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Heritage: Critical Approaches

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Abstract

Historic sites, memorials, national parks, museums... We live in an age in which heritage is ever-present. But what does it mean to live amongst the spectral traces of the past, the heterogeneous piling up of historic materials in the present? How did heritage grow from the concern of a handful of enthusiasts and specialists in one part of the world to something which is considered to be universally cherished? And what concepts and approaches are necessary to understanding this global obsession? Over the decades, since the adoption of the World Heritage Convention, various 'crises' of definition have significantly influenced the ways in which heritage is classified, perceived and managed in contemporary global societies. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to the many tangible and intangible 'things' now defined as heritage, this book attempts simultaneously to account for this global phenomenon and the industry which has grown up around it, as well as to develop a 'toolkit of concepts' with which it might be studied. In doing so, it provides a critical account of the emergence of heritage studies as an interdisciplinary field of academic study. This is presented as part of a broader examination of the function of heritage in late modern societies, with a particular focus on the changes which have resulted from the globalisation of heritage during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Developing new theoretical approaches and innovative models for more dialogically democratic heritage decision making processes, Heritage: Critical Approaches unravels the relationship between heritage and the experience of late modernity, whilst reorienting heritage so that it mighht be more productively connected with other pressing social, economic, political and environmental issues of our time.

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... I do not aim to repeat their work of summarising or agenda-setting here (see Gentry & Smith, 2019 for a systematic overview of literature citations in heritage studies since the 1980s; and e.g. R. Harrison, 2013;Smith, 2006;Waterton & Watson, 2013. Instead, before moving forward to see how heritage studies have engaged thus far with climate change in the following chapters, I want to give a short overview of the background to which this relationship has been built within academic heritage thinking. ...
... The idea of heritage has evolved significantly over the past few decades, slowly finding its way from being mainly grounded on a conservation-based interest to a complex phenomenon embedded in more extensive social networks as well as an active agent in the shaping of society and futures (R. Harrison et al., 2016;). In other words, from a practice that focuses on the past to one that equally pays attention to the present and how heritage activities in the present create a future (R. Harrison, 2013;D. C. Harvey, 2001). ...
... These organisations became the official authorities to define heritage places and practices and the correct means of their conservation and management on an international level (see e.g. R. Harrison, 2013). In the official discourses of such agencies, heritage was often presented as a passive resource, supported by an emphasis mainly on the material aspects of tangible heritage ). ...
Thesis
This thesis critically examines the impact of climate change on the heritage work of Historic England (HE) and the Riksantikvarieämbetet (‘Swedish National Heritage Board’ – RAÄ). The research is based on the understanding of climate change as a hyperobject (Morton, 2013), a term coined to describe the ways in which climate change does not only operate through its physical impact but also shifts social and material relations between humans, nonhumans and inanimate agents. By applying an ethnographic methodology, this thesis critically reflects on the responses of HE and the RAÄ to the climate crisis by questioning what understandings of climate change and heritage inform these and, subsequently, what this means for climate action and the creation of (alternative) futures. The research develops around three themes representing both organisations' primary climate change engagements: adaptation, mitigation, and participation. The thesis argues that the first two responses are informed by understanding climate change as an environmental impact and a carbon problem. The third theme considers how both organisations aim to be included in the climate change discourse as it takes place in other sectors, particularly in the natural environment sector and how they attempt to challenge these existing nature/culture dichotomies. However, I will argue that they do not overcome this dualism on the ontological level. Throughout, it argues that both organisations uphold an anthropocentric approach that aims to demonstrate heritage's relevance and positive impact by emphasising the benefits of its conservation to its human custodians, while climate change remains framed as an external impact. The latter prevents a critical reflection of the existing heritage discourse, the socio-environmental and political drivers of the climate crisis and the role heritage plays in these. Therefore, in conclusion, this thesis briefly reflects on what role heritage could play in futures that challenge the current status quo.
... The term 'heritagization' emerged in the late twentieth century, to denote a transformative and historically contingent process, by which historic artefacts and places turn into objects of display and exhibition with an effect in the present (Harvey 2008;Harrison 2013). Considering 'heritage as a process' (Howard 2003) or heritage as an 'intangible event' (Smith 2015), the heritage discourse shifts from what heritage is to what heritage does. ...
... This perspective is aligned to critical heritage theory that envisages understanding the myriad discourses at historic sites. Scholars such as Smith (2006Smith ( , 2009, Pendlebury (2013), Harrison (2013) and Di Giovine (2015) maintain that ascribing agency to 'heritage users' (individual act of will) could provide insight on alternative narratives that might have been concealed. Such an approach can explore how different agencies and social structures are manifested within assemblages and how their realities are mixed and merged to shape heritagization. ...
... By acknowledging these mechanisms and the contextual and contingent way in which they are activated, researchers could be more attentive to the constant struggle between social structures. How their positions are constructed (Di Giovine 2015) and how these are shaped by ontological presuppositions and different realities (Harrison 2013(Harrison , 2015 such as the unique relationships Indigenous people have developed with the natural world based on oral tradition, performativity, and material embodiment of sacred powers (Wright 2013). Thus, considering heritagization as a 'laminated phenomenon' (Elder-Vass 2010), scholars can elucidate the particular ways various parties, including institutions, powerful social actors, and other discourses are organised in particular relations. ...
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The heritagization of religious sites has been increasingly studied in recent decades, with the focus shifting from the impact of mass tourism to considering the appropriation and commodification of religious sites as processes characterised by institutional dynamics and conflicting values. Drawing on an integrative-synthetic review as its methodological backbone, through critical heritage theory, advocating an epistemological turn towards post-secular strategies, this conceptual paper explores how the complex relationship between heritage, religion and tourism has been discussed and problematised by a growing literature addressing the heritagization of religious sites. Findings show that previous work has been limited to examining issues of commodification and living religion highlighting a hybrid sacred/secular space, while few researchers have addressed issues of conservation and authenticity. This is evident in the lack of qualitative studies examining the impact of gentrification, restoration and curatorial strategies in the way religious sites are experienced. Thus, the agency of visitors to construct alternative narratives is concealed, while there remains uncertainty regarding the multiplicity of institutional mechanisms influencing conservation assemblages. The paper concludes that research needs to further engage with the dialectics that underpin religious heritage planning assemblages and critically examine the epistemological assumptions under which religious heritage consumption have been considered.
... The past is indeed a cultural resource, in which the ideas and values of the past can be the inspiration for new creation (Hewison 1987), but this is exactly why Indonesia needs to focus more on the management and development of culture not just for the creative economy, but for the development of Indonesia as a society that upholds pluralism, has a strong cultural identity, is religious and upholds ethical values (Bekeraf 2019). Indonesia needs to understand that cultural heritage is co-created in the present based on past values for the future by stakeholders who are included in the triple Helix of Education-Enterprise-Expertise as mentioned in the Master Plan Book for the Creative Economy Development (Departemen Perdagangan RI 2008;Harrison 2013). ...
... Indonesian Art & Design HE as a critical, creative, and cultural institution needs to understand the original context of the culture in a broader sense. Culture encompasses every aspect of human life, culture is ubiquitous, and the economy is only an aspect of it (Harrison 2013). Maybe the way to recontextualize cultural heritage is to return it to its original context, to rethink the fundamental role of culture critically and creatively in the Art & Design HE, the society, and the economy, including the role of the creative and cultural workers as those who not only have the power but are also responsible in creating a more humane world; a sustainable future that will be their legacy. ...
... "Heritage is an active process of creative engagement with the past in the present in the production of our future. It is more than just preservation, but an active and informed process of assembling a series of objects, places, and practices that can be used as a mirror to the present, associated with a specific set of values that we wish to take with us into the future" (Harrison 2013). ...
