Article

Vestibular balance of food intake

Authors:
  • R.D.Gardi Medical College
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The intake of the nutrients is under complex control involving signals from both the periphery and central nervous system The purpose of this article is to review research reports related to vestibular stimulation and its role in regulation of food intake and to suggest translational research in this area. Vestibular system is having extensive interactions with hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, locus coeruleus, hippocampal formation and regulates food intake. The present review provides evidence for the relationship between vestibular stimulation and food intake. Understanding these associations will be important in developing effective treatments for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Vestibular system having extensive interaction between the hypothalamus, dorsal raphae nucleus, and tractus solitarius regulates food intake. [3] Weight gain and weight loss form complex health issues. The current animal study observed that vestibular stimulation can effectively regulate total cholesterol and TG which helps to maintain healthy body weight. ...
... [15] Vestibular stimulation prevents/delays AD by regulating food intake Cardiovascular abnormalities are closely associated with obesity: Contributes AD. [16] The vestibular system prevents obesity by regulating food intake through its extensive interactions with hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, locus coeruleus, and hippocampal formation. [17] Animal studies provide evidence for anti-hyperlipidemic effect of vestibular stimulation. [18] Vestibular stimulation prevents/delays AD by prevent/delay hypertension Hypertension has been related to pathological manifestations of AD such as senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and hippocampal atrophy. ...
... [2] Women with PMS experience psychological symptom bloating, weight gain, breast tenderness, swelling, aches and pains, lack of Optimal vestibular stimulation is required throughout the life for homeostasis. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Vestibular stimulation by swinging on a swing was reported as an effective method for stress management in college students. [16] Vestibular stimulation inhibits the stress axes and brings to stress less condition; hence, we hypothesized that vestibular stimulation may be beneficial in relieving most of the symptoms of PMS. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The present study was undertaken to observe the effectiveness of vestibular stimulation in the management of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Materials and Methods The present study was an experimental study; twenty female participants of age group 18–30 years were recruited in the present study. Conventional swing was used to administer vestibular stimulation. Variables were recorded before and after vestibular stimulation and compared. Results Depression and stress scores are significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. Anxiety scores decreased followed by vestibular stimulation. However, it is no statistically significant. Serum cortisol levels significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. WHOQOL-BREF-transformed scores were not significantly changed followed by the intervention. However, psychological domain score (T2) and social relationships domain score (T3) were increased followed by intervention. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. No significant change was observed in diastolic pressure and pulse rate. Pain score was significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. Mini mental status examination scores and spatial and verbal memory score were significantly improved followed by intervention. Conclusion The present study provides preliminary evidence for implementing vestibular stimulation for management of PMS as a nonpharmacological therapy. Hence, we recommend further well-controlled, detailed studies in this area with higher sample size.
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, and it is characterized by both motor and neuropsychiatric problems. Effective treatment of PD requires a combination of pharmacotherapy and physiotherapy; however, existing treatment generally involves one medical discipline most probably interpretation by neurologist. This pharmacotherapy relay on dopaminergic medications which is not capable of bringing sufficient alleviation of all motor symptoms in PD. Implementing positive lifestyle activities can support patients to improve the quality of life, symptoms, and possibly slow down the disease progression. In far effective management of PD, clinics are trying to execute and promote the use of additional integrative approaches of care among PD patients. Notably, vestibular stimulation like noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) is being studied as a potential treatment for PD, and a number of studies have presented scientific evidence in support of this concept. In this review paper, we highlight the importance of vestibular stimulation in both human and animal studies as one of the promising interventional approaches for PD. All the existing studies are heterogeneous in study design, so further studies have to be conducted which meets the standards of randomized control trial with proper sample size to validate the findings of vestibular stimulation.
