaf-like,
herbaceous ......................................................… 5
4. Outer involucre bracts narrow, rigid, sometimes
herbaceous but not leaf-like, or more or less
scarious ..….......................................................... 6
5. Capitula solitary; 7–10 cm in diam.; all whorls
of phyllaries green ….................. 12. I. royleana
5. Capitula in raceme; 3–5 cm in diam.; inner
phyllaries purple ………............ 10. I. racemosa
6. Cypselae glabrous or nearly so ..................... 7
6. Cypselae silky or at least distinctly hairy…… 10
7. Pappus bristles white; cypselae c. 2 mm long ... 8
7. Pappus bristles reddish or pale reddish; cypselae
not more than 1.5 mm long …........................ 9
8. Involucre shaggy; capitula 1–3; stems villous;
rays as long as disc orets ..…....... 5. I. hookeri
8. Involucre not shaggy; capitula solitary; stems
hirsute; rays longer than disc orets ...............
....................................................... 9. I. orientalis
9. Pappus bristles more than 5 mm long; cypselae
hirsute; carpopodium basal .……................... 11
9. Pappus bristles less than 3 mm long; cypselae
glabrous; carpopodium subbasal ....................
....................................................... 6.I. kalapani
10. Stems and leaves papillate-glandular along
with pilose hairs, leaves acute-obtuse ….........
.....................................................… 8. I. obtusifolia
Shweta Shekhar
et al.
115
Fig. 1.
Inula
L.: a.
Inula obtusifolia
A.Kern.; b.
I. orientalis
Lam.; c.
I. racemosa
Hook.f. (Based on: a.
S. Shekhar
1126;
b.
S. Shekhar
1058; c.
A.K. Pandey
10028).
10. Stems and leaves tomentose, leaves acuminate–
apiculate …...................................… 3.I. clarkei
11. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, venation
prominent below …...........…… 1. I. acuminata
11. Leaves linear, acute-acuminate, venation
obscure below …....................…. 4. I. falconeri
1. Inula acuminata Royle ex DC., Prodr. 5: 471.
1836; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 294. 1881; Stewart
in Nasir & Ali, Ann. Cat. Vas. Pl. W. Pakistan &
Kashmir 752, 1972; Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 1980; Sarv.
Kumar & Pant in Hajra et al., Fl. Ind. 13: 11. 1995;
Abid & Qaiser, Candollea 56: 323. 2002. Fig. 2
Type: In Indicae prov. boreali-occident Royle s.n.
(Holo- G-DC. IDC No. 27. 913).
Annual, 25–45 cm high. Stems erect, shining,
glabrous at base, pubescent above, sometimes
branched. Leaves 2.5–8 × 1–1.5 cm, sub-erect,
elongate, hastate, glabrous, and gradually
tapering from the broad base, margin obscurely
dentate. Capitula few, sub-corymbose, 1.5–2.5
116 The genus
Inula
in India
.
cm in diam. Involucral bracts 4-seriate, green,
narrow, linear-acuminate, erect, puberulous; outer
bracts lanceolate, 5–15 × 1.5–2 mm, herbaceous;
inner linear, acute or acuminate, membranous,
puberulous. Ray orets 10–15 mm long, recurved.
Disc orets c. 6 mm long. Anther caudate, with
branched-sagiate tails, apical anther appendage
acute-obtuse, endothecial tissue radial; cells
of lament collar generally longer than wide.
Pollen spines acute, with a cavity. Style with
acute sweeping hairs, not reaching the furcation.
Cypselae narrowly obovate or oblong, 1–1.5
mm long, sparsely hirsute or nearly glabrous,
sometimes with a few, short, erect hairs, 3-ribbed,
yellowish brown. Pappus uniseriate, 5–6 mm long;
bristles 22–30, golden-brown.
Flowering & Fruiting: July to September.
Distribution: India (temperate regions of Trans
Himalaya and Western Himalaya: Jammu &
Kashmir) and Pakistan.
Habitat: Grows on damp places, on calcareous
rocks, between 1700 and 2900 m.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Jammu & Kashmir,
Baramulla, 12.9.1985, A. Meebold 1048 ; Srinagar,
15.9.1865, D. Koelzii 236933; Kashmir, 7.9.1893, J.F.
Duthie 13999 (CAL); Bhaderwah, Kashmir, 12.8.
1989, Naqshi, Shaukat & Kachroo 10116 (KASH).
2. Inula britannica L., Sp. Pl. 2: 882. 1753; DC.,
Prodr. 5: 467. 1836; Boiss., Fl. Orient. 3: 193. 1875;
Stewart in Nasir & Ali, Ann. Cat. Vas. Pl. W.
Pakistan & Kashmir 752, 1972; Grierson in Davis,
Fl. Turk. 5: 65. 1975; Ball & Tutin, In Tutin et al., Fl.
Europeae 4: 135. 1976; Rech. f. Fl. Iranica 96, 1980;
Gorschkova, Fl. USSR 25 465, 1959; Sarv.Kumar &
Pant in Hajra et al., Fl. India 13: 11. 1995; Abid &
Qaiser, Candollea 56: 322. 2002; Chen & A. Anderb.
Fl. China 20-21: 841. 2011. Fig. 3.
Lectotype: Herb Burser 15 (1): 41 (UPS)
Biennial to perennial herb, 15-40 (75) cm tall. Stem
erect, villous. Leaves 5.5 –9.5 × 1.5–3.0 cm, sessile;
lanceolate, elliptical or ovate, cordate or auriculate,
clasping, acute-acuminate, entire or serrulate, base
cordate-auriculate; margin entire to minutely
dentate; lower surface villous, scarcely glandular,
Fig. 2.
Inula acuminata
Royle ex DC.: a. Habit; b-b3.
Phyllaries (from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret;
e. Anthers; f. Style & Stigma. (a from
Koelzii
236933, CAL;
b, c, d from
Duthie
13999, CAL; e, f from
Naqshi, Shaukat
&
Kachroo
10116 KASH).
Fig. 3.
Inula britannica
L.: a. Habit; b-b2. Phyllaries (from
outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret; e, e1. Anthers;
f, f1. Style & Stigma. (a-f from
Naqshi
&
Shaukat
9138,
9229, KASH).
Shweta Shekhar
et al.
117
upper surface sparsely pubescent. Capitula 1–8,
2.5–5 cm in diameter, peduncles 1–4 cm long
densely villous. Involucral bracts accid, 3–4
seriate, outer sub-foliaceous, linear-subulate, 8–25
× 2–5 mm, ±villous; inner membranous, puberulous
and glandular. Ray-orets, 10–15 mm long. Disc
orets 4–5 mm long. Anther caudate, with tails,
appendage acute-obtuse, endothecial tissue radial;
cells of lament collar generally longer than wide.
