Article

Green tea (Camellia sinensis, L.) ethanolic extract as hair tonic in nutraceutical: Physical stability, hair growth activity on rats, and safety test

Authors:
  • Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Indonesia, Indonesia, Depok
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Objective: Herbal and synthetic cosmetic products have been developed to unravel problem of hair loss, yet synthetics are potential to give side effects (e.g. local irritation), whilst herbal products are generally safer. Green tea is one of food derived active ingredient potential as topical hair grower. The purpose of this study is to formulate nutraceutical hair tonic(s) which is stable, effective towards hair growth, and safe. Methods: Ethanolic green tea extract (GTE) was formulated into varied concentrations i.e. 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%. Physical stability test performed was cycling test, storage in high temperature (40°C ± 2°C), room temperature (25°C ± 2°C), and low temperature (4°C ± 2°C). Activity of hair growth test was conducted by hair length measurements on day 7, 14, and 21, plus diameter measurements and total weights of hair on day 21. Safety test was carried out on 9 volunteers' upper hands. Results: Results showed the hair tonic was stable in storage, except in low temperature (4°C ± 2°C). In addition to giving hair growth activity, all of the formulas had greater activity than synthetic drug i.e. minoxidil 2.5%. These hair tonics were safe and did not irritate skin. Conclusion: The most optimal formulation was formula 1 with GTE concentration of 2.5%.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Mentimun juga memiliki kandungan tinggi silikon dan sulfur. Silikon dan sulfur menyediakan nourishments tinggi yang dapat menstimulasi pertumbuhan rambut pada konsentrasi 25% [4]. ...
... Sari ekstrak mentimun didiamkan hingga dingin, disaring kembali, lalu disimpan di lemari pendingin didalam botol kaca. Selanjutnya ekstrak disiapkan sebanyak 25% (b/v) untuk diformulasi menjadi hair tonic [4]. ...
Article
Penggunaan hijab dahulu hanya dianggap sebagai item yang 'ketinggalan zaman', namun berbeda dengan saat ini. Hijab kini telah dijadikan sebagai salah satu item fashion wajib yang dikenakan oleh sebagian besar wanita muslim di Indonesia. Meskipun populasinya semakin meningkat, namun peningkatan ini tidak diimbangi dengan perawatan khusus rambut yang tertutup di balik hijab, karena sering mengalami masalah rambut akibat nutrisi shampo yang kurang mendukung bagi wanita berhijab, sehingga diperlukan suatu perawatan khusus selain shampoo untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Produksi buah mentimun yang cukup tinggi di Indonesia masih belum sebanding dengan pemanfaatan buah mentimun itu sendiri, mentimun umumnya hanya dikonsumsi di kalangan masyarakat, padahal ekstrak buah mentimun kaya akan metabolit sekunder seperti sulphur dan silikon yang dapat digunakan untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan rambut dan menutrisi rambut rontok pada wanita berhijab. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan hair tonic dengan menggunakan bahan yaitu ekstrak mentimun (C. sativus) 25%, dan bahan tambahan seperti etanol 96 %, menthol, propilenglikol, metil paraben, natrium metabisulfit, akuades, dengan berbagai konsentrasi. Setelah pembuatan hair tonic maka dilakukan beberapa evaluasi fisik pada sediaan untuk melihat kestabilannya pada masing-masing konsentrasi untuk memenuhi persyaratan sediaan hair tonic dan mengatasi masalah pada rambut berhijab.Kata Kunci: Ketombe, hair tonic, mentimun, hijab, kosmetik
... Beberapa ekstrak tumbuhan terbukti secara ilmiah dapat mengatasi kerontokan rambut, diantaranya seledri (Jubaidah et al. 2018), teh dan pegagan (Trissia 2017), mentimun (Desriani et al. 2018), kembang sepatu (Febriani et al. 2016), lidah buaya (Sona 2018), kelor (Nurbaya & Silalahi 2018), daun mangkokan (Aini 2017), semangka (Lestari 2016), teh hijau (Amin et al. 2014), meniran (Luliana et al. 2018), dan jojoba (Sekar et al. 2016). Tanaman jojoba (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang digunakan sebagai bahan dasar tonik rambut yang mampu meningkatkan aktivitas pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus dengan hasil yang setara dengan obat standar sintetis minoxidil 2% (Sekar et al. 2016). ...