Article
The present study was under taken to compare the beneficial effects of vestibular and auditory stimulation. A total of 39 healthy female participants age between 18-25 years were included in the present experimental study. Vestibular and auditory stimulation was administered by standardized methods in the literature. Following vestibular stimulation significant improvement in sleep duration and significant decrease in day time dysfunction was observed. Systolic blood pressure was decreased in both vestibular and auditory stimulation groups. However, it was not statistically significant. No significant change was observed in diastolic pressure followed by either vestibular stimulation or auditory stimulation. Significant increase in the pulse rate was observed followed by auditory stimulation. Day time sleepiness was significantly decreased followed by both vestibular and auditory stimulation. However it was more profound in vestibular stimulation. No significant change was observed in quality of life followed by vestibular stimulation and auditory stimulation. Both vestibular and auditory stimulation are equally beneficial. However, they may be effective, provided the intervention is of long duration. We recommend further detailed study with higher sample size, including both the genders and with more parameters.
Article
This study was undertaken to provide an authoritative database for beneficial effects of vestibular stimulation and to suggest vestibular stimulation as a therapy for enhancement of cognition. Vestibular stimulation is performed by caloric vestibular stimulation. Scopolamine is used to induce partial amnesia. T-maze task is used to record acquisition and retention of the memory score before and after vestibular stimulation. Memory scores were significantly different between scopolamine induced amnesia control and hot water vestibular stimulation groups (p <0.05). Memory scores between scopolamine induced amnesia cold and hot vestibular stimulation groups were highly significant. (p value <0.05). This study categorically confirms that caloric vestibular stimulation with hot water enhances cognition. Hence this study certainly merits further studies with higher sample size to confirm whether caloric vestibular stimulation can be recommended for enhancement of cognition.
Article
Objectives We hypothesized that vestibular stimulation prevents stress-induced suppression of immunity by inhibiting the stress axes and to test this hypothesis total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count, platelet count, hemoglobin level, organ weight of spleen and liver were observed following vestibular stimulation in cold water swimming stress induced Wistar albino rats. Methods: Totally, 24 healthy, adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were used in the present study. Rats were forced to swim in the plastic tubs (height: 60 cm, diameter: 40 cm) containing cold water, maintained at 10°C. The middle ear cavity was irrigated with hot (40°C) or cold (15°C) water through a polyethylene tube for 15 days. Results: Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0. Statistical tests used are two-way RM ANOVA and Bonferroni post-tests. Cold water vestibular stimulation was significantly prevented effects of stress on hematological parameters (p<0.05). Both cold and hot water vestibular stimulation effectively controlled stress induced changes on body weight and organ weights (p<0.05). Conclusion: Maximum effect of stress was observed on the 7th day in stress only group whereas this effect is minimized in cold water vestibular stimulation group and maintained in normal limits thereafter. We recommend further detailed study in this area is considered for further detailed study. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
Article
The objective of the present study was to observe the effect of cold water and fresh water swimming stress on physiological and biochemical parameters. 42 adult male 'albino rats of wistar strain with body weight ranging between (50-125g) were subjected to fresh water and cold water swimming stress. The body weight was measured before and after the stress period in all the rats. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation and blood samples were collected. The wet weight of the organs (heart, right and left kidneys, liver, spleen) was expressed per 100g of body weight. Total leucocyte count, red blood cell count, Platelet count, and Hemoglobin were estimated by standard physiological methods. Blood sugar level and serum total cholesterol level were measured by colorimetric method. We conclude that body weight, liver weight, spleen weight increased significantly followed by cold water swimming stress. Significant hypoglycemia was observed followed by both Fresh water and cold water swimming stress. Platelet count decreased significantly followed by both Fresh water and cold water swimming stress. Total leucocyte count increased significantly followed by Fresh water swimming stress.
Article
Stress induced hyperthermia" is a regulated change in temperature (a true fever). Psychological stress has been shown to cause a rapid rise in the body temperature of rats rabbits and humans. The present review suggests that vestibular stimulation: A sixth sense, can influence stress induced hyperthermia. Further work is necessary to examine the role of vestibular stimulation in stress induced hyperthermia.
