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Shilajit in management of iron deficiency anaemia

Authors:
  • PGP College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research Institute
Velmurugan Vivek. et al. / JPBMS, 2010, 1 (01)
1 Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (JPBMS), Vol. 01, Issue 01
Available online at www.jpbms.info
JPBMS
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SIENCES
SHILAJIT IN MANAGEMENT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA
C.velmurugan
1
, B.Vivek
1
, D.Sheshadri Shekar
1
, SP. Sudha
2
& T. Sundaram
3
1
Department of Pharmacology, Sri K.V College of Pharmacy, M.G.Road, Chickballapur. (KA)-562101
2
Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Sri K.V College of Pharmacy, M.G.Road, Chickballapur. (KA)-562101
3
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sri K.V College of Pharmacy, M.G.Road, Chickballapur. (KA)-562101
Abstract
The Shilajit as a dietary supplement was examined for iron deficiency anaemia in experimental animals. In this study diet
induced and bleeding technique were used to evaluate the iron deficiency anaemia. In diet induced, low iron diet from
sigma and in bleeding technique bled 2ml of blood from each animal for 5 alternative days was used to induce iron
deficiency anaemia (IDA), the animals which did not developed anaemia i.e. haemoglobin level < 9g/dl, were rejected and
replaced with new animals. The Shilajit 500 mg/kg shows significant (p<0.01) increase in Hb, RBC & PCV values in both
the model. According to our results Shilajit in doses of 500 mg/kg reveals anti-anaemic activity.
Key words: Shilajit, iron deficiency anaemia, haemoglobin, bleeding technique & low iron diet.
Introduction
Anaemia is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs)
or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the
blood. Anemia is estimated to affect nearly two thirds of
the pregnant women in developing countries[1].Iron
deficiency anemia is responsible for 95% of the anemias
during pregnancy[2-3], [(Breymann C) (Yaqoob N), 2002].
In underdeveloped countries, anemia is a major
contributory factor to maternal morbidity and
mortality[4].Shilajit, a traditional medicine has been used
for cardioprotective, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic,
hepatoprotective, anaemic and potent CNS activity for
ages[5].In the Charak Samhita, Shilajit is described as a
product of four minerals: gold, silver, copper and iron,
whereas Susruta Samhita included two more minerals,
lead and zinc in its composition[6].The present study has
been designed to evaluate the anti anaemic activity of
shilajit in bleeding and diet induced IDA model in rats. The
drug has been able to raise the Hb.
to
satisfactory level
when used in severely anemic iron deficient in rats.
Materials and Methods
Shilajit Dose Determination
The dose of shilajit was determined by acute toxicity study.
As per OECD 425 guidelines the acute toxicity study was
studied and it was found that the LD
50
is 5000 mg/kg body
weight. The effective dose calculated from one by tenth of the
LD
50
(500mg/kg).
Animal experiments
The animal experimental protocol was approved by
*Corresponding Author
C.Velmurugan
Department of Pharmacology,Sri K.V College of Pharmacy,
M.G.Road,Chickballapur. KA-562101
Mobile: 09663337129
Email: velu0906@gmail.com
Institutional Animal Ethical Committee as per the guidance of
the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of
Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) 117/99/kvcp.
Iron deficiency model
Bleeding Induced IDA
This test was followed by the method described by
McCance, R. A., 1937 with some modifications. In the
model a total of 18 rats were divided into three groups of
six each. The Group II &III rats were rendered Anemia by
removing 2ml of blood from retro orbital plexus of each
rat for 5 alternative days. Group III rats were treated with
Shilajit 500mg/kg/day from the11th day after conforming
anemia to 20
th
day from the initial bleeding. The blood
samples were collected on 21
st
day for estimating the
haematological parameters.
Low Iron Diet Induced IDA
Three groups of six rats each were used for study. Group I
was maintained on normal rat diet, whereas Group II & III
were maintained on an iron deficient diet.[7-8], for 13
days before study. The diet was served in porcelain dishes.