Pollen spines acute, with a cavity. Style with
acute sweeping hairs, not reaching the furcation.
Cypselae 1–2 mm long, narrowly obovate-oblong
with sparsely golden-brown hirsute surface, 8–10
ribbed, reddish brown. Pappus 5–6 mm long
uniseriate, bristles 20–24, free or basally connate,
reddish brown-golden.
Chromosome number: 2n=16, 32.
Vernacular name: British Elecampane, British Yellow
head, Meadow eabane.
Flowering & Fruiting: June to September.
Distribution: China, Europe, India (Jammu &
Kashmir); Iran, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea,
Turkey, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan.
Habitat: Grows on roadsides, wastelands and elds,
sandy to wet places, moist meadows, stream-sides,
ditches and wet woods, altitude ranges between
1700 and 2500 m.
Uses: Plant is used for the treatment of nausea,
hiccups and excessive sputum. The owers are
used for treatment of intestinal diseases, bronchitis
and inammation (Wang et al., 2005; Khan et al.,
2008, 2010a).
Specimens examined: INDIA, Jammu & Kashmir.
Dawar, 12.8.1989, Naqshi & Shaukat 9229; Dawar,
12.8.1990, Naqshi & Shaukat 9138 (KASH).
3. Inula clarkei (Hook.f.) Stewart in Nasir & Ali,
Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pakistan Kashmir 753. 1972;
Sarv.Kumar & Pant in Hajra et al., Fl. Ind. 13: 11.
1995; Abid & Qaiser, Candollea 56: 321. 2002. I.
obtusifolia Kerner var. clarkei Hook. f., F. Brit. India
3: 294. 1881.
Type: INDIA, Kashmir, Mustag Paas, 11,500′,
Clarke (K).
Perennial herb, 15–35 cm tall. Stem white,
tomentose, branched from base. Leaves 3–5 ×
1–2 (3.0) cm, rigid, tomentose, oblong or ovate-
elliptic, acuminate-apiculate, base rounded;
margin obscurely denticulate. Capitula solitary
terminal, c. 2.5–4 cm in diameter. Involucral
bracts green, villous, pubescent, 4–5 seriate; outer
herbaceous, lanceolate, acute, 8–15 × 2–3 mm; inner
membranous, acuminate. linear-lanceolate, acute,
rigid, pubescent. Ray-orets c. 15–28 mm long.
Disc-orets c. 7–9 mm long. Cypselae 2–3 mm,
oblong, yellowish-brown, dense sericeous, silky
with 10–12 ribs. Pappus 6–7 mm long, uniseriate,
bristles 20–24, golden yellow.
Flowering & Fruiting: June to September.
Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir); Pakistan.
Habitat: Grows between 2400 and 3500 m.
Specimens examined: INDIA, R.R. Stewart s.n.;
Duthie s.n. (DD).
4. Inula falconeri Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 294.
1881; E. Bla., Beaut. Fl. Kashmir 1: 158-161. 1927;
Stewart in Nasir & Ali, Ann. Cat. Vas. Pl. W.
Pakistan & Kashmir 752, 1972; Sarv.Kumar & Pant
in Hajra et al., Fl. Ind. 13: 11. 1995; Abid & Qaiser,
Candollea 56: 323. 2002. Fig. 4
Fig. 4.
Inula falconeri
Hook.f.: a. Habit; b-b3. Phyllaries
(from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret; e. Anthers;
f. Style & Stigma. (a from
Stewart
20484, CAL; b, c, d from
Stewart
87784, DD; e, f from
Stewart
87785, DD).
118 The genus
Inula
in India
.
Type: WESTERN TIBET, Falconer 3933 (K).
Annual or perennial herb, 30–45 cm tall. Stem
erect, slender, glabrous to sparingly hairy, simple
or branched. Leaves 2.5–8 × 0.5–1.0 cm, linear or
oblong, amplexicaul, gradually contracted above
the base, veins obscure. Capitula corymbose, 1.0–2.0
cm in diameter. Involucral bracts green, 4-seriate,
linear, acute, pubescent or tomentose, erect or
recurved, c. 5–15 × 1.5–2.0 mm, acuminate, margins
pubescent, dorsal surface scarcely glandular. Ray
orets, c. 10 mm. Disc-orets c. 6 mm long. Anther
caudate, apical anther appendage acute-obtuse,
endothecial tissue radial; cells of lament collar
generally longer than wide. Pollen spines acute,
with a cavity. Style with acute sweeping hairs,
not reaching the furcation. Cypselae 1–1.5 mm
long, narrowly-obovate, oblong, yellowish-brown,
sparsely golden brown hirsute surface with few
short, erect hairs. Pappus uniseriate, c. 5–6 mm
long, bristles 25–28, golden-yellow.
Flowering & Fruiting: June to August.
Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir), Pakistan
and Western Tibet.
Habitat: Grows between 2300-2500 m high
altitudes.
Uses: Allelochemical extracts used in allelopathy
and also contains antifungal and anti-inammatory
activity (Khan et al., 2009, 2010b, c, Cheng et al.,
2011)
Note: This species is similar to I. acuminata, but
diers in having linear, acute-acuminate leaves
with very obscure veins below.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Jammu & Kashmir,
Skardu, Baltistan, 7.8.1940, R.R. Stewart 20484,
(CAL). Skardu, Baltistan, 7.8.1940, R.R. Stewart
87784, 87785 (DD).
5. Inula hookeri C.B. Clarke, Compos. Indicae
122. 1876; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 294. 1881; Sarv.
Kumar & Pant in Hajra et al., Fl. India 13: 11. 1995;
Chen & A. Anderb. Fl. China 20: 841. 2011. Fig. 5
Type: INDIA, Sikkim, J.D. Hooker s.n.
(K000250056).
Perennial herb, 60–150 cm tall. Stem branched,
villous above, loosely lanate at rst. Leaves 6–15 ×
2.5–4 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, acute, apex acuminate,
pubescent and shortly glandular on surfaces
but more sparsely hairy on upper surface, veins
conspicuous; lower leaves subsessile, narrowed
into a petiole up to 5 mm long, upper leaves sessile;
margin minutely glandular-dentate. Capitula
terminal, solitary or 2–3 together, up to 6–10 cm in
diam. Involucral bracts 3–4 seriate, slender, almost
liform, 1.5–4 mm, villous, recurved, shaggy
with long silky hairs, persistent, brown villous
and reexed in fruit. Ray-orets 5–7 mm long,
linear, deeply lobed and conspicuously veined.
