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Antimicrobial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

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... coli, S. typhi, S. typhimurium, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis) and fungi (F. oxysporum, A. niger, Candida spp.) [42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]. It was found that various solvents used for black pepper extraction affect the different susceptibility of the microorganisms. ...
... In the study by Zarai et al. [42], it was found that piperic acid (MIC in the range 78.12-625 mg/ml) showed higher antibacterial activity than piperine (MIC in the range 312.5-625 mg/ml) against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Piperine showed antifungal activity against F. oxysporum and A. niger [46]. The crude extracts obtained from the black pepper fruit had good anticandidal potential and may be used to treat oral and vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by various species of Candida [47]. ...
... (2) (2021)[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] ...
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Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a tropical plant, best known for its fruit, used as a spice all around the world. The fruits of black pepper can be processed in various ways, so there are end products such as white, black, red, and green pepper. Black pepper contains many substances such as terpenes, alkaloids, lignans, phenylpropanoids, etc., which are responsible for some of the most important biological activities: antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, bio-enhancing and enzyme inhibitory activities. These activities have also been proven in clinical studies, and probably the future of black pepper research should be based on discovering the most effective way to use the active compounds of pepper for the development of herbal drugs with fewer contraindications than standard drugs. Further preclinical and clinical studies are needed to prepare and apply phytoformulations based on the black pepper isolates.
... As detialed in table 3.1: Maximum zone of inhibition was reported with Ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)mm, followed by (23-38)mm for methanolic extract. While the manimum inhibition zonewas reprted with Aqueous extract (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)mm. The antibacterial effect of aqueous extracts in this study was comparatively less, but it consider high, figure 3.1.this ...
... In the present study, extracts of Seeds of Piper nigrum have the lowest antibacterial activitywith smallest inhibition zones ranged from (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm. It's ethanolic extracts have maximum zones (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm, follwed by (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)mm for methanolic extracts. ...
... In the present study, extracts of Seeds of Piper nigrum have the lowest antibacterial activitywith smallest inhibition zones ranged from (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm. It's ethanolic extracts have maximum zones (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm, follwed by (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)mm for methanolic extracts. While Aqueous extract has no inhibition zone(0.0 ...
Article
Cancer as one of the major killer disease is getting tremendous concern in research and demands a proactive strategy for protection and treatment. Research on plant secondary metabolites revealed a promising safe alternative anti-cancer agents. Alkaloids are naturally occurring organic nitrogen containing compounds that have many biological activities including anti-cancer. Alkaloids were extracted from Opuntia polyacantha plant by methanol (80%) and chloroform and then estimated quantitatively and qualitatively. The MTT viability assay used to determine alkaloids cytotoxicity by using MCF-7 and WRL-68 cell lines. The results showed that the MCF-7 cell line growth was significantly decreased by 52.7% at 400μg/ml total alkaloid concentration with 91.89% viability of WRL-68. The extracted alkaloids found toxic to cancer cell line with negligible effect on normal cell line proliferation that make it a promising safe anti-cancer alternative drug.
... Each The antifungal activity of black pepper aqueous seed extract against (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxisporum, and Penicillium citrinum) was evaluated by food-poisoning techniques according to the method described by [18]. ...
... The planned method of extraction donates accurate, fast, and sensitive method requiring a lesser amount of solvent to use is an active composite against pathogenic bacteria [27]. Moreover, [18] stated that black pepper ethanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all tested bacterial strains. ...
... These results were agreed with [28] who reported the potency of both oil and extract of P. nigrum against diverse food pathogenic fungi using inverted petri plate technique. A study conducted by [18] reported that ethanol extract of black pepper had antifungal activity against four tested fungi and showed maximum antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxisporum. The antifungal compounds found in the plant extracts at lower concentrations were found to be fungistatic while become fungicidal at higher concentrations as reported by [29]. ...
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Abstract Traditional plant - based compounds are seeking more attention in pharmaceutical aspects to treat untreatable diseases because they have no side effect, easy recovery in great amount and a high degree of activity. Spices are extensively used to improve the taste and flavor of food, acquire a broad range of medicinal properties and some of them are known to be antioxidants. The antibacterial activity of aqueous seeds extract of Piper nigrum L. was evaluated against some pathogenic bacteria. The maximum inhibition zone was accounted against Gram negative bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca (21± 0.11mm) and minimum inhibition zone was exhibited against Gram positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (7 ± 0.05mm) while has no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the aqueous seeds extract completely inhibits Penicillium citrinum growth at 500 μl by using food-poisoning technique and also showed some activity in controlling the mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Aqueous seeds extract of Piper nigrum L. was evaluated against Herpes simplex virus (HSV1) and Coxsackie virus (COXB4) and the results showed that Piper nigrum exert (57.26 and 13.41%) inhibition of plaque of HSV1 and COXB4 respectively. Moreover, the maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC) for black pepper aqueous seed extract was 2500 μg/ml. The extract shows antioxidant activities with IC50 = 155 μg/ml and total phenolic content of (194.05 mg GA/g extract). These results suggest that aqueous seeds extract of Piper nigrum have significant anti-viral, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity signifying its usage as accepted antimicrobial representative.
... As detialed in table 3.1: Maximum zone of inhibition was reported with Ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)mm, followed by (23-38)mm for methanolic extract. While the manimum inhibition zonewas reprted with Aqueous extract (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)mm. The antibacterial effect of aqueous extracts in this study was comparatively less, but it consider high, figure 3.1.this ...
... In the present study, extracts of Seeds of Piper nigrum have the lowest antibacterial activitywith smallest inhibition zones ranged from (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm. It's ethanolic extracts have maximum zones (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm, follwed by (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)mm for methanolic extracts. ...
... In the present study, extracts of Seeds of Piper nigrum have the lowest antibacterial activitywith smallest inhibition zones ranged from (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm. It's ethanolic extracts have maximum zones (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)mm, follwed by (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)mm for methanolic extracts. While Aqueous extract has no inhibition zone(0.0 ...
Article
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A total of 65 clinical samples were collected from patients suffering from wounds infections who admitted to Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital. Among total 76bacterial isolates were identified,48(63.16%) isolates of S. aureus and all of them 48(100%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus(MRSA) depending on the rsults of antimicrobial susceptibility test of methicillin disc(5mg)and the cultivation on CHROM Agar MRSA Medium. Antibacterial activities of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extract of Punica granatum, Allium sativum and Piper nigrum agains MRSA. These three plants are mostly used in the prescriptions of folk medicine in Iraq.The antibacterial activity was measured by agar well diffusion Method and all extracts of Punica granatum showed high antibacterial activity with maximum inhibition zone (31-40)mm. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Allium sativum and piper nigrum have antibacterial activity, while their aquesous extracts have no antibacterial activity against MRSA.