... Tonik rambut berbahan baku ekstrak daun bidara dapat merangsang pertumbuhan rambut tetapi lebih lambat daripada ekstrak seledri, daun mangkokan, kembang sepatu, teh hijau, meniran, dan lidah buaya. Ekstrak daun seledri (Apium graveolens L.), daun mangkokan (Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm.f.) Merr.), daun kembang sepatu (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.), teh hijau [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze], meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.), dan lidah buaya [Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.], dapat merangsang pertumbuhan rambut berturut-turut hingga 24,59 ± 0,013 mm selama 18 hari (Jubaidah et al. 2018), 16,197 ± 0,179 mm selama 22 hari (Aini 2017), 28,44 ± 4,50 mm selama 28 hari (Febriani et al. 2016), 24,64 ± 0,70 mm selama 21 hari (Amin et al. 2014), 13,57 ± 2,88 mm selama 21 hari (Luliana et al. 2018), dan 28,44 ± 4,50 mm selama 18 hari (Sona 2018). Namun, ekstrak daun bidara lebih baik dalam merangsang pertumbuhan rambut dibandingkan dengan jojoba (Z. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tonik rambut merupakan produk perawatan terhadap kerontokan rambut yang praktis, mudah terserap kulit kepala, serta tidak menimbulkan iritasi. Berbagai ekstrak tumbuhan diformulasikan untuk mengatasi kerontokan rambut sebagai alternatif dari tonik rambut berbahan sintetis yang dapat menimbulkan efek samping. Bidara (Ziziphus nummularia) berpotensi mengatasi kerontokan rambut karena mengandung senyawa antiinflamasi dan antioksidan yang mengurangi efek negatif dari stres oksidatif pada sel papila kulit kepala. Namun, sampai saat ini belum ada pengujian ekstrak daun bidara terhadap pertumbuhan rambut mamalia. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan formula terbaik dari tonik rambut ekstrak daun bidara dan menguji aktivitasnya terhadap pertumbuhan rambut kelinci jantan ras New Zealand. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fakultas MIPA Universitas Garut dari Maret 2020 hingga Maret 2021. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah formulasi tonik rambut yang menggunakan ekstrak etanol daun bidara dengan konsentrasi 3%, 6% dan 12%; akuades (kontrol negatif) dan minoxidil (kontrol positif). Semua perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Parameter yang diamati adalah karakteristik tonik rambut yang meliputi bau, warna, viskositas, homogenitas, pH, iritasi, pertumbuhan rambut pada kelinci. Formula tonik ekstrak etanol daun bidara 3%, 6%, dan 12% memiliki kualitas bau, warna, viskositas, homogenitas, dan pH yang seragam. Ketiga formula tidak menimbulkan iritasi terhadap kulit kelinci. Konsentrasi ekstrak terbaik untuk formula tonik rambut adalah 3% yang menghasilkan pertumbuhan rambut sebesar 10,67 mm selama 28 hari. Ekstrak etanol daun bidara terbukti meningkatkan pertumbuhan rambut kelinci jantan putih New Zealand lebih baik daripada kontrol dan minoxidil 2%.
... The study was carried out for 6 months (1 daily application = 1 mL) and had 85 patients divided in two groups, cetirizine (n = 67) and control group (n = 15). The authors found an increase in terminal hair density and a decrease in the vellus hair den- Another phyto ingredient already tested to treat AGA is pumpkin seed oil (Cho et al., 2014), Camellia sinensis or green tea (Amin, Simamora, Anwar, & Djajadisastra, 2014), Panax ginseng, (Murata, Takeshita, Samukawa, Tani, & Matsuda, 2012), and essential oils. The composition of pumpkin seed oil comprises substances with antiinflammatory, antioxidant and 5αR inhibition properties (Cho et al., 2014). ...