Disc-orets 5–9 mm long. Anther caudate, apical
anther appendage acute-obtuse, endothecial tissue
radial; cells of lament collar generally longer than
wide. Pollen spines acute, with a cavity. Style with
acute sweeping hairs, not reaching the furcation.
Cypselae 1.5 mm, ellipsoid, glabrous, with 12 ribs.
Pappus dirty white, c. 6–8 mm long, uniseriate,
30–45, bristles free or basally connate, sub-equal to
disc-orets.
Chromosome number: 2n=20.
Vernacular name: Hooker’s eabane.
Flowering & Fruiting: July to October.
Distribution: Bhutan, China, India (Sikkim,
Arunachal Pradesh), Myanmar, Nepal.
Fig. 5.
Inula hookeri
C.B. Clarke: Habit. (from
Bennet
&
Naithani
152607, DD).
Shweta Shekhar
et al.
119
Habitat: Grows between 2400-3900 m elevations; on
mountain slopes, shrub-lands, sparse, temperate
forests and grasslands.
Uses: Roots are used against drowsiness and
possess cytotoxic activities (Cheng et al., 2012).
Specimens examined: INDIA, Arunachal Pradesh,
Thunglung to Lum La, Kameng district, 22.10.
1977, S.R. Bennet and H.B. Naithani 152607, 152608;
Sir Basil Gauld 97311 (DD). Sikkim, s.l. 1867,
J.D. Hooker K000250056 (K); Lachen, 27.8.1999,
22410; Lachen, North Sikkim District, 25.8.1982,
P. Chakraborty 1305, 1306; Lachung to Yanthang,
North Sikkim District, 12.10.1985, D.C.S. Raju
8363, 8402; On the way to Yanthang, North Sikkim
District, 14.9.1988, S. Kumar & S. Singh 8583, 8584;
Kishong La, 21.9.1996, Sujit Kumar Jana 34917,
34918; Lachen to Chungthang, North Sikkim,
11.9.2002, D. Maity 41007, 41008; Lachen, 27.8.1999,
G.P. Sinha & A. Maity 41301, 41302, 41303 (BSHC).
6. Inula kalapani C.B. Clarke, Compos. Ind. 123.
1876; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 295. 1881; Sarv.
Kumar & Pant in Hajra et al., Fl. India 13: 11. 1995.
Fig.6
Type: INDIA, Meghalaya, Khasia mountain,
Kalapani river, 4000-5000′, J. D. H. & T.T. s.n. (K).
Erect herb, 30–45 cm tall. Stem simple or sparingly
branched, pubescent or hirsute. Leaves 5–7.5 cm,
cauline and radical; radical leaves elliptic, ovate
or lanceolate, obtuse or acute, sub-dentate, long,
petiolate; cauline leaves erect or spreading, oblong
or ovate-oblong, amplexicaul at base, dilated,
2–4 cm long. Heads corymbose, few, 0.5–1 cm in
diameter. Involucral bracts green, few, linear,
acute, spreading or recurved, hirsute. Ray-orets
8 mm long. Disc-orets c. 4–6 mm long. Cypselae
minute, up to 1.2 mm long, glabrous. Pappus 3
mm long, uniseriate, bristles 28–37, reddish.
Flowering & Fruiting: June to September.
Distribution: India: Arunachal Pradesh (Kameng
district), Meghalaya (Khasi hills), endemic.
Habitat: Grows near river bank and sandy soil,
amidst grasses in open places down the hills at
1300-1500 m elevation.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Arunachal Pradesh,
Senge, Kameng district, 18.9.1969, J. Joseph 40127
(CAL); Senge, Kameng district, amidst grasses in
open places down the hills, 19.9. 1964, J. Joseph
40127b (ASSAM). Meghalaya, Upper Kalapani to
Mairang, 1.6.1868, 7301; Khasi hills, 15.6.1876, 290;
Khasi hills, 12.5.1878, 780 (DD); Maophlong, 4 June
1885, C.B. Clarke 38233; Shillong, 4 June 1886, C.B.
Clarke 44076; Khasi, 1913, C.B. Clarke 290 (CAL); In
Kynshi-Markasa, 10 miles away from K.&J. Hills
district, 17 June 1958, G. Panigrahi 16337; K&J Hills,
543 (ASSAM).
7. Inula macrosperma Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3:
292. 1881; Sarv.Kumar & Pant in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 13: 11. 1995. Fig. 7
Type: INDIA, Sikkim, J.D. Hooker s.n.
(K000102223)
Erect herb. Stem glabrous or pubescent, smooth,
shining, soft, glabrous or sometimes pubescent,
winged; wings narrow, membranous. Leaves 7–10
× 2–3 cm, sessile, oblong-ovate, acuminate, base
amplexicaul, decurrent, puberulous. Capitula 3.5–5
cm in diameter, pedunculate. Involucral bracts
few, broadly lanceolate, 1.5–2 cm long, sub-acute,
pubescent. Ray-orets up to 15 mm long deeply
3-lobed. Disc-orets 6–7 mm long. Anther caudate
with radial endothecial tissue; cells of lament
collar generally longer than wide. Pollen spines
acute, with a cavity. Style with acute sweeping
hairs, not reaching the furcation. Cypselae oblong,
Fig. 6.
Inula kalapani
C.B. Clarke: a. Habit; b-b3.
Phyllaries (from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret;
e, e1. Anthers; f, f1. Style & Stigma. (a from
Joseph
40127,
ASSAM; b, c, d from
Clarke
38233, CAL; e, f from
Clarke
44076, CAL).
120 The genus
Inula
in India
.
up to 6 mm long, compressed, strongly and
prominently ribbed, hispid distally. Pappus 2.5
mm long, uniseriate, bristles 35–48, reddish.
Flowering & Fruiting: July to September
Distribution: In India: Sikkim Himalaya.
Habitat: Alpine regions, high altitude
Specimens examined: INDIA, Sikkim, Sikkim, J.D.
Hooker; North Sikkim, D. Maity 22944 (BHSC).
8. Inula obtusifolia A. Kern., Ber. Naturw. Ver.
Innsbruck. 1: 111. 1870; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3:
293. 1881; Koeie & Rech. f., Symb. Afganisthan
2: 31. 1955; Stewart in Nasir & Ali, Ann. Cat.
Vas. Pl. W. Pakistan & Kashmir 752, 1972; Rech.
f., Fl. Iranica 96. 1980; Abid & Qaiser., Candollea
56: 317. 2002; Chen & A. Anderb., Fl. China 20:
837. 2011. Fig. 8
Type: INDIA, Himachal Pradesh, Lahul
mountains, 13000-14,000′, Jaeschke s.n. (WU).