... The greater part of world yam production (over 90%) is derived from West Africa. In 2008, Nigeria was the largest producer of yam in the world, producing 35.02 million metric tonnes [2]. Although it is grown widely in Nigeria, the area where it is grown most is Benue State (land area of 802,295 km²) one of the states in Benue valley of Nigeria. ...
... The actions of the antifungal substances present in the plant extracts were fungistatic at lower concentrations but became fungicidal at higher concentrations as reported by [34]. The presence of fungicidal compounds such as piperine in P. guineense, gingerol in Z. officinale, azadirachtin in A. indica, papain in C. papaya and nicotine in N. tabacum caused the inhibition of mycelial growth of F. oxysporum in vitro agreed with the reports of other investigators [29,35,36]. Report by [19] showed that the growth of F. oxysporum mycelial was inhibited using cold extracts of N. tabacum, A. inndica, Aloe barbadensis, Tridax precubens and Carica papaya. ...
Article
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Hot water extracts of five fungicidal plants (Piper guineense, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya and Nicotiana tabacum) and a synthetic fungicide (mancozeb) were tested for in vitro inhibitory activities on Fusarium oxysporum mycelial growth, the causal agent of yam tuber dry rot in storage using three different concentrations of plant extracts (30 g/L, 60 g/L and 90 g/L) and synthetic fungicide; mancozeb (4 g/L, 8 g/L and 12 g/L). The experiments were conducted at Advanced Plant Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. 5 mL of each concentration of the extract and chemical were separately amended in 15 mL of potato dextrose agar (PDA) in Petri dish and F. oxysporum was inoculated and incubated for 120 hours to determine the levels of effectiveness of the fungicides. The result showed that all the plant extracts were able to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen with concentration III having the highest inhibitory effect in all the extracts. The three different concentrations of P. guineense were the best in activity followed by Z. officinale while the least effective extract was N. tabacum. There was a 100% inhibition when mancozeb was used irrespective of the levels of concentrations. Treatment of the test plant extracts significantly (P≤0.05) reduced mycelial growth of F. oxysporum in vitro. The concentrations of 60 g/L and 90 g/L of plant extracts and 4 g/L of mancozeb consistently gave the highest percentage growth inhibition of the pathogen and were considered the best in controlling the pathogen. This study therefore, revealed that P. guineense, Z. officinale, A. indica, C. papaya and N. tabacum were able to arrest the growth of F. oxysporum, the rot-causing fungus of white yam. These extracts will therefore, serve as good plant fungicides in protecting yam tubers against rot causing fungi in storage Keywords: Fungicidal, Plant extracts, Fusarium oxysporum, inhibition, yam, Zaki-Biam .
... The trans isomer of 1-piperoyl piperidine; Piperine is currently known to be a bioactive constituent of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper) and Piper longum L. (Long Pepper) [1,2] and in today's era it gains an extensive importance due to its pharmacological potential and hence piperine itself and its derivatives may be employed as drug molecules. It has been used widely in ayurveda which reports numerous pharmacological activities of piperine such as antiasthmatic property along with vasak leaves Adhotoda vasica [4,5], antifertility [6], depressive effect on CNS, act against inflammation [2,[7][8][9], inhibitory effect on enzymes [10,11], antioxidant [12,24], act against tumor [13], and asthma [14], thyroid [16] ,and depression [17] as well as hepatoprotective [15]. In addition to this, piperine enhances the bioavailability of drugs as reported in animal studies [3,8,11,[18][19][20][21][22]. ...
... In addition to this, piperine enhances the bioavailability of drugs as reported in animal studies [3,8,11,[18][19][20][21][22]. Literature reports that piperine and its hydrolyzed product piperic acid have an extensive potential against microbes [23,24,25]. It was well described in the literature that nitrogen-containing heterocyclic nucleus plays an important role in biochemical processes as well as in pharmacological activities such as triazoles [26][27][28][29][30], azetidinones [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], and thiazoles [39][40][41][42]. ...
Article
Background A series of piperic acid based N heterocyclic’s derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity. All these ligands were docked to study the molecular interactions and binding affinities against the protein PDB ID: 5 CDP. Objective We have designed and synthesized scaffolds with good antibacterial activity as there is a real need to develop new candidates. The obtained antibacterial activity data have been validated in the terms of ligand-protein interaction and thus proves to build up as good drug candidates. Methods All the synthesized compounds have been established by elemental analysis. Antibacterial activity of the compounds were carried out against bacterial strains; three Gram-positive i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and three Gram negative bacterial strains i.e., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi using agar well diffusion method. In silico molecular docking studies were carried out using Glide (grid-based ligand docking) program incorporated in the Schrödinger molecular modeling package by Maestro 11.0. Results Compounds BC 28, BC 32 and BC 33 exhibits antibacterial activity along with Gilde docking score of -8.580, -9.753 kcal/mol and -8.813 kcal/mol respectively. Docking studies explained hydrogen bonding, pi-pi and hydrophobic interactions with amino acid residues which explains the binding affinity of most docked ligand with protein Conclusion In the present study, substituted piperic acid were synthesized were evaluated as antibacterial compared with standard drug ciprofloxacin and results interprets that having nitrogen as heteroatom in the heterocyclic nucleus found to be more potent than the standard drug ciprofloxacin. On comparing, substitution with electron donating groups generates excellent antibacterial potential against the bacterial strains. It was also proved that having substitution with electron donating groups on meta and para position with triazoline ring system exhibits greater potential while compounds which has a meta- electron donating substituent showed lesser activity with thiazole nucleus. In addition, structure based activities of the prepared analogs was discussed under structure activity relationship (SAR) section.
... The antimicrobial activity of black pepper remains unclear till date. According to Rani et al. [71], piperine had potential antimicrobial as well as antifungal effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, (A) flavus, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum. Phenolic compounds obtained from fresh black pepper seed extracts [44] have the potential to inhibit the growth of Bacillus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, S. faecalis and (B) cereus [72,73]. ...
... Similarly, BPEO displayed substantial activity against E. coli, B. substilis, and S. aureus [75]. Besides, most of the studies focusing on the antimicrobial effects of BPEO have been conducted disc diffusion method [71,76,77] though; given its intrinsic limitations, the technique requires to be improved through more relevant MIC assays [78]. ...