Article
Full-text available
Currently, a number of synthetic anti-obesity drugs are available and are effective but with associated side effects. Therefore, alternative therapies with minimum or no side effects are eagerly needed. The present study was under taken to provide preliminary evidence for antihyperlipidemic effect of vestibular stimulation and to develop effective treatment for obesity and related metabolic diseases. A total of 24 male rats are divided into 4 groups with 6 rats in each group by simple random sampling. Hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet. Caloric vestibular stimulation was applied by instilling warm (40 °C) or cold (30 °C) water into external ear. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL was recorded before and after vestibular stimulation. Our study provides experimental evidence for beneficial effects on total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels by caloric vestibular stimulation. However further neurological and biochemical investigations are recommended to clearly elucidate the mechanism of action to introduce vestibular stimulation as a therapy for metabolic disorders.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was undertaken to provide experimental evidence for vestibular modulation of thyroid function in cold water swimming stress induced wistar albino rats and to suggest further research to recommend vestibular stimulation as an intervention for thyroid disorders. 24 healthy, adult male albino rats of wistar strain were used in the present study. Rats were forced to swim in the plastic tubs (height: 60 cm, diameter: 40 cm) containing cold water, maintained at 10°C. Depth of the water in the plastic tub was 30 cm. The swimming session lasted for 45 minutes daily. The middle ear cavity was irrigated with hot (40 degree centigrade) or cold (15 degree centigrade) water through a polyethylene tube for 15 days. Our study provides preliminary evidence that vestibular stimulation can effectively prevent stress induced changes in body weight and thyroid hormones secretion. We recommend translational research in this area to elucidate the mechanism of vestibular modulation of thyroid hormones secretion.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We evaluated the contribution of the thyroid hormones to the long-term maintenance of feeding behavior and body weight, while distinguishing their direct central effects from those resulting from the metabolic rate in the peripheral tissues. Methods: We assessed the effect of hypothyroidism on the long-term (6 months) regulation of food intake, body weight, and energy expenditure in rats. We then generated the recovery of a euthyroid condition in the brain while maintaining a low T3 availability for the peripheral organs, i.e. a combined condition of central euthyroidism with peripheral hypothyroidism, with the aid of a pharmacological combination. Results: Hypothyroidism caused a decrease in the daily food intake, body weight, and body temperature. The food intake and body temperature stabilized at a lower value, whereas body weight kept decreasing at a constant rate. The administration of exogenous T4 increased food intake and body-weight gain, but had no effect on body temperature. Conclusions: The thyroid hormones are necessary for the long-term regulation of energy intake, storage, and expenditure by different mechanisms. The feeding behavior seems to be partially dependent on a direct action of the thyroid hormones on the brain and this effect is independent of the energy expenditure in the peripheral organs. The body weight is closely dependent on the thyroid status and its maintenance seems to involve thyroid action on mechanisms other than feeding and metabolic rate.
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that long-term VNS (102 days) with low-frequency electrical impulses (0.05 Hz) decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high frequency (10 Hz) VNS on feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet; peptide secretion and other parameters were assessed as well. Adult male Wistar rats were each implanted subcutaneously with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 10 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. Body weight and food intake were measured each morning. At the end of the experimental period, animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 were assessed using radioimmunoassays. Adipose tissue content was evaluated by weighing epididymal fat pads, which were incised at the time of sacrifice. To determine whether VNS activated the food-related areas of the brain, neuronal c-Fos induction in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) was assessed. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight in animals that received VNS compared with control animals. Significant neuronal responses in the NTS were observed following VNS. Finally, serum concentrations of ghrelin were increased, while serum levels of leptin were decreased. Although not significant, serum nesfatin-1 levels were also elevated. These results support the theory that VNS leads to reductions in food intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue by increasing brain satiety signals conducted through the vagal afferents. VNS also evoked a feed-related hormonal response, including elevated blood concentrations of nesfatin-1.
