Article

Evaluation of fingerprint brushes for use with aluminium powder

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  • Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
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... The fingermarks developed on brass discs were evaluated by two independent experts following a 0 4 grading scale devised by Bandey [21,28]: 0-No ridge detail; 1-Less than 1/3 clear ridge detail; 2-Less than 2/3 clear ridge detail; 3-Incomplete (but > 2/3) clear ridge detail; 4-Complete clear ridge detail. ...
... The fingermarks developed on fired cartridge cases were evaluated by two independent experts. The grading scale devised by Bandey [28] was slightly modified only in grade 1, aiming to refine the assessment of the effectiveness of the techniques and to take into account the great difference between the ridge details developed only on the base of the cartridges and the ridge details developed beyond the base of the cartridges. The grade 1 of Bandey's grading scale was subdivided into 2 levels: ...
... In the case of the analyzed flat brass discs, the latent fingermarks could be seen without any developer application, just by using correct lighting. According to the 0-4 grading scale devised by Bandey [28], the average grade of the fingermarks before and after heating was 3.9. Fig. 1 shows the same fingermark photographed using oblique light before and after heating to 63 8C (1st day), and after CA fuming (14th day), exhibiting grade 4 in all stages. ...
Article
We have tested some widely used and practical fingermark enhancement techniques such as powdering (regular powder dusting and magnetic powder application), cyanoacrylate fuming, fluorescent dying (basic yellow 40), gun blueing solutions and acidified hydrogen peroxide solutions. The results were evaluated and compared in order to establish best procedures on processing cartridge cases. The tests were performed on brass discs subjected to three different temperatures (room temperature, 63 and 200°C), and on fired and unfired cartridge cases. All the samples were processed after three different periods of time (24h, 7 days and 14 days) after deposition. The best results for both fired and unfired cartridge cases were obtained by the sequential application of cyanoacrylate, gun blueing solution and basic yellow 40. Some stages of the firing process were isolated in order to identify their effects over the final amount and quality of the remaining latent fingermarks on cartridge cases. Good state fingermarks were developed on unfired cartridge cases cycled through the gun, showing that friction inside the gun without firing does not cause significant damage to the fingermarks. On the other hand, fired cartridge cases are significantly affected by the firing effects, exhibiting low quality ridge details which are mainly located next to base. An unexpected phenomenon was observed on most of the brass discs heated to 200°C and developed with gun blueing solutions; they presented a reverse development compared to the expected one, with darkening of the ridges instead of the background. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... The use of powders to detect fingermarks led to two distinct research orientations: (1) the "classical" powders, with three extensive surveys from the HOSDB about their adequate use (109)(110)(111)(112), the proposition of new fluorescent powders (113)(114)(115)(116)(117), application and detection studies (118,119), and SPR (120-122); and (2) "intelligent" nanopowders, which consist of functionalized nanoparticles able to target more efficiently the secretion components (123)(124)(125)(126)(127)(128) or incorporating fluorescent markers in their inner structure (129). ...
... Since the choice of the powder, brush, lifting media, etc. can influence the quantity and quality of developed marks, the HOSDB researchers decided to perform extensive laboratory trials to give some guideline for the use of powder on crime scenes. First, they studied the best brush to use with aluminium powder on surfaces commonly encountered at crime scenes (109). Second, they evaluated the performance of the most commonly used powders on the most commonly occurring smooth surfaces (110). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific literature from about September 2004 to July 2007. The review is focused on more than 280 published papers in scientific journals or proceedings. The review will not cover information coming from international meetings available only in abstract form.
... The use of powders to detect fingermarks led to two distinct research orientations: (1) the "classical" powders, with three extensive surveys from the HOSDB about their adequate use (109)(110)(111)(112), the proposition of new fluorescent powders (113)(114)(115)(116)(117), application and detection studies (118,119), and SPR (120-122); and (2) "intelligent" nanopowders, which consist of functionalized nanoparticles able to target more efficiently the secretion components (123)(124)(125)(126)(127)(128) or incorporating fluorescent markers in their inner structure (129). ...
... Since the choice of the powder, brush, lifting media, etc. can influence the quantity and quality of developed marks, the HOSDB researchers decided to perform extensive laboratory trials to give some guideline for the use of powder on crime scenes. First, they studied the best brush to use with aluminium powder on surfaces commonly encountered at crime scenes (109). Second, they evaluated the performance of the most commonly used powders on the most commonly occurring smooth surfaces (110). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific literature from about September 2004 to July 2007. The review is focused on more than 280 published papers in scientific journals or proceedings. The review will not cover information coming from international meetings available only in abstract form.