Perennial herb with a woody rootstock; 12–30
cm tall. Stem rigidly exuous, scabrid or hairy,
dense papillate-glandular and pilose. Leaves
sessile, 3–7 × 2–2.5 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, oblong
or ovate-oblong, rounded at base, acute-obtuse,
papillate-glandular with pilose hairs, rigid, often
scaberulous above; margin obscurely denticulate.
Heads, solitary terminal, one to three, variable in
size, 1.5–3.5 cm in diameter. Involucre depressed,
semi-globose; involucral bracts 4–5 seriate,
imbricate, outer bract herbaceous-foliaceous,
lanceolate-oblanceolate, acute-obtuse, 4–6 × 2–3
mm; inner membranous, acuminate, linear or
linear-lanceolate, acute, rigid, pubescent. Ray-
orets c. 8–20 mm long. Disc-orets 6–7 mm long.
Cypselae oblong, c. 2–3 mm long, dark yellowish-
brown, sericeous to villous, 10–12 ribbed. Pappus
5–7 mm long, uniseriate, bristles 22–28, golden
yellow.
Flowering & Fruiting: June to August.
Distribution: In India: fairly common in the Western
Himalaya covering Jammu & Kashmir (Kargil,
Leh-Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, upper Punjab
and Uarakhand, rarely in Assam; Outside India:
Pakistan and China (W. Xizang).
Habitat: Grows in rock crevices, dry clis, slopes
and stony grounds forming clumps at 2500-4500
m elevation.
Uses: Whole plant is used against tuberculosis,
chest problems, cough and also as an antiseptic
(Khan & Khatoon 2008).
Fig. 7.
Inula macrosperma
Hook.f.: Habit. (from
Maity
22944, BSHC)
Fig. 8.
Inula obtusifolia
A.Kern.: a. Habit; b-b3. Phyllaries
(from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret; e, e1.
Anthers; f, f1. Style & Stigma. (a from
Stewart
21094, CAL;
b, c, d from
Shekhar
5401, DUH; e, f from
Shekhar
5402,
DUH).
Shweta Shekhar
et al.
121
Perennial herb. 45–75cm tall. Stem erect,
simple, rarely branched, stout, leafy, glandular,
pubescent, hirsute below; inorescence hairy
and leafy throughout. Leaves 4–8 (-10) × 1–3
cm, sessile, elliptic, oblong or lanceolate, acute,
base, hairy, cuneate, semi-amplexicaul; margin
glandular, serrate, Capitula solitary, terminal, 4–7
cm in diameter. Involucral bracts hairy, toothed,
blackish green, 4–5 seriate, linear- lanceolate, inner
narrow and shorter, linear and outer leaf-like
ligules 1.7 to 2 cm, thick hairy at margins midrib
ending in a glandular apex. Ray-orets c. 25–30
mm long, bid to 3-lobed; linear, oblong. Disc-
orets, numerous, c. 5–8 mm long; corolla. Anther
caudate, apical anther appendage acute-obtuse,
endothecial tissue radial; cells of lament collar
generally longer than wide. Pollen spines acute,
with a cavity. Style with acute sweeping hairs, not
reaching the furcation. Cypselae 1–1.5 mm long,
oblong-oblanceolate, sparsely hirsute, dark brown,
with sparsely-golden brown hirsute surface, 5–10-
ribbed. Pappus c. 6–7mm long, uniseriate, bristles
20–25, cream-golden.
Chromosome number: 2n=16.
Vernacular name: Caucasian Elecampane.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Assam, Durbasa
Khola, 6.11.962, C.R. Rao 54603; 4 km from
Badapani, H.D. Deka, 39402, 15604, 15613 (ASSAM).
Himachal Pradesh, Pangi, 4.9.1896, J.H. Lace 1487
(DD); Pangi, 1.9.1897, J.H. Lace 1487 (CAL); Bank of
Chandra river near Tandi bridge, Lahul, 16.7.1941,
N.L. Bor 92391; Bank of Chandra river near Tandi
bridge, Lahul, 27.7.1941, N.L. Bor 92392 (DD);
Pangi, 21.8. 1964, Brandis 3913 (CAL). Jammu &
Kashmir, Gilgit, 1885, G.M. Giles (CAL); Lowari
range, 12.8.1895, W. Galton 17235 (DD); Lamayuro,
Ladakh, 22.7.1905, A. Meebold 1049; Baltistan,
18.7. 1892, J.F. Duthie (CAL); Ladakh, 6.8.1940,
R.R. Stewart 87782 (DD); near Kharbu, Ladakh,
27.8. 1940, R.R. Stewart 21094 (CAL); Ladakh,
29.8.1940, R.R. Stewart 87783 (DD); Kashmir,
2.6.1970, Gurucharan Singh 737a (KASH); Miru,
Purang valley, 8.9.1970, U.C. Bhaacharyya 50507,
50508 (BSD); Kargil, 7.8.1975, Uppeandra Dhar 5067
(KASH); Tamgotsa, 20.8.1975, M.V. Vishwanathan
69879; way from Shyok to Durbak, 31.8.1975, M.V.
Vishwanathan 67272 (BSD); Indus valley, Ladakh,
4.7.1976, J. Leonard 6809 (KASH); Drass-Kargil,
18.7.1976, B.M. Wadhwa 67259; Khalsi-Saspol road,
26.7.1976, B.M. Wadhwa 67260; Saspol, Ladakh,
28.7.1976, B.M. Wadhwa 67261; Ladakh, 8.8.1976,
B.M. Wadhwa 67263; on the way down from
Mathoo Phu to Mathoo village, 10.8.1976, M.V.
Vishwanathan 67262; Suru village, 24.8.1976, B.M.
Wadhwa 70239; Kargil, 4.8.1980, U.C. Bhaacharyya
75892, 98008; 155 km, on the way to Kargil,
Ladakh, 12.8.1982, P.K. Hajra 96482, 99140; Gang
La to Khardung La, 8.8.1988, H.J. Chaudhary &
B.P. Uniyal 87514; Between Drass and Kargil,
28.7.988, H.J. Chaudhary & B.P. Uniyal 87822 (BSD);
Lamayuro, Ladakh, 9.9.1989, B.K. Kapatii 15752
(RRLH); Nimu & Khaltse village, Leh-Ladakh,
20.6.2011, S. Shekhar & A.K. Pandey 1101, 1102,
1103; Alchi village, Saspol, Leh-Ladakh, 21.6.2011,
S. Shekhar & A.K. Pandey 1107, 1108, 1111; Drass,
Kargil, 23 June 2011, S. Shekhar 1113, 1116, 1118;
Khardung La, Leh-Ladakh, 27.6.2011, S. Shekhar &
A.K. Pandey 1119, 1126, 1127 (DUH).
