Article

Performance of different Vermicomposts on yield and yield components of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in major soils of Bundelkhand region, India

Authors:
  • Nehru Mahavidyalay Lalitpur UP India
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Abstract

Sustainable agriculture is one in which the goal is permanence, achieved through the utilization of renewable resources. This leads to development of concept of organic natural farming. Vermicomposting is one of the important aspects of organic farming. Vermicompost plays a major role in improving growth and yield of different field crops, vegetables, flower and fruit crops. Present study was carried out in major soil group (black soil and red soil) of Bundelkhand region with addition of different vermicompost and their effects on performances of Vigna radiata L. Gorwth and yield parameters were measured 30 days and 60 days after sowing. Significant performances were found in cowdung based vermicompost in black soil in compare to red soil. The result of our experiment showed the application of vermicompost had significant positive effects on growth performances and yield of plant as compare to control.

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Chapter
Bundelkhand region is largely characterized by shallow red soils, undulating topography, extreme weather conditions, and recurrent droughts, making the agriculture in the region more difficult leading to low crop productivity, crop intensity, and higher soil loss through erosion and runoff. Low moisture holding capacity of soils in the region makes it difficult to cultivate crops on residual moisture during post rainy season. This region consists of six districts of Madhya Pradesh (Datia, Tikamgarh, Chatarpur, Damoh, Sagar, and Panna) and seven districts of Uttar Pradesh (Jhansi, Jalaun, Lalitpur, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Banda, and Chitrakoot) of Central India which are jointly known as Bundelkhand region. Thus, conservation agriculture (CA) practices aims at minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover, and crop diversification and helps in decreasing or reverting the negative effects of conventional farming. CA practices reduce the production cost, greenhouse gas emission, soil erosion, and runoff losses and improve the soil health and crop productivity. Currently, CA has covered about <5 M ha area in India, and its adoption is increasing but is either slow or nonexistent in Bundelkhand region. In this chapter, an attempt has been made to explore the CA practices for Bundelkhand region of Central India. More attention is given to the three basic principles of CA with in situ moisture conservation practices, keeping in mind the general climatic and soil properties of Bundelkhand region.
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Food production and waste management are two increasing issues ensuing from the growing world population. Recycling organic residues into amendment for food production seems to appear as an opportunity to partially solve this double challenge. Vermicomposting is a process whereby earthworms transform organic residues into compost that can be used as a substrate for plant growth. Many studies have evaluated the effect of vermicompost on plant growth, but a quantitative summary of these studies is still missing. This is the first meta-analysis providing a quantitative summary of the effect size of vermicompost on plant growth. We found that vermicompost brought about average increases of 26% in commercial yield, 13% in total biomass, 78% in shoot biomass, and 57% in root biomass. The positive effect of vermicompost on plant growth reached a maximum when vermicompost represented 30 to 50% of the soil volume. The best original material to be used for vermicompost production was cattle manure. The effect was stronger when no fertilizer was added, and lower when the standard Metro-Mix 360 substratum recommended by some authors was used as a growing medium in greenhouse or climatic chambers. Herbs (especially Cucurbitaceae and Asteraceae) and legumes exhibited the largest biomass increase in the presence of vermicompost. These results are discussed through an analysis of potential publication biases showing an over-representation of studies with a high effect size. We finally recommend authors of primary research to provide a minimum set of statistical parameters, output variables, and experimental condition parameters to make it easier to include their work in meta-analyses. Overall, our study provides synthetic information on the beneficial effects of vermicompost for plant growth, which could help bring waste management and agriculture together towards a society with a more circular economy.
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Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are utilized to convert biodegradable organic waste into humus-like vermicast. Past work, mainly on vermicomposting of animal droppings, has shown that vermicompost is an excellent organic fertilizer and is also imbibed with pest-repellent properties. However, there is no clarity whether vermicomposts of organic wastes other than animal droppings are as plant-friendly as the manure-based vermicomposts are believed to be. It is also not clear as to whether the action of a vermicompost as a fertilizer depends on the species of plants being fertilized by it. This raises questions whether vermicomposts are beneficial (or harmful) at all levels of application or if there is a duality in their action which is a function of their rate of application. The present work is an attempt to seek answers to these questions. To that end, all hitherto published reports on the action of vermicomposts of different substrates on different species of plants have been assessed. The study reveals that, in general, vermicomposts of all animal/plant based organic wastes are highly potent fertilizers. They also possess some ability to repel plant pests. The factors that shape these properties have been assessed and the knowledge gaps that need to be bridged have been identified.
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The commercial organic manure formulation of a processed organic municipal solid waste (MSW) was used in field experiments with rice (Oryza sativa), and MSW being composted by an earthworm (Lampito mauritii) was also added to the soil to assess growth, yield and heavy metal contents of soil and plants. MSW incorporated in soil caused significant increase of many growth parameters, germination of seeds, and chlorophyll contents of rice. Vermicomposted (VC) MSW (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kg/ha) caused further increases in growth. At the highest level of MSW, rice yield was also the highest, and VC+MSW amendments had additive effects. Physicochemical properties of soil were progressively improved with increasing MSW levels. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) increased in soil and plant parts with MSW addition, analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Maximum uptake of these heavy metals was observed in rice roots, and decreased in leaves and seeds. But the amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb remained in one range in roots, leaves or seeds of rice grown in MSW-treated soils. Vermicomposting of MSW caused ameliorations of heavy metal contents in plant parts.