... al mismo tiempo colaborar en la formación de algunos de ellos (estudiantes y jóvenes profesionales de nuestro equipo) transmitiéndoles nuestras experiencias, para lo cual este tipo de contextos resultan particularmente propicios (Ratto y Carniglia, 2018). Simultáneamente buscamos problematizar la práctica arqueológica y los procesos de patrimonialización en los que participamos como un agente más, entendiendo que el patrimonio surge de interacciones entre gente, objetos, lugares y prácticas que no distinguen entre lo natural y lo cultural, es decir que no es primariamente algo en relación al pasado, sino que es más inherente al presente y al futuro (Harrison, 2013). ...
... Iniciando con el anticuarismo de los siglos XVII y XVIII la arqueología estuvo fuertemente vinculada al surgimiento de los estados modernos que buscaban formas de probar la profundidad temporal de las propias sociedades y dar cuenta de los cambios y continuidades por ellas atravesados (Thomas, 2004;Trigger, 1989). Es en este contexto que podemos ubicar las primeras prácticas de preservación de objetos, personas/cuerpos, lugares y edificios y el inicio de la idea de patrimonio como materialidad del pasado, existente en el presente y digna de conservación como evidencia para el futuro (Harrison, 2013). ...
... Nuestro interés se aleja de esta idea de patrimonio de origen decimonónico y se centra en los procesos de patrimonialización, entendiendo que el patrimonio surge de interacciones entre gente, objetos, lugares y prácticas que no distinguen entre lo natural y lo cultural, es decir que no es primariamente algo en relación al pasado, sino que es más inherente al presente y al futuro (Harrison, 2013). Como describimos más arriba nuestra participación en estos procesos se ha dado tanto desde el ámbito académico como en el contexto de intervenciones arqueológicas bajo la modalidad de contrato. ...
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La arqueología de y en la ciudad de Córdoba plantea el desafío de conjugar múltiples intereses y actores en una práctica profesional que entrecruza la academia, el trabajo para privados y al estado de diferentes formas. En este artículo describimos y reflexionamos a partir de esta práctica y mostramos cómo fue ésta la que guió el planteo de varias líneas de trabajo e indagación. Entre ellas nos ocupamos aquí de las referidas a la búsqueda de la constitución de vínculos entre la arqueología académica y la práctica en la modalidad de contrato, así como de la reflexión acerca del rol de la arqueología como agente de patrimonialización. Para ello partimos de un posicionamiento crítico hacia la disciplina que entiende que la arqueología es un producto de la modernidad, que se desarrolla en contextos capitalistas modernos y al mismo tiempo tiene la capacidad de estudiar esa misma sociedad moderna. Concluimos con algunas recomendaciones éticas sobre las condiciones laborales y cuestiones prácticas y metodológicas de la arqueología de contrato en Córdoba.
... In this article, I do not examine Queercache as a work of art or in the continuum formed by the works of the two artists, but rather view the work from the disciplinary angle of heritage studies. Heritage is a manner of speech and actions, characteristic of modernity, through which certain traces of the past are valued and considered as a contem- porary and future asset (e.g., Dyer 2004, 210;Smith 2006;Harrison 2013;Evans 2014, 75, 88). In that respect, the idea of heritage is also present in Queercache. ...
... According to Laurajane Smith (2006) heritage is fundamentally an act of communication in the present for the present. It defines and expresses emotions, experiences and information anchored in the past (see also Harrison 2013;Smith 2021). Heritage institutions guide and encourage communities to attach themselves to phenomena defined as heritage, for instance, in the Faro Convention (Smith 2006;Harrison 2013). ...
... It defines and expresses emotions, experiences and information anchored in the past (see also Harrison 2013;Smith 2021). Heritage institutions guide and encourage communities to attach themselves to phenomena defined as heritage, for instance, in the Faro Convention (Smith 2006;Harrison 2013). The concept of heritagisation refers to this material, administrative and social process through which a community 54 λ VISA IMMONEN or an institution identifies a trace of the past as heritage and starts treating it correspondingly (Pendlebury 2015). ...
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Queercache and the Epistemology of the Closet ABSTR ACT The present article explores the possibility of queer heritage. In 2017, artists Kalle Hamm and Dzamil Kamanger organised a community art project called Queer-cache in Helsinki, and I use it as a case study on the heritagisation of queer pasts. Queercache borrowed its form from geocaching, presenting twelve caches with urban stories and memories. It asked whether phenomena which deviate from norms-the rejected past-can be recognised as heritage. As a means of analysing heritage discourse, i.e., the process of identifying and treating something as heritage, I use the concept of the epistemology of the closet. It describes and questions heteronormatively conditioned ways of knowing. The epistemology, and heritage discourse have commonalities, since both are processes of signification characteristic of modernity, the core of which are identification, valuation and knowing. However, Queercache nurtured queer memories without the stories necessarily meeting criteria associated with heritage such as continuity, authenticity and expertise.
... The influence of tourism in transforming CMCH is another important dynamic raised by interviewees. As stated by Harrison (2013), tourism can rejuvenate or commodify CMCH as part of a heritagisation process, transforming the meanings or intangible heritage of CMCH elements. In Ria de Aveiro, some tourism industry interviewees and interest groups, such as researchers and local cultural associations, considered that tourism can complement traditional activities, such as boat building, shellfish harvesting and traditional fishing, since it acknowledges of cultural heritage. ...
... Yet in Marsaxlokk tourism also influences CMCH more controversially, transforming the characteristic shoreline of fishing houses into a boulevard of restaurants and guest houses and threatening the loss of villages' image and character due to the readaptation of CMCH to new uses (Berg, 2017;García-Hernández et al., 2017). In that sense, all interviewees, whatever stakeholder type, acknowledge the influence of tourism in transforming the uses and meanings of CMCH's tangible elements, correlating with Harrison's (2013) findings that regions cannot always find the right balance for how tourism rejuvenates or commodifies the heritage as part of a heritagisation process. ...
Article
Coastal and Maritime Cultural Heritage (CMCH) is an important asset in coastal areas. However, this heritage has been exposed to several environmental and human-created threats. This paper presents three European coastal regions with relevant CMCH and important tourism destinations: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), the Small Isles (Scotland, UK) and Marsaxlokk (Malta). The paper draws attention to the challenges to CMCH they face, the dynamics between tourism and CMCH and provides recommendations for sustainable tourism exploitation of CMCH. A comparative case-study approach was undertaken, based on 41 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Findings unveil that, despite the different demographics, socioeconomics and importance of tourism in each location, CMCH is seen as an important element to consider as tourism destination. Stakeholders identified economic, sociocultural and environmental dynamics between tourism and CMCH with positive and negative impacts on the regions. This study provides guidelines and recommendations that can be used as a reference to define a joint policy response for sustainable exploitation of CMCH in a tourism context.
... As he puts it:s Heritage is not a passive process of simply preserving things from the past that remain, but an active process of assembling a series of objects, places and practices . . . associated with a particular set of values that we wish to take with us into the future (Harrison 2013). Harrison's definition of heritage could help archaeologists and heritage professionals to better understand the diverse ways in which heritage is valued. ...
... Several scholars have reflected upon the significance of combining cultural heritage with identity, memory, history, and the appreciation of space to help people facing the 'problem' of future nationbuilding and continuous development plans (Ashworth, Graham, and Tunbridge 2007;Wedgwood 2009;Saloul 2012;Harrison 2013;Munawar 2017). ...
Article
The war in Syria, and the rise of non-state radical actors placed a spotlight on the scale and intensity of destruction of cultural heritage sites in Syria. The Ancient City of Aleppo, a World Heritage Site was particularly hard hit by the conflict and when the city was re-unified in late 2016, several national and international organisations started to plan its post-war reconstruction. However, despite the fact that the war in Syria is now approaching its end, the prospects of finding a sustainable route for heritage reconstruction in Aleppo are far from good. This article sets out to critique the top-down governmental approach to the reconstruction of Syria’s cultural heritage. By drawing upon empirical data collected from a survey conducted with people from Syria and Iraq, this article argues that if cultural heritage assets are to provide a unifying force for reconciliation, reintegration of displaced people, and future social cohesion then such an approach should be opposed and replaced by a bottom-up participatory approach, which gives voice to and builds consensus among all members of Syrian society.
