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Menstrual Wellness and Menstrual Problems

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... It has a long history of use as an astringent and antihemorrhagic, and was specifically used for heavy uterine bleeding, and to treat hematuria and menorrhagia. The alcohol extract of this plant exerted contractile activity on rat uterus equivalent to that of oxytocin [38]. The extract of dried or fresh plant material of this plant has also caused a strong contraction of the uterus and small intestines of guinea-pigs in other studies [38][39][40][41][42]. ...
... The alcohol extract of this plant exerted contractile activity on rat uterus equivalent to that of oxytocin [38]. The extract of dried or fresh plant material of this plant has also caused a strong contraction of the uterus and small intestines of guinea-pigs in other studies [38][39][40][41][42]. ...
... Adolescent girls were the highly vulnerable group with respect to social status and health, and the menstruation is viewed unclean or dirty in society (Upashe et al., 2015;Dasgupta and Sarkar, 2008;Thakur et al., 2014;Ali and Rizvi, 2010). During menstruation, adolescent girls restricted in mobility, from participating in household and spiritual events and extend to eating certain foods like papaya and jiggery (Shah et al., 2013;Thakur et al., 2014;Romm et al., 2010). In rural areas of India, even today's also menstruation is a secret of mother and daughter in many families (Thakur et al., 2014). ...
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In India, awareness about menstruation before menarche was low, and it is viewed as unclean or dirty in society. In adolescent girls who attained menstruation for the first time, menstrual hygiene management is constrained by social, practical and economic factors such as the expense of sanitary pads, lack of water facilities, lack of private rooms for changing sanitary pads, and limited education about the facts of menstrual hygiene. The practice of good menstrual hygiene reduces the incidence of reproductive tract infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of pharmacist mediated educational program on menstrual hygiene practice. An interventional study was carried out to assess the impact of menstrual hygiene practice on knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in backward areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. A self-administered questionnaire comprises socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge related to menstruation and menstrual hygiene practice was used to collect data. The collected data was analyzed to assess the knowledge related to the menstrual hygiene practice, school attendance during the menstrual period at baseline and after providing education on menstrual hygiene. The present study reveals that 52.52% of the participants had good knowledge about menstrual hygiene. Pharmacist mediated educational program showed great improvement on the practice of menstrual hygiene such as the use of sanitary pads was improved from 40.42% to 93.38%. After educational program school dropouts was greatly declined from 55.32% to 7.33%. Pharmacist mediated program had a positive impact on menstrual hygiene practice, Government of India need to conduct more educational programs on menstrual hygiene management at a community level.
... The treatment of urinary and gynecological conditions, such as renal colic and dysmenorrhea reported in Valencia, could also rely on the antispasmodic action of rutin (1), quercetin (3), and scopoletin (5) [88,89]. ...
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Plants from the genus Mercurialis have a long history of use as herbal remedies in traditional Spanish medicine. The growing interest in the conservation of knowledge related to biodiversity has encouraged us to review the bioactive phytochemicals from the four most widespread Mercurialis species in the Iberian Peninsula (M. annua L., M. ambigua L., M. perennis L., and M. tomentosa L.). First, the medicinal uses of these four species throughout Spain were compiled, and then a bibliographical search on their chemical composition was conducted in an attempt to justify their reported traditional uses. We found that most of the medicinal uses of Mercurialis spp. are supported by scientific evidence. This includes its antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties attributable to the flavonoid rutin and narcissin, respectively; its benefits in the treatment of skin dark spots, attributable to mequinol; and its anti-inflammatory activity, attributable to scopoletin, kaempferol, squalene, and cycloartenol. This review contributes to the validation of the medicinal uses of Mercurialis spp. in Spain and provides some new avenues for further investigations on the biological activity of this interesting medicinal plant.
... Regarding the use of L. cardiaca in female disorders, the plant is listed as a natural remedy for female reproductive system (anxiolytic, antispasmodic, PMS, and menopausal anxiety) [43], as an emmenagogue, nervine, amenorrhea, analgesic, and uterine astringents/vascular decongestants and for treating adolescent dysmenorrhea [44], for treating menopausal anxiety, and as tranquilizer [45]. Lans et al. [46] present motherwort as a natural cure used in North America from colonial times, due to its tonic, emmenagogue, antispasmodic, and nervine properties, citing pre-1900 works. ...
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Leonurus cardiaca L. (motherwort) is a perennial herb, native to Asia and southeastern Europe, with widespread global occurrence in present days. The plant was historically used as cardiotonic and for treating gynaecological afflictions (such as amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menopausal anxiety, or postpartum depression). Although its use in oriental and occidental medicine is relatively well documented, the recent progress registered raises the need for an update of the Medicines Agency assessment report on Leonurus cardiaca L., herba (2010). The current study presents the progress made within the 2010-2018 timeframe regarding the potential applications and scientific evidences supporting the traditional use of motherwort, in the same time suggesting future research opportunities.
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Endometriosis (EM) is defined as endometrial tissues found outside the uterus. Growth and development of endometriotic cells in ectopic sites can be promoted via multiple pathways, including MAPK/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NF‐κB, Rho/ROCK, reactive oxidative stress, tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor‐β, Wnt/β‐catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor, estrogen, and cytokines. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, migration, invasion, fibrosis, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune escape. Current medical treatments for EM are mainly hormonal and symptomatic, and thus the development of new, effective, and safe pharmaceuticals targeting specific molecular and signaling pathways is needed. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature focused on pharmaceuticals that specifically target the molecular and signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of EM. Potential drug targets, their upstream and downstream molecules with key aberrant signaling, and the regulatory mechanisms promoting the growth and development of endometriotic cells and tissues were discussed. Hormonal pharmaceuticals, including melatonin, exerts proapoptotic via regulating matrix metallopeptidase activity while nonhormonal pharmaceutical sorafenib exerts antiproliferative effect via MAPK/ERK pathway and antiangiogenesis activity via VEGF/VEGFR pathway. N‐acetyl cysteine, curcumin, and ginsenoside exert antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory effects via radical scavenging activity. Natural products have high efficacy with minimal side effects; for example, resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate have multiple targets and provide synergistic efficacy to resolve the complexity of the pathophysiology of EM, showing promising efficacy in treating EM. Although new medical treatments are currently being developed, more detailed pharmacological studies and large sample size clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of these treatments in the near future.
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