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Abstract

Atok, Benguet in Northern Philippines is highly susceptible to landslides. To mitigate the effects of landslides, revegetation, was recently introduced as a means of soil stabilization. The selection of revegetation species is crucial; they should be indigenous to the area, reproduce rapidly, and suitable for bioengineering. The choice of revegetation species is sometimes dependent on the local community. Hence, to encourage the community to use these plants, the researchers conducted this study to establish additional value, specifically for their phytochemical content and antimicrobial potential.The selected plants are Coffea arabica, Brugmansia suaveolens, Camellia sinensis, Sarcandra glabra and Coriaria intermedia, which are found in the adjacent areas of landslide scars. Results showed that Camellia sinensis have the most number of secondary metabolites. Further, the plant extracts were tested against five bacteria namely Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion method. Leaf extract from C. intermedia was active against all the strains and is comparable to the results of the four antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Vancomycin, Kanamycin and Streptomycin) used. The antibacterial potential and the presence of bioactive components of the different plants can increase the value of the plants both for economic and medicinal purposes.

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... B. suaveolens is used traditionally to treat different diseased conditions such as pain, ulcers, abscesses, dermatitis, fungal infections of the skin (Reis et al., 2019), painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea) and used as vaginal antiseptic in white secretions (De Feo, 2004). Plant is pharmacologically proven for analgesic (Muccillo-Baisch et al., 2010), antinociceptive (Parker et al., 2007), wound healing (Schmidt et al., 2009), nematicidal (Nandkumar et al., 2017, antimicrobial (Luis et al., 2014) activities, etc. Various secondary metabolites such as alkaloids-apohyoscine, hyoscine, norhyoscine, meteloidine, atropine, noratropine, cuscohygrine, scopoline, tropine, pseudotropine, apoatropine, meteloidine, scopine, aposcopolamine, hyoscyamine (Evans and Lampard,1972;Wink et al., 2000;Alves, Sartoratto and Trigo, 2007) essential oil compounds-heptanal, octanal, 1,8-cineole, phenylacetaldehyde, terpenene, linalool, nonanal, phenethyl alcohol, a-terpineol, (e)-nerolidol, pentacosane, heptacosane, nonacosane, hentriacontane, (e)-b-ocimene (Anthony et al., 2009); glycosides (Geller et al., 2014) have been isolated from the plant. It has also been reported that Brugmansia is always confused with Datura due to their morphological resemblance however they are completely separate genus (Lusweti et al., 2014). ...
... The results revealed that the B. suaveolens stem extract was partially active against Staphylococcus aureus and found to be inactive against other bacteria with zero mm zone of inhibition. However, flower and leaf extract have been found inactive against all the five bacterial strains (Luis et al., 2014). Hence, it may be concluded from this study that polar extracts of B. suaveolens are not a good choice for antimicrobial activity. ...
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Angel's trumpet or Brugmanisa suaveolens (B. suaveolens), belonging to the family Solanaceae, distributed in Africa, America, Europe, Australia and Asia, has been used traditionally for the treatment of arthritis, sores, pain, inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, dermatitis, wounds, dysmenorrhea, fungal infections of the skin and as vaginal antiseptic in white secretions. Phytochemical studies of B. suaveolens revealed the presence of various alkaloids, terpenoids and glycosides in seeds, fruits, flowers and leaf parts of the plant. Pharmacological studies demonstrated that the polar extract of leaves of plant as better nematicidal, antinociceptive, and wound healer as compare to non-polar extracts. A tropane alkaloid, hyoscyamine, is a major bioactive ingredient of the plant with anticancer activity. This plant may also produce toxic effects like severe anticholinergic symptoms such as delirium, hallucination and psychosis. This article provides a critical compendious on B. suaveolens on the basis of thier botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxic effects. Furthermore, possible future perspectives on B. suaveolens have also been dealt
... Many researcher proved that flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, alkaloids, saponins have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal effect [25][26][27][28]. Therefore, the main objective was to assess the cytotoxic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, CNS depressant and anti-diarrheal activities of methanol extracts of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seeds (MEBRP and MEBRS), respectively. ...
