Book

Social tourism in europe: Theory and practice

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Abstract

This book, the first on social tourism in English, provides a comprehensive analysis of the various systems and practices in support of disadvantaged people's enjoyment of tourism. Combining theory and practice and a truly European perspective, this book provides an interdisciplinary approach to examine the concepts and contexts underpinning social tourism that will be a key reference point for students, practitioners and researchers. Theoretical perspectives on social tourism are assessed in the context of social inequality, sustainability, family diversity, mobility and the welfare society. The case studies cover public initiatives, charities and voluntary organisations, from a range of different countries including the UK, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark and Poland, covering the diversity of systems and practices in Europe. © 2012 Scott McCabe, Lynn Minnaert, Anya Diekmann and the authors of individual chapters.
... They self-criticize their own definition as being restricted to own types examined in their study and not being able to generally explain the different evolution of social tourism and its own characteristics. They justify that however, the their description has a role to position social tourism against the merely economic reconstruction projects (Minnaert et al., 2011). McCabe, Minnaert and Diekmann (2011) analyzed the social tourism systems and practices in Europe which enable disadvantaged people benefit from tourism. In their study, examples of systems and practices of social tourism realized by various actors such as public bodies, charities, non-governmental organizations from different countries such as United Kingdo ...
... They justify that however, the their description has a role to position social tourism against the merely economic reconstruction projects (Minnaert et al., 2011). McCabe, Minnaert and Diekmann (2011) analyzed the social tourism systems and practices in Europe which enable disadvantaged people benefit from tourism. In their study, examples of systems and practices of social tourism realized by various actors such as public bodies, charities, non-governmental organizations from different countries such as United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark and Poland are mentioned. ...
... In their study, examples of systems and practices of social tourism realized by various actors such as public bodies, charities, non-governmental organizations from different countries such as United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark and Poland are mentioned. In this study which examines the concepts and contents about social tourism with an interdisciplinary approach; social inequality, sustainability, family factor, mobility and welfare society are evaluated as the important topics creating the theoretical frame of social tourism (McCabe, Minnaert and Diekmann, 2011). Another research by McCabe, Joldersma and Li (2010) shows the connection between social tourism participation of low-income families and their subjective well-being and quality of life. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this study is to research social tourism within sustainable tourism approach and to produce proposals for İzmir on this issue. It is pointed out in this study that, nowadays, very diverse practices of social tourism policies in the world have the objective of increasing individual and social wellbeing and quality of life focusing on the social inclusion with more humanistic point of view for the people who can not participate in holidays because of their physical, financial and alike disadvantages. Following the theoretical part comprising the review of the resources about the studies of national and international organizations and the legal principles and implications of social tourism in different countries from the world including Turkey about the social tourism within the sustainable tourism approach; comes the practical part of the research. In this part of the study, the data gathered by semi-structured interviews with the representatives of the institutions concerned with social tourism mentioned in the related part of " Tourism Strategy of Turkey 2023, Action Plan 2007-2013 " is analyzed with Nvivo11 qualitative data analysis program and the results and suggestions are inferred with content analysis. Consequently, the study brings a sustainable perspective to social tourism in İzmir, contributes to the literature and brings concrete suggestions that may lead the representatives of the sector for the development of social tourism in İzmir with a sustainable approach.
... Tourism can enable participation and eventually diminish social exclusion by including relatively neglected and disadvantaged social groups (Avellino, 2012;McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2011;Minnaert, Maitland, & Miller, 2006. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO): Disability is thus not just a health problem. ...
... The social model differentiates between the medical model of disability and the various physical impediments: the imposition of barriers is caused by the lack of acceptance and inclusion in society (Freund, 2001;Ring et al., 2009; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), 2007). Tourism is an integral part of modern society and a social right to all people without discrimination (Kastenholz, Eusébio, & Figueiredo, 2015;McCabe et al., 2011;Minnaert et al., 2006). ...
Article
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The global population is aging, and older adults have more chronic conditions and disabilities relative to their younger counterparts. Aging and disabled populations have limitations associated with physical functioning, cognitive impairment, and loss of sense functioning. This group of people travelers represents an interesting segment in the tourism industry; however, the current market offers inadequate products and services to meet their needs and demands. The inability and unpreparedness of the touristic infrastructure to offer these necessary services compromises the quality of the tourism experience. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the content provided on official websites of major airline carriers as related to information, services, and resources to accommodate aging and disabled travelers. Airlines were selected for meeting one of the following criteria, ranked as: (1) one of the 10 best airlines; (2) one of the leading 10 airlines in terms of safety ratings; and (3) one of the leading 10 airlines in terms of lowest cost. The results show that many airlines did not provide adequate information. It is also important to notice that the safest/securest airlines were frequently those who reported most disability-related content on their websites
... Tourism can enable participation and eventually diminish social exclusion by including relatively neglected and disadvantaged social groups (Avellino, 2012;McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2011;Minnaert, Maitland, & Miller, 2006. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO): Disability is thus not just a health problem. ...
... The social model differentiates between the medical model of disability and the various physical impediments: the imposition of barriers is caused by the lack of acceptance and inclusion in society (Freund, 2001;Ring et al., 2009; UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), 2007). Tourism is an integral part of modern society and a social right to all people without discrimination (Kastenholz, Eusébio, & Figueiredo, 2015;McCabe et al., 2011;Minnaert et al., 2006). ...