... Entsprechend sollten Akzente noch weiter verschoben werden: "Move from a universal view of knowledge, to an understanding that knowledge is socially, historically, culturally constructed. Similarly, move from a view of knowledge that is certain und unproblematic, to one that reflects a relational, multiperspectival understanding concepts such as culture, identity, space, place, interdependence, sustainability -knowledges, not knowledge; futures, not future; geographies, not geography; histories, not history" (Martin, 2011, S. 220 Meskell, 2018;Harrison, 2013;Byrne, 2008;Smith, 2006 Um die Perspektive der internationalen Zivilgesell schaft in dem Prozess um "BNE 2030" sichtbar zu machen, hat VENRO 2020 zusammen mit zahlreichen internationalen Bil dungspraktiker/innen die Stellungnahme "Bildung ist der Schlüssel für eine nachhaltige Zukunft" erarbeitet. Entstanden ist ein spannender Dialog zwischen Bildungspraktiker/innen aus unterschiedlichen UNESCOMitgliedsstaaten, der sowohl Gemeinsamkeiten als auch Unterschiede aufzeigt. ...
... The concept of heritage has been discussed internationally for quite a long time and it is considered one of the key concepts of cultural or historical geography [1,2]. Heritage research is interdisciplinary in nature, and a combination of approaches from multiple scientific disciplines and fields is necessary to understand its meaning and essence. ...
Article
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The article deals with the perception and methods of management of the mining heritage and mining the landscapes from the perspective of individual stakeholders, entities and interest groups. The first part deals with the conceptualization of heritage in general, discussing various ways of defining and looking at heritage; later, the general discussion focuses on a specific group of heritage, which is the mining heritage. The following is an introduction to the area of interest of the Jáchymov region (part of the Ore Mountains, i.e., an area characterized by a long mining history and a number of mining monuments). It is important, mainly, because it is part of the world heritage; the Mining Cultural Landscape of the Krušnohoří/Erzgebirge was added to the UNESCO list in 2019. The second part of the article is devoted to field research in the Jáchymov region. The aim of the research was to find out how the mining heritage in the Jáchymov region is treated, and how and for what purposes it is used. Representatives of the public, private and non-profit sectors from the local, regional and national levels were involved in the research. Research is a comprehensive view of the process of heritage formation and management.
... Of these, perhaps the strongest theoretical contender is the concept of discourse, which is often loosely associated with French post-structuralism. This term has gained prominence in recent critical debates that challenge the mere 'finding' of heritage and instead emphasise its cultural construction (Groote & Haartsen, 2008;Harrison, 2013). On this view, artefacts, buildings, landscapes and rituals are not themselves heritage objects or agents that act out predetermined intentions but rather acquire cultural value. ...
Article
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In proposing a new conceptual framework that systematises and comprehends the complex dynamics of cultural heritage politics in China, the study takes its inspiration from Chinese scholars who have explored the relevance of Guanxi beyond its immediate business context. While current discourse theory acknowledges that heritage-making entails complex relationships that structure this making, there is as yet no systematic theoretical account of how these relationships co-exist, mediate and transform heritage-making. In developing a relational sociological framework based on the work of John Dewey, the analysis of digital heritage-making includes a case study of Nüshu, the dominant language and culture in villages on the southwestern frontier of China's Hunan Province. Using netnography, the study analyses a range of online accounts and websites that form part of the heritage-making process. Drawing on rich digital material that includes online competitions, virtual conversations or comments and digital certificates, the findings highlight the need for a more dynamic relational perspective that acknowledges the mutuality of heritage producers and the process of heritage-making. The findings contribute to a sociological account of heritage-making in China and to a more generalist theory of relational sociology.
... Accordingly, it is not merely the case that both experts and non-experts should be included. Their 'antagonistic bureaucratic divide […] should be 'undermine[d]' through hybrid forums (Harrison, 2013: p 223, citing Callon et al., 2009. This ought to mean, in practice, that the standard separation between risk assessment and evaluation (traditionally performed by experts only) and risk management (traditionally open also to non-experts) should be removed (Gardoni et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Arrangements for collaboration in knowledge production across academia, government, non-governmental organisations, and corporations have several names, such as citizen-science, community-based participatory research, engaged research and hybrid forums. The multiplicity of schemes does not lie only in the high number of names for various versions of collaborative knowledge production. Different scholars also use concepts in multiple ways, depending on their individual choices, mother disciplines, and the problem area in which collaboration occurs. At the same time, there is a lack of analytical tools that address the full range of collaborative research schemes and provide a systematic set of questions to learn about the schemes, challenges, and opportunities. Based on our review of academic journal articles highlighting collaborative research schemes, this paper aims to analyse three parameters which it is fair to say that virtually all arrangements of collaborative knowledge production ought to consider when making decisions, parameters that are often partially missed or misunderstood: (A) epistemic-procedural, (B) exclusive-inclusive and (C) aggregative-integrative. By examining the three parameters, their political theory origins, and how they connect to and challenge existing schemes of knowledge collaboration, we provide analytical tools that could facilitate processes of developing and scrutinising arrangements of collaborative research.
... This perspective challenges the established relationships between nature and culture, material and immaterial, formal and informal, and global and local aspects of cultural heritage (Smith 2006;Harrison 2015). Instead, it suggests viewing heritage in relational terms (Harrison 2013) and as a process through which the past becomes contested, negotiated and reconstructed in the present, rather than given and unquestioned. What is specific to CHS is a move from explanatory discourses and site-specific contestations towards active research that articulates a theoretical framework capable of unveiling the different hegemonic projects that underlie, maintain and normalize the deeply structured relations of injustices. ...
Book
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What happens when versions of the past become silenced, suppressed, or privileged due to urban restructuring? In what ways are the interpretations and performances of ‘the past’ linked to urban gentrification, marginalization, displacement, and social responses? Authors explore a variety of attempts to interrupt and interrogate urban restructuring, and to imagine alternative forms of urban organization, produced by diverse coalitions of resisting groups and individuals. Armed with historical narratives, oral histories, objects, physical built environment, memorials, and intangible aspects of heritage that include traditions, local knowledge and experiences, memories, authors challenge the ‘devaluation’ of their neighborhoods in official heritage and development narratives.
... This perspective challenges the established relationships between nature and culture, material and immaterial, formal and informal, and global and local aspects of cultural heritage (Smith 2006;Harrison 2015). Instead, it suggests viewing heritage in relational terms (Harrison 2013) and as a process through which the past becomes contested, negotiated and reconstructed in the present, rather than given and unquestioned. What is specific to CHS is a move from explanatory discourses and site-specific contestations towards active research that articulates a theoretical framework capable of unveiling the different hegemonic projects that underlie, maintain and normalize the deeply structured relations of injustices. ...
... Critical heritage studies, thus, seek to offset the imbalance between the orthodox and heterodox views of heritage by arguing that heritage is about the present and not the past (Smith, 2006;Harrison, 2013;Emerick, 2014;Silverman et al., 2017). Critical heritage studies explore the "contemporary relationships between people, heritage, and power" (Wells, 2017, par. ...
Thesis
The twentieth century saw the launch of nation-building projects in Southeast Asia. Backdropped by colonialism, world wars, wars of independence, and the Cold War, it is undeniable that the war experiences of these nations played a role in shaping national myths that legitimized and rationalized their respective states. However, there is a marked variance among the countries’ use of their war pasts to visualize their nations. Why is war memorialization emphasized, suppressed, highlighted, or relegated by the state? What makes one war more memorialized than the other? This dissertation investigated the war memorialization and nation-building projects of three pro-Western, anti-communist Southeast Asian countries of the twentieth century: the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore, by analyzing the production contexts and visual semiotic resources of their numerous state-sponsored war monuments and memorials. It is argued that the use and abuse, promotion and relegation, and official remembering and forgetting of war memories follow the hegemonic dictates of the state. National monuments and memorials illustrate a distinct memory and heritage politics that reflected the state’s decision to silence or highlight remembrance as a matter of international and domestic politics and agenda. For many Southeast Asian countries, these domestic and international objectives are crucial as they emerge as states internally legitimized and externally poised to claim their place in the international order.
