Article

Chemical constituents from Alisma orientalis extracts with hypoglycemic effect

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Objective: To study the chemical constituents in Alisma orientalis extracts with hypoglycemic effect. Methods: To study the in vivo hypoglycemic effects of A. orientalis extracts, high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance male C57BL/6J mice were treated with water and ethanol extracts of A. orientalis in diet, and glucose tolerance test was carried out following the intervention. Silica gel, ODS, and preparative HPLC were used to isolate the compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data. Results: Sixteen compounds were identified as sitosterol (1), palmitic acid (2), heptadecanoic acid (3), eicosanoic acid (4), 11-deoxy-alisol B (5), 23-acetate alisol B (6), 23-acetate alisol C (7), alisol B (8), 24-acetate alisol A (9), alisol G (10), 24-acetate alisol F (11), alisol L (12), alisol C (13), alisol F (14), alisol A (15), and 16-oxo-24-acetate alisol A (16), and nine of the triterpenes could improve glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: Compounds 3 and 4 are isolated from A. orientalis for the first time. The water and ethanol extracts of A. orientalis could improve glucose tolerance test. Triterpenes may be one of the therapeutic material basis in hypoglycemic activities in A. orientalis. ©, 2014, Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All right reserved.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... AR is an important component of many famous Chinese formulas for hypoglycemic from Febrile and Miscellaneous Disease (Shang Han Lun in Chinese) or Synopsis of Golden Chamber, including Zexie docotion, Ba wei shen qi wan, and Liu wei di huang wan [5,9,10], for usage as hypoglycemic because of their low toxicity, high effectiveness, and minimal side effects. Our previous studies reported the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanol extract of AR [11,12]. Fourteen terpenoids were isolated from the ethanol extract of AR triterpenes (ART), which could promote glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells [13]. ...
... Glucose Tolerance, HbA1C, FFA, and Inflammatory Factors in IR Mice. A high-fat diet-induced IR model (HFD) was established following our previous studies [11,38] to explore the ART therapeutic potential in IR mice. We used ART treatment to intervene with these mice and observe the response. ...
... Currently recognized IR-mouse models include transgenic, knockout, genetic inherited (spontaneous), and inducible IR [46]. Owing to their stability and convenience, male C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD for 10 weeks were adopted as the IR-mouse model [11,38]. To determine the actual material foundation of the anti-IR effect of ART from AR, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify and determine the major ingredients from ART. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alismatis rhizoma (AR), which is the dried rhizome of Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juz. (Alismataceae), is an important component of many famous Chinese formulas for hypoglycemic. This study aimed to evaluate the insulin resistance (IR) alleviating effects of AR triterpenes (ART) and ART component compatibility (ARTC, the mixture of 16-oxo-alisol A, 16-oxo-alisol A 23-acetate, 16-oxo-alisol A 24-acetate, alisol C, alisol C 23-acetate, alisol L, alisol A, alisol A 23-acetate, alisol A 24-acetate, alisol L 23-acetate, alisol B, alisol B 23-acetate, 11-deoxy-alisol B and 11-deoxy-alisol B 23-acetate) in high-fat diet-induced IR mice and plamitate-treated IR C2C12 cells, respectively. A dose of 200 mg/kg of ART was orally administered to IR mice, and different doses (25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) of ARTC groups were treated to IR C2C12 cells. IPGTT, IPITT, body weight, Hb1AC, FFA, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IR-associated gene expression (p-AMPK, p-IRS-1, PI3K, p-AKT, p-JNK, and GLUT4) were measured in IR mice. Glucose uptake, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IR-associated gene expression were also measured in IR C2C12 cells. Results showed that ART alleviated high-fat diet-induced IR in the skeletal muscle of mice, and this finding was further validated by ARTC. This study demonstrated that ART presented a notable IR alleviating effect by regulating IR-associated gene expression, and triterpenes were the material basis for the IR alleviating activity of AR.
Article
Full-text available
Hunting for natural compounds that can modulate the structure of the intestinal flora is a new hotspot for colitis‐associated cancer (CAC) prevention or treatment. Alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A) is a natural tetracyclic triterpenoid found in Alismatis rhizoma which is well known for dietary herb. Alismatis rhizoma is often used clinically to treat gastrointestinal diseases in China. In this study, we investigated the potential prevention of AB23A in male mouse models of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced CAC. AB23A intervention alleviated the body weight loss, disease activity index, colon tumor load, tissue injury, and inflammatory cytokine changes in CAC mice. AB23A intervention leads to remarkable reductions in the activation of TLR, NF-κB and MAPK. AB23A significantly decreased the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK and up-regulated mucin-2 and the expression of tight junction proteins. The gut microbiota of AB23A-interfered mice was characterized with high microbial diversity, the reduced expansion of pathogenic bacteria, such as Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Akkermansia, and the increased growth of bacteria including Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Alloprevotella. These data reveal that AB23A has the potential to be used to treat CAC in the future.