Article
A notable development in the past few years is that the concept of accessible and inclusive tourism (AIT) has gained momentum. This paper has two aims: first, to identify the extent to which tourism studies curricula can cultivate ethical behaviour in light of international legal mandates and conventions promoting the rights of people with disabilities (PwDs); and second, to point up AIT as a broader concept that matters to other population groups, namely seniors, pregnant women and families with baby carriages, people who follow special diets or have different morphologies to be integrated into the much larger category of people with special needs (PwSNs). This study was conducted with 254 self-administered questionnaires to tourism and hospitality students and recent alumni. The results of the study suggest that disability in tourism studies is a rather neglected topic of discussion.
... Minnaert, Maitland, and Miller (2006) are inclined to accept the same definition, though they broadened it in 2009, specifying social tourism as those forms of tourism that benefit both the host and the guest and that embrace moral values which are not specifically present in " conventional " forms of tourism (Minnaert, Maitland, & Miller, 2009). Almeida (in McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2012) emphasizes that social tourism should be supported by politicians because its main purpose is the psychological and physical recuperation of individuals who find themselves in difficult life situations. Haukeland (in McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2012 ) defines social tourism as a concept that stems from every individual's right to travel independently on his or her social or economic circumstances. ...
... Almeida (in McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2012) emphasizes that social tourism should be supported by politicians because its main purpose is the psychological and physical recuperation of individuals who find themselves in difficult life situations. Haukeland (in McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2012 ) defines social tourism as a concept that stems from every individual's right to travel independently on his or her social or economic circumstances. The EESC 2 also considers travelling to be an individual’s right. ...
Article
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social tourism is a form of tourism that takes into account the participation of physically or socially handicapped individuals, and at the same time the social tourism activities are in accordance with the environmental sustainability of the territory. in the czech republic the social tourism has been supported at the national level since 2010 by the National tourism support Programme. this paper is aimed at the evaluation of social tourism support in the czech republic in the period of 2010-2012. the evaluation is performed by regions and target groups (families with children, young people under 26 years, seniors and the disabled). the other aim is to identify which model of social tourism was implemented in the czech republic during the period of 2010-2012. Keywords social tourism, models of social tourism, target groups of social tourism, support of social tourism activities
... Initially, social tourism was defined by Hunzicker (1951, p.1, cited in Minnaert, Maitland & Miller, 2011 as 'the relationships and phenomena in the field of tourism resulting from participation in travel by economically weak or otherwise disadvantaged elements in society'. This connotes the idea that tourism is an activity that should not prevent anyone from participating, thus it is imperative to identify how either social or economic barriers may be overcome (Minnaert, 2012;McCabe, Minnaert & Diekmann, 2011;Minnaert, Maitland & Miller, 2011;Minnaert, Maitland & Miller, 2009;Shaw & Coles, 2004). Great emphasis is given in the wider context of tourism that the prohibition of service delivery to a disabled customer constitutes a form of discrimination (Kalargyrou, Trivellas & Sigala, 2020;Ozturk, Yayli & Yesiltas, 2008). ...
... The intrinsic motivations for engaging in tourism activities among these individuals have been cited as playing a major role in promoting tourism participation as cited in studies such as McCabe, Minnaert, and Diekmann (2012). Policy makers should focus on providing these individuals with more information about the features in tourist destinations and facilities. ...
Article
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Despite the growing numbers of disabled individuals in the global population, issues of accessibility prevent them from accessing tourism sites and leisure activities. The purpose of this study is to identify the obstacles preventing people with disabilities from accessing historical and archaeological sites in Jordan. Using a sample of disabled people in Jordan and structured questionnaires, their views are collected and analyzed quantitatively. Descriptive statistics was used in the study to highlight the different features and perceptions of disabled people in relation to accessing tourism and leisure activities. The main issues identified as obstacles include the intrinsic factors such as their fear of doing something by themselves and the requirements imposed by their disabilities in accessing the services. Received: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
... Consequently, interest in tourism and wellbeing has increased; fuelled by work-leisure conflict (Bevan et al. 2018;Cooper 2009;Lin et al. 2013), materialistic and over-individualistic societies (Konu and Laukkanen 2010) and recognition that individual health and wellbeing can be a better measure of social progress than economic measures alone (Breslow et al. 2016;Higgins-Desboilles 2006;Uysal et al. 2016). However, whilst it is accepted that holidays are good, little is known about why they are good (McCabe et al. 2012) and measuring the relationship between stress, mood and tourism in natural settings is problematic in terms of the ability to undertake detailed, systematic and accurate monitoring. This is a consequence of the characteristics of real tourism experiences, as any monitoring attempts in a natural setting would create inconvenience to individuals and intrusion, as well as high costs in recording physiological and psychological responses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring the relationship between stress, mood and tourism in natural settings is problematic in terms of the ability to undertake detailed, systematic and accurate monitoring. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into the use of an immersive simulated tourism environment to measure tourisms’ potential to alleviate physiological and psychological stress and enhance mood. The objectives of the study were to record and analyse participants’ heart-rate data before, during and after three experiences (workplace setting, TV-watching setting and simulated tourism setting) and to undertake completion of mood questionnaires before and after each of these three experiences, allowing comparative pre- and post-mood analysis. Qualitative data was also gathered from the participants about these three experiences, in particular the simulated tourism environment. The preliminary results demonstrate that PEL effectively creates a simulated tourism environment which can be used for measuring stress and mood as signifiers of hedonic wellbeing.