... The images were distributed to fingermark assessors via an online cloud program, Dropbox (v.1.4.8). Samples were graded using a five-point system based on that used by the Home Office Police Scientific Development Branch, United Kingdom [6], modified by the addition of representative images of developed marks to aid in classification (Table 1) [14]. The results were recorded and evaluated using Excel Professional Plus 2010 (Microsoft). ...
... It is important to note that the ability to examine treated fingermarks for identification purposes was not investigated, but rather the assessment of fingermark development quality. An absolute scale, adapted from Bandey [6], is used routinely at Curtin University to assess reagent performance. This requires an individual to take into account contrast, clarity, and ridge continuity. ...
Article
When assessing latent fingermark development methods, forensic researchers commonly evaluate treated samples using a grading scale. However, the subjective nature of these evaluation methods leaves the results of such investigations open to criticism for potential grader bias. Assessment of fingermark development quality is ultimately dependent on an individual’s background and experience. A pilot study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a large-scale international collaboration. A set of 80 fingermark samples was developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc chloride. Grades for photographic images of the developed fingermarks were assigned independently by 11 fingermark researchers. Sixty-seven percent of the scores given to each individual sample were the same as the median grade, and 99% of the scores were within 1 grade. The researchers were also assessed on their consistency by including 20 duplicate images to be graded. Seventy-eight percent of the grades given were identical to their original scores. These results indicate that a small group of independent fingermark graders is sufficient to produce reliable and consistent data in projects requiring the assessment of fingermark quality.
... accomplished by passing the sample over hot DMAC and then conditioning overnight at ambient temperature and humidity (20)(21)(22) 8C and 45-70 % relative humidity, respectively). Substrates that were successfully treated in this study include aluminium cans, thermal paper, cardboard, polythene and glass. ...
... DMAC and IND/ZnCl 2 treated fingermarks were graded using adaptation of the 5-point system developed by the UK Home Office Police Scientific Development Branch (Table 4) [22]. Excel Professional Plus 2010 (Microsoft, USA) was used to calculate the mean and median values for graded fingermarks. ...
Article
Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde was re-evaluated as a wet contact reagent for the treatment of latent fingermarks on porous substrates. A new formulation (consisting of 0.028g p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, 0.84mL glacial acetic acid, 6.2mL ethyl acetate and 0.993 L 40-60°C petroleum spirits) provides quick, sensitive and robust luminescent ridge detail within 3h of treatment on both plain and thermal paper. Comparisons to existing formulations indicate improved visualisation and/or a more efficient process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... A grading system based on the Home Office Police Scientific Development Branch, United Kingdom was used for sample grading throughout (Table 3) [10]. Microsoft Excel Professional Plus 2010 was used to record the results and to calculate the mean and median values. ...
Article
Full-text available
The guidelines set forth by the International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG) were used to plan and conduct the evaluation of a dry contact p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) approach to the treatment of latent fingermark deposits on porous substrates. It was found that the IFRG guidelines provided a practicable framework for the implementation of method optimization and comparison studies. Extensive investigations into the development method and its subsequent use across a range of conditions and substrates showed that the dry contact DMAB method is not as sensitive as the recommended ninhydrin techniques. Illumination in the form of an inexpensive LED light source was shown to be a promising alternative to the much more expensive Rofin Polilight, especially in teaching or remote environments .
... [20]. Later adjustments of the images were performed on Adobe Photoshop CS4 Version 9.0. ...
Article
Full-text available
Commercially available fingermark simulants were compared to latent fingermark deposits to assess their efficacy as standards for a quality control assessment of fingermark development reagents. Deposits of the simulants and latent fingermarks were made on paper substrates and were developed using reagents that target amino acids (ninhydrin, 1,2-indanedione) and sebaceous secretions (Oil Red O, physical developer). The resulting marks were compared for visibility and color. Significant differences were observed between the simulants and latent fingermarks in response to the fingermark development reagents. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the simulants compared to untreated latent fingermarks revealed differences in chemical composition. These results indicate that these simulants are not well suited as quality control standards in forensic laboratories and should be used with extreme caution in any form of research into latent fingermark detection.
... Developed impressions were graded using a 5-point system based on that used by the United Kingdom Home Office Police Scientif ic Development Branch (HOPSDB) ( Table 4) [14]. Images were adjusted for brightness and contrast using Adobe Photoshop CS5 Version 12.0. ...
Article
Full-text available
A modified detection sequence is presented for the recovery of latent fingermarks on porous substrates. 1,2-Indanedione, Oil Red O (ORO) in propylene glycol, and physical developer (PD) were successfully used to develop recently deposited latent fingermarks when applied in the order given. The incorporation of ORO into the detection sequence increased the number of latent fingermarks that were detected compared to using the standard sequence of 1,2-indane- dione followed by PD only.