Article
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Background: Black pepper [Piper nigrum (L.), Family: Piperaceae] is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases including; cough, cold, dyspnea throat diseases, intermittent fever, dysentery, stomachache, worms and piles. The pharmacological potential of black pepper is due to the presence of metabolites like phenolic compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, etc. The multipurpose use of black pepper dried seeds has several other beneficial health effects that also received in the light of traditional as well as current medicine perspectives. The review aims to discuss the botany, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties of piperine and black pepper essential oil (BPEO). Results: Phytochemical analyses have described the main chemical constituents of black pepper, including carbohydrates, proteins, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids and carotenoids. The volatile oil content ranges from 0.4 to 7 % in dried berries. The major constituents of BPEO are sabinene, 3-carene, D-limonene, α-pinene, caryophyllene, β-phellandrene, α-phellandrene, α-thujene, and β-bisabolene. Additionally, piperine is the naturally occurring and principal bioactive alkaloid constituent of black pepper owing to its potential therapeutic properties, including cerebral brain functioning and increased nutrient absorption. The BPEO has several biological roles, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-obesity, antidepressant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, and insecticidal activities. Conclusions: This review examines and presents the appropriate evidence on black pepper and its traditional uses as well as biological activities of BPEO and piperine. Although several previous reports showed diverse biological effects for piperine and bioactive constitutes of BPEO. Thus, minimal investigations were conducted using animal models, and many of these studies also lacked appropriate experimental setting like doses, control details. Hence, future studies are necessary to understand the mechanism of piperine, BPEO, bioactive constituents and their effects upon their use by animal models and humans with the proper experimental procedure which we can facilitate the protection of human health from several diseases.
... In addition to piperine other alkaloids such as piperidine and piperettine are responsible for most of the advantageous effects of this spice. In Ayurveda, seeds of black pepper used as traditional medications for cough, cold, digestive problems, cholera, anti-rheumatoid, asthma and sinusitis problems 28 . It also gives a beneficial role in the treatment of various other diseases such as constipation, insomnia, earache and pneumonia, tooth decay, anti-influenza, anti-rheumatoid, anti-arthritis and antispasmodic. ...
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Spices are not much more expensive and widely available nowadays, and they contain the massive capacity for protected human health. In India and other developing countries, a human can use spices for the cure of diseases instead of allopathic drugs because herbal drugs have no side effects for human health. In ancient times people used seeds spices as spices for making curries, pickle, bakery products and other food additives. Spices contain various phytochemical compounds or secondary metabolites, which are beneficial for many disorders of human health; thus, the scientist has the challenge to enhance or stable the medicinally active compounds which are present in spices. Seed spices belong to various families, and each spice has its pharmaceutical effects. Cumin, fennel, coriander and fenugreek are the major seed spices crop whereas ajwain, nigella belongs to minor seed spices. Essential oils and extract of seed spices contain various active compounds which are helpful in cure and prevent various diseases. Keywords: spices, essential oils, pharmaceutical effects
... Anethole, a main compound in fennel responsible for the activity against B. cereus was also found in star anise (Shan et al., 2007). The presence of other compounds; curcumin (Moghadamtousi et al., 2014), cuminal (Ceylan and Fung, 2004;Sethi et al., 2013) and piperine (Shiva Rani et al., 2013) in garlic, turmeric, cumin and black pepper, respectively have been reported to inhibit B. cereus. Similarly, for in vivo activity, although there has been not much information available on the enhancement of microbial shelf life in bread by adding spice extracts, few studies reported that range of concentrations of extracts (2 -4%) were needed to enhance the shelf life of bread. ...
Article
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Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) are known to possess good antimicrobial properties. In the present work, spice-infused frozen parathas were formulated to investigate the effect of fennel and coriander on microbial (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mould, and Bacillus cereus) reduction and sensory acceptability of frozen paratha throughout the storage at -18°C. The present work was also aimed at determining the relationship between spice concentrations and storage durations on microbiological quality of the samples. Fennel and coriander seed powder were used at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6% of wheat flour (w/w). The microbiological analysis was performed by total plate count, yeast and mould count, and Bacillus cereus count after 9, 12 and 15 weeks of storage. Sensory evaluation was conducted using hedonic scales at the end of storage durations. Results showed that spice infusion in frozen paratha significantly delayed the growth of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Bacillus cereus during storage. The lowest log count was demonstrated by coriander at 6% in total plate count (3.85, 3.90 and 3.91 log10 CFU/g), and yeast and mould count (2.54, 2.59 and 2.60 log10 CFU/g) after 9, 12 and 15 weeks, respectively. Bacillus cereus was not detected throughout the storage durations. Fennel exhibited minimum activity against Bacillus cereus with no significant difference on log count reduction when compared with control. Coriander showed the highest decrease in both total plate count and Bacillus cereus count during the storage duration. Sensory evaluation result indicated that control sample exhibited the highest preference over all attributes when compared with fennel and coriander. Coriander-infused paratha was slightly darker in colour due to high concentration of 6%. Fennel yielded the lowest score in terms of taste among all samples. Fennel and coriander showed no significant difference for sensory acceptability. Overall, all frozen parathas were in good quality after 15 weeks of frozen storage. It can thus be concluded that fennel and coriander can be used as potential natural preservatives to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in paratha during frozen storage. Nevertheless, the optimum spice concentration should be determined to minimise the effects on the sensory attributes.
... High inhibitory effect of black pepper also was found in a report by Shiva Rani et al. (2013) which indicates that the growth of F. oxysporum and A. alternate were only 17 and 19 mm colony of diameter, respectively. The in vitro application of tobacco extract showed complete inhibition of growth at 60% concentration and more than 50% inhibition even at 20% concentration against Aspergillus viridae and Penicillium digitatum (Suleiman, 2011) which is similar to the result of this experiment. ...
... • Analgesic and anti-in lammatory [17] • Antidiarrheal [18] • Antimicrobial [19] • Antioxidant [20]. ...
Article
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Considerable literature on medicinal uses of black pepper is available in the traditional system of medicine. Black pepper has been used in many traditional, particularly Unani system of medicine. In this review paper, the study of black pepper, its medicinal uses along with pharmacological actions is being presented. The plant description, its chemical constituents, and properties have also been included. The paper also demonstrates the geographical distribution of black pepper across the world. The analysis shows that black pepper could be used as an effective medicine for various ailments in both as single as well in compound formulations.
... contains pungent alkaloids such as piperine [3]. Piperine has also shown anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiarthritic, anti-tumor and antibacteria activities [4][5][6][7][8]. Piperine's taste is sharp, peppery and leaves a burning sensation because it is reported to activate human transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) which is similar to the capsaicin effect [9]. ...
Article
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Background: Piper chaba Hunt. is used as an ingredient in Thai traditional preparation for arthritis. Its isolated compound is piperine which shows anti-inflammatory activity. Piperine produces a burning sensation because it activates TRPV1 receptor. The TRPV1 activation involved with the analgesic and adjuvant effect. P. chaba Hunt. has not been reported about TRPV1 activation and adjuvant effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of P. chaba extract and piperine on TRPV1 receptor, which is considered as a target for analgesic and their adjuvant effects to support the development of an analgesic drug from herbal medicine. Methods: The effect of P. chaba extract and piperine on HEK cells expressing TRPV1 channel was examined by calcium imaging assay. Adjuvant effects of P. chaba extract and piperine were investigated by a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model in mice. Results: P. chaba extract induced calcium influx with EC50 value of 0.67 μg/ml. Piperine induced calcium influx with EC50 value of 0.31 μg/ml or 1.08 μM. For mouse CHS model, we found that 1% piperine, 5% piperine, 1% P. chaba extract and 5% P. chaba extract significantly enhanced sensitization to FITC as revealed by ear swelling responses. Conclusion: P. chaba extract and piperine activated TRPV1 channel and enhanced contact sensitization to FITC.