... It thus seems that social tourism is the appropriate framework for this research, as it refers to initiatives that include individuals who would otherwise be excluded in tourism activities (Assipova & Minnaert, 2014). These include people living on a low income (McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2012) or those socially disadvantaged, as is frequently the case of the disabled or the elderly (Walton, 2013). ...
... However, more critical approaches to the study of tourism have un-earthed the disruptive power of tourism, analysing the links between social exclusion and tourism. These include: the place-based impact of the social exclusion/tourism nexus (Agarwal & Brunt, 2006;Agarwal et al, 2018;Mordue, 2005), or its upshots, primarily gentrification (Zukin, 2008;Wachsmuth & Weisler, 2018), gender relations (Aitchison, 2001), impacts on the local population (Novy & Colomb, 2017) and marginalisation of vulnerable sections of the population -such as people with disabilities (Kastenholz et al, 2015;Small & Darcy, 2010;Zajadacz, 2015) or low-income families (Hazel, 2005;Minnaert, 2012), -as well as potential solutions to break such link, for example through social tourism (Cole & Morgan, 2010;McCabe, 2009;McCabe et al, 2011). ...
Technical Report
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This document, the first research Deliverable (D2.1) of the SMARTDEST project, presents the conceptual, methodological and empirical framework of the research. Its structure is typical of a wide literature review, ordering and connecting the different approaches and results of many strands of research into cities and space, tourism and other forms of mobility, and social exclusion that are esteemed relevant for this project, under the overarching epistemological entry point of the mobilities paradigm. However, it also proposes how from these starting points the project moves forward to attain its research objectives, identifying research gaps in the existing literature and proposing new research questions (RQs) and empirical developments.
... Although the aims of slum tourism products vary, this kind of tourism has faced major criticism in recent years, with commentators questioning the ethics of tourism consumption based on poverty (Meschkank 2011;Rolfes 2010;Freire-Medeiros 2013). By discussing the relevant literature, as well as reflecting on the work of Unseen Tours, and comparing it to international examples of homeless tour guiding, this chapter argues that the project has the potential to contribute to positive social change in line with the ideals of social tourism (McCabe et al. 2012). While this chapter acknowledges that Unseen Tours cannot solve the homelessness problem in London, the organisation does have the power to create new opportunities and visibility for those experiencing homelessness whilst enabling them to play a role in in London's tourism sector. ...
... They found that travel is multi-layered and holds deeper psychological meanings for both families and individuals, and also, that tourism can provide worthwhile benefits to adults and children. Durko and Petrick (2013) have mapped this recognition within tourism literature with many tourism scholars now viewing holidays as a foundational resource that can develop and strengthen relationships and increase familial bonds and social capital (e.g., Crompton & Keown, 2009;Kakoudakis, McCabe & Story, 2017;Kim & Lehto, 2013;Kozak & Duman, 2012;Lima, 2017;McCabe & Johnson, 2013;McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2012;Minnaert, Maitland, & Miller, 2009;Minnaert, Stacey, Quinn, & Griffin, 2010;Shaw et al., 2008;Sirgy, Kruger, Lee, & Yu, 2011;West & Merriam, 2009). Durko and Petrick's (2013, p. 720) review of literature tested three key hypotheses: "travel creates strong family bonds and life-time memories, travel maintains or increases overall well-being, which can strengthen marriages to reduce the likelihood of divorce, and travel increases total family happiness, including benefits for children and extended family members." ...
Article
Our study contributes to the current research on tourism and quality-of-life (QOL) by investigating Memorable Event Experiences (MEE), as a primary resource for familial bonding and memory creation. A mixed methods approach (focus groups and questionnaires) is used to explore the QOL indicators of: physical well-being, psychological/emotional well-being and relationships with family within the context of localised event experiences. Findings from this study are transferable across all aspects of the tourism system, they demonstrate that experiencing an event together as a family can facilitate collective memory creation, familial bonding, and create thick sociality or ‘we-relationships’ and can therefore enhance a family’s QOL in the long term.
... Charitable funding for disadvantaged individuals, according to the same research, relies on charities, which can be directly or indirectly subsidized by the government and which may use commercial supply for holiday provision. McCabe et al. (2012) claim that social tourism is inevitably reliant on some form of stimulus funding, often provided by the state or the public sector, due to the financial downturn in recent years and public sector spending coming under increased scrutiny. According to Diekmann and McCabe (2013), the degree of public funding given to social tourism is one defining aspect that has been largely overlooked. ...