Article
Full-text available
Regulation of food intake and body weight is accomplished by several mechanisms. CNS receives information from periphery and modifies food intake mainly by vagal nerves that provide the major neuroanatomical link between gastrointestinal sites stimulated during food intake and CNS sites that control feeding behavior and metabolism. Gastric mechanoreceptors and jejunal chemoreceptors activated by food or vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), which mimic the physiological input, suppress feeding within short-term regulation. Our research was aimed on determination the role of electrical VNS in long-term control of food intake and body weight in diet induced obesity fed rats. Food intake, body weight and epididymal fat pad were assessed in male Wistar rats divided into three groups (controls vs. VNS). Rats were implanted with microchip and kept during the whole study (100 days) on diet induced obesity. Vagal nerve was stimulated by electrical rectangular pulses duration 10 ms, amplitude 200 mV, frequency 0.05 Hz generated by microchip. In control group surgery produced no significant changes in meal size and body weight gain as compared to intact group. In contrast, significantly decreased epididymal fat pad weight, decreased meal size with effect on decreased weight gain was observed in VNS rats. Data support theory that VNS can increase vagal afferent signal conduct to CNS and mimics the satiety signals leading to reduce food intake and body weight gain.
Article
Aging is believed to be a first-order risk factor for most neurodegenerative disorders. Brain changes do not occur to the same extent in all brain regions.7 Men and women may also differ with frontal and temporal lobes most affected in men compared with the hippocampus and parietal lobes in women. The neurotransmitters most often discussed with regard to ageing are dopamine, serotonin and acetyl-choline. Vestibular stimulation modulates the neuro-transmitters which are involved in brain aging and delay aging. Hence we recommend controlled vestibular stimulation to all. This in the need of time to identify the importance of vestibular system and to start translational research in this area.
Article
The Vestibular System: A Sixth Sense plays a vital role in everyday life, contributing to a surprising range of functions from reflexes to the highest levels of perception and consciousness. Vestibular stimulation modulates cognition through its connections with concerned brain structures. It is the need of time to identify the importance of vestibular stimulation and to start translational research for the wellbeing and peak performance of human being and also for patient care and treatment.
Article
In this case report we have applied vestibular stimulation for the first time as a supplementary treatment for hypothyroidism. The present case shows that controlled vestibular stimulation along with medication has altered the symptoms Miss A suffered from in a beneficial manner and can be of use in similar cases. Hence we recommend further detailed study in this area.
Article
Synopsis. Recent abundant studies report that in rodents starvation induces increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression and peptide secretion in the hypothalamus which reduces autonomic nervous activity and promotes food intake, and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NPY has potent orexigenic effects. Conversely, the effect of insulin in the central nervous system is to inhibit food intake and NPY biosynthesis and secretion. In mammals body fatness is regulated and insulin acts as one intake inhibitory signal related to fatness. In salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) we have demonstrated a rise in NPY-like mRNA expression and a coincident decrease in plasma insulin levels during 2 to 3 weeks of starvation. Additionally, experimentally manipulating body fatness with high and low fat diets has demonstrated that body fatness affects food intake in teleost fishes, raising the possibility that NPY and insulin act to regulate their food intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that as in rodents, ICV treatment with NPY would stimulate food intake while ICV insulin would reduce food intake. Preliminary results suggest that ICV NPY administration does stimulate food intake in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), but central injection of insulin has no effect. Results of treatments with the sulfated octapeptide of cholecystokinin and the recombinant fragment of rat leptin 22–56 are also discussed.