... The filtrates obtained from each extraction were mixed and concentrated under vacuum. The extracts obtained were kept at 4°C for further use [10]. ...
Article
Objectives: Microbial biofilms has attracted interest in the recent years because they has become the most important cause of nosocomial infections. This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial activities of Carum copticum extracts on the development of microbial biofilms and planktonic form of six pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts against the planktonic form of six pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumonia was evaluated by using the disc diffusion method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values was determined by macro-broth dilution technique. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. The chemical composition of the herbal extract was identified by GC-MS. Results: According to disc diffusion test (MIC and MBC) the ability of C. copticum extracts for inhibition of bacteria in planktonic form was confirmed. The best inhibitory effect of this plant on S. aureus and low inhibitory effect on A. baumannii in planktonic forms were observed. These extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and concentration of each extract has direct relation with inhibitory effect. The maximum and minimum inhibitory effects of C. copticum methanolic extract on biofilm formation were observed on A. baumannii (98%) and K. pneumoniae (19%) respectively. Conclusion: The GC-MS analysis revealed that five active compounds were present in the extract of this plant. Data obtained, suggested that the C. copticum extracts applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens particularly in biofilm making.
... Fungicidal effect of extracts may be due to the lysis of fungal cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane due to the liberation of antimicrobial products. It was also reported that plant lytic enzymes act on the fungal cell wall causing breakage of B-1,3 glycan, B-1,6, glycan and chitin polymer [14,47]. ...
Article
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In vitro study was carried out to test the efficacy of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Nicotiana tabacum Linn. (Tobacco), rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Ginger) leaves of Carica papaya Lam. (pawpaw) and seeds of Piper nigrum Linn. (Black pepper) and a chemical fungicide (mancozeb) at three concentrations of plant extracts (30, 60 and 90 g/L) and mancozeb (4, 8 and 12 g/L). The concentrations were amended in potato dextrose agar (PDA). A. Niger was isolated from rotted tissues of yam tubers obtained from Kadarko in Keana Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The research was conducted at Advanced Plant Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Results revealed that P. nigrum and Z.officinale were the best in fungi toxicity against A. niger at their respective concentrations throughout the period of incubation. This was followed by C. papaya, A. indica and N. tabacum respectively. Mancozeb gave 100 % inhibition at all concentrations tested throughout the period of incubation. Though all the extracts at all concentrations produced significant inhibitory effect (P ≤ 0.05) on mycelial growth of A. niger; the concentrations of 60 g/L and 90 g/L of the plant extracts and 4 g/L of mancozeb were considered more effective and are therefore, recommended for the control of A. niger. This has shown that there is high potential in these natural plant products for the control of yam disease if properly harnessed to replace chemical fungicide which are often harmful to the environment, toxic to man and very costly to purchase.
... Gupta et al. [3] used maceration technique to extract piperine oil from black pepper leaves and thereafter conducted the anti-microbial test but it involved the use of longer extraction time. Rani et al. [11], evaluated the anti-microbial activities of black pepper extracts using the Soxhlet apparatus but a larger amount of solvents was consumed. Liang et al. [12], extracted essential piperine oil using the hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation but there was no clarity whatsoever on the basis with which the piperine yield was calculated and the assurance that other parameter combination could provide better results. ...
Article
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Emerging evidence has revealed the functional characteristics of black pepper extracts for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. The medicinal properties of this important commodity crop are due to the presence of active piperine which it a viable drug potential in ethnomedicine for the treatment of many degenerative free-radical related diseases. In this study, the microwave- enhanced technique was employed in the extraction of alkaloid oleoresins at optimum condition. The metabolomics-based approach was employed to determine the alkaloid profiles using LC-MS-Quadrupled time of flight mass spectrometer. At optimum microwave condition, a total of 21 bioactive alkaloids were identified with piperine being the most abundant with a mass to charge ratio of 286.1442 m/z. The result from the SEM-monograph and BET-surface characterization showed a remarkable transformation in the micro-cellular matrix as a result of the applied microwave electromagnetic heating.
... It is cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as spice and condiments. Black pepper has been traded internationally since ancient times due to their popular culinary role 6 and is known as -King of Spices?. ...
Article
The study aimed to further evaluate the wound healing property of P. nigrum L. using bioassay-guided fractionation method. The ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. was fractionated in two stages using column chromatography and preparative reversed phase C18 HPLC, respectively. Significant wound healing properties screened using the scratch wound assay was observed through the cell migration assay in fraction number three (PNE3) out of the 14 fractions, exhibiting 36.7% and 43.8% closure of wound gap within 20 hours at concentration of 0.3 and 1.0 µg/mL, respectively. Sub-fractions which were further fractionated from PNE3 showed comparatively reduced wound healing activity using the same bioassay. The sub-fractions were also compared to Piperine, a major component of P. nigrum L. and the results were comparable. This experimental study revealed that Piperine works together with other compounds in P. nigrum L. to improve wound healing as claimed by those home remedy.
... Studies have suggested that it is an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) and may increase the efficacy of some an- timicrobials. [10][11][12] PIP has also been reported to have anti- inflammatory, 13 antimicrobial, 14,15 antifungal, 16 analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, 17,18 and anticarcinogenic effects. 19 It may also be able to increase the bioavailability of some drugs [20][21][22] and increase the activation of detoxification enzymes. ...
Article
Piperine, a bioactive compound from Piper nigrum and Piper longum, has shown promising activity as efflux pump (EP) inhibitor and as adjunct in treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The present systematic review investigated scientific studies of the activity of piperine against mycobacteria, with a focus on its mechanism of action, drug interactions, and antimycobacterial activity. A broad and rigorous literature search of three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and LILACS) was performed according to the PRISMA statement. We considered studies that were published up to December 1, 2017. Google Scholar was also searched to increase the number of publications. We searched for articles using the search terms "piperine" and "Mycobacterium spp." The search yielded a total of 225 articles. After removing duplicate publications, 208 publications remained. Of these, we evaluated the full text of 13 articles. After applying the inclusion criteria, eight studies were included in the present systematic review. The results of the systematic review showed that piperine has promising anti-TB activity, mainly when combined with antimicrobials, and plays an important role as an EP inhibitor.
... Piper nigrum Piperaceae Fruit Antimicrobial [139] 104 ...
... The results showed that using of Ceratophyllum demersum at their MIC concentration of 1000 ppm was sufficient to completely prevent the growth of all microbial isolates for up to 6 months ( Table 2). These results were similar to those of [22] who evaluated the antimicrobial activity of piperine against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum and found out that the active ingredient in Piper nigrum has an inhibitory effect on these pathogens. [23]. ...