Article
Full-text available
To understand visitors’ satisfaction and future expectation, research with a self-administered questionnaire in which 618 visitors were surveyed has been conducted. Respondents were asked to evaluate their expectations and satisfaction about different elements of the event. The main hypothesis claimed that respondents’ expectations about the event affect their satisfaction with it. The hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The main results confirmed the research hypothesis supporting the fact that visitors’ expectations about the major sporting event influence their satisfaction with the it. With the Nordic Center reconstruction, Planica had a second chance to redevelop its image. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the organizer continue to monitor the visitors’ expectations and satisfaction levels to be able to offer the optimal service experience. Keywords: Planica, sporting events, expectation, satisfaction, visitors
... However, it was not until the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 that the right to paid holidays, as a corollary of the right to leisure, was established as a universal human right. These rights were reinforced in a series of international labour conventions promulgated by the International Labour Organisation in Geneva in 1936 and 1970, while the inauguration of the International Bureau of Social Tourism in 1963 signalled growing support for extending the right to participate in leisure and holiday-making to disadvantaged social groups and not just to remunerated members of the workforce (see McCabe, Minnaert and Diekmann, 2011). ...
... Under this approach, authors like McCabe et al. (2011) have studied the population that does not participate in tourism mobility. Other researchers have been interested in the frequency of tourism activities of a population, and distancerelated indicators for trips (Charles-Edwards and Bell, 2015). ...
... Recent literature identifies that thermalism has the potential to improve wellness and well-being of a wide variety of users including local communities (Costa, Quintela, & Mendes, 2015;Johnston, Smith, Puczkó & Ellis (2011);Nairandas & Bastos, 2011; Tourism Observatory for Health, Wellness and Spa [TOHWS], 2013). However, there are widespread disparities in terms of accessibility and cultural advocacy, wider acceptance and utilisation across Europe (see, for example, the discussions forwarded by Bushell & Sheldon, 2009;Diekmann & McCabe, 2012;Erfurt-Cooper & Cooper, 2009;Puczkó & Bachvarov, 2006;Smith & Puczkó, 2010. This notion is of particular relevance to the UK as the popularity of thermalism has been declining since the early part of the twentieth century; and this was underpinned by the withdrawal of funding from the national health system and the progressive distancing of the medical profession from claims that mineral waters held proven advantage over normal water (Gallois, 2007;Rawlinson & Wiltshier, 2017;Rolls, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Thermalism is enjoying a global resurgence of interest as consumers seek out ethical, natural, and place-based wellness experiences. In Europe, the ‘success rate of healing through thermalism has maintained the high reputation of thermal springs with curative powers’. However, thermalism has been culturally lost in the UK. This study focuses on a UK historical spa site currently undergoing restoration. Once restored, this will be one of three UK's only spa hotels with direct access to natural thermal mineral waters. An ethnographic case study design was used to explore community's perceptions and attitudes towards thermalism and the wellness tourism development model being implemented on location. Findings suggest that memories of the values and virtues of thermalism persist within the community and that, if harnessed, can play a significant role in supporting the local and national wellness agenda. However, findings also suggest that the reintroduction of thermal tourism in the location is perceived by the community as a luxury commodity reserved exclusively for the wealthy and elite members of society. Thermalism is a social and cultural resource and thus attention should be paid to ensure that any wellness tourism development model follows a cultural participatory logic and not solely an economic one.
... Despite the obvious sustainability challenges associated with the coastal tourism resorts, mass tourism development and the often (not always) peripheral location in relation to urban centres, many European holiday destination resorts have successfully diversified sufficiently. Indeed, one of the most intractable issues associated with social tourism is the sometimes lack of perceived congruence between the image a destination wishes to portray to its main markets, and the image that might be associated with social tourism (such as poverty and social exclusion) (Diekman, McCabe and Minnaert, 2012). Perhaps one way in which destinations could overcome issues of image incongruity is to focus on the social sustainability aspects of social tourism, relating to the sustainable development goals agenda. ...
Article
Social Tourism has gained wide recognition for the benefits it brings to citizens who would otherwise not be able to participate in tourism. Social tourism also delivers benefits to the tourism industry, to destinations and to provide a positive return on investment for governments. However, whilst policy makers extol the virtues of social tourism, programmes have struggled to remain resilient under pressure on public finances caused by the Global Financial Crisis. This paper reviews the contributions of social tourism to sustainable tourism, critically assesses their potential to drive sustainable tourism in the future and makes recommendations for European policy makers.
... Although the aims of slum tourism products vary, this kind of tourism has faced major criticism in recent years, with commentators questioning the ethics of tourism consumption based on poverty (Meschkank 2011;Rolfes 2010;Freire-Medeiros 2013). By discussing the relevant literature, as well as reflecting on the work of Unseen Tours, and comparing it to international examples of homeless tour guiding, this chapter argues that the project has the potential to contribute to positive social change in line with the ideals of social tourism (McCabe et al. 2012). While this chapter acknowledges that Unseen Tours cannot solve the homelessness problem in London, the organisation does have the power to create new opportunities and visibility for those experiencing homelessness whilst enabling them to play a role in in London's tourism sector. ...
... Moreover, tourism is a recognized Human Right and an important social activity (McCabe & Diekmann, 2015), increasingly related to what people do in their free time and within recreational activities (Mannell & Kleiber, 1997). It thus seems that social tourism is the adequate framework for this research, as it refers to initiatives that include individuals into tourism activities that would otherwise be excluded (Assipova & Minnaert, 2014), such as people living on a low income (McCabe, Minnaert & Diekmann, 2012) or those socially disadvantaged, as is frequently the case of the disabled or the elderly (Walton, 2013). ...