9. Inula orientalis Lam., Encycl. 3: 255. 1789.
Inula grandiora Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 2096. 1803; DC.,
Prodr. Sys. Nat. Reg. Veg 5: 468, 1836; Boiss., Fl.
Orient. 3: 184-214, 1875; 196; Clarke, Compos. Ind.
123, 1876; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 294, 1881; E.
Bla., Beaut. Fl. Kashmir.1: 158-161. 1927; Stewart
in Nasir & Ali, Ann. Cat. Vas. Pl. W. Pakistan &
Kashmir 752, 1972; Gorschkova, in Shishkin, Fl.
USSR, 25: 472, 1959. Fig. 9
Type: East Mediterranean, Tournefort s.n. (MNHN)
Fig. 9.
Inula orientalis
Lam.: a. Habit; b1- b4. Phyllaries
(from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret; e. Anthers.
f, f1. Style & Stigma. (a from
Duthie
809, CAL; b, c, d from
Shekhar
1042, DUH; e, f from
Shekhar
1044, DUH).
122 The genus
Inula
in India
.
Flowering & Fruiting: July to September.
Distribution: India: Himachal Pradesh (Chamba,
Chenab, Kinnaur, Pangi, Jaunsar, Lahul, Keylong),
Jammu & Kashmir (Gulmarg, Sonmarg, Sheshnaag
near Pissu Ghati), Uarakhand (Badrinath,
Kedarnath, Gangotri Yamunotri in Garhwal
Himalaya) and Semi-arid regions of Punjab, Nepal,
Pakistan and Caucasus.
Habitat: Grows on damp places along the steeps
edging the torrents up to 2000-3600 m.
Uses: The aromatic roots, also used to controls
high blood pressure and stimulates the peristaltic
movement of the intestine, skin treatment
(Grossheim 1949; Gogoladze & Gventsadze 1985;
Mamedov et al., 2005).
Specimens examined: INDIA, Himachal Pradesh,
Leppa valley, upper Chenab, 17.8.1879, B.H. Baden-
Powell 200; Chamba, 12.8.1880, Robert Ellis 416;
Pangi, 5.8.1890, J.H. Lace 475; Phulga, 12.10.1894,
Jaunsar, 10.11.1894, J.S. Gamble 15084; Pangi,
18.9.1895, J.H. Lace 1256 (CAL); Urni, 30.8.1963,
N.C. Nair 62492; Pangi village, Kinnaur district,
3.9. 1963, N.C. Nair 37400; Sang La, 22.9.1964, N.C.
Nair 36552; Trilokinath, upper Chenab, 20.8.1971,
U.C. Bhaacharyya 45383; Rakcham hill slope,
13.8.1973, K.P. Janardhanan 75358; near stream,
9.9.1973, K.P. Janardhanan 70962; on the way to
Lahul and Keylong, 24.9.1974, M.V. Vishwanathan
61675 (BSD); Pangi, Chamba, 15.8.1999, Harakh
236894 (CAL). Jammu & Kashmir, Tilail valley,
4.9.1893, J.F. Duthie 13969; Sonmarg, 25.8. 1913,
F.E. Kaebel 119 (CAL); Kistwar, 22.9.1958, T.A.
Rao 9453, 9798, 9799, 9800 (BSD); Sheshnag, near
Pissughati, 26.9.1961, J.N. Vohra & B.M. Wadhwa
254 (CAL); Gulmarg, 5.6.1971, Gurucharan Singh
2609; Gulmarg, 7.6.1976, U. Dhar 4318; Kashmir,
10.8.1989, Naqshi, Shaukat & Kachroo 10284. Kashmir,
13.8.1989, Naqshi, Shaukat & Kachroo 9808 (KASH);
Zozi La, 8.9.2005, B.M. Sharma 16567, 16568 (RRLH).
Uarakhand, Tihri-Garhwal, 2.10.1881, J.F. Duthie
236902; Nila valley, Tihri Garhwal, 14.8.1883, J.F.
Duthie 809 (CAL); Tihri-Garhwal, 2.10.1891, J.F.
Duthie 1713 (DD); Jeolikot, Kumaun, 17.9.1912,
N. Eill 437 (CAL); Kumaun, 21.9.1957, T.A. Rao
5254, 5255, 5256; Dwali, Kumaun, 22.9.1957, T.A.
Rao 1980; Gaurikund, Rambara, 25.9.1958, M.A.
Rau 9267 (BSD); Gaurikund, Rambara, 25.9.1958,
M.A. Rau 8609 (CAL); Valley of Flowers, Garhwal
Himalaya, 13.10.1962, U.C. Bhaacharyya 25646,
25647; Garhwal, 1.10.1964, B.V. Shey 36461;
Gangotri, near Tehri Garhwal, 5.10.1967, B.D.
Naithani 41757; Ralam valley, Kumaun, 17.9.1969,
Naithani 45031; Ghangaria, near Chamoli district,
19.9.1977, B.M. Wadhwa 84488; on the way to
Khating, Tehri distrit, 19.9.1979, A.K. Goel 70674;
Chamoli district, 11.9.1980, B.D. Naithani 70990;
Ghangheria, Chamoli district, 15.9.1982, D.
Basu 96744; Chirbasa, Gangotri, 5.9. 1983, U.C.
Bhaacharyya 78106, 80808; on the way to Bundhi,
Pithoragarh district, 14.9.1986, C.L. Malhotra &
Bipin Balodi 83302; Chamoli district, 4.10.1986, P.C.
Pant & B.P. Uniyal 90683; Harki Dhun, Uarkashi,
21.8.1987, Dev Raj Agarwal 79768; Chamoli district,
7.9.1989, P.K. Hajra 90716; Tehri district, 1.10.1991,
S.C. Majumdar & Bipin Balodi 92862; Uarkashi,
4.10.1993, Majumdar & Surendra Singh 88006;
Uarkashi district, 20.9.1995, Bipin Balodi 98459;
Bungling to Sela, Pithoragarh district, 5.8.1998, B.P.
Uniyal & Bipin Balodi 103522; (BSD); On the way to
Badrinath, Garhwal Himalaya, 21.9.2009, S. Shekhar
& A.K.Pandey1051, 1052, 1053; Near Gaurikund
and Rambara, Garhwal Himalaya, 24.9.2009, S.
Shekhar & A.K. Pandey 1055, 1058, 1059; On the
way to Triyuginarayan, Rudraprayag, Garhwal
Himalaya, 25.9.2009, S. Shekhar 1060, 1062; On the
way to Kedarnath temple, 20.9.2010, S. Shekhar1096,
1097; Near Gaurikund and Rambara, Kedarnath,
20.9.2010, S. Shekhar 1099, 1100 (DUH).