Article
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All materials of cultural heritage, including paper degradation over time. Microbial contamination with fungi and bacteria can cause a significant damage to old manuscripts as well as a health threat to the librarians. Most of the biological damage is started in poor environmental conditions for storage and display. However, conservation slows down the rate of microbial deterioration. This work aimed to eliminate the effect of microbial deterioration on old manuscripts. The effect of the extract of Ceratophyllum demersum L. Using the fumigation method was studied. The applied doses of the plant extract did not cause any observable alterations or color changes to the old manuscripts. A dose of 200 ppm of the plant extract was the efficient concentration in eliminating microbial growth. Brushing, sparing and fumigation methods were tested for treating microbial deterioration of the old manuscripts. Fumigation using plant extract was found to be the ideal method for its application on damaged archeological papers.
... The plant is used in traditional medicine as aphrodisiac, carminative, stomachic, antiseptic diuretic agent and for the treatment of cough, rheumatoid arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, melanoderma and leprosy. Piperine which is the major chemical constituent of piper nigrum has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Alternaria alternata, A. niger, A. flavus and Fusarium oxysporum (Rani et al, 2013). The cold water and hot water extracts of the Piper nigrum showed an antibacterial activity against the gram positive organisms include Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and gram negative bacteria include E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhae. ...
Article
Full-text available
- Sarvavishadi Thaila (SVT) is one of the widely used herbal preparations in the traditional system of medicine in Sri Lanka. It has been used in the treatment of different type of diseases such as Thundikeri (Tonsilitis), Sarpavisha (Snake bites), Keetavisha (Insect bites), Ratharoga (Skin diseases), Krimiroga (Worm infections), Arshas (Haemorrhoids), Ullogam (Trush), Vruna (Ulcers), Vidradhi (Abcess) & Granthi shotha (Edema). Its formula is consisting with many herbs, oils, spices & minerals which are having different therapeutic Activities. Reviewing of antibacterial and antifungal effect of the medicinal plants used in this formula is the key objective of this study. Review is highlighted that the many studies reveal that the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the medicinal plant used in the formula of Sarvavishadi Thaila.
... It is effective in periodic fever Khan, 2014;Baghdadi, 2005;Khan, 2018). Its activity as antimicrobial is proved (Rani et al., 2013). Piperine is the active constituent in Piper nigrum. ...
Article
Efficacy of Unani Regimen in the treatment of Yaraqan (Jaundice)- A case report
... It has become a target of many studies for its ability to block human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 activity, enhancing drugs bioavailability [8,9]. PIP activity has been reported as anti-inflammatory [10], antimicrobial [11], antifungal [12], analgesic [13], antipyretic and antioxidant [14]. Moreover, prior studies have shown synergistic activity between PIP and classical anti-TB drugs [15]. ...
Article
Aim: To evaluate the modulatory effect of piperine (PIP) on streptomycin (SM) activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Materials & methods: SM and PIP minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and combinatory activity were determined in Mtb H37Rv and in susceptible and resistant clinical isolates. Ethidium bromide accumulation assay and relative quantification of efflux pumps genes (rv1258c, rv1218c and rv2942), after SM and SM+PIP combination exposure, were also performed. Results: PIP concentration of 25 μg/ml (1/4× MIC) was able to inhibit efflux pumps activity, to modulate SM activity in Mtb, and conducted changes in the relative quantification of efflux pumps genes. Conclusion: SM+PIP combination was able to rescue the SM susceptible MIC values in SM resistant Mtb.
... It is effective in periodic fever (Ghani, 2011;Ibn Baitar, 1999;Khan, 2014;Baghdadi, 2005;Khan, 2018). Its activity as antimicrobial is proved (Rani et al., 2013). Piperine is the active constituent in Piper nigrum. ...
Article
levated core body temperature above the normal range (>38 °C) is considered as fever. According to Unani Medicine, Ùummä (fever) is a transient state that initiates at first in the heart and spreads along with Rüù and Dam (blood) of vessels across the body leading to the malfunctioning of normal body function. In this condition, body temperature is higher than that of exercise and anger. It is caused by Ùarärat Gharéba Ajnabiyya. There are a number of single drugs and compound formulations which are used in fever in Unani Medicine. Dawä'-i-Hiltét is described in various Unani classical books. It is basically indicated in Ùummä al-Rib'. Ùummä al-Rib' is a type of Ùummä 'Ufüné. There are four ingredients in this formulation: Hiltét (Gum of Ferula foetida Regel.), Mur Makké (Gum of Commiphora myrrha Nees), Filfil Siyäh (Fruits of Piper nigrum L.) and Sudäb (Leaves of Ruta graveolens L.). In the compound formulation Dawä'-i-Hiltét, all the four ingredients are Däfi'-i-Ùummä and Däfi'-i-'Ufünat.
... P. betle leaves have exhibited activity against Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. Further, Piperine extracted from P. nigrum fruits and the crude extract has showed the antibacterial activity against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli [23]. ...
Article
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The Genus Piper comprises with many economically and medicinally important species in which essential oil is one of the major secondary metabolites responsible for medicinal properties of these plants. The present study was aimed to investigate volatile chemical constituents and in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of eight Piper species found in Sri Lanka. Plant specimens were collected from natural habitats and cultivations. Essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis. Identification of the volatile chemical constituents was performed by Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Antioxidant activity was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay (FRAP). Human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilizing method was used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the antibacterial activity, agar well diffusion assay was conducted for five Piper species and were tested against three pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. As the major volatile constituents of Piper nigrum, β-caryophyllene (60.5-9.1%), caryophyllene oxide (8.49-1.3%), α-copaene (7.4-3.1%), cadina-1,(10)-4-diene (4.3-2.1%), (n)-trans-nerolidol (5.9-0.5%), 4-epi cubedol (11.0-0.5%) and β-linalool (5.7-0.7%) were identified. P. betle was dominated by safrole (39.7-33.0%) and eugenol (43.2-27.4%). Piper longum, P. chuvya and P. sylvestre contained (n)-trans-nerolidol (12.7-0.2%, 66.5% and 41.2% respectively) as the major compounds. P. betle, P. chuvya and P. longum leaves had high antioxidant activity when compared with the standard Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, P. betle exhibited high anti-inflammatory activity when compared to the standard (Aspirin). P. nigrum and P. betle showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Moreover, P. betle exhibited significant activity against B. Subtilis. The bioactivity test results revealed that some of the Piper species available in Sri Lanka are potential sources for developing new herbal drugs.
... The dried fruits and roots in the form of decoction were extensively used in acute and chronic bronchitis by traditional practitioners. Scientific reports also revealed that it has potent anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties (Parmar et al. 1997;Khajuria et al. 1998;Sunila and Kuttan 2004;Palaksha et al. 2013;Rani 2013;Moon et al. 2016;Zhai et al. 2016). Grange and Davey (1990) conducted an experiment against human M.tb H37Rv strain and revealed that ethanolic extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of TB strain at 1 : 80 dilution. ...