Article
Recent abundant studies report that in rodents starvation induces increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression and peptide secretion in the hypothalamus which reduces autonomic nervous activity and promotes food intake, and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NPY has potent orexigenic effects. Conversely, the effect of insulin in the central nervous system is to inhibit food intake and NPY biosynthesis and secretion. In mammals body fatness is regulated and insulin acts as one intake inhibitory signal related to fatness. In salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) we have demonstrated a rise in NPY-like mRNA expression and a coincident decrease in plasma insulin levels during 2 to 3 weeks of starvation. Additionally, experimentally manipulating body fatness with high and low fat diets has demonstrated that body fatness affects food intake in teleost fishes, raising the possibility that NPY and insulin act to regulate their food intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that as in rodents, ICV treatment with NPY would stimulate food intake while ICV insulin would reduce food intake. Preliminary results suggest that ICV NPY administration does stimulate food intake in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), but central injection of insulin has no effect. Results of treatments with the sulfated octapeptide of cholecystokinin and the recombinant fragment of rat leptin 22–56 are also discussed.
Article
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis plays a critical role in mediating changes in metabolism and thermogenesis. Thus, the central regulation of the thyroid axis by Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is of key importance for the normal function of the axis under different physiological conditions including cold stress and changes in nutritional status. Before the TRH peptide becomes biologically active, a series of tightly regulated processes occur including the proper folding of the prohormone for targeting to the secretory pathway, its post-translational processing, and targeting of the processed peptides to the secretory granules near the plasma membrane of the cell ready for secretion. Multiple inputs coming from the periphery or from neurons present in different areas of the brain including the hypothalamus are responsible for the activation or inhibition of the TRH neuron and in turn affect the output of TRH and the set point of the axis.
Article
Salivary cortisol is becoming an effective method with which to quantify cortisol levels, including the ability to track diurnal patterns and acute stress fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to validate salivary cortisol for use in African elephants (Loxodonta Africana), establish baseline cortisol values in three African elephants at Zoo Atlanta and explore the relationship between cortisol and various behaviors and husbandry events. Elephant salivary cortisol was found to be a valid measure based on correlations with serum cortisol and serial dilution results. Salivary cortisol also decreased across the day, but no definitive patterns were revealed. Using baseline values, salivary cortisol was used to examine the effects of enrichment, maintenance and novel training, and a mild stressor. Maintenance training was found to lead to lower cortisol values than novel training. Salivary cortisol after enrichment did not differ from individual overall means. The mild stressor initiated a rise in salivary cortisol. The final focus of this study was to investigate the link between salivary cortisol and stereotypic behavior. Stereotypies are described as repetitive behaviors with little variance and no discernible function or goal. There is not a straightforward relationship between stereotypies and welfare. Analysis of salivary cortisol at various durations into swaying bouts established that swaying appears to decrease cortisol levels. Additionally, behavioral data were collected. Behavioral data confirmed anecdotal reports of circular dominance in these animals. Behavioral data also revealed that although these individuals spend the majority of their time consuming food, one individual in particular devotes a significant amount of her time to swaying, a percentage much higher than that found when Wilson, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2004) examined stereotypic swaying rates in these same animals. Results of this study have direct ramifications for the current management requirements for captive elephants around the world. It helps tap into aspects of psychological well being of captive elephants to elucidate factors influencing welfare and stereotypic behavior. Research of this nature is a critical endeavor if we are to appropriately manage these magnificent animals in captivity. Ph.D. Committee Chair: Dr. Terry Maple; Committee Member: Dr. Marc Weissburg; Committee Member: Dr. Mollie Bloomsmith; Committee Member: Dr. Paul Corballis; Committee Member: Dr. Rebecca Snyder
Article
Chronic stress, combined with positive energy balance, may be a contributor to the increased risk for obesity, especially upper body obesity, and other metabolic diseases. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this review, we summarize the major research that has been conducted on the role of the HPA axis in obesity and metabolic disease. Dysregulation in the HPA axis has been associated with upper body obesity, but data are inconsistent, possibly due to methodological differences across studies. In addition to systemic effects, changes in local cortisol metabolism in adipose tissue may also influence the risk for obesity. HPA axis dysregulation may be the causal link between conditions such as maternal malnutrition and sleep deprivation with metabolic disease. The present review provides evidence for the relationship between chronic stress, alterations in HPA activity, and obesity. Understanding these associations and its interactions with other factors will be important in developing effective treatments for obesity and related metabolic diseases.