10. Inula racemosa Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 292.
1881; E. Bla., Beaut. Fl. Kashmir 1: 158-161. 1927;
Stewart in Nasir & Ali, Ann. Cat. Vas. Pl. W.
Pakistan & Kashmir 752, 1972; Rech. f., Fl. Iranica
96. 1980a; Kitamura & Gould in Hara et al., Enum.
Fl. Pl. Nepal 3: 31. 1982; Sarv. Kumar & Pant in
Hajra et al., Fl. India 13: 22. 1995. Fig. 10
Type: INDIA, Kashmir, 5000 - 7000’, Falconer et al.
s.n. (K).
Perennial herb, l30–180 cm tall. Stem, branched,
furrowed, rough, young parts densely hairy. Leaves
16.5–31.0 × 4.0–12.0 cm, elliptic-oblong to lanceolate,
sessile to long-petiolate, coriaceous, scabrid,
upper sessile, base dilated, semi-amplexicaul,
lower long-petiolate, winged, beneath densely
tomentose, upper surface pubescent or glabrous-
scabrid, margin crenate-dentate. Capitula 3.5–7
cm, cymosely arranged on stout hairy peduncles.
Involucral bracts 5–6 seriate, imbricate, densely
hairy, outer bracts leafy, broad-triangular, ovate,
1.5–2.0 × 0.5–1.0 cm, apically recurved, densely
woolly; inner bracts membranous with hyaline
margins, linear, narrow, c. 1.3–1.5 × 0.5–0.8 cm. Ray-
orets 28–30 mm long, 2–3-toothed. Disc-orets
c. 15 mm long. Anther caudate, with tails, apical
anther appendage acute-obtuse, endothecial tissue
radial; cells of lament collar generally longer than
wide. Pollen spines acute, with a cavity. Style with
Shweta Shekhar
et al.
123
acute sweeping hairs, not reaching the furcation.
Cypselae 2.0–4.0 mm long, oblong, dark brown,
glabrous, 16–24-ribbed. Pappus 8–9 mm long,
uniseriate bristles, 30–48, reddish-brown.
Chromosome number: 2n=20.
Vernacular name: Pohakarmul, Puskarmul
Flowering & Fruiting: July to September.
Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh: Manali) and rarely some parts of Assam;
Hindu-Kush Himalayan region across Afghanistan,
Pakistan, Nepal.
Habitat: Grows in between 1500-3100 m high
altitudes.
Uses: A reputed medicinal plant frequently
cultivated. Roots are aromatic and used as an
anthelmintic, antimicrobial, diuretic, aphrodisiac,
repellent, antispasmodic, anti-asthmatic,
insecticidal, strengthens and prevents hair-loss.
It is also used to treat chest pain, supports blood
sugar metabolism, cardio-protective and anti-
obesity, and in veterinary medicines (Jamma et al.,
2012).
Specimens examined. INDIA, Himachal Pradesh,
Lahul, 16.8.1838, N.L. Bor 153; Keylong, 14.7.1841,
N.L. Bor 9933; Near Sissu, Lahul, 28.7.1841, N.L. Bor
92389 (DD); Lahul, Kangra, 17.8.1916, R.E. Cooper
5517 (CAL); Kamring, upper Chenab, Lahul,
18.8.1971, U.C. Bhaacharyya 45370; Koksar, Lahul,
5.9.1985, P.K. Hajra 76996; on the way to Trilokinath,
6.8.1994, S.K. Murti & Surendra Singh 88113 (BSD);
Sisso, 20.8. 1995, T.N. Srivastava 17071 (RRLH); On
the way to Manali, 9.8.2009, S. Shekhar 1078, 1095
(DUH). Jammu & Kashmir, Barzallla, Srinagar,
22.6.1961, A.K. Dua 7400; Jammu, 18.5.1963, 5981;
Yarika form, 12.5.1965, Y.K. Sarin 10935; Jammu,
17.9.1971, D.R. Sharma 11752 a & b (RRLH); Sind
valley, 3.9.1876, C.B. Clarke 31026 (CAL); Gilgit
expedition, Kashmir, 1887, J.F. Duthie 718; Hirpur,
Pir Panjal, 16.8.1891, C.B. Clarke 236813, 236814,
25657; Liddar valley, above Pahalgam, 3.8.1893, J.F.
Duthie 13456; Kangra, Lahul, 14.8.1916, R.E. Cooper
5517; Kashmir, 29.1. 1962, T.A. Rao 2979, 2980
(DD); Dachingham, 11.8.1968, GNJ1064; Harwan,
Kashmir, 10.7.1970, Gurucharan Singh 215 (KASH);
Gond La, 14.9.1990, B.K. Kapahi 17981; Kashmir,
5.6.2006, M.A. Youb 53038 (RRLH); Local Amchi,
Leh-Ladakh, 26.6.2011, S. Shekhar 1128; Garhwal
Himalaya, A.K. Pandey 10028 (DUH).
11. Inula rhizocephala Schrenk., Enum. Pl. Nov. 51.
1841; Boiss., Fl. Orient. 3: 196. 1875; Gorschkova in
Shishkin, Fl. USSR, 25: 472. 1959. I. rhizocephaloides
C.B. Clarke, In Compos. Indicae. 124. 1876. Hook.
f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 295. 1881. Stewart in Nasir & Ali,
Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pakistan & Kashmir 755.
1972; Kumar & Pant in Hajra et al., Fl. India 13: 23.
1995; Abid & Qaiser. Candollea 56: 317. 2002; Chen
& A. Anderb., Fl. China 20: 839. 2011. Fig. 11
Type: East Kazakhistan, Tarbagatai mountain,
Schrenk s.n. (LE, BR0000005267897).
Perennial herb, 5–10 cm tall, acaulescent. Leaves
numerous, all radical, rosulate, 3–5 cm long,
bristly-hairy, aenuating towards base into a
broad petiole. Capitula numerous (7–18), 1.5–3
cm in diameter, sessile, arranged in dense semi-
spherical sessile subcapitate synorescences.
Capitula 1.8–2.5 cm in diameter, densely congested
in the centre of the leaf rosee. Involucral bracts
5-seriate, narrow, linear, pointed; the outer green
with recurved tips; inner purplish. Ray-orets c. 15
mm long, slightly longer than phyllaries, shortly
tridentate. Disc orets yellow, c. 7–9 mm long,
slightly shorter than pappus, with 5 smooth teeth.
Anther caudate, apical anther appendage acute-
obtuse, endothecial tissue radial; cells of lament
collar generally longer than wide. Pollen spines
Fig. 10.
Inula racemosa
Hook.f.: a. Habit; b-b5. Phyllaries
(from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret; e. Anthers;
f. Style & Stigma. (a from
Clarke
236813, CAL; b, c, d from
Shekhar
5410, DUH; e, f from
Shekhar
5410, DUH).