Article
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Tuberculosis (TB), is one of the deadliest infectious‐diseases of human‐civilization. Approximately one‐third of global‐population is latently‐infected with the TB‐pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). The discovery of anti‐TB antibiotics leads to decline in death‐rate of TB. However, the evolution of antibiotic‐resistant, M.tb‐strain, and the resurgence of different immune compromised diseases re‐escalated the death‐rate of TB. WHO has already cautioned about the chances of pandemic‐situation in TB endemic countries unless the discovery of new antitubercular drugs, i.e., the need of the hour. Analysing the pathogenesis of TB it was found that M.tb evades the host by altering the balance of immune‐response and affects either by killing the cells or by creating inflammation. In the pre‐antibiotic era, traditional medicines were only therapeutic measures for different infectious‐diseases including tuberculosis. The ancient‐literatures of India or ample Indian traditional knowledge and ethnomedicinal‐practices are evidence for the treatment of TB using different indigenous plants. However, in the light of modern scientific approach, anti‐TB effects of those plants and their bioactive‐molecules were not established thoroughly. In this review, focus has been given on five bioactive‐molecules of different traditionally used Indian ethnomedicinal plants for treatment of TB or TB‐like symptom. These compounds are also validated with proper identification and their mode of action with modern scientific approaches. The effectiveness of these molecules for sensitive or drug‐resistant TB‐pathogen in clinical or preclinical studies were also evaluated. Thus, our specific aim is to highlight such scientifically validated bioactive compounds having anti‐mycobacterial and immuno‐modulatory activity for future use as medicine or adjunct‐therapeutic molecule for TB management.
... The plant is used in traditional medicine as aphrodisiac, carminative, stomachic, antiseptic diuretic agent and for the treatment of cough, rheumatoid arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, melanoderma and leprosy. Piperine which is the major chemical constituent of piper nigrum has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Alternaria alternata, A. niger, A. flavus and Fusarium oxysporum (Rani et al, 2013). The cold water and hot water extracts of the Piper nigrum showed an antibacterial activity against the gram positive organisms include Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and gram negative bacteria include E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhae. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sarvavishadi Thaila (SVT) is one of the widely used herbal preparations in the traditional system of medicine in srilanka. It has been used in the treatment of different type of diseases such as Thundikeri (Tonsilitis), Sarpavisha (Snake bites), Keetavisha (Insect bites), Ratharoga (Skin diseases), Krimiroga (Worm infections), Arshas (Haemorrhoids), Ullogam (Trush), Vruna (Ulcers), Vidradhi (Abcess) & Granthi shotha (Edema). Its formula is consisting with many herbs, oils, spices & minerals which are having different therapeutic Activities. Reviewing of antibacterial and antifungal effect of the medicinal plants used in this formula is the key objective of this study. Review is highlighted that the many studies reveal that the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the medicinal plant used in the formula of sarvavishadi thaila.
... Moreover, black pepper contains 8% moisture, 10% protein, 10.2% lipid, 66.5% carbohydrate, 4.6% ash and vitamins [30]. Since olden times, Piper nigrum has been used aroma and flavour, as well as for medicinal purposes in many parts of the world [31]. Although Nagavekar and Singhal [32] noted that the antimicrobial activities of Piper nigrum are due to the presence of oleoresins, in general, the antimicrobial activity of black pepper is primarily due to piperine [33]. ...
Article
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The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of black pepper (BPE) and cinnamon bark (CE) extracts against E. fergusonii was assessed in pasteurized full cream milk during and post-fermentation. The milk was fermented with 1% (v/v) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus (NCIMB 11778) and Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIMB 10387) (approx. 106 cfu/mL each) and incubated and stored at 25 °C for 5 days (144 h) or at 43 °C for 24 h and then stored at 25 °C for 120 h. The milk was spiked with E. fergusonii at the start of fermentation by the lactic acid bacteria (pre-fermentation contamination) for after fermentation (post fermentation contamination). BPE and CE were applied at concentrations based on their minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5% and 0.25% respectively as follows: 0.5% BPE alone; 0.125% BPE with 0.1875% CE; 0.25% BPE with 0.125% CE; 0.375% BPE with 0.0625% CE; 0.25% CE alone. Results showed that during fermentation at 25 °C, E. fergusonii grew to a similar level (approx. 109 CFU/mL) in control samples and 108 CFU/mL when BPE or CE were added alone. Whereas, in the samples with the combined essential oils, the bacterium grew to 106–107 CFU/mL only. During the milk fermentation at 43 °C, E. fergusonii grew to approx. 109 CFU/mL in samples without treatment. However, it was not detected in samples containing mixed BPE with CE after 8, 10 and 12 h of fermentation. Subsequent storage at 25 °C resulted in undetectable levels of the bacterium in all the samples treated with BPE or CE after 24 h of storage. These results indicated that BPE in combination with CE reduced growth during fermentation and was bactericidal during storage.
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Despite the threat of coronavirus infection, the Siddha system of medicine, India's traditional medicine, plays an important role in southern India, particularly in Tamilnadu. It contributed considerably not only in the first wave of Covid-19, but also in the second wave. The Government of Tamilnadu developed Siddha COVID-19 treatment centers for asymptomatic, mild, and moderate COVID-19 positive patients in 2020. The TPEC COVID Care Centre initiated at Vellore also one of the Centers that can be managed by Siddha medicines and Siddhar's Yogam. As of July 14, 2021, about 4525 COVID positive patients had been treated with Siddha integrated treatment at Vellore alone in the first and second waves. Kaba Sura Kudineer, Thalisathy Review Article Thillaivanan et al.; JPRI, 33(44B): 504-516, 2021; Article no.JPRI.73602 505 Vadagam, Amukkara Chooranam Mathirai, Bramanandha Bairavam Mathirai, and Adathodai Manapagu are indeed the five Siddha classical preparations used to manage the symptoms of COVID-19 positive patients at TPEC COVID Care Centre in Vellore. This Siddha medical practice is effective in conditions of symptoms and helps in the reduction of clinical outcomes. A pilot study at the same site confirmed the Siddha classical preparation's safety and effectiveness. A feedback analysis study performed at the same center also revealed that the above-mentioned Siddha classical preparations are beneficial in symptomatic treatment without causing any side effects. The medicines utilized in this study are typically proposed in other COVID care centers also in Tamilnadu. This review attempted to analyze the preclinical and clinical efficacy of Siddha Classical medicines used at that Centre for the management of COVID-19.