Article
A changing environment and lifestyle on the background of evolutionary engraved and perinatally imprinted physiological response patterns is the foremost explanation for the current obesity epidemic. However, it is not clear what the mechanisms are by which the modern environment overrides the physiological controls of appetite and homeostatic body-weight regulation. Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by complex, redundant, and distributed neural systems involving thousands of genes and reflecting the fundamental biological importance of adequate nutrient supply and energy balance. There has been much progress in identifying the important role of hypothalamus and caudal brainstem in the various hormonal and neural mechanisms by which the brain informs itself about availability of ingested and stored nutrients and, in turn, generates behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine output. Some of the genes involved in this "homeostatic" regulator are crucial for energy balance as manifested in the well-known monogenic obesity models. However, it can be clearly demonstrated that much larger portions of the nervous system of animals and humans, including the cortex, basal ganglia, and the limbic system, are concerned with the procurement of food as a basic and evolutionarily conserved survival mechanism to defend the lower limits of adiposity. By forming representations and reward expectancies through processes of learning and memory, these systems evolved to engage powerful emotions for guaranteed supply with, and ingestion of, beneficial foods from a sparse and often hostile environment. They are now simply overwhelmed with an abundance of food and food cues no longer contested by predators and interrupted by famines. The anatomy, chemistry, and functions of these elaborate neural systems and their interactions with the "homeostatic" regulator in the hypothalamus are poorly understood, and many of the genes involved are either unknown or not well characterized. This is regrettable because these systems are directly and primarily involved in the interactions of the modern environment and lifestyle with the human body. They are no less "physiological" than metabolic-regulatory mechanisms that have attracted most of the research during the past 15 years.
Article
Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus produces hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia. These changes appear to be partly the result of increased firing rate of the vagus nerve and reduced firing rate of the sympathetic nerves. These reciprocal changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system appear to provide an adequate explanation for the hyperinsulinemia in this syndrome, and for the reduced heat expenditure. Destruction of the lateral hypothalamus, has effects opposite to those of the ventromedial hypothalamus with a reduction in food intake, a decrease in body fat, and an increase in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. These reciprocal functions of the hypothalamus are associated with different adrenergic receptors. A medial hypothalamic alpha-adrenergic system mediates the epinephrine stimulation of feeding, and a beta-adrenergic system mediates the lateral hypothalamic inhibition of eating. Peptides from the endorphin family can stimulate food intake, but most other peptides are inhibitory. Growth hormone and thyroid hormone stimulate food intake under appropriate conditions. Insulin and adrenal steroids appear to play the most important role of all the hormones in regulating food intake. Deficiency of adrenal glucocorticoids is associated with decreased food intake and a wasting of body flesh. Increased levels of glucocorticoids, on the other hand, produce a variety of truncal obesity. In animals with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions and obesity, adrenalectomy will reverse the obesity. In genetically obese rats and mice, adrenalectomy will attenuate the progression of the syndrome. These effects appear to be through a reduction of food intake, and an increase in energy expenditure. Injections of insulin will stimulate food intake and may lead to obesity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Doxorubicin, an anti-oncogenic agent, was used as a retrograde marker to identify arcuate nucleus afferent projections. Injections of this tracer into the arcuate nucleus indicated that the subfornical organ, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the nucleus raphe dorsalis and median raphe send projections to the arcuate nucleus. Immunocytochemical procedures were used to demonstrate that the raphe projections to the arcuate nucleus are serotoninergic. This anatomical investigation provides evidence that neural pathways exist between forebrain body fluid and mineral nuclei, mesencephalic serotonin nuclei and the arcuate nuclei.