Article
Rhizoma Alismatis (RA) was wildly used for treatment of dysuria, pyelonephritis, hyperlipidemia, enteritis diarrhea, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. Triterpenoids are the major active components of RA, and its extract is mainly composed of alisol A (ALA), alisol B (ALB), alisol C 23-acetate (ALC-23A), alisol A 24-acetate (ALA-24A), and alisol B 23-acetate (ALB-23A). In this study, a simple, reliable, and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was created and validated for the quantification of the five major triterpenoids in rat plasma and various tissues biosamples (including intestine, stomach, liver, kidney, fat, muscle, brain, heart, lung, spleen, and testes). The plasma and tissues biosamples were pretreated by direct precipitation deproteinization method with acetonitrile. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone was used as internal standard (IS). The chromatography was performed on a Phenomenex C8 column (30×2.00mm, 1.8μm) at room temperature with gradient elution. Compounds were quantified by selected multi-reactions monitoring (SRM) scanning with positive electric spray ionization mode. The linearity of detection for each triterpene was respectively from 1 to 1000ng/mL for ALC-23A and ALA, from 4 to 4000ng/mL for ALA-24A, from 10 to 10,000ng/mL for ALB, and from 2 to 2000ng/mL for ALB-23B (r>0.99) with low quantification limits of 1-10ng/mL for all analytes. All of the other validation parameters were also in an acceptable range. The validated UHPLC-MS/MS method subsequently applied for the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of RA extract. After orally given 100mg/kg of RA extract, ALA was the most exposed component, followed by ALB and ALA-24A. Whereas significant gender difference was observed for ALB, ALA, and ALA-24A between female and male rats. The AUC(0-∞) of ALA, ALB, and ALA-24A in female rats were approximately 2-5 fold larger than that in male rats. These triterpenoids also displayed approximately 1.5-2 times longer half-life (t1/2) in female rats. Appearant Km, Vmax and Clint of ALA, ALB, and ALA-24A were calculated by substrate depletion approach, rat P450 CYP3A2 plays an important role in the metabolism of ALA, ALB, and ALA-24A, which is an important factor leading to the different exprosures of ALA, ALB, and ALA-24A between the male rats and the female rats. Furthermore, results from tissue distribution in male rats showed that the main tissue depots of five triterpenoids were the stomach/intestine, followed by the liver, brain, and fat. However, ALA was still measured in the kidney after a long elimination time. ALB and ALB-23B exhibited lower elimination rate in the testis. These results provide a fundamental support for further pharmacological development and clinical safety application of RA.
Article
HepG2 cells were rendered steatotic by supplementing 2.0mM oleic acid (OA) in the culture media for 24h. OA induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets as determined by Oil-Red-O (ORO) based colorimetric assay, increased triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased lipid peroxidation. It was also marked by increased inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 with decreased enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant molecules and decreased cell proliferation associated with insulin resistance and DNA fragmentation. Addition of Liv.52 hydro-alcoholic extract (LHAE) 50μg/mL to the steatotic cells was effective in increasing the insulin mediated glucose uptake by 3.13 folds and increased cell proliferation by 3.81 folds with decreased TAG content (55%) and cytokines. The intracellular glutathione content was increased by 8.9 folds without substantial increase in GSSG content. LHAE decreased TNF-α and IL-8 by 51% and 6.5% folds respectively, lipid peroxidation by 65% and inhibited DNA fragmentation by 69%. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by 88%, 128% and 64% respectively. Albumin and urea content was increased while the alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity was significantly decreased by LHAE. Hence, LHAE effectively attenuate molecular perturbations associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) indications in HepG2 cells.
Article
Alisma orientalis is a well-known traditional medicine exerting pharmacological effects including antidiabetes, antihepatitis, and antidiuretics, but the respective molecular mechanism is not completely clear. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily and viewed as one of the essential target proteins to develop antidiabetic treatments. In this study, the triterpenes, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate, were isolated from A. orientalis and further evaluated for their activity against FXR. In the mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, both triterpenes transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, SHP, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in dose-dependent manner, while they exhibited similar agonistic activity as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR agonist. These results highly indicated that alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate acted as FXR agonists so A. orientalis might exert therapeutic effect including antihyperglycemic effect through FXR pathway.