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Spices have broadly been used as food flavoring and folk medicine since ancient times. Numerous phytochemicals have been identified in spices, namely thymol (ajowan and thyme), anethole (aniseed), piperine (black pepper), capsaicin (capsicum), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon), eugenol (clove), linalool (coriander), sabinene (curry leaf), limonene (dill seed), estragole (fennel seed), allicin (garlic), gingerol (ginger), safranal (saffron), and curcumin (turmeric), among others. The antioxidants in spices are very effective and also render anti-mutagenic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Apart from their antioxidant efficacy, spices, particularly their essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and microbial toxins synthesis. In this contribution, a summary of the most relevant and recent findings on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of spices has been compiled and discussed. The content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids in different spices are summarized. In addition, the beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and in health promotion and disease risk reduction are briefly described.
Chapter
Microbial resistance and greater prevalence of new and old pathogens with limited capacity of antibiotics and other chemical products (including bactericides, fungicides) have raised considerable concerns in the treatment of pathogenic microbes. A lot of studies have recently been aimed at finding promising solutions to overcome these problems. Nature has ever been a reliable potential provider of medicative plants that contain various active medicinal biomolecules and possess biological activity against a variety of diseases. These plants synthesized biomolecules that acted as their natural protection mechanism and were also used in medicinal, agrochemicals, and pharmaceutical applications. They possess antimicrobial properties that are associated with their capacity to generate several secondary antimicrobial metabolites that can provide an alternative control measure. Plant biomolecules possess various mechanisms of action to conduct possible antimicrobial activities against susceptible and resistant pathogens. Implementation of an alternative control measures using plant biomolecule antimicrobials measure is worth pursuing to overcome the menace. This can be done to reduce the incidence of diseases and pathogens resistance for food security and safety. Planning and implementing successful strategies for disease management is necessary to guarantee sustainable crop production systems. Taking these into account, it can be concluded that plant biomolecules are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with strong antimicrobial activities that may be used as an alternative control measure. Consequently, the aim of this chapter is to have a description of the different kinds of plant biomolecules, their applications and antimicrobial activity that might help researchers to develop new treatments against different plant and animal diseases for food security and safety.
Article
Considered as the “King of spices”, black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a widely used spice which adds flavor of its own to dishes, and also enhances the taste of other ingredients. Piper nigrum has also been extensively explored for its biological properties and its bioactive phyto-compounds. There is, however, no updated compilation of these available data to provide a complete profile of the medicinal aspects of P. nigrum. This study endeavors to systematically review scientific data on the traditional uses, phytochemical composition, and pharmacological properties of P. nigrum. Information was obtained using a combination of keywords via recognized electronic databases (e.g., Science Direct and Google Scholar). Google search was also used. Books and online materials were also considered, and the literature search was restricted to the English language. The country with the highest number of traditional reports of P. nigrum for both human and veterinary medicine was India, mostly for menstrual and ear-nose-throat disorders in human and gastrointestinal disorders in livestock. The seeds and fruits were mostly used, and the preferred mode of preparation was in powdered form, pills or tablets, and paste. Piper nigrum and its bioactive compounds were also found to possess important pharmacological properties. Antimicrobial activity was recorded against a wide range of pathogens via inhibition of biofilm, bacterial efflux pumps, bacterial swarming, and swimming motilities. Studies also reported its antioxidant effects against a series of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including the scavenging of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, DPPH, ABTS, and reducing effect against ferric and molybdenum (VI). Improvement of antioxidant enzymes in vivo has also been reported. Piper nigrum also exhibited anticancer effect against a number of cell lines from breast, colon, cervical, and prostate through different mechanisms including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, autophagy, and interference with signaling pathways. Its antidiabetic property has also been confirmed in vivo as well as hypolipidemic activity as evidenced by decrease in the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in high-density lipoprotein. Piper nigrum also has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective effects. The major bioactive compound identified in P. nigrum is piperine although other compounds are also present including piperic acid, piperlonguminine, pellitorine, piperolein B, piperamide, piperettine, and (-)-kusunokinin, which also showed biological potency. Most pharmacological studies were conducted in vitro (n = 60) while only 21 in vivo and 1 clinical trial were performed. Hence, more in vivo experiments using a pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic approach would be beneficial. As a conclusive remark, P. nigrum should not only be regarded as “King of spices” but can also be considered as part of the kingdom of medicinal agents, comprising a panoply of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
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Full-text available
Spices have broadly been used as food flavoring and folk medicine since ancient times. Numerous phytochemicals have been identified in spices, namely thymol (ajowan and thyme), anethole (aniseed), piperine (black pepper), capsaicin (capsicum), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon), eugenol (clove), linalool (coriander), sabinene (curry leaf), limonene (dill seed), estragole (fennel seed), allicin (garlic), gingerol (ginger), safranal (saffron), and curcumin (turmeric), among others. The antioxidants in spices are very effective and also render anti-mutagenic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Apart from their antioxidant efficacy, spices, particularly their essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and microbial toxins synthesis. In this contribution, a summary of the most relevant and recent findings on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of spices has been compiled and discussed. The content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids in different spices are summarized. In addition, the beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and in health promotion and disease risk reduction are briefly described.
Article
Piper nigrum Linn. (Black pepper) has long been widely used in traditional medicines. Peppercorns used as a hot and pungent spice for flavoring food, as well as for the treatment in some diseases. It is known that many constituents, alkaloids, flavones, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, saponins, phenols, glycosides, terpenes and lignans. These compounds are called phytochemicals which several pharmacological properties, such as anti-diarrheal, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular protective, anti-pyretic, anti-depression and anti-cancer activities. Therefore, in this review provides a summary of phytochemicals from black pepper and its mechanism of actions in pharmacology.
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Plants are very useful source of various bioactive compounds which have direct or indirect use in the treatment of various human ailments from the time immemorial, human civilization have been exploring and using various plants and plant products to cure the deadly diseases. Vayugulika is a medicine is formulated based on Kerala Ayurveda practice. It is used in treating indigestion, anorexia, hicup. Cold, cough, rhinitis, asthma and bronchitis Colic abdominal pain. Sprain, convulsions, epilepsy and nerve disorders. It is used as adjuvant along with other Ayurvedic medicines in wide variety of diseases. The phytomedicines are safe and environmental friendly. Infact many indigenous and local communities are immense reservoirs of traditional knowledge that can benefit biotechnology, agriculture, pharmaceutical development and health care. The present study intends to provide an overview of the phytochemical constituents present in the Ayurvedic medicine Vayugulika with special emphasis on their pharmacological action.
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Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is known as king of spices and it's sharp taste is due to the presence of piperine which is the main bioactive alkaloid in the fruit. In the present study both of piperine and black pepper oil in different concentrations evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+ coccoid shaped bacteria), Bacillus subtilis (G+ long spore forming bacteria), Salmonella sp and E.coli (G- short rod bacteria). The inhibition activity was measured by using agar well diffusion method. Piperine and black pepper oil showed antibacterial activity with all tested Gram positive bacteria with zones ranged from 8.23-18.1mm and 3.14-10.43,respectively. The results showed that piperine is an excellent antibacterial agent with all tested bacteria.