... The leading journal that has emerged in the field is the International Journal of Heritage Studies. Particular works that stand out include Valuing Historic Environments (Gibson and Pendlebury, 2009), Who Needs Experts? (Schofield, 2014), and Heritage: Critical Approaches (Harrison, 2013). These works incorporate the concepts of Smith's AHD and further elucidate the dichotomy between top-down, expert driven and bottomup, stakeholder-engaged approaches to heritage conservation. ...
Technical Report
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Built heritage conservation today • Approximately thirty years ago, the field of “heritage studies” arose which defines itself through the use of social science research methodologies that seek the understanding of the relationship that people have with heritage and the historic environment. • Heritage studies defines a value system (heterodox theory and practice) that is critical of the dominant system of expert rule and top-down processes (orthodox theory and practice) that identify and treat the historic environment. • Orthodox and heterodox approaches to theory and practice have fundamental differences due to foci on fabric versus people and top-down versus bottom-up approaches, respectively. • Heritage studies scholarship seems to have had little practical impact on the actual conservation of the historic environment and no impact at all on the regulatory environment or on preservation/conservation policy. Built heritage conservation tomorrow • If conservationists/preservationists live up to the mantra of “managing change,” then we must accept that we are no longer conserving fabric, but rather conserving the meanings associated with fabric. • The role of the heritage practitioner in the future changes from controlling meanings to facilitating the gathering and interpretation of meanings. • If the conservation of meanings defines practice in the future, then heritage practitioners need to collect and interpret these meanings with more depth and consistency than has been happening to date. • A goal of practice should be to empower communities to recognize, treat, and interpret their own built heritage and cultural landscapes. • Heritage practitioners need pragmatic social science tools that are efficient and easy to use. Environmental design and behavior research, the conservation social sciences, and participatory action research may offer ready templates. • It may not be possible to change much of orthodox conservation practice because existing laws and rules prevent any change in the types of values and meanings associated with heritage. • Practitioners lack generalizable/transferable knowledge about people/place interactions with and sociocultural valuations of the historic environment in order to provide a proper context for interpretation and communication.
... Regarding the role of expert groups in historical villages, we draw on the ideas of Giddens [60], who believed that the concept of expertise in heritage studies is strictly associated with the modern idea of risk management, which advocates professionalization of those who possess knowledge in different areas related to heritage. For instance, planners and architects become experts, intervening in the process of heritage preservation with their knowledge [61]. Despite some studies showing disparities between experts and residents regarding what shape heritage should take in a given community, experts have been able to transmit heritage knowledge to communities in labeled villages through an authoring process [62]. ...
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Background: In the past century, the importance of historical villages has been highly recognized , as they serve aesthetic, functional, and environmental values and can foster local socioeconomic development through the heritagization process. The purpose of this paper is to outline the core features of the preservation and management of historical villages in the European and Chinese contexts. Methods: Using a qualitative systematic literature review, the research was based on international academic papers covering 73 case studies from the two contexts, addressing the fact that little work has been carried out comparing European and Chinese realities. Results: Similarities and differences in rural cultural heritage preservation and management between Europe and China were compared and discussed, paying particular attention to historical villages in both contexts. Using this method, rural heritage preservation in China can be better framed and analyzed for scholars engaged in both the Chinese and international contexts. Conclusions: Inspired by the European case studies, the research suggests that capacity building of different types of stakeholders, contex-tualized financial mechanism and multiple values the civic society perceived and recognized during the Chinese rural heritage preservation and management process should be further studied and implemented case by case based on a historical-sensitive approach. In addition, the issue of the lack of social capital and policy arrangements in rural areas should be further addressed to stimulate community resilience.
... Both Hall and Smith emphasized that heritage is never neutral but always negotiated and contested and is thus inherently political. In the past decade, the growing attention to the politics of heritage, generated by their work and that of many others, has resulted in the new and very much global field of critical heritage studies (Moore and Whelan, 2007;Harrison, 2013;Gentry and Smith, 2019;Smith, 2021). ...
Article
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Much has been made in recent years of the transformative potential of digital resources and historical data for historical research. Historians seem to be flooded with retro-digitized and born-digital materials and tend to take these for granted, grateful for the opportunities they afford. In a research environment that increasingly privileges what is available online, the questions of why, where, and how we can access what we can access, and how it affects historical research have become ever more urgent. This article proposes a framework through which to contextualize the politics of (digital) heritage preservation, and a model to analyse its most important political dimensions, drawing upon literature from the digital humanities and history as well as archival, library, and information science. The first part will outline the global dimensions of the politics of digital cultural heritage, focusing on developments between and within the Global North and South, framed within the broader context of the politics of heritage and its preservation. The second part surveys the history and current state of digitization and offers a structured analysis of the process of digitization and its political dimensions. Choices and decisions about selection for digitization, how to catalogue, classify, and what metadata to add are all political in nature and have political consequences, and the same is true for access. The article concludes with several recommendations and a plea to acknowledge the importance of digital cataloguing in enabling access to the global human record.
... The research calls attention to the temporality of the concept of vernacular architecture -as a snapshot of a structural organisation of a society in a certain period -and it frames the idea of heritage as a processual, creative, social process, rather than a merely focus on material conservation (Ashworth, Graham, 2007;Harrison, 2013). This perspective enables heritage to be understood as a correlational multiplicity that evolves in its social (immaterial) and physical (material) environments. ...
Conference Paper
This paper explores the transformation of locality in relation to vernacular architecture on the former Greek island of Imbros (Gökçeada) in Turkey. The people of Imbros were forced to leave their homeland due to a state-initiated policy of Turkification that started in the early 1960s. The structural evolution of the traditional Imbriotic House came to a halt due to the forced immigration of the Imbrian people. Today, the material remains of houses in villages contribute to heritage capital, while allowing returnees a chance to critically reflect on their tangible heritage. The paper aims to understand changes in the built environment and its cultural and historical contexts and records the contemporary architectural applications of the social transition of a rural community in a global age. The study shows how traditional houses are ‘modernized’ by 2nd and 3rd generation returnees of the Imbrian community, in line with the changing needs of their inhabitants, and questions how the local identity is reproduced by the heritage community. By analysing the spatial modifications of the typologies and the construction adaptation of the buildings, the study examines which architectural components are kept and/or changed in order to preserve the “local identity” in everyday life on the island today. The paper compiles preliminary findings based on ethnographic field research conducted in 2018-2019, which yielded qualitative data from oral narratives and participatory observations, and also uses the data obtained from architectural research tools. Focusing on the reconstruction of old houses by returnees from the Imbrian community, this paper showcases the appropriation of vernacular architecture in a contested area in relation to locality.
... The distinction between nature and culture as separate entities, and rigid categorizations based on arbitrary divisions, as seen in various charters and conventions on heritage (see Askew 2010: 19-44;UNESCO 1972), are now being challenged and the traditional definitions and scope of heritage are also being reconsidered (see e.g., Harrison 2015: 24-42;2013). The symbiotic relationship that exists between nature, culture, and people is increasingly emphasized and reinforced. ...
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This paper focuses on the Galle Fort World Heritage site, assessing current practices and issues related to heritage conservation concerning disasters. The purpose is to highlight the importance of understanding nature-culture links for the conservation of coastal heritage sites, exposed to natural conditions, such as sea breeze, sea erosion, and hazards like tsunamis. The Galle Fort is strongly connected to its larger cultural landscape, for which the conservation of the entire ecosystem is required. This paper suggests the development and implementation of integrated and people-centered policies involving all stakeholders in conservation plans, giving due consideration to nature-culture linkages.