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Background: It has been observed that the various part of Baccaurea ramiflora plant is used in rheumatoid arthritis, cellulitis, abscesses, constipation and injuries. This plant also has anticholinergic, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antiviral, antioxidant, diuretic and cytotoxic activities. The present studyaimed to assess the cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and antidiarrheal activities of methanol extract of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seeds in mice model. Methods: The cytotoxic activity was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay; anti-nociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced licking and biting, and tail immersion methods. The anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and anti-diarrheal activities were assessed by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, the open field and hole cross tests, and castor oil-induced diarrheal methods, respectively. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (analysis of variance) followed by Dunnett's test.
... Many researcher proved that flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, alkaloids, saponins have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal effect [25][26][27][28]. Therefore, the main objective was to assess the cytotoxic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, CNS depressant and anti-diarrheal activities of methanol extracts of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seeds (MEBRP and MEBRS), respectively. ...
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Background: It has been observed that the various part of Baccaurea ramiflora plant is used in rheumatoid arthritis, cellulitis, abscesses, constipation and injuries. This plant also has anticholinergic, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antiviral, antioxidant, diuretic and cytotoxic activities. The present studyaimed to assess the cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and antidiarrheal activities of methanol extract of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seeds in mice model. Methods: The cytotoxic activity was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay; anti-nociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin- induced licking and biting, and tail immersion methods. The anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and anti-diarrheal activities were assessed by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, the open field and hole cross tests, and castor oil-induced diarrheal methods, respectively. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (analysis of variance) followed by Dunnett's test. Results: In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50values of the methanol extracts of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seed were 40 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, respectively. Our investigation showed that Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) inhibited acetic acid induced pain 67.51 and 66.08%, respectively (p < 0.05) that was strongly comparable with that of Ibuprofen (72%) (p < 0.05). The Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced 58.5 and 53.4 in early and 80.8%, 76.61% in late phase of formalin-induced licking and biting. At 60 and 90 min pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) inhibited nociception of thermal stimulus 50.16 and 62.4%, respectively (p < 0.05) which was comparable with the standard (morphine, 75.9% inhibition). The pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced inflammation (42.00 and 55.22%, respectively) in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and defecations (59.7 and 63.03%, respectively) in castor oil induced diarrhea. Both the extracts showed high sedative activity at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Conclusion: Our investigation demonstrated significant cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and antidiarrheal activities of methanol extract of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seeds (200 mg/kg).
... Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites was performed by following standard procedures, including alkaloids, polyphenol, tannin, flavonoid, monoterpen, seskuiterpen, steroid, triterpenoid, kuinon, and saponin test [15]. ...
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Objective: This research aims to formulate syrup of coffee arabica extract with decaffeination process and stability test of caffein and chlorogenic acid in syrup of coffee arabica extract.Methods: An extraction was conducted by using ethanol 70% with soxhletation methods, and decaffeination process (using liquid-liquid extraction with ratio of etanol and dicloromethan was 1:1). Syrup formulations of coffee arabica extract was made with various concentrations of Na CMC (thickening agent) and sucralose (flavoring agent). The stability of syrup was evaluated through organoleptic, pH, viscosity, hedonic test, microbiological test and determinated concentration of caffeine and chlorogenic acid.Result: The result showed that the concentration of caffeine before and after decaffeination process were 3.377 + 0091% and 1.028 + 0.079%. While, chlorogenic acid were 4.159 + 0.163% and 3.019 + 0.138%. Microbiological test showed that no contamination in syrup of coffee arabica extract. The concentration of caffeine in syrup of coffee arabica extract was 1.070 + 0.150% and chlorogenic acid was 4.432 + 1.98 %.Conclusion: The concentration of caffeine before and after formulation process were 3.019 + 0.138% and 4.432 + 1.986%. The best formula of coffee arabica extract syrup was the formula that contains 5 mg/ml of coffee arabica extract, 1.5 mg/ml of Na CMC and 0.5 mg/ml of sucralose and no contamination in syrup of coffee arabica extract. Caffeine content would decrease after the decaffeination process.
... The phytochemical screening and test for antimicrobial activity are two most effective methods commonly employed to determine the plants potential for different purposes 11 . Having in mind history of use of Ajuga species and since the data about bioactive compounds and activity of Anchusa officinalis are unavailable, the aim of the present study is to provides new data about secondary metabolites content (total phenolics content and flavonoid concentration) and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different extracts from aerial parts of A. officinalis. ...