Article
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The present study had two main objectives: (i) to understand the relationship between tourism and stress-coping for individuals with disabilities, and (ii) to develop an empirical basis for therapeutic purposes and for improving new tourism products and policies, in a biopsychosocial framework. An empirical study was conducted using participants with disabilities (N = 306) who were assessed with the Leisure Coping Scale adapted to the Accessible Tourism context. The positive influence of tourism on these individuals’ biopsychosocial dimensions of stress-coping is identified and discussed. Results suggest that accessible tourism should be recognized as a new stress-coping resource for disabled people, supporting the rebalancing of their personal and social resources, positively contributing to their health and well-being. These findings provide further evidence for the development of new tourism products targeted to a population with special needs, and for accurate policies of alternative therapeutic interventions in the context of their rehabilitation.
... It usually refers to budgetfriendly holidays in the own country, either individual or as part of a group, or in some cases day trips to theme parks, museums and attractions, that are funded of made available at highly reduced rates, by charities or agencies in the public sector. Generally, social tourism can be seen as an umbrella concept, incorporating many different types of initiative and public, private and third-sector stakeholders (McCabe et al., 2012, Deery et al., 2012, Minnaert et al., 2011, Kinderniss, 2010or Naegele, 2010. Consequently, we analyse possibilities and limitations of senior tourism and its effects for destination. ...
Conference Paper
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Structured Abstract Purpose – This paper (i) outlines new challenges in tourism services market, caused by gradually increasing amount of senior travellers and (ii) proposes design of knowledge– based interactive model of this phenomenon. Finally we justify validity and show strategic usefulness of such tool for its entrepreneurial adopters. Tourism is important part of regional economy with numerous economic and also socio-cultural impacts. In this context one of the most discussed topics in European Union is social tourism. According to Minnaert (2014), " Social tourism is tourism that specifically encourages the participation in tourism activities of persons who are economically weak or otherwise disadvantaged ". In practice, social tourism address four main target group – senior 2 citizens, young people, families and people with disabilities. It usually refers to budget-friendly holidays in the own country, either individual or as part of a group, or in some cases day trips to theme parks, museums and attractions, that are funded of made available at highly reduced rates, by charities or agencies in the public sector. Generally, social tourism can be seen as an umbrella concept, incorporating many different types of initiative and public, private and third-sector stakeholders (McCabe et al., 2012, Deery et al., 2012, Minnaert et al., 2011, Kinderniss, 2010 or Naegele, 2010). Consequently, we analyse possibilities and limitations of senior tourism and its effects for destination. Resultant findings are transferred to computational model, where providers of services adjust their supply in accordance with existing and expected behaviour of senior travellers. Design/methodology/approach – Market of tourism services is a good example of heterogeneous, competitive environment. It consists of buyers and sellers, meeting within a given structure and following related policies. Price dynamics results from continuous interactions among financial and nonfinancial performance metrics of single participants. Customers strive to maximize own satisfaction, where the pure economy does not need to play the key role. Senior travellers, for example, tend to be loyal, conservative, collective or calm. Members of 65+ group spend the majority of time near accommodation facility, enjoying available ways of relaxation and social communication. They usually dislike intensive nightlife, music performances or poorly accessible locations.
... Sustaining these policies is in fact directly connected to the recognition of tourism as a right. Minnaert, Diekmann, and McCabe (2012) distinguished between two different types of 'disadvantaged' groups. On the one hand, there are initiatives aimed at people with disabilities, which falls under the 'Tourism for All' approach. ...
Article
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There is an increasing emphasis in tourism research on the role that tourism plays in enriching the lives of tourists, including impacts on health, well-being, happiness and quality of life. Tourism is increasingly being conceived as a necessity, rather than a luxury. This is especially so in the advanced economies of the world, but also increasingly in the emerging economies which have driven growth in international tourism demand throughout the recent global financial crisis. This leads to two interconnected issues: how to ensure that opportunities to participate in tourism exist for everyone in society, and whether access to opportunities can or should be considered a right. This paper discusses these issues by considering the position of tourism as a right and in the context of research on social tourism. It argues that tourism can be considered a form of social right, rather than a fundamental human right.
... Social tourism researchers and charities have argued that exclusion from tourism participation is an essential part of what it means to experience disadvantage and social marginalisation and argue for early intervention to tackle exclusion and to support (in particular) families and children unable to go on holiday (McCabe, 2009;McCabe et al., 2012). There is scope for more research that examines the constraints and circumstances of those excluded from tourism and that explores the impacts and interventions of social tourism programmes; indeed the recent UK All-Party Parliamentary Group on Social Tourism report concludes that: ''there is a compelling case for greater research into this area'' (2011, p. 2). ...
... This is because not all the citizens of industrialised nation-states behave as excess tourists. It has been estimated that around 40% of Europeans abstain from travel (Minnaert et al., 2012). For example, some German tourists and visitors may purchase additional certificates to cover above-average tourism needs from 202 T. Mihalic and D. Fennell their non-tourist citizens. ...