... The quantitative analysis of f inger prints was perfor med using the data in Table 1, according to the gradient devised by Bandey et al. [13,14]. The qualitative analysis of fingerprints was performed using Table 2. ...
Article
This paper examines whether electrolysis could be a useful method in the development of latent fingerprints on fired brass cartridge cases. The inf luence of electrolysis on galvanic metal cor-rosion was explored. We found that the clarity of the fingerprints was time sensitive and improved as acid concentration increased with lower duration of electrolysis.
Chapter
This chapter specifically discusses the processes where the material deposited is already in the solid phase when it is applied to the surface. Such processes will generally have less detrimental impact on the surface and on subsequent fingermark enhancement than those processes that involve exposure to a liquid. The principal solid phase deposition process is powdering, which is the most widely used process for fingermark development. All types of powder used for fingermark enhancement utilise adhesion mechanisms that occur between the particulate material in the powder and the material in the fingermark ridges. Nanoparticle powders can be applied to the surface by similar methods proposed for conventional powders, namely brushes, magnetic applicators, electrostatic application and aerosol spraying. The electrostatic document analysis (ESDA) process utilises specialist equipment designed purposefully and available from several manufacturers.
Article
Full-text available
A simplified procedure for the recently introduced fingermark development reagent Oil Red O (ORO) is presented. This lipid-sensitive reagent offers the potential to detect latent fingermarks on porous substrates that have been exposed to water, which is not possible using the more commonly employed amino acid-sensitive reagents. Using this modified procedure, recently deposited (less than one week since deposition) latent fingermarks were readily developed on a variety of paper types. The ability to detect fingermarks on paper surfaces that had been wetted was also demonstrated. The performance of the modified ORO procedure was found to be variable in its ability to detect fingermarks that had been left exposed to the laboratory environment for periods of time greater than one week. Comparisons with the previously reported procedure for ORO found that the proposed modified procedure produced a similar degree of fingermark development. Additionally, comparisons with physical developer (PD) found that both ORO approaches performed similarly to, or better than, PD on fresh (less than one week since deposition), charged fingermarks. However, PD was the superior method for detecting both older and uncharged fingermarks.
Chapter
The use of friction ridge skin detail for human identification purposes is a widely established technique that is used throughout the world. Given its identifying nature, marks made by friction ridge skin (referred to as fingermarks or fingerprints) are fundamental to missing person investigations. This chapter begins with a brief historical overview of fingerprints with respect to identification, and explains the principles of their identifying ability; uniqueness; and persistence. It then explores the process of missing person identification with respect to friction ridge skin, and explains how fingerprints and fingermarks are recovered for the investigation from people who are found alive and dead. The process of identification is described, which includes how technology can help, and has helped to solve cases involving missing persons.
Article
It was assumed that the high impact involved in car versus pedestrian accidents creates a microtexture imprint of the victim's clothing on the car. This texture was detected using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Then small particle reagent (SPR) was successfully used to enhance fabric impressions. It is suggested that SPR fills in the three-dimensional imprint because of the physical characteristics and particle shape of MoS2, which is the active component of SPR, thereby enhancing the appearance of the impression.
Chapter
Fingermarks, the impressions left by contact between the skin ridges of the fingertips and a surface, are one of the most easily recognizable forms of identification evidence encountered by forensic investigators. In this chapter, a distinction is made between fingermarks and fingerprints. The chapter provides an overview of chemical techniques for the detection of latent fingermarks, with a primary focus on methods for the treatment of porous surfaces. This is followed by a discussion of the experimental considerations for research into latent fingermark chemistry. The chapter then provides some comments on current research directions in this field. One of the most crucial aspects of the successful development of latent fingermarks is an understanding of the interaction between a development reagent and its target compound(s). Therefore, the chapter focuses specifically on the chemistry of latent fingermark residue. Latent fingermarks are a translucent mixture of aqueous and lipid components.
Article
Few techniques offer "in situ" methods of friction ridge skin mark development. "In situ" development reduces mark transportation, degradation, and often cost. The effectiveness of cyanoacrylate fuming using the SUPERfume(®) and dusting with aluminum powder for latent fingermark development on several nonporous surfaces, stored in various temperature environments for time periods up to 52 weeks, was investigated. Five thousand and four hundred latent fingermarks were deposited under controlled conditions and graded. The results suggested that cyanoacrylate fuming (SUPERfume(®), Foster and Freeman, U.K.) was more effective at developing latent fingermarks on textured and smooth plastic surfaces and for marks stored in temperatures of 37 °C, whereas aluminum powder was more effective on glass, enameled metal paint, and varnished wood, and for storage temperatures below 20 °C. There were no significant benefits to using either technique for marks older than 24 h, but it was possible to develop fingermarks following 52 weeks of storage using both techniques.
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