Article
NPY is synthesized in neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) which project to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), an important site of NPY release. Serotonin (5-HT) has been suggested to induce satiety and 5-HT fibers contact NPY neurons in the ARC and PVN, suggesting that 5-HT could inhibit the ARC-PVN projection. Methysergide is a 5-HT antagonist which stimulates feeding in rats and increases NPY levels in the hypothalamus. To clarify the effects of methysergide on NPY, we examined its effects on NPY synthesis and on NPY secretion in the PVN using push-pull sampling. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels were measured in rats (n = 8/group) given either saline or methysergide (10 mg/kg) and killed after 4 h or after 7 days. Food intake was increased by 33% in the acute study and by 9% in the 7-day study (both P < 0.01). NPY mRNA levels were 80% higher in the 7-day study (P < 0.05) and unchanged in the acute study. NPY secretion was measured over a 3-h period after an i.p. injection of methysergide or saline (10 mg/kg, n = 12) with a flow rate of 15 microliters/min. Mean NPY secretion in the methysergide-injected rats was increased by 34% (P < 0.01). We conclude that methysergide induced feeding is associated with increased activity of the NPY neurons in the ARC-PVN projection. This is consistent with our previous findings suggesting that the NPYergic ARC-PVN projection may mediate, at least in part the effects of 5-HT on feeding and energy balance.
Article
Chronic sleep debt is becoming increasingly common and affects millions of people in more-developed countries. Sleep debt is currently believed to have no adverse effect on health. We investigated the effect of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine functions. We assessed carbohydrate metabolism, thyrotropic function, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and sympathovagal balance in 11 young men after time in bed had been restricted to 4 h per night for 6 nights. We compared the sleep-debt condition with measurements taken at the end of a sleep-recovery period when participants were allowed 12 h in bed per night for 6 nights. Glucose tolerance was lower in the sleep-debt condition than in the fully rested condition (p<0.02), as were thyrotropin concentrations (p<0.01). Evening cortisol concentrations were raised (p=0.0001) and activity of the sympathetic nervous system was increased in the sleep-debt condition (p<0.02). Sleep debt has a harmful impact on carbohydrate metabolism and endocrine function. The effects are similar to those seen in normal ageing and, therefore, sleep debt may increase the severity of age-related chronic disorders.
Article
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) stimulates the secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and 5-HT is involved in the mediation of the vasopressin and oxytocin response to stress. In male Wistar rats, we investigated the 5-HT receptors involved in the 5-HT-induced increase of mRNA expression of vasopressin and oxytocin in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON). The 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, injected in combination with the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, increased oxytocin mRNA expression in the PVN, and the concentration of vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma, whereas mRNA in the SON was not affected. Intracerebroventricular infusion of 5-HT agonists selective for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor increased oxytocin mRNA in the SON and PVN. Infusion of agonists selective for the 5-HT2A + 2C receptor increased vasopressin mRNA in the PVN, whereas none of the 5-HT agonists affected vasopressin mRNA in the SON. All the 5-HT agonists infused increased peripheral oxytocin concentration and vasopressin was increased by stimulation of the 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptor. Intracerebroventricular infusion of 100 nmol 5-HT increased the extracellular hypothalamic concentration of vasopressin as measured by microdialysis in the PVN. To evaluate the involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary system in the 5-hydroxytryptophan and fluoxetine-induced vasopressin secretion, rats were immunoneutralized with a specific anti-corticotropin-releasing hormone antiserum. This treatment reduced plasma vasopressin and oxytocin responses. We conclude that stimulation with 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-HT agonists increases mRNA expression of oxytocin in the PVN and the SON via stimulation of at least 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Vasopressin mRNA in the PVN was increased only via the 5-HT2 receptor, whereas vasopressin mRNA in the SON does not seem to be affected by 5-HT stimulation. Corticotropin-releasing hormone appears to be partly involved in the mediation of 5-HT induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion.