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Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.
Article
Field experiments were conducted during kharif and rabi for 2 consecutive years (2002-03 and 2003-04) at Hisar to evaluate the direct and residual effect of organic manures and phosphorus on productivity, nutrient uptake, soil fertility and economics of greengram-wheat cropping system. Three levels of organic manures (no organic manure, FYM 5 tonne/ha and vermicompost 5 tonne/ha) and 3 phosphorus levels (control, 9 and 18 kg P/ha) applied to only greengram and 3 recommended dose of fertilizers viz., 50%, 75% and 100% applied to only wheat. Application of FYM and vermicompost to greengram increased grain yield and net returns of greengram on an average by 30.5% and 3,653 Rs/ha, respectively, over no manures. Application of 18 kg P/ha to greengram significantly increased grain yield of 264 and 98 kg/ha over control and 9 kg P/ha, respectively. Residual effect of both FYM and vermicompost on yield attributes and yield of wheat was significant over no organic manure, which produced grain yield of 4.13 and 4.15 tonne/ha and gave net return of 20,716 and 20,982 Rs/ha, respectively. The residual effect of 18 kg P/ha applied to greengram was significant on grain yield (4.17 tonne/ha) of wheat over control (3.82 tonne/ha) and 9 kg P/ha (4.02 tonne/ha). The available N and P in soil after greengram harvest, increased significantly over no organic manure application of FYM and vermicompost in greengram. NP uptake by greengram as well as succeeding wheat crop increased significantly with 9 kg P/ha over control. Application of 75% RDF (113, 20 and 40 kg/ha N, P and K) to wheat grown on residual fertility of manures and P applied to greengram, gave significantly higher productivity and net return of wheat as well as in greengram-wheat cropping system.
Article
Amongst the possible alternatives for improving the nutrient status of organic wastes, vermicomposting offers promise to increase agricultural bioproductivity. The present investigations were undertaken to assess the effect of organic wastes alone and in combination with earthworms on plant growth. Maize and wheat were grown as test crops. The best results were obtained with treatments T23 (2% poultry waste), T32 (2% poultry waste with earthworms) and T26 (2% cattle dung), T35 (2% cattle dung with earthworms) with wheat and maize, respectively.
Article
but it cannot withstand water-logging. The highest yield is obtained in soils with a PH between 5.3 and 6.0. The use of chemical fertilizers boosted the agricultural products and the farming communities are using the same indiscriminately in such areas where irrigation facility exists with an eye on two to three crops in a year. This has drained the soil and resulted in the loss of soil productivity. So to obtain maximum return farmers need to apply high quantity of fertilizers and due to this culture the rate of use of fertilizers are increasing day by day, which means unlimited draining of soil. In spite of the importance for urgent step- up, very little attention has been paid so far to nutrient management in various soil and climatic conditions. The preparation and use of organic manures as a nutrient management may provide a hygiene and useful way of disposal and utilization of waste which would otherwise have created a healthy environment. Sankhyan et al. (2001) reported the increase in soil moisture due to mulching and significant increase in productivity of maize due to application of FYM. Kumaran (2001), reported the application of FYM+ fertilizer produced higher number of matured pods per plant, pod weight per plant, number of kernels per pod, test weight, pod yield and haulm yield of groundnut. But use of fertilizer alone recorded lower pod yield. Veerabhadraiah et al. (2006) showed improved soil properties due to application of either FYM or compost or vermicompost. Yadav and Vijayakumari (2003) found better yield in vermicompost treatment. Same observation was also reported by Rameshwar (2006). Guu et al. (1995) reported pod yield with fertilizer and manure application. Keeping the views of the above aspects the present research work was, therefore, undertaken to find out the response of French bean to vermicompost, farmyard manure, N:P:K (Chemical fertilizer) and their different combination treatments under irrigated condition of Srinagar valley of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and methods
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Vermicompost was prepared from the initially decomposed pods of green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) using the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for 50 days. The effect of the vermicompost on germination efficiency, shoot length, root length, number of root nodules, fresh weight, dry weight, and yield performance of P. aureus were observed on the 25th, 50th, and 75th day. The chemical analysis showed a higher content of N, P, and K in the vermicompost of green gram pods (GGP) + cow dung mixture (1:1). Maximum growth and reproduction of E. eugeniae were also recorded in GGP + cow dung mixture. The germination efficiency of P. aureus was 93.33% in the vermicompost-applied pots compared to 84.17% in the control, i.e., biodigested slurry (BDS). The growth and yield performance of P. aureus in vermicompost were also significantly higher than the control.
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Super Beta) in a field condition. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The different rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha(-1)) was incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. During experiment period, fruits were harvested twice in a week and total yield were recorded for two months. At the end of experiment, growth characteristics such as leaf number, leaf area and shoot dry weights were determined. The results revealed that addition of vermicompost at rate of 15 t ha(-1) significantly (at p < 0.05) increased growth and yield compared to control. Vermicompost with rate of 15 t ha(-1) increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30 and 24%, respectively. The content of K, P, Fe and Zn in the plant tissue increased 55, 73, 32 and 36% compared to untreated plots respectively. The result of our experiment showed addition of vermicompost had significant (p < 0.05) positive effects on growth, yield and elemental content of plant as compared to control.