... Social studies take on such areas; examples of this are archaeology (Smith 2006;Harrison 2013), geography (Lovell and Bull 2018), sociology (Alsayyad 2001;Corsane 2005), and history (Logan and Reeves 2009;Lowenthal 2015). ...
Thesis
Religious heritage is in a state of transformation. Changing religious practices and secularization affect the established Christian congregations in many countries, as membership decreases and churches close. During recent years, new approaches to use and develop churches have been explored by the heritage field and the Christian congregations. A parallel development in heritage theory and policy focuses on broad definitions of heritage and questions the position of the heritage expert. In Sweden, the ecclesiastical heritage has a prominent position through heritage legislation and the shared management model of the State and Church. Departing from two case studies of projects that explore new approaches to heritage management, the purpose of the thesis is to describe how ecclesiastical heritage is constructed and understood by public heritage institutions and the Church of Sweden. In addition, the thesis aims to describe how professional and institutional roles and responsibilities are constructed and understood within the field. The case studies cover two contemporary projects involving the built ecclesiastical heritage in Sweden: the Cathedral Hill Project in Strängnäs and the Hamra Project in the village of Hamra. The projects unite actors from the public heritage field and the Church of Sweden and aim to develop and extend the use and management of the church. Adopting a qualitative approach, the material consists of interviews with key actors, documents, and observations of the case studies. Synchronic discourse analysis is applied to identify discourses on heritage and understand the roles of the actors. The results reveal parallel discourses on heritage among the actors, which are constructed through coinciding and conflicting values on the management of the past. Conflicting values may be negotiated to reach consensus, while different interpretations of governing frameworks and objectives cause tension between actors. The institutional roles and responsibilities of the key actors provide different capacities to incorporate policy strategies in practice. Despite the difficulties of balancing the objectives of the organizational framework of public heritage management, the actors use the available resources and tools to transform the boundaries of their institutional roles from within.
Chapter
The establishment that 70% of the world's poor residing in rural areas depends directly on biodiversity for their well-being has ignited the call for sustainable usage of biological resources. Biodiversity conservation has thus become a novel project with noble intention of providing a habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species and ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes. Nigeria has created protected areas under the coordination of National Park Services in line with this. As a result, residents of communities surrounding the protected areas could not meet their basic needs like employment, water provision, educational facilities, medical services, energy supply, livestock grazing, and motorable roads. They have subsequently deviated from the extant rules that guide their conducts and by ensuing difficulties see biodiversity conservation as an elitist policy despite their understanding of the idea behind it.
Chapter
The existence of an authentic relationship with the past may intensify emotional and experiential attachments to a place and justify claims on its future. Yet established framings of authenticity tend to abstract and universalise, potentially leading to an overly comfortable sense of what does and does not count as authentic. This chapter attends instead to the crafting through struggle of a situated sense of authenticity, developed through dialogue with elements of a constructed past. Assemblage theories are used to attend to both relations of interiority and relations of exteriority in this process of emergence. Empirical support is provided by a detailed exploration of the struggle to save the undercroft skateboarding spot on London’s south bank. The chapter concludes with some thoughts on what heritage practitioners might gain from attending to authenticity as fluid, situated and emergent.
Chapter
Researchers increasingly embrace co-production as fundamental to knowledge-building about local history(ies) and heritage(s); community insights must be encompassed in professional reports, interpretation and, ideally, publication. This chapter reports on fieldwork and related story-mapping I undertook with members of a community in the northeast of England—the Sunderland suburb of Ryhope, once a colliery (coal mine) settlement in its own right. When a local museum decided to relocate an iconic cinema/bingo hall to a recreated 1950s setting, the museum and residents expressed an interest in celebrating local stories and memories of Ryhope that went beyond the materiality of the building itself. The underlying aim was to reanimate the rich vernacular and creative spirit of the Northeast, beyond the deindustrialized ‘ex-coal mining’ canon by which the area is mainly known.
Research
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In this short essay, I have theorised my ethnographic experiences of walking Kodagu's landscape from the perspective of bioregionalism and heritage making. It was published as a part of the Field Notes series in Environmental History Now. https://envhistnow.com/?p=9716&preview=1&_ppp=9904e90de9
Article
Which are among the most important touristic attractions of Konya have constantly been subjected to change and conversion especially with neoliberal policies applied since 1980. The reproduction of the markets which are in the historical city centre hasn't only changed the markets but also changed the tradesmen's relationship and customer's attitudes. The change experienced in the social space has reflected the consumption culture and it's included the fund through space and meta. The pattern of phenomenology which is one of the methods of quantitative research is used on this research in order to fathom the process occured during the research and analyze the results. I had an interview with 10 tradesmen who have been working in the area for a long time as a sample in order to perceive the change and conversion process. According to the findings of the interview with the participants, the inadequacy of the participants' numbers on the applied change and conversion caused that they don't have the right to comment on it, the process has always remained on the agenda that it's turned it into a uncertain situation. The meanings attributed to the space has changed due to the conversion activities that have been experienced. The usage of "Mevlana" factor as meta used on the city image and its identity has brought with the commodification due to the space's being seen as fund and an important tourist attraction.
Chapter
This chapter theorizes on the intersection of heritage and resistance, building on empirical findings reported from different situations of conflicts in which people’s diverging rights to heritage are contested, negotiated, or even violated. Heritage and resistance are brought into conservation here to explore opportunities for a positive change. Conceived as a verb and a process, heritage has an agency. It expands into areas of life and policy, and uncritical engagement in the intersection of heritage and resistance can lead not only to unnoticed processes of biases, exclusion, or racism, but can also jeopardize their potential for the production of socially equal and just spaces. In conclusion, this chapter identifies the potentials and limitations of the intersection, manifested in the interlinked concepts of justice, value, and right.
Article
Cultural heritage shapes our identity, delivers capacities, and exposes vulnerabilities, yet cultural heritage value and vulnerability are largely missing from conventional risk assessments. Risk assessments are a fundamental first step in identifying effective mechanisms for Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and disaster management. However, by ignoring the influence of heritage, decision makers are limiting their understanding of risk and therefore opportunities vital for building and maintaining local resilience. We present findings from a synthesis of peer‐reviewed literature from the last 15 years on cultural heritage risk assessment for primarily CCA but with wider implications for disaster management. We identify a significant lack of research examining intangible aspects of heritage and their influence on risk and resilience. Across the literature, risk assessments focus largely on exposure in isolation from vulnerability or adaptive capacity and where vulnerability is included there is no consistent definition or criterion. We highlight that the most frequently used methods have minimal engagement with local community values, experience, and knowledge relating to heritage practice and customs. Community engagement is most often associated with ‘professional experts’ rather than members of a local community. Furthermore, the Global South is severely under‐represented with a research bias towards Europe and North America. We recommend an agile approach to future assessments with the adjustment of risk tool research and development to include participatory approaches. Future climate risk frameworks must incorporate community‐scale values to understand the role of cultural heritage in relation to adaptive capacity, vulnerability, and resilience.
Article
The article considers the main conceptual approaches to the definition of the phenomenon of intangible cultural heritage in contemporary humanitarian knowledge, in the international institutional and legal discourse of UNESCO, in Russian legislation and cultural policy. Despite the widespread use of the term “intangible cultural heritage” in international cultural practice in the interpretation of the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, national approaches to understanding and theoretical justification of this concept in all three of the above directions differ at the level of fundamental foundations. Structural changes in the Russian cultural sphere and the transition to sustainable development strategies using the potential of intangible cultural heritage led to the transformation of practical aspects of its protection and representation. In this regard, the issues of determining the intangible component of culture and improving the terminological base are an urgent area of research from both theoretical and practical points of view. The article analyzes the main stages of the formation of the term “intangible cultural heritage” in UNESCO’s international activities, the most significant directions of this discourse, its understanding in Russian normative and legal practice (in matters of defining and typologizing heritage, the relationship between its material, spiritual, contextual, spatial and landscape components, authenticity and integrity), as well as its impact on cultural policy and practice of protecting such heritage. In addition, the authors highlight the content and functional approaches to the determination of this phenomenon in social and humanitarian knowledge, examine the basis of the criteria of authenticity, and offer an author’s definition of intangible cultural heritage.