124 The genus
Inula
in India
.
rounded. Style with acute sweeping hairs, not
reaching the furcation. Cypselae 1.5–2 mm long,
oblong-oblanceolate, golden-brown, glabrous,
10–12- ribbed. Pappus 7–8 mm long, 2–3 seriate,
bristles, 20–40, reddish-brown golden.
Chromosome number: 2n=16.
Vernacular name: Turzit.
Flowering & Fruiting: Late June to August.
Distribution: Afghanistan, China (Xinjiang,
Xizang), India (Jammu & Kashmir, Leh-Ladakh);
Iran, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Tibet,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Habitat: Occasional in moist meadows between
2500-4000 m in West Ladakh especially in Nun-Kun
basin, Kargil and Suru valley. Over exploitation
and habitat degradation are the major causes of
population decline (Rawat, 2008).
Uses: Whole plant is used in the treatment of chest
pain and common cold. In Ladakh, it is used in the
treatment of constipation, intestine infection and
ulcers, throat sores, wound and inammation by
local Amchi (Khuroo et al., 2007).
Specimens examined: INDIA, Jammu & Kashmir,
Baghicha to Olding Industry, 23.8.1840, R.R. Stewart
20990 (DD); Gilgit, 1885, G.M. Giles 236949 (CAL);
Leh-Ladakh, 10.8.1931, Walter Koelz 2591; Near Sabu
nallah, Leh, 13.9.1970, U.C. Bhaacharyya 55630,
84737; Saspol, Ladakh, 28.7.1976, B.M. Wadhwa
65424 (BSD); Drass, 7.8.1976, Uppeandra Dhar 5066
(KASH); Suru valley, Leh, 19.8.1976, B.M. Wadhwa
65423; Saspol, Leh, 28.6.1976, B.M. Wadhwa 65425;
Fotu La, 5.8.1980, U.C. Bhaacharyya 98007; Leh,
8.8.1980, U.C. Bhaacharyya 74092 (BSD); Pangong
lake, near Leh, 20.8.1986, Irshad A. Nawroo 201
(KASH); Drass, Kargil, 27.7.1988, H.J. Chaudhary &
B.P. Uniyal 88772 (BSD). Fotu La, 26.7.2000, Naseer
Aman (KASH); Suru Valley, 24.6.2011, S. Shekhar
& A.K. Pandey 1120, 1121, 1123, 1124, 1125; Suru
Valley, 28.8.2011, S. Shekhar & A.K. Pandey 1150,
1172, 1186, 1195, 1200 (DUH).
12. Inula royleana DC., Prodr. 5: 464. 1836; C.B.
Clarke in Compos. Indicae 118. 1876; Hook. f., Fl. Brit.
India 3: 292. 1881; Bla., Beaut. Fl. Kashmir1: 159.
1927; Stewart in Nasir & Ali, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W.
Pakistan & Kashmir 755. 1972; Sarv.Kumar & Pant
in Hajra et al., Fl. India 13:23. 1995. Inula stolickzkai
C.B. Clarke in Comp. Indicae 118. 1876. Fig. 12
Type: In Indiae prov. Royle s.n. (Holo G-DC., IDC
No. 27.908).
Perennial herb, 30–60 cm tall. Stem erect,
unbranched, stout, grooved and hairy. Leaves
6–20 × 4.5–10 cm, Radical leaves petiolate, elliptic-
ovate, cordate, base abruptly narrowed, obtuse,
petiole winged distally, upto 18 cm long; margin
irregularly dentate; cauline leaves 12–25 × 8-15cm
long, elliptic to lanceolate, often lyrate from a
clasping base, acute, auricled at base, densely
hairy; margin dentate. Capitula solitary, terminal
8–11cm in diameter, peduncled. Involucral bracts
5-seriate, outer involucral bracts foliaceous,
densely glandular, hairy on both surfaces, oblong-
ovate, acute, outer bracts up to 12–20 × 5-10 mm,
middle bracts yellow, 8 × 2 mm, scaly, appressed
hairy. Ray-orets 50 mm long, 2–3-lobed, veins
conspicuous. Disc-orets up to 10 mm long.
Anther caudate, apical anther appendage acute,
endothecial tissue radial; cells of lament collar
generally longer than wide. Pollen spines acute,
with a cavity. Style with acute sweeping hairs, not
reaching the furcation. Stigmatic lines conuent
apically but basally separate. Cypselae c. 4 mm
Fig. 11.
Inula rhizocephala
Schrenk.: a. Habit; b-b4.
Phyllaries (from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret;
e, e1. Anthers; f, f1. Style & Stigma. (a from
Shekhar
5404,
DUH; b, c, d from
Shekhar
5426, DUH; e, f from
Shekhar
5440, DUH).
Shweta Shekhar
et al.
125
long, oblong, dark brown, glabrous. Pappus
7–8 mm long, uniseriate, bristles 22–40, golden
brown.
Chromosome number: 2n=20.
Vernacular name: Puskarahva, Puskarajajata.
Flowering & Fruiting: July to November.
Distribution: India: Himachal Pradesh (Chamba,
Lahul and Spiti), Jammu & Kashmir (Drass-Kargil),
Pakistan.
Habitat: Sporadic among shrubs, especially
Juniperus, grows in alpine meadows between 2000-
3500 m, on exposed dry alpine slopes up to about
4000 m; also in forests.
Uses: Roots are employed as an adulterant of
“Kuth” (Saussurea lappa) and also used to control
high blood pressure and peristaltic movement
of intestine. Plants are poisonous, used as
disinfectant, insecticidal particularly for lice,
eas, and ticks; essential oils used for intestinal
problems. The roots are stored for its aroma and
used for protection of garments. Root extract is
also used to cure dermatitis and allergy. Root paste
is applied with leaf on swelling sprains and as an
antiseptic by villagers in Kangra district (Parkash
& Aggarwal, 2010).
Specimens examined: INDIA, Himachal Pradesh,
Pangi, 22.8.1897, J.H. Lace 1633 (CAL); on the
way to Manali, 9.8.2009, S. Shekhar 1094 (DUH).
Jammu & Kashmir, Gurais, 22.7. 1876, C.B. Clarke
29482; Tlail, Kashmir, 27.8. 1876, C.B. Clarke 30783
(CAL); Sindh valley, 30.7.1891, G.A. Gammie
(DD); Above Gaurikot, Kashmir, 26.8.1892, J.F.