Article
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In pursuit of a more just international tourism: the concept of trading tourism rights Tanja Mihalic and David Fennell Abstract Research on sustainable tourism mainly focuses on incoming tourism, and destination perspectives and impacts, and less on the focus of this paper – outgoing tourism. In this context, direct and personal access to tourism represents an equal right to all world citizens. Because this right has not been exercised equally, the world is divided into two parts, excess and deprived, tourism citizens and their nation-states. This paper proposes a more just tourism system to balance the rights of tourists to travel, with the right to development, equal tourism participation, and consumption of world resources. It draws on theories from Nozick and Rawls on rights and justice to ground our model, backed by the work of other writers including Hultsman, Higgins-Desbiolles, Jamal, and Camargo. It expands the definition of just tourism to activate tourism's potential to become a developmental force in the existing socio-economic global order. This potential is realised through the use of market-based economic instruments for the implementation of a just tourism system. It suggests how to create financial flows towards third world states for their development and modernisation, using the concept of tradable tourism certificates, a concept tested in emissions control, population, and land use planning.
... This aspect of tourism, also referred to as social tourism, was long relatively neglected by the academic literature in English, but has become the focus of an increasing number of studies in recent years (e.g. McCabe, 2009;McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2011;Minnaert, Maitland, & Miller, 2009;Sedgley, Pritchard, & Morgan, 2012). ...
... It thus seems that social tourism is the appropriate framework for this research, as it refers to initiatives that include individuals who would otherwise be excluded in tourism activities (Assipova & Minnaert, 2014). These include people living on a low income (McCabe, Minnaert, & Diekmann, 2012) or those socially disadvantaged, as is frequently the case of the disabled or the elderly (Walton, 2013). ...
Article
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O stress afeta negativamente a vida de muitas pessoas na sociedade moderna, causando mal-estar, doenças, deteriorando o desempenho diário e diminuindo toda a qualidade de vida. A população com incapacidade estará, provavelmente, mais exposta a diferentes e mais intensas circunstâncias indutoras de stress, que poderão causar uma instabilidade, ainda mais severa, ao nível dos seus recursos mentais, psicológicos, emocionais e até físicos. As evidências empíricas demonstram que o lazer suscita sentimentos de liberdade e desenvolvimento pessoal, ilustrando o seu potencial para a redução e controlo do stress, pela indução de interação social, emoções positivas, e do coping face a situações de stress (Folkman & Moskowitz, 2004). Como o turismo é reconhecido como uma fonte de impactos positivos, de longo-prazo, na qualidade de vida dos seus participantes (Neal, Uysal, & Sirgy, 2007) sendo também associado à redução do stress, decidiu-se estudar os aspetos intrínsecos desta atividade para o combate ao stress, na perspetiva das pessoas com incapacidade. O presente trabalho pretende clarificar as circunstâncias indutoras de stress para as pessoas com incapacidade e explicar como o turismo poderá atuar no âmbito do stress-coping. Assim, apresentar-se-á a revisão da literatura referente à temática em estudo, bem como os resultados obtidos da análise de focus groups realizados no contexto de um estudo exploratório sobre a participação de pessoas com incapacidade na atividade turística.
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Mass tourism in Spain became one of the most prosperous economic sectors in the mid-twentieth century, collaborating in the process of convergence with Europe, using the seductive power of the media, especially the cinema. A quantitative and (to a lesser extent) qualitative analysis methodology was followed. After reviewing the academic literature, the records of the National Film Library were consulted, selecting 87 films of tourist content and national production, during the period of operation of the Ministry of Information and Tourism (1951-1977). The results have made it possible to identify the tourist segments, the cinematographic genres, the type of tourists, national or foreign, as well as the heritage elements and the services present in the tourist product of the time, visualizing the scenarios where the plots of the films are developed. The cinematography allows showing the elements that constitute the economic tourism model of Franco's. Spain, focused on towns on the Mediterranean coast, especially on the Costa del Sol. The research translates the antecedents of tourism marketing, using cinema as a means of communication that recognizes the economic transformation of Spanish society and the new image of Spain to be projected abroad. El turismo de masas en España se convirtió en uno de los sectores económicos más prósperos a mediados del siglo XX, colaborando al proceso de convergencia con Europa, utilizando el poder seductor de los medios de comunicación, especialmente del cine. Se ha seguido una metodología de análisis cuantitativo y en menor medida cualitativo. Tras la revisión de la literatura académica, se consultaron los registros de la Filmoteca Nacional, seleccionando 87 películas de contenido turístico y de producción nacional, durante el período de vigencia del Ministerio de Información y Turismo (1951-1977). Los resultados han permitido identificar los segmentos turísticos, los géneros cinematográficos, la tipología de turistas, nacionales o extranjeros, así como los elementos patrimoniales y los servicios presentes en el producto turístico de la época, visualizando los escenarios donde se desarrollan las tramas de las películas. La cinematografía permite mostrar los elementos que constituyen el modelo económico turístico de la España franquista, centrado en localidades del litoral mediterráneo, especialmente en la Costa del Sol. La investigación traslada los antecedentes del marketing turístico, utilizando el cine como un medio de comunicación, que reconoce la transformación económica de la sociedad española y la nueva imagen de España que se quiere proyectar en el extranjero.