Chapter
Recognising and even producing cultural assets has been one of the emerging strategies in the development of new potential paths for sustainable tourism. This type of process has integrated into the same frame practices and concepts such as cultural rights and economic competitiveness, cultural diversity and the economy of identity or cultural heritage and the intangible economy. Even if significant research has been developed on these issues, some questions remain still unexplored. Can we see a kind of paradox in these strategies, i.e. an opportunity for transforming development processes (making them more sustainable) and at the same time for reproducing economic and cultural inequalities? Can we see an opportunity to ensure equity in public decision-making about cultural tourism initiatives and at the same time the risk of deepening social and political exclusion? This chapter will address these questions through the analysis of a historical view of cultural policies in Catalonia and, specifically, a study case on the relation between the promotion of heritage and the development of tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees. Both the theoretical framework and methodology of this contribution are based on an interdisciplinary approach, including knowledge from the fields of political science, social anthropology and cultural studies.KeywordsCultural policyHeritageTourismCommodificationSustainability
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After the end of Latin American dictatorships, scholars closely analyzed the relationship between violence, memory and democracy. But these societies have continued to grapple not only with the legacy of authoritarian governments but with centuries of colonial power, with the result that many of the assumptions of earlier scholars are now being revisited. Intersectional questions of race, indigeneity and gender continue to refashion our under-standing of memory and injustice. These questions frame this introductory article, in which we argue that Latin American contemporary social mobilisation that has denounced recent and long-term violence is constituted through intervention and creation of heritage from below. We propose that the interdisciplinary field of Critical Heritage Studies, that has bur-geoned recently in the region, offers a means to understand how space, scale, and society interact to create meanings and work through violent pasts. The works of this Special Col-lection extend traditional conceptions of urban heritage as the mere conservation of cities' landscape, towards the study of the relation between cultural geographies and the production of social mobilizations in Latin America. These geographies enable unique formulations of protest for activists, creating new capacities to contest recent and long-term human rights abuse. © 2022 Centre for Latin American Research and Documentation/Centro de Estudios y Documentación Latinoamericanos (CEDLA). All rights reserved.
Article
Today the Livonian core area includes 14 coastal villages on the northern Courland peninsula in the northwest of Latvia. Yet, the manifestations of Livonian intangible heritage can be observed in several cultural landscapes as Livonians once inhabited territories along the Gulf of Rīga, extending into modern Estonian lands and the lower course of the Gauja and Daugava Rivers. Despite the indigenous origin of Livonian culture, these manifestations are often marginalised and not immediately visible. This paper seeks to describe the first comparative findings from the international research project “Re-voicing cultural landscapes: narratives, perspectives, and performances of marginalised intangible cultural heritage”, which brings together researchers from four European universities, incl. the University of Latvia and the University of Tartu. Kokkuvõte. Lolita Ozoliņa, Valts Ernštreits, Kadri Koreinik, Ieva Vītola: Liivi vaimse kultuuripärandi manifestatsioonid Lätis ja üle piiri Eestis: raamistamas märkmeid välitöödelt. Nüüdsel ajal tuntakse liivi alana Kuramaa 14 rannaküla Loode-Lätis. Ometi leidub liivi vaimse kultuuripärandi märke nii mõnelgi pool mujal – neil kultuurimaastikel, kus piki Liivi lahe vasak ja paremkallast kulges liivlaste asustus, mis ulatus koguni Koiva ja Väina jõe alamjooksule ja üle riigipiiri Eestissegi. Vaatamata liivi kultuuri põlistele juurtele on need märgid aga marginaalseks kahandatud ja sestap silmale peidetud. Artikkel võtab kirjeldada ja võrrelda esmaseid andmeid rahvusvahelisest uurimisprojektist “Kultuurimaastike hääle taasleidmine: marginaliseeritud vaimse kultuuripärandi narratiivid, väljavaated ja toimimine”, mis toob kokku teadlasi neljast Euroopa ülikoolist, sh Läti ja Tartu ülikoolist. Kubbõvõttõks. Lolita Ozoliņa, Valts Ernštreits, Kadri Koreinik, Ieva Vītola: Līvõd vaimliz kultūr pierāndõks manifestātsijd Lețmōl ja iļ rubīž Ēstimōl: tǟdõlpanmizt nurmtīestõ. Paldīņiz āigal amā jemīņ neku līvõd jeltõbkūož ātõ tundtõb 14 Kurmō rāndakillõ – Līvõd rānda. Sīegid līvõd vaimliz kultūr pierāndõks um liedtõb ka mūsõ – nēši kultūrmōnistis, kus mȯlmõd pūol Piškīzt mīerda vaņši aigši jelīztõ līvlizt, ja mis ulātizt Koiva ja Vēna jougūd sōņ ja iļ rubīž ka Ēstimōlõ. Vaņtlõmõt līvõ kultūr muinizt jūrd pǟl, se pierāndõks ni um sōnd jo pientizõks ja sīestõ ka siļmšti urgtõd. Kēra nīžõb ja ītlõb ežmiži tuņšlimiztieutidi rovvõdvailizõs tuņšlimizprojekts “Kultūrmōnistõd īel ūd pǟl lieudimi: margināliz vaimliz kultūr pierāndõks naratīvõd, tulbizt võimizt ja pīlimi”, mis tūob īdõkubbõ tuņšlijiži nēļast Eirōp iļīzskūolst, nänt siegās ka Tartu ja Lețmō Iļīzskūolst.
Chapter
This chapter discusses archaeological approaches to colonial history and heritage, focusing on Indigenous archaeology, a movement of critical archaeology that has gained importance globally in recent years. Indigenous archaeology has been promoted as a movement aiming to challenge and transform traditional archaeology and heritage management; its goal here is to work for decolonization and the empowerment of Indigenous groups, with a strong focus on collaborative and participatory methodologies, as well as community-based and community-initiated research. The most influential debates on Indigenous archaeology have taken place in English-speaking settler colonial nations—the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. What are the possibilities and challenges of applying approaches to Indigenous archaeology in the Arctic regions? What can be learned from debates in other parts of the world, and how can these debates contribute to socially engaged archaeology in the North? In discussing these questions, this chapter focuses primarily on Sápmi (the Sámi areas in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and northwestern Russia) and Sámi archaeology and heritage management. These discussions raise many critical questions about the ethics and politics of archaeology, and the roles and responsibilities of archaeologists and heritage workers in colonial contexts in the Arctic and Subarctic.
Article
This article examines claims of ownership and appropriation of Basotho blankets. Ingrained in the ritual and mundane reproduction of life among the Basotho people of Lesotho, the luminous blankets and their story have enticed many to deal in them. The blankets are manufactured and trademarked by Aranda Textile Mills, and in recent years they have been adapted by Basotho fashion designers, foreign private entrepreneurs, and the Louis Vuitton fashion house and depicted in Marvel's Black Panther film. The diversity of the actors involved has created a complex field of entitlement claims. The article develops a theoretical framework for understanding the processes through which actors claim, appropriate, and transform the value of ‘heritage’ items. This is done by viewing the actors’ efforts as ‘scale‐making projects’ across ‘regimes of value’ that aim to expand their ‘spatiotemporal control’ and by viewing the actors themselves as ‘brands’ posing as originators of value. Les couvertures basotho : propriété et appropriation Résumé Le présent article examine les revendications de propriété et d'appropriation dont font l'objet les couvertures traditionnelles des Basotho du Lesotho. Entrelacées dans la perpétuation rituelle et quotidienne du mode de vie du peuple basotho, ces couvertures aux couleurs éclatantes et leur histoire sont aussi au cœur de multiples intérêts commerciaux. Fabriquées et commercialisées par Aranda Textile Mills, qui est propriétaire de la marque, elles sont adaptées depuis quelques années par des créateurs de mode basotho, par des entrepreneurs privés étrangers et même par la maison de haute couture Louis Vuitton, et sont apparues dans un film de l'univers Marvel : Black Panther. La diversité des parties prenantes a créé un réseau complexe de revendications de droits. L'article formule un cadre théorique destiné à comprendre les processus par lesquels les parties prenantes revendiquent des éléments du « patrimoine », se les approprient et en transforment la valeur. Pour ce faire, il examine les actions des parties prenantes comme des « projets de mise à l’échelle », recouvrant des « régimes de valeur » qui visent à étendre leur « contrôle spatio‐temporel », et analyse les parties prenantes elles‐mêmes comme des « marques » qui tentent d'apparaître comme la source originelle de la valeur.