The rats were fasted 1 day before study and Shilajit was
administered to Group III rats, 14 days after beginning the
iron-deficient diet upto 20
th
day. The blood samples were
collected at the end of the 20
th
day for estimating the
hematological parameters.
Results
Bleeding induced IDA
Shilajit significantly increased the level of Hb, HCT and
RBC against the anaemia induced by bleeding. The values
are shown in the Table 1
Low iron diet induced IDA
Research
Article
Velmurugan Vivek. et al. / JPBMS, 2010, 1 (01)
2 Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (JPBMS), Vol. 01, Issue 01
Results (Table 2) reveled that Shilajit shows the significant (p < 0.01) anti-anaemic activity at dose of 500mg/kg.
Table 1: Effect of Shilajit on bleeding induced IDA Table 2 : Effect of Shilajit on low iron diet induced IDA
Groups Hb g/dl HCT % RBC
x10
6
/mm
3
Normal
control
18.18±0.4453
**
54.65±0.4696
**
8.96±0.3504
**
Induced
control
8.2 ± 0.2460
23.85± 0.2997
5.46 ±0.2305
Shilajit
500mg/kg
15.3± 0.2217
**
45.16± 0.6344
**
8.73±0.3630
**
Values are in mean ±SEM; (n=6), ** p<0.01 vs. induced Values are in mean ±SEM; (n=6), ** p<0.01 vs. induced
control control
Discussion
The Shilajit’s increased the Hb, HCT and RBC when
assessed using the bleeding model and in low iron diet
induced model. About 1 mg of iron is lost each day through
sloughing of cells from skin and mucosal surfaces,
including the lining of the gastrointestinal tract[9].
Menstruation increases the average daily iron loss to
about 2 mg per day in premenopausal female adults[10].
The iron depletion leads to Hb deficiency. Hemoglobin
(found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the
lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of
oxygen) in organs, because all human cells depend
on oxygen for survival. Shilajit containing iron, when taken
as a dietary supplement it increase the haemoglobin level
and it neutralizes the regular loss and during
menstruation. Hence the present study shows that Shilajit
exhibited activities in various degrees against both models
of IDA.
Conclusion
In conclusion, this study has shown that the Shilajit having
significant anti-anaemic activity in both model. Our data
obtained from the present study suggest that the Shilajit
can be taken as a dietary supplement in the management
of iron deficiency anaemia.
References
1.Breymann C. Iron deficiency and anemia in pregnancy:
Modern aspects of diagnosis and therapy. Blood Cells Mol
Dis 2002; 29: 506-16.
2.Breymann C. Anemia working group. Current aspects of
diagnosis and therapy of iron deficiency anemia in
pregnancy. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 2001; 90:1283-91.
3.Yaqoob N, Abbasi SM. Nutritional iron deficiency in our
population. J. Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2002; 12: 395-7.
4.Saeed M, Khan TA, Khan SJ. Evaluation of risk factors in
antenatal care. Mother and child 1996; 34: 139-142.
5..Acharya SB, Frotan MH, Goel RK, Tripathi SK, Das PK.
Pharmacological actions of Shilajit. Indian J Exp Biol. 1988;
26(10): 775-7.
6.Ghosal S, Singh SK, Kumar Y, Srivatsava R.
Antiulcerogenic activity of fulvic acids and 4-metoxy-6-
carbomethyl biphenyl isolated from shilajit. Phytother Res.
1988;2:187-91.
7.McCance RA, Widdowson EM. Absorption and excretion
of iron. Lancet 1937; 2, 680.
8.Pollack S R, Kaufman M, Crosby WH.Iron absorption: the
effect of an iron-deficient diet. Science 1964; 144, 1015
9.Cook JD, Skikne BS, Estimates of iron sufficiency in the
US population. Blood. 1986; 68, 726.