Article
Although it has been reported by several laboratories that vestibular stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA), the existence of neuronal connections between vestibular and hypothalamic paraventricular neurons has not yet been demonstrated. By the use of a virus-based retrograde trans-synaptic tracing technique in the rat, here we demonstrate vestibular projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Pseudorabies virus (Bartha strain, type BDR62) was injected into the PVN, and the progression of the infection along synaptically connected neurons was followed in the pons and the medulla, 3 and 4 days post-inoculation. Virus-infected neurons were revealed mainly in the medial vestibular nucleus. Labeled cells were scattered in the spinal, and very rarely in the superior nuclei, but none of them in the lateral vestibular nucleus. Injections of cholera toxin B subunit, a monosynaptic retrograde tracer into the PVN failed to label any cells in the vestibular nuclei. These results provide anatomical evidence for the existence of a vestibulo-paraventricular polysynaptic pathway and support the view that the HPA axis is modulated by vestibular stress.
Mukkadan Can Controlled Vestibular Stimulation reduce stress-A Review
  • J K Kumar Sai Sailesh
Kumar Sai Sailesh, J.K.Mukkadan Can Controlled Vestibular Stimulation reduce stress-A Review." Health sciences. 2013; 2(3):js001.
Cancer pain relief by vestibular stimulation-A hypothesis
  • Kumar Sai
  • George Sailesh
  • Jissa
  • J Mukkadan
Kumar Sai Sailesh, George Jissa, Mukkadan J.K. Cancer pain relief by vestibular stimulation-A hypothesis..
Vestibular modulation of endocrine secretions-A review
  • Mukkadan J Kumar Sai Sailesh
Kumar Sai Sailesh, Mukkadan J.k Vestibular modulation of endocrine secretions-A review. Int J Res Health Sci [Internet]. 2014.Jan31;2(1):68-78.
Controlled Vestibular Stimulation: a novel treatment for insomnia
  • Kumar Sai Sailesh
  • J K Mukkadan
Kumar Sai Sailesh, Mukkadan J K. Controlled Vestibular Stimulation: a novel treatment for insomnia. IJHSR. 2013; 3(11): 127-134.
Natural treatment for parkinson's disease: Controlled Vestibular Stimulation
  • Varsha Kumar Sai Sailesh
  • Varghese
  • J Mukkadan
Kumar Sai Sailesh, Varsha Varghese, Mukkadan J.K. Natural treatment for parkinson's disease: Controlled Vestibular Stimulation. Altern Integ Med. 2013; 2(10):220..
Controlled vestibular stimulation. A physiological treatment for stress induced diabetes mellitus
  • Kumar Sai Sailesh
  • J Mukkadan
Kumar Sai Sailesh, Mukkadan J K. Controlled vestibular stimulation. A physiological treatment for stress induced diabetes mellitus. Altern Integ Med. 2013; 2(10):49.
Essentials of physiology. Cengage learning private limited
  • Lauralle Sherwood
Lauralle Sherwood. Essentials of physiology. Cengage learning private limited, Delhi. 2013;4 th edition: 512-513.
Stress and obesity: the role of hypothalamic-pitutary-adrenal axis in metabolic disease
  • Mousumi Bose
  • Blarica Oliven
  • Blandline Laferrere
Mousumi Bose, Blarica Oliven and Blandline Laferrere. Stress and obesity: the role of hypothalamic-pitutary-adrenal axis in metabolic disease. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009; 16(5): 340-346.
Association between short sleep hours and over weight in adolescents; results from a US Suburban High school survey
  • A Seicean
  • Redlines
  • S Scicean
Seicean A, RedlineS, Scicean S, etal. Association between short sleep hours and over weight in adolescents; results from a US Suburban High school survey. Sleep Breath. 2007; 11: 285-293.
Front Neuroendocrinol
  • Eduardo A Nillni
Eduardo A. Nillni. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2010 April; 31(2): 134-156.