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Arguing that ‘the moment of the now’ calls for fresh, creative thinking in the search for solutions, this White Paper both explores the state of research at the intersection between culture, heritage and climate change, and makes a case for a set of approaches, perspectives and conversations that we need to have—or that we need to have in new ways. Taking a broad view of heritage as ‘the archive of accumulated human wisdom’, it explores both small-s solutions (immediate, techno-infrastructural fixes) and big-S Solutions (changes in values, behaviours and worldviews). First, it defines a ‘heritage perspective’ on climate change via four attributes: an orientation towards deep time; an orientation towards the future; an orientation towards local and Indigenous knowledge; and an orientation towards both practice and critical thinking. Then it presents a review of the relevant scientific and scholarly literatures, according to the scoping questions. Next, it presents eight heritage-focused case studies, each of which orients us towards solutions to the challenges of anthropogenic climate change. We need to consider an encompassing view of heritage, that draws from both the fields of heritage studies and heritage management. The archive of local and Indigenous knowledge and practice offers many potential solutions, but raises key questions around ethics, intellectual property and terms of engagement. Climate change itself needs to be understood as an historically situated phenomenon, that has involved and implicated populations and territories differently, especially across the Global North/ Global South divide. Recognizing this, it becomes imperative to foreground a climate justice perspective in the search for solutions. Experience suggests that science-based solutions are likely to be socially, economically, politically and culturally entangled. Social science and humanities-based approaches play a key role in allowing us to anticipate and understand such entanglements. Rather than being static and backward-looking, heritage is mobile, forward-looking and always in-the-making. Mobilising the affective power of heritage becomes a potentially powerful tool in organising for climate action—although this involves emphasising a different version of heritage, less concerned with national pasts and more with collective human endeavour. The creative arts play a key role in imagining viable futures, and in producing resonance, ‘believe-ability’ and hope. The political struggle around the climate emergency is the struggle for multilateralism, dialogue and cooperation, in the face of populist attempts to use a moment of historical anxiety for narrowly sectarian ends. From a heritage perspective, the question of relevance is: How do we mobilise the affective power of heritage in support of open, creative, and inclusive futures?
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This Master’s thesis research investigates how and if sharing authority is happening through a participatory exhibit, specifically by critically analyzing the Community Altar (CA) exhibit at Denver Botanic Gardens (DBG) from 2018. This case was selected partly due to the proliferation of Día de los Muertos exhibits and related celebrations occurring in museums steadily since the 1970s, particularly in a United States context. The context of working with this intangible cultural heritage practice brings up interesting questions in light of intensifying discussions in museum management surrounding equity and sharing authority. Furthermore, methods for examining how to share authority—particularly through participatory exhibit design with local communities and cultural heritage—remain lightly explored from theoretical perspectives. Through a qualitative content analysis, this research assesses results from exhibit planning documents and in-person interviews with CA participants and DBG staff members. Ultimately, this research suggests that in order to initiate sharing authority between CA exhibit participants and DBG, empowerment through “transformative participation” needs to occur (White, 1996). The planning structure of the CA exhibit should empower involved community members and DBG staff to co-produce exhibit elements in a co-creative way. A discussion around what empowerment means is offered in the end of the study, including that DBG staff can further support Community Altars participants in utilizing lived experience(s) as curatorial authority.
Article
In this study I investigate the use of counter‐mapping methodologies to identify memories and significance in landscapes of racialised dispossession in the city of Cape Town. I use oral history, a go‐along or walking interview and focus group workshop to test the counter‐mapping process. In doing so I trace the historical process of land and housing loss under apartheid as an extension of colonialism and its modernist project of racial separation, and the effects and affects on those dispossessed into the post‐apartheid period. I critically assess the official frameworks of heritage resource management, especially in the post‐apartheid period, which have continued to focus on the built environment and aesthetics, despite official attempts to incorporate consultation of communities, stakeholders and their values. I do so in order to highlight the need for transformation and inclusion in current heritage practice in order to address disparities in the practice. Counter‐mapping methodologies are presented in the research as potential tools to address these contentious practices. These contentions intersect strongly in areas included in the Heritage Protection Overlay Zoning (HPOZ) in the City of Cape Town.1 The research shows that the HPOZ is geared towards managing the built environment and give attention to contextual development issues. It is however, not able to deal with memories and intangible values of the dispossessed in places where it intersects with land dispossession. The study also presents how research participants understand their heritage, which at times strengthens the official framework, and at other times stands in opposition to and in contrast to the official framework. These significances are mapped using counter‐mapping methodologies. The study concludes that counter‐mapping methodologies are able to represent memory and intangible significance in places of racialised land dispossession, and that the methodologies have multiple uses for varying settings and purposes, which speak to a modernist vision in post‐apartheid's constitutional democracy that fulfills the promise of fairness and justice.
Article
This article examines debates between Greeks and Turks about how to preserve the architectural heritage left behind by the Greek Orthodox population exiled from Sinasos in the 1923 Greek‐Turkish Compulsory Population Exchange. The restoration of Sinasos as a kind of residential and commercial open‐air museum, through the transformation of ancestral homes into hotels, engendered new cooperative and competitive relationships between Greeks and Turks with legitimate claims to the site. Greeks and Turks are typically portrayed as antagonistic, but understanding the historic properties as a form of inheritance much like the estates fundamental to “house societies” described by Claude Lévi‐Strauss reveals a transnational community with shared concerns around memory, heritage preservation, transnational identity formation, and touristic enterprise. [heritage, inheritance, house, memory, Turkey]
Article
This study aims to discuss how the government and society of Taiwan have appropriated the heritage from Japanese colonial rule into the discourse of Taiwanese culture to bolster the national identity of Taiwan. The interconnected theoretical concepts of ‘imagined communities’ and ‘nationalising the past’ ground the analytical framework of this study. With a focus on the ‘selective’ presentations of the colonial heritage in historic Tainan City, this study explores how the official and social discourses have trivialised, reorganised, simplified, and recontextualised the historical intricacies of legacies of the Japanese colonial era through the process of heritagisation. The research results suggest that the meaning of colonial legacies has been shaped and reshaped from being a mark of the dark past and deprivation to constitute a glorious contribution fulfilling the discourse of multi-faceted Taiwanese culture. This case also suggests the possibility for a post-colonial society to extricate itself from a mimicking mentality and to redevelop their culture discourse as a buttress of the national identity.