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The scientific goal of the article is to examine the degree of adjustment of the tourism offerings for physically disabled visitors in Slovakia and to find out the connection between the accessibility of tourism facilities and the destinations’ attendance. We want to emphasize the need to improve the country’s accessibility in tourism for visitors with disabilities, to wipe off the borders among visitors, benefiting the whole country, which can be a competitive advantage on the international tourism market. Our research used theoretical research methods, exploratory statistics, and correlation analysis to evaluate the accessibility of the offer in all self-governing Slovak regions—a total of 8 regions. We use evaluation criteria that are relevant in terms of tourism offerings. We examine the possibilities of barrier-free accommodation, catering, public transport, sports and recreational facilities, cultural-historical and cultural enlightenment facilities, zoos and botanical gardens, caves, accessible bike paths, hiking trails, ski slopes and cross-country trails, organized events for health and social events, and travel agencies specializing in offerings for people with disabilities. The research sample consists of 11,281 facilities of tourism offered in Slovakia. The results of the research points to an insufficient rate of accessibility of the country (19.7%) for visitors with physical disabilities and the need for higher investments in debarierization of the environment, which can make the whole country more attractive and increase its competitiveness as a destination on the international tourism market.KeywordsAccessibilityCompetitivenessOfferingsTourismJEL ClassificationI14L83Z32
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The article examines how tourism constraints for seniors are addressed through social tourism programmes. The research is aimed to (1) identify and (2) classify/categorise various adjustments in social torism programmes for seniors to determine the unique combination of adjustments that characterise social tourism programmes for seniors. Building on the hierarchical leisure constraints model [Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309–320. doi:10.1080/01490409109513147] the analysis intersects the three groups of constraints – intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural – with three strands of uncertainty faced by seniors – travel uncertainty, financial uncertainty and mobility uncertainty and corresponding social support adjustments: personal support mechanisms and instrumental support mechanisms. The proposed model shows that travel social support is of central importance for effectively negotiating the travel constraints in social tourism for seniors.
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The common ground where social tourism meets with sustainable tourism is their inclusionary and participative nature. The construction of socially sustainable tourism especially, is closely relying on the socioeconomic dimension of sustainable tourism. Following the perspective of social tourism in Turkish Tourism Strategy 2023, a policy document handling the Turkish tourism from the sustainability perspective, the study is based on proposals for the practice of sustainable social tourism in İzmir city of Turkey. The basic reason for the sustainable social tourism policy not reaching practical value in İzmir is found out as lack or inadequacy of all the concerned stakeholders' inclusion. Thus on the supply side, a more participative and inclusionary socially sustainable tourism structure is proposed. Additionally, on the demand side, sustainable social tourism products in accordance with the needs and expectations and ideas of the potential social tourism participants living in İzmir are suggested.
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In 2012 the Erzsébet Program, a new social tourism scheme, was launched significant national social tourism schemes, involving over 1% of the country’s population in domestic tourism through social tourism grants. The Erzsébet Program took a new approach to social tourism, giving way to innovative ideas and using lessons learned from the previous practices.
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Integrating case studies from around the world, chapters showcase the latest research on social tourism and its potential role in tackling the challenges posed by modern, mass tourism development that can lead to sustainable alternatives and social equity in participation. Contributors explore tourism activities that are directed towards positive social and personal outcomes for people who would not be able to access leisure or holiday travel without such interventions and illustrate the social imperative of tourism as a force for good.
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This book delivers a critical examination of the wide range of practices of social tourism at the global scale. Gathering the main papers presented at the conference on the state of the art of social tourism research in the world organized by the Alliance for Training and Research in Social and Fair Tourism at the Université libre de Bruxelles in May 2012, along with several other original contributions, it offers analyses of national contexts, impact evaluations, and spin-offs from experiences and accomplishments in social tourism
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In Romania, the holiday vouchers mechanism has recently become operational in the public system, representing an important measure of the Government, implemented as a form of support for the benefit of the domestic tourism industry and the general public interest, for reasons such as: increasing the employment and keeping the labor force in the country, diminishing or even stopping the exodus of the labor force from the field of tourism to other states in the country's relative neighborhood, stimulating the tourism sector, motivating the employees in the budgetary sector and also recovering and maintaining their work capacity and increasing their productivity. In the described context, we believe that the study of the holiday vouchers mechanism implementation in the public system in our country becomes a current and a very interesting debate topic. The paper presents a variety of issues concerning the holiday vouchers mechanism, among which: conceptual approaches, a legislative evolutionary analysis that highlights the moments that marked changes and transformations in the field, the steps of the specific mechanism, the involved parties categories and also an analysis of the demarche's impact at national level, achieved by following the evolution of certain specific indicators. The impact analysis was carried out by centralizing and processing the data disseminated especially by the National Institute of Statistics and the National Association of Travel Agencies in Romania, the results being interpreted and offering considerations rich in pragmatic potential regarding their significance.