... The composition of pumpkin seed oil comprises substances with antiinflammatory, antioxidant and 5αR inhibition properties (Cho et al., 2014). Green tea is antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, its properties are associated with the presence of epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a major constituent of polyphenols (Amin et al., 2014). Panax ginseng, the Korean ginseng, is rich in ginsenosides (Murata et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most diagnosed hair loss dysfunction. Its physiopathology comprises a genetic predisposition affording an exacerbated response of the hair follicles cells to androgens aggravated by scalp inflammation and extrinsic factors. Objective: To review the mechanisms and extrinsic factors involved in the AGA physiopathology as well as its conventional and emerging treatments. Design: The research focused on reports regarding AGA physiopathology and treatments published between January 2001 and July 2019 in medical and related journals. Results: The most used medical treatments for AGA - minoxidil and finasteride - present non-satisfactory results in some cases. Currently, the low-level laser therapy is recognized as a safe and effective treatment for AGA. Some minimally invasive techniques - mesotherapy, microneedling, carboxytherapy and platelet-rich plasma - are also used to stimulate hair growth. Pharmaceutical substances with mechanisms differing from the anti-androgen activity are under current investigation and many of them have botanical origins; however, formulations with higher performance are required, and the hair follicles ability of being a drug and nanoparticle reservoir has been researched. Conclusions: The association of different strategies, i.e., substances with synergic mechanisms and the use of advantageous technologies associated with lifestyle changes could improve the treatment outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... alba 10% w/v, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 10% w/v, N. jatamansi 5% w/v) [151] as well as petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of Semecarpus anacardium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella corniculata formulations [132] had greater hair growth activity than 2% minoxidil topically applicated on shaved skin of rats. Formulations with 2.5, 5 and 7.5% ethanolic Camellia sinensis extract had greater hair growth activity than 2.5% minoxidil topically applied on dorsal skin of male rats after 21 days of treatment [3]. Petroleum ether Tectona grandis seeds extract (5 and 10%) in ointment base had greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase after 30 days of albino mice treatment than standard minoxidil treatment [61]. ...
... Testing for skin irritation in animals is not always predictive for those found in humans, but they are still the most widely used in toxicity research for herbal extracts and their active constituents are applied topically. It was found that after topical application of herbs used in hair loss treatment such as A. precatorius [157], C. sinensis [3], E. scaber [127], Glycyrrhiza glabra extract [158], M. oleifera [16], P. umbellatus [60], T. grandis [61], T. cucumerina and A. precatorius extract [128] and polyherbal formulation [4,22,41,105,123,124,128] no irritation, erythema, eschar and edema occured. On the other hand, contact dermatitis by herbal preparations has been repeatedly reported, e.g., to tea tree oil [30], camomile (Anthemis nobilis) [39], French marigold (Tagetes Patula) [12] and wide range of traditional Chinese medications [85]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Currently available conventional therapies of hair loss using synthetic drugs are still imperfect and have a number of limitations. Their effectiveness as well as the safety of their use is often questioned. It has led to an increased interest in alternative treatments with fewer side-effects such as formulations containing herbs and/or their active constituents. For this purpose several electronic databases and hand-searched references were used to summarize current knowledge regarding topically used herbal products for the treatment of hair loss acquired on the basis of preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, mechanism of their action, follicular penetration and possible adverse effect of herbal products will be also described.
... Moreover, derivatives of flavonoid compounds consist of epigallatocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallatocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin (EC) and quercetin. In black tea, the polyphenols have a mechanism of action by stimulating and increasing cell proliferation in hair dermal papilla cells, suppressing the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), which triggers baldness 14,15 . Meanwhile, saponins are compounds that can stimulate hair growth, seen from their properties as counterirritants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Black tea contains flavonoid and its derivate which is a mechanism of actions to stimulate and increase cell proliferation of hair dermal papilla cell to suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) that trigger baldness. This study aimed to determine the stable hair tonic formula and to investigate the effectiveness of black tea extract hair tonic in rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) as animal testing. There were 3 different concentrations used in this study namely formula 1 (1.25 % of black tea extract), formula 2 (2.5 % of black tea extract) and formula 3 (5 % of black tea extract). The physical stability evaluation was conducted using some tests such as organoleptic, pH, density determination and viscosity test. The result of this evaluation showed that all the three formulas were stable, its effectiveness as hair restorer then was tested and the result of this test indicated that black tea extract has activity as a hair fertilizer and the optimum extract was shown by the formula 3 with black tea extract concentration of 5% with the hair growth in the 18th day i.e., 9.62 ± 0.365 mm.
... Currently, many natural shampoo formulations are based on synthetic detergents and other chemical additives, with herbal extracts, added only to increase their efficacy. Amin et al. studied a herbal shampoo made from green tea [10]. Al Badi and Khan studied a natural shampoo derived from five herbal extracts (Acacia concinna, Sapindus mukorossi, Phyllanthus emblica, Ziziphus spina-christi, and Citrus aurantifolia) in different proportions