Article
This article investigates conflicts in retrospective Facebook groups, i.e., groups created with a particular interest and focus on the past, to analyse how members of these groups understand the past and how they negotiate, resist and challenge each other’s notions of the past. The data comes from a netnographic fieldwork within six such retrospective groups. Theoretical inspiration is drawn from Actor-Network-Theory (Harrison 2013, Latour 2005). The analysis thusly focuses on human (the members of the groups) as well as non-human actors (the operative logic of Facebook) and study how these produce associations between the past and the present. An overall result of the study is that the retrospective Facebook groups are not characterised by conflict. Instead, they are produced as places of sanctuary, where associations with the past becomes a basis for a nostalgic feel-good culture. However, the analysis also shows that the sanctuaries build on the production of a discontinuity and a conflict between the past and the present. Using Boym’s concept of ruinophilia, as well as Bauman’s concept of retrotopia, the article discusses how the conflicted discontinuity between the past and the present produces an us-and-them relationship where group members can come together in a nostalgic as well as a critical care for the world as it (in their perspectives) was supposed to be. The analysis also illustrates how members’ use of sources and references becomes a mere stylistic performance of authority, as the operative logic of Facebook not only enables but also constrains group interactions, reducing the members’ possibilities of having profound interactions and negotiations based on their memories and notions of the past. The article hereby contributes to the emerging research on digital memories in general, and memory work on Facebook in particular.
Chapter
This chapter provides a theoretical contribution investigating how the current notion of cultural heritage and the emerging role of heritage communities can trigger and lead sustainable innovation in tourism. After tracing the evolution of international conventions on cultural heritage since the Second World War, the research discusses the implications of the paradigm shift introduced by the Faro Convention (2005) for heritage and tourism management. The analysis focuses on the current extended concept of cultural heritage—open and inclusive, dynamic and relational—and on the involvement of heritage communities in heritage recognition, safeguard and enhancement. Ten years after the Faro Convention entered into force, the research results suggest that the international framework currently provided by UNESCO and the Council of Europe can help to design heritage-aware destinations and develop heritage-aware tourism. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this approach also opens up unprecedented potentialities for slow and proximity tourism.KeywordsCultural heritageHeritage communitiesUNESCOFaro ConventionParticipatory processes
Article
This chapter opens an analytic space to consider the resonance of “old places” in the contemporary moment through the lens of archaeology. Borrowing the term used by some of our interlocutors, old places are places that bear memory, that have accrued emotional attachment, and that intervene in the present as reminders of things that have happened before. Through these qualities, old places sustain life and relations. We adopt an expansive view of site formation processes that extends into the present and future and argue that studying contemporary site formation can unleash insights into the multi‐temporal constitution of the world we inhabit. We do not insist on a single approach to studying these processes, but rather suggest that the methodological and theoretical diversity that archaeologists and local communities bring together is key to studying and knowing old places in the present. We draw connections between a contemporary archaeology of old places and the emergent fields of contemporary archaeology and critical heritage studies, but also argue for retaining and fully incorporating the political and activist orientations of historical, feminist, African Diaspora, and Indigenous archaeologies—fields that have long centered the knowledge and concerns of contemporary communities—into this work.
Article
The Old City of Acre (‘Akka) is home to a predominantly Palestinian community within the larger Israeli municipality of Acre. Bounded by late eighteenth and early nineteenth century land and sea walls, the Old City's dense mix of Ottoman and Crusader‐era architecture sits on a peninsula less than one square kilometer in area on the Mediterranean coast. In 2001, the World Heritage Committee designated the Old City as a UNESCO World Heritage site, intensifying the Israeli state project of developing the city as an international tourist attraction. This chapter examines contemporary interventions on the surfaces of the Old City by way of photographic surface survey. Documented surface interventions include residents’ deposition of bread for animals to eat and fishermen to use as bait and surface adornments that reflect local aesthetic values. An archaeological analysis draws attention to an expansive repertoire of local care practices. Residents selectively appropriate the language and work of “heritage” to represent their own histories and serve their own aspirations against the grain of the state project, offering an alternative theorization of heritage that insists on maintaining ‘Akka as at once a historic and livable space.
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This book analyses whether the international legal regime provides indigenous peoples with the collective right to live on their traditional territories.
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Jemaa el Fna Square in the Medina of Marrakech is known for its performing street artistes: story-tellers, acrobats, Arab and Berber musicians, and Gnauwa groups and seers, who work daily before a local, regional, and foreign tourist audience in the specific form of a halqa ("circle"). In 2001, following an initiative by the Spanish writer Juan Goytisolo, who sought to prevent the execution of plans to build a glass tower close by, the square was proclaimed a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. This proclamation and the growing popularity of Marrakech as a destination for international tourists can be seen as two global influences on the square. In addition, social changes in Morocco have influenced both the performers and the local audience in the square. This article examines the effects and the interconnection of these different global influences on Jemaa el Fna. The feasibility of "safeguarding" the oral and intangible traditions of the square, as required by UNESCO, and the difficulties this entails are discussed in light of the pressures of tourism and recent social changes.
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This paper reviews the methodological utility of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in heritage studies. Using the Burra Charter as a case study we argue that the way we talk, write and otherwise represent heritage both constitutes and is constituted by the operation of a dominant discourse. In identifying the discursive construction of heritage, the paper argues we may reveal competing and conflicting discourses and the power relations that underpin the power/knowledge relations between expertise and community interests. This identification presents an opportunity for the resolution of conflicts and ambiguities in the pursuit of equitable dialogues and social inclusion.
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This paper begins by reviewing conventional understandings of the historical and archaeological record and questions the lack of problematizing the nature of time in relation to the archive. Drawing on the concept of memory in both mental (testimony) and material terms (trace), the paper argues that we need to address the temporal paradox at the heart of any archive, namely the continuity of the past into the present. Using the concept of palimpsest, the materiality of memory as trace is then explored as a way to understand the intersection of objects and events – and their residues. It is proposed that the trace produces a very different historical ontology to testimony, one that requires different kinds of narrative. Specifically, the residuality that is implicit in the concept of trace references an interia or resilience in the material world where preservation and destruction – memory and forgetting – are entangled with degrees of reversibility to the order of things.
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This article examines the convergence of new media and archaeology, specifically cultural heritage management. I examine the events involving Yahoo!'s creation of a global, “electric anthropology archive.” This archive was part of the company's “mixed reality” time capsule project to transmit user-generated digital contributions from the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Teotihuacan, Mexico. Working through the specifics of how this new media mogul operationalized the functionality of Web 2.0 at a cultural heritage site, I identify the salient components of what is new about this emerging technology (a “platform shift”) and how it parallels ethical and legal demands to open archaeology to greater public involvement (a “paradigm shift”). Considering the emerging centrality of users in new media, I examine the potential of new media for academic projects by discussing the integration of a wiki, a particular and defining type of new media, into the investigation of what constitutes heritage for locals at Teotihuacan. Current concerns in archaeology, such as the need to create and maintain digital databases as well as the granting of restrictive Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) over the material of the discipline, may be creatively and productively worked through by using such new media.
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Heritage is a concept to which most people would assign a positive value. The preservation of material culture — objects of art and of daily use, architecture, landscape form – and intangible culture – performances of dance, music, theater, and ritual, as well as language and human memory – are generally regarded as a shared common good by which everyone benefits. Both personal and community identities are formed through such tangible objects and intangible cultural performances, and a formation of a strong identity would seem to be a fundamentally good thing. But heritage is also intertwined with identity and territory, where individuals and communities are often in competition or outright conflict. Conflicts may occur over issues of indigenous land and cultural property rights, or between ethnic minorities and dominant majorities disputing the right to define and manage the cultural heritage of the minority. At stake is the question of who defines cultural heritage and who should control stewardship and the benefits of cultural heritage. Thus, while heritage can unite, it can also divide. These contestations, when unresolved, can lead to resistance, violence, and war. The inherent conflict between world or national heritage and individual or local rights emerges at this critical point. Heritage is by no means a neutral category of self-definition nor an inherently positive thing: It is a concept that can promote self-knowledge, facilitate communication and learning, and guide the stewardship of the present culture and its historic past. But it can also be a tool for oppression. For this reason, heritage has an uneasy place in the United Nations’ call for universal human rights and it merits examination as an urgent contemporary problem.
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This is the author's post-print version. Details of the definitive version are available at: http://www.ashgate.com/. © 'The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity', Brian Graham and Peter Howard (eds), 2008, Ashgate.