Conference Paper
In Romania, the holiday vouchers mechanism has recently become operational in the public system, representing an important measure of the Government, implemented as a form of support for the benefit of the domestic tourism industry and the general public interest, for reasons such as: increasing the employment and keeping the labor force in the country, diminishing or even stopping the exodus of the labor force from the field of tourism to other states in the country's relative neighborhood, stimulating the tourism sector, motivating the employees in the budgetary sector and also recovering and maintaining their work capacity and increasing their productivity. In the described context, we believe that the study of the holiday vouchers mechanism implementation in the public system in our country becomes a current and a very interesting debate topic. The paper presents a variety of issues concerning the holiday vouchers mechanism, among which: conceptual approaches, a legislative evolutionary analysis that highlights the moments that marked changes and transformations in the field, the steps of the specific mechanism, the involved parties categories and also an analysis of the demarche’s impact at national level, achieved by following the evolution of certain specific indicators. The impact analysis was carried out by centralizing and processing the data disseminated especially by the National Institute of Statistics and the National Association of Travel Agencies in Romania, the results being interpreted and offering considerations rich in pragmatic potential regarding their significance.
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Extant demand-perspective social tourism studies have generally focused on children, families and the disabled whilst older people remain an under-researched group in relation to the personal and social benefits of social tourism initiatives. This study discusses the lack of research on social tourism and older people and takes a demand-side perspective to examine one of the world’s most developed and large-scale social tourism schemes for older people, the Spanish Government’s IMSERSO programme. A qualitative approach explores the nature of older people’s engagement with the scheme and its impact on their wellbeing, through individual in-depth interviews with twenty-seven IMSERSO participants in Benidorm, Spain – a popular IMSERSO destination. The thematic analysis is structured around five themes: social connectivity, the impact of caring responsibilities, a new beginning, escape and practical support. The findings for these IMSERSO participants suggest that, as factors such as caring obligations and hardship experienced in early life are reduced in later life, they have the capacity for increased holiday-taking and social activity and consequently for participation in the IMSERSO scheme. The scheme is found to have a positive impact on their wellbeing by providing opportunities for meeting and interacting with new people, acting as a distraction from ill-health and thus reducing stress, depression and anxiety. However, the article raises questions over the ability of those without strong social networks, including no partner, and those with ongoing caring responsibilities (those who, it could be argued, are most in need of a holiday) to participate in the scheme.
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Recent findings from social tourism research and evidence from its practice have shown that social tourism has multiple benefits, both for individual participants and host-communities within destinations. The latter in particular have been acknowledged by the European Union and have been included in its recent sustainable tourism policy. Yet, there are a limited number of studies that have attempted to explicate the close linkages between social tourism and sustainable development, and to inform public policy. This paper aims to do so with specific reference to Greek social tourism programmes. Drawing upon development theory, specifically sustainable development, and sustainable tourism research in particular, the study builds an argument for the potential of social tourism to act as a stabilising force in the Greek tourism system, contributing to the achievement of sustainability outcomes for host-communities. In doing so, the paper makes tangible policy recommendations, which are also timely, given the current socioeconomic environment that has been shaped in Greece, across Europe, and elsewhere, since the 2008 crisis.
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It is over a decade since the mobilities agenda first emerged in substantive form. Cohen and Cohen's [20146. Cohen, E., & Cohen, S. (2014). A mobilities approach to tourism from emerging world regions. Current Issues in Tourism. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/13683500.2014.898617[Taylor & Francis Online]View all references. A mobilities approach to tourism from emerging world regions. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2014.898617] paper provides a timely opportunity to reflect on the achievements of mobilities thinking as it relates to travel and tourism, in other words ‘tourism mobilities’. Viewed in multiple historical contexts, the emergence of a mobilities approach to understanding tourism is entirely justified. Three enduring but fundamental issues regarding the study of tourism mobilities are discussed, including whether the tourism mobilities agenda travels well. International comparative work of this nature on emerging world regions is clearly welcome and offers significant insights. However, viewed against its historical backdrop, it raises questions about the level of interest and penetration of the tourism mobilities agenda generally, and beyond Europe, North America and Australasia specifically. In the process, it raises the spectre that interest in tourism mobilities is perhaps not what it once was and the tourism academy may have moved on to the next grand challenge.
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Continued growth in global tourism is increasingly accompanied by claims that tourism has become a vital component of contemporary citizenship. This paper conceptualizes tourism’s relationship to existing and emergent ideas of citizenship, with particular emphasis on the interplay between the freedom of movement and right to travel. In light of calls for the consideration of tourism as a vital social need and a human right, the work interrogates the degree to which the right to travel can be considered an integral citizenship right. Despite this position, international travel and tourist activities also embody diverse and often contested notions and practices of citizenship. Moreover, given that notions of citizenship signify duties and responsibilities, this paper critically reviews these implications in relation to tourism mobilities. The work fundamentally emphasizes that there are clear socio-economic and political disparities between the rights and freedoms of mobility, and access to the rights and privileges associated with the capacity to participate in international tourism and travel.
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Social tourism is a particular form of tourism practiced by social groups with limited income and oriented to their cognitive, cultural and recreational needs. Concretely, the term "Social tourism" is based on tourism services offer a low price. These holidays may be accompanied or educational services and/or therapeutic benefit services. They may also be specially built camps for use by persons with disabilities. On the other hand, social tourism can refer to highlighting of tourist sites and natural heritage, cultural, artistic, historical or geographically isolated areas less known, thus pursuing economic boost through the development of poor areas tourism impact on local communities. This paper proposes to identify which are and on what does social tourism programs in Romania. The paper is structured as follows: introduction to the social tourism in Romania, social tourism programs, tourism indicators and conclusions.
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