Duthie 12569; Sangam valley, 10.8.1893, J.F. Duthie
13528 (CAL); 17.9.1896, G.A. Gammie 18624 (DD);
Kangi, Ladakh, 18.7.1905, A. Meebold 4705 (CAL);
Kishanganga valley, 5.8.1906, Keshawnand 361;
Jhelum river, 5.8.1909, Keshwnand 28086, 28087
(DD); Sonmarg, 10.8.1913, Capt. F.E. Kabel 95 (CAL);
Above Gangabal, 16.8.1941 M.V. Laurie 89447,
89448 (DD); 5.8. 1952, 2271 (ASSAM); Kashmir,
18.7.1956, T.A. Rao 684 (CAL); Pir Panjal pass,
14.9.1958, T.A. Rao 8588, 8589, 8590, 8591 (BSD);
Sheshnag lake, near Pissu Ghati, 26.9.1961, J.N.
Vohra & B.M. Wadhwa 254; Kashmir, 29.1.1962, T.A.
Rao 292 (CAL); Kashmir, 20.7.1970, Gurucharan
Singh 733; Kashmir, 5.8.1970, Gurucharan Singh
863 (KASH); Thajiwas glaciers, 24.8.1972, M.A.
Rau 50212 (CAL); Sonamarg, 25.8.1972, M.A. Rau
50266 (BSD); Khillanmarg, 14.8.1974, Uppaendra
Dhar 1055; Sonmarg, 16.9.1975, A.R. Azhar, 1321
(KASH); Synthen pass, 30.8.1986, J.N. Vohra &
Naithani 83116; Degwan, 10.9.1979, B.M. Wadhwa
66948 (BSD); Pranshor, 26.8.1983, G.H. Dar 8148;
(KASH); Rajdhan, in alpine medow, 17.9.1986,
B.M. Wadhwa & S.K. Murti 83820; Kishanganga
valley, 5.8.1987, B.M. Wadhwa, S.K. Murti & P.C.
Pant 92137; Sonmarg, 25.7.1988, H.J. Chaudhary &
B.P. Uniyal 85756 (BSD); Dawar, 9.8.1989, Naqshi,
Shaukat & Kachroo 10734, 10753; Dawar, 12.8.1989,
Naqshi, Shaukat & Kachroo 9367; Karzalwan, 13.8.
1989, Naqshi, Shaukat & Kachroo 10884; Gulmarg,
17.5.1998, Tariq Uarakhand, Dhanchuli, 26.7.1963,
C.L. Malhotra & V.J. Nair 31495 (BSD).
Acknowledgements
Grant support from University Grants Commission
to SS (Rajeev Gandhi Fellowship) and AKP
(Research project #40-316/2011-SR) is thankfully
acknowledged. Thanks are due to the Incharge
of the Herbaria (ASSAM, BSD, CAL, DD, KASH,
RRLH) for allowing us to consult their respective
herbaria.
Fig. 12.
Inula royleana
D.C.: a. Habit; b-b4. Phyllaries
(from outer to inner); c. Ray floret; d. Disc floret; e.
Anthers; f. Style & Stigma. (a from
Rau
50212, CAL; b, c,
d from
Shekhar
10058, DUH; e, f from
Vohra
&
Wadhwa
254, CAL).
126 The genus
Inula
in India
.
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... Some species viz., I. orientalis, I. racemosa, I. royleana are aromatic having glandular hairs. I. racemosa one of the glandular-hairy and aromatic species (Shekhar et al., 2013) is distributed in East Asia, trans Himalaya, western Himalaya, northeastern Himalayan region, Europe, and Africa (Arumugam et al., 2012). The herb has a narrow natural habitat distribution range (higher altitudes of the Himalayan region) and high demand in the pharmaceutical industries which reduced the plant populations in wild habitats and threatened the species status (Wani et al., 2006). ...
... cm, and fruit (achene) ripening takes place in September (Shabir et al., 2017). The heterogamous flowering heads (capitula) of pushkarmool give out a yellow disc and rays florets having solitary and pedunculate arrangement (Shekhar et al., 2013). The elliptical oval-shaped radical leaves are about 40 × 20 cm wide with elongated petioles and the leaves growing on the stem are smaller, oblong, and lobed that partially surround the stem. ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Inula racemosa Hook. f., is a critically endangered perennial herb distributed throughout the Himalaya; commercially useful in pharmaceutical products mainly because of its expectorant, antispasmodic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, carminative, thermogenic, digestive, cardiotonic, acrid, alexipharmic, anodyne, aphrodisiac, febrifuge, and antiseptic properties. The roots including rhizomes of the plant were used in the treatment of various ailments like chest pain, liver dysfunction, dyspnoea, and cardiovascular diseases by the ethenic Himalayan residents. Aim of the review Even though there are plentiful studies involving I. racemosa for pharmacological properties, but there is gap or few records available on production technologies and patents. The purpose of review is to provide large unmanageable information in systematic form for researchers, health care contributors, and policy makers so that they efficiently integrate the existing information and provide balanced decision making. Materials and methods Relevant data search was completed through systematic searches using various scientific databases including e-resources viz., Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ACS, Springer Link, Taylor and Francis, Scifinder, PubMed, PubChem, Web of Science, LibGen, Wiley, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The list of literature cited in this review are dated from 1959–2021. Results Till date variety of ethnobotanical and pharmacological properties essential oil including crude extract of I. racemosa have been documented. The shortlisted records revealed that the herb has a potential to treat stomach ulcer, respiratory tract infections including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alantolactone and isoalloalantolactone were reported as the major bioactive constituents along with few fatty acids, phytosterols, and glycosides characterized by GC, GC/MS, HPLC, HPTLC and qNMR techniques. Conclusions Based on a detailed literature survey on the plant, evidences were found for fascinating biological, traditional, and pharmacological effects, whilst there are no genomic resources available for this medicinal herb. Thus, molecular studies are critical for unravelling the production process of bioactive metabolites inside herb, which will underlay a path for improving these metabolites at commercial scale. Moreover, the association and role of particular phytoconstituent in its biological properties still needs to be validated. In addition, there are no reports on measures on its conservation and mechanism of toxicity research, which also needs more attention. We hope this review can provide a basis for further studies concerning the protected and efficient utilization of I. racemosa.
... The genus Duhaldea DC. (Inuleae-Inulinae) includes c. 14 species mainly distributed in Central Asia (Anderberg, 1991(Anderberg, , 2009Chen & Anderberg, 2011;Shekhar, 2012). Working with the phylogenetic relationships within the Inuleae, several species belonging to Inula L., were found to be in other clades than the type of the genus (Anderberg, 1991;Shekhar et al., 2011Shekhar et al., , 2013. Consequently, genera such as Limbarda Adans., Dittrichia Greuter (Greuter, 1973) were recognized, and one species of Inula was also moved to Iphiona Cass. ...
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