Article
The Alisma rhizoma is widely used in the therapy of diabetes in traditional folk medicine of China. Compositional analysis of the alcohol extract of Alismatis Rhizoma (AEA) revealed that the eight compounds gotten from AEA are all belonging to protostane-type triterpenes. The AEA and compounds were incubated with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, glucose level in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes culture medium and lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were measured, and analysis of alpha-glucosidase inhibition of AEA and compounds. At the same time, the uptake of AEA by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the metabolism of AEA in SD rats were analyzed by HPLC-ESI/MS. As result, AEA increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, not increase adipogenesis; AEA inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity; alisol A-24-aceate (8) was absorbed by 3T3-L1 adipocytes; and two compounds were detected in blood and three were detected in urine in SD rats. So AEA had protostane-type triterpenes, these type compounds in AEA may have hypoglycemic activity via inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity and promotion of glucose uptake. In contrast to the anti-diabetic drug thiazolidinediones, they did not induce adipogenesis, avoiding the displeased effects of rosiglitazone.
Article
From fresh rhizome of Alisma orientale, and the crude drug Alismatis rhizoma of Japanese and Chinese origins, 15 new terpenoids were isolated together with 11 known terpenoids and were characterized as follows: 11-deoxy, 13β,17β-epoxy and ll-deoxy-13β,17β-epoxy derivatives of alisols, alisol C, 16,23-oxidoalisol B, 25-O-methyl and 25-anhydro derivatives of alisol A, as well as eudesma-4(14)-en-1,6-diol, 10-O-methyl-alismoxide and 16(R)-(−)-kaurane-2,12-dione.
Article
In order to isolate the hypocholesterolemic principle, the neutral ethyl acetatesoluble fraction of the methanol extract of Alismatis Rhizoma was fractionated in parallel with the biological test. Thus new compounds alisol A (1), alisol B (2), alisol A monoacetate (3), alisol B monoacetate (4) and alisol C monoacetate (5) were obtained. The compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were shown to be effective in the test with rats.
Article
A novel α-glucosidase inhibitor, vomifoliol 9-O-α-arabinofuranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated for the first time from leaves of Diospyros Kaki and its bioactivity analyzed. This inhibitor exhibited strong anti-α-glucosidase activity with an IC50 value of 170.62nM and stimulated a dose-dependent increase in the uptake of a fluorescent d-glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), in HepG2 cells at a rate higher than that of insulin controls. It was also found to be associated with adipocyte differentiation and moderate increases in 2-NBDG uptake by 3T3-L1 cells. These findings suggest that vomifoliol 9-O-α-arabinofuranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside could augment peripheral glucose as an insulin-sensitizing agent against Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Article
A reliable and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method has been optimized and established for analysis of protostane triterpenoids in a commonly used traditional Chinese herbal medicine Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep. The separation of crude extract of A. orientalis was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) eluting with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid/acetonitrile. A total of 20 protostane triterpenoids including 19 known compounds and a new one were well separated within 7 min. The collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) fragmentation patterns of protostane triterpenoids was firstly reported in this study. The hydrogen rearrangement at the C-23-OH leads to dissociation of the bond between C-23 and C-24 in the protostane triterpenoid skeleton during the CID process. This dissociation was the characteristic CID fragmentation pathway of this class of triterpenoids, and was useful for further differentiation of some positional isomers which contain an acetyl unit on the C-23 or C-24 position. The identities of isolated compounds were identified by comparing their retention times and CID fragmentation behaviors with those of reference standards or tentatively assigned by matching the empirical molecular formulae with those reported in the literature. It is concluded that this newly established UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method is a powerful approach for structural elucidation of protostane triterpenoids isolated from A. orientalis.
Article
The methanolic extract from a Chinese herbal medicine, the rhizome of Alisma orientale, was found to exhibit inhibitory activity of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)activated macrophages. Novel triterpenes, alismaketones-B 23-acetate and -C 23-acetate, were isolated from the active extract together with eight sesquiterpenes and eighteen protostane-type triterpenes. The absolute stereostructures of new triterpenes were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the chemical correlations with known triterpenes. The guaiane-type sesquiterpenes (alismol, orientalols A and C) and protostane- and seco-protostane-types triterpenes (alisols C monoacetate, E-23-acetate, F, H, I, L-23-acetate, and M-23-acetate, alismaketones-B 23-acetate and -C 23-acetate, alismalactone 23-acetate, and 3-methylalismalactone 23-acetate) inhibited LPS-induced NO production (IC50 = 8.4-68 microM). Other triterpenes (alisols A, A monoacetate, B, B monoacetate, E, G, K-23-acetate, and N-23-acetate and 11-deoxyalisol B) also showed the potent inhibitory activity, but they showed cytotoxic effects more than 30 microM (MTT assay). In addition, alismol and alisol F were found to suppress iNOS induction.
Article
Two new triterpenoids, 25-anhydro-alisol F (1) and 11-anhydro-alisol F (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.