10.Bothwell T H. and Charlton, R. W. (). A general
approach of the problems of iron deficiency and iron
overload in the population at large. Seminars in
Hematology. 1982; (19) 54.
.
Group
s
Hb g/dl
HCT %
RBC
x10
6
/mm
3
Normal
control
15.78±0.353
**
45.95±0.84
**
8.85±0.28
**
Induced
control
7.90 ± 0.12
23.91± 0.60
5.33 ±0.23
Shilajit
500mg/kg
12.81± 0.45
**
45.95± 0.84
**
7.16±0.14
**
... In-spite of increased iron needs, many adolescents, particularly females, may have iron intake of only 10-11 mg per day, out of which 1mg will be absorbed approximately. [6][7][8] Iron deficiency causes great morbidity in all age groups and adversely affects immune status, physical capacity and work performance of adolescents. [9][10][11] Until today, IDA is still the most prevalent and common type of micronutrient deficiency in the developing countries, which results from long-term negative iron imbalance. ...
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Background: The field of nutrition of women in India that has been sadly neglected pertains to the adolescent girls. The adolescent girls, the young women, the mothers to be, represent an age group which experience a crucial phase of growth. Iron deficiency anaemia is a highly prevalent and seemingly intractable problem, particularly among females of reproductive age group in developing countries. Following early childhood, during the adolescent growth spurts, the risk of iron deficiency and anaemia reappears for both boys and girls, after which it subsides for boys but remains for girls because of menstrual loss. Aim of the study was to find the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among school going adolescent girls in the field area of National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore. Methods: The present study is an observational, cross-sectional, school health survey undertaken to know the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among adolescent girls in the field area of NIUM. The present study was completed within a period of 6 months from August 2008 to January 2008. Prevalence of IDA was determined on the basis of RBC indices (MCV, MCHC) and erythrocyte morphology, evaluated from the points of anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, hypochromia and microcytosis on peripheral blood smear examination. Results: In the study population (240 girls), 25% (60) subjects were affected with various grades of anaemia, i.e., 20.4% (49) were mildly anaemic and 4.6% (11) moderately anaemic. There was no case of severe anaemia. The prevalence of IDA was seen in 11.6% of study population. Conclusions: The present study provides an indication to initiate the anaemia prophylaxis measures for adolescent girls in India including nutrition education in schools. Adolescent girls should be a target group in any programme that builds demand for sustaining iron supplementation or higher dietary intake.
... Besides, fulvic acid facilitates importing minerals into the target cells, protecting the electrical potential and preventing cell death [21,22]. The safety and healing efficacy of Shilajit has been studied in humans and animals [18].The Shilajit compounds exhibit a great potential for healing the different diseases such as bone fractures, osteoarthritis [23,24], anemia [25], diabetes [26] and Alzheimer [27]. A clinical trial conducted in Iran revealed that oral administration of Shilajit after tibia fracture surgery accelerated bone repair [28]. ...
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... Besides, fulvic acid facilitates importing minerals into the target cells, protecting the electrical potential and preventing cell death [21,22]. The safety and healing efficacy of Shilajit has been studied in humans and animals [18].The Shilajit compounds exhibit a great potential for healing the different diseases such as bone fractures, osteoarthritis [23,24], anemia [25], diabetes [26] and Alzheimer [27]. A clinical trial conducted in Iran revealed that oral administration of Shilajit after tibia fracture surgery accelerated bone repair [28]. ...
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A diet deficient in iron causes a rapid, marked increase in iron absorption in rats. The increased absorption occurs in the absence of a significant change in iron stores as judged by the effect of an equivalent change in stores produced by phlebotomy, and in the absence of increased erythropoietic activity as judged by the rate of removal of iron-59 from the plasma.
Evaluation of risk factors in antenatal care
  • M Saeed
  • T A Khan
  • S J Khan
Saeed M, Khan TA, Khan SJ. Evaluation of risk factors in antenatal care. Mother and child 1996; 34: 139-142.