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In this comparative study, the total phenolic content and flavonoid concentration, as well as free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of Anchusa officinalis L. were investigated. Different extracts from above ground flowering plant parts were obtained by extraction using water, methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Highest content of total phenolics, determined spectrophotometrically with Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, were recorded in the methanolic extract (116.42 mg GAE/gm of dry extract). The concentration of flavonoids, determined using spectrophotometrically method with aluminum chloride, was highest in acetone extract (146.43 mg RUE/gm of dry extract). The free radical scavenging activity was determined in vitro using DPPH reagent. The greatest antioxidant activity was expressed in methanolic extract (181.85 µg/ml). In vitro antimicrobial activities were determined using a microdilution analysis method – minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Methanolic extract demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against G-positive Staphylococcus aureus and S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC values below 0.156 mg/ml. Based on the results, A. officinalis can be regarded as promising plant source with high value of biologically active compounds.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance The genus Brugmansia belongs to the Solanaceae family and contains approximately 7-8 species distributed in America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The genus Brugmansia plants are used in the traditional medicine of different parts of the world for the treatment of inflammations, rheumatic arthritis, wounds, skin infections, headache, asthma, colic, aches, and so on. Aim of the review To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review study that focuses on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and traditional uses of Brugmansia species in order to understand the link between the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and modern therapeutic uses, and provide a scientific fundamental for further research in the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of their species. Materials and methods The information reported in this study was retrieved from the scientific database such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Springer, CNKI, Wiley, Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar, up until May 2020. The key search word was “Brugmansia.” Additionally, information was derived by search on the reference lists of included articles and Ph.D. dissertations. Results As traditional uses, Brugmansia species are used against a wide range of diseases such as body pain, inflammatory conditions, skin infection, wound, and other diseases. Also, these species are used as a hallucinogen, protection from evil, and magical rituals. Phytochemical investigations have led to reporting approximately 189 chemical compounds in this genus. Among these components, tropane alkaloids, terpenes, and flavonoids are the most representative components of Brugmansia species. The plant extracts and chemical constituents of Brugmansia species exhibit a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antispasmodic, anti-asthmatic, antinociceptive, antiprotozoal activities, and so on. Conclusion This review summarized and analyzed the information of traditional uses, phytochemical, pharmacological activities, and toxicity of the genus Brugmansia plants, which show their species have interesting chemical constituents with different biological activities. The traditional uses of some species from this genus have been estimated by pharmacological activities, such as the anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antiasthma, antinociceptive, anti-addictive, and antiprotozoal activity. However, the traditional uses of many species have not been confirmed, also the secondary metabolites of the many species have not yet been determined and have never been pharmacologically estimated. Considerably more research is needed to assert the ethnopharmacological uses, determine the chemical constituents, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the genus Brugmansia species. The present review will be helpful for further research in the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Brugmansia species.
Chapter
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Secondary metabolites, at least the major ones present in a plant, apparently function as defence (against herbivores, microbes, viruses or competing plants) and signal compounds (to attract pollinating or seed dispersing animals). They are thus important for the plant's survival and reproductive fitness. Secondary metabolites therefore represent adaptive characters that have been subjected to natural selection during evolution. Molecular phylogenies of the Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Lamiaceae were reconstructed and employed as a framework to map and to interpret the distribution of some major defence compounds that are typical for the respective plant families; quinolizidine alkaloids and non-protein amino acids for legumes; tropane and steroidal alkaloids for Solanaceae, and iridoids and essential oils for labiates. The distribution of the respective compounds appears to be almost mutually exclusive in the families studied, implying a strong phylogenetic and ecological component. However, on a closer look, remarkable exceptions can be observed, in that certain metabolites are absent (or present) in a given taxon, although all the neighbouring and ancestral taxa express (or do not express, respectively) the particular trait. It is argued that these patterns might reflect differential expression of the corresponding genes that have evolved earlier in plant evolution. The inconsistent secondary metabolite profiles mean that the systematic value of chemical characters becomes a matter of interpretation in the same way as traditional morphological markers. Thus, the distribution of secondary metabolites has some value for taxonomy but their occurrence apparently reflects adaptations and particular life strategies embedded in a given phylogenetic framework.
Article
Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml.
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