Article
Despite the threat of coronavirus infection, the Siddha system of medicine, India's traditional medicine, plays an important role in southern India, particularly in Tamilnadu. It contributed considerably not only in the first wave of Covid-19, but also in the second wave. The Government of Tamilnadu developed Siddha COVID-19 treatment centers for asymptomatic, mild, and moderate COVID-19 positive patients in 2020. The TPEC COVID Care Centre initiated at Vellore also one of the Centers that can be managed by Siddha medicines and Siddhar’s Yogam. As of July 14, 2021, about 4525 COVID positive patients had been treated with Siddha integrated treatment at Vellore alone in the first and second waves. Kaba Sura Kudineer, Thalisathy Vadagam, Amukkara Chooranam Mathirai, Bramanandha Bairavam Mathirai, and Adathodai Manapagu are indeed the five Siddha classical preparations used to manage the symptoms of COVID-19 positive patients at TPEC COVID Care Centre in Vellore. This Siddha medical practice is effective in conditions of symptoms and helps in the reduction of clinical outcomes. A pilot study at the same site confirmed the Siddha classical preparation's safety and effectiveness. A feedback analysis study performed at the same center also revealed that the above-mentioned Siddha classical preparations are beneficial in symptomatic treatment without causing any side effects. The medicines utilized in this study are typically proposed in other COVID care centers also in Tamilnadu. This review attempted to analyze the preclinical and clinical efficacy of Siddha Classical medicines used at that Centre for the management of COVID-19.
Article
BACKGROUND: Background research interest focuses on medicinal herbs such as Cinnamomum verum and Piper nigrum extracts can be used to trap the microbes from the atmosphere. To collect bark of Cinnamomum verum and Piper nigrum plants and make a dry powder. To perform Phytochemicals analysis for the extracted powder. To perform antimicrobial susceptibility test and MIC against different strains. To develop herbal coated tissue paper. METHODOLOGY: The bark of Cinnamomum verum and Piper nigrum were collected and finely powdered. Different extracts of C. verum and P. nigrum (10 μl to 40 μl) were loaded on to the wells of MHA and incubated at 37 ˚C for 24 h to determine the MIC. Highest antimicrobial concentration of the herbal extract was coated on the tissue by spraying method. Discussion: The microbial load was significantly decreased in library after exposure of herbal extract. CONCLUSION: The Research work concludes that 30 μl concentration of C.verum and P. nigrum is effective to reduce the microbial load in our library atmosphere. The developed filter paper can be placed in the library environment since it is eco-friendly and cost effective.
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Ayurveda is the science of life having wide description of Krimighna dravya in its literature. Ayurvedic pharmacopeia of India published by the Ministry of AYUSH is a monograph of single drugs; which is very popular for all stack holder of Ayush system of medicines. This article details the review of single drugs mentioned in API part I (Vol I to VI) and their screening for Krimighna (antimicrobial) properties. Present article also aims for validating classical fact with published scientific research work.
Chapter
Present control technologies of plant pathogenic fungi decouple the pathogen’s life cycle mainly in two points of ontogeny, either by destroying spores prevent the infection or inhibit the biotrophic thallus, thus anticipating the formation of new infective propagules. Although, nowadays, the only tool for credible control of cultivated plants is the use of synthetic chemicals, the calculability of yield sureness has been worldwide threatened by the emergence of acquired tolerance to this group of pesticides as well as anxious feelings for their undesirable side effects. This situation urges the development of efficient alternative control agents, as threatening the net return even 10% disease incidence can cause economic loss. One approach to discover newer antimicrobial compounds is to search for their presence in natural sources exploiting the defense strategies of plants against their pathogens. Contrary to phytoalexins that are synthesized de novo after the plant is exposed to microbial attack, i.e., being produced in response of elicitors or stressors, the phytoanticipins are not formed in the tissue or released from preexisting plant constituents. These substances are plant antibiotics presented in tissue prior to infection, serving as the basis of pest tolerance. Several thousands of such molecules of different structure have been identified; however, few of them met practical application. In this chapter, we focus on constitutive mechanisms that might be used for controlling phytopathogenic fungi with special regard to organic substances, which might serve either as botanical fungicides or as lead compounds for molecular design. Consequently, the introduction of alien phytoanticipins and precursors of phytoalexins into the proper host/parasite system can represent a prospective tool for disease management. We summarized the results and experiences of past three decades searching for candidates for biofungicides useful in pest management practices. The efficacy of over 100 plant species used as either spices or preparations in traditional medicine or culinary was demonstrated in vitro against 25 phytopathogenic fungi, and possible use of promising candidates was discussed.
Thesis
"Evaluation of phytochemicals as antimicrobial agents on Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger".
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Increased demand for food to feed the ever-growing population led to development and adoption of synthetic chemicals as a quick and effective strategy of managing crop pests and diseases. However, overreliance on synthetic pesticides is discouraged due to their detrimental effects on human health, the environment, and development of resistant pest and pathogen strains. This, coupled with increasing demand for organically produced foods, stimulated search for alternative approaches and botanical pesticides are particularly gaining importance. Botanical pesticides are efficacious in managing different crop pests, inexpensive, easily biodegraded, have varied modes of action, their sources are easily available and have low toxicity to non-target organisms. Their varied modes of action are attributed to the phytochemical composition in different plants. Therefore, they can be incorporated into integrated pest management systems and contribute to sustainable agricultural production. Nevertheless, botanical pesticides have not been fully adopted due to challenges in formulation and commercialization which are attributed to lack of chemical data and positive controls. Many publications have featured botanical pesticides with skewed interest towards management of insect pests. This review brings together information regarding botanical pesticides, their phytochemical composition and mechanisms of action against pests of importance in agricultural production. The paper also presents chemistry data of selected botanical pesticides, their biodegradation, role in integrated pest management and the challenges facing their adoption and utilization for sustainable crop pest management. Keywords: Botanical pesticides, Integrated pest management, Phytochemicals, Mechanism of action
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bioactive compounds (BACs): linalool (LIN) and piperine (PIP) on chicken meat characteristics. The meat was treated with 500, 1000 ppm of BACs, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 8 days. Physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), microbiological status, and sensorial (electronic-nose based) properties were investigated. Both BACs significantly increased the redness (a*) and chroma (C*) values in meat compared to increased lightness (L*) and higher TBARS in control. Although both BACs showed overlapping aroma profile, the E-nose was able to distinguish between the different meat groups. LIN with various dilution ratios, particularly 1:10 (v:v), showed in vitro growth inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Bacillus cereus, concomitantly Listeria monocytogenes required 1:80 (v:v) to be inhibited, and no inhibition was detected for Pseudomonas lundensis. In contrast, PIP at different dilutions did not exhibit inhibitory activity. Regarding aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC), less than 7 log CFU g−1 were recorded except for control showing higher log. Both BACs have potential to improve quality characteristics and increase the shelf life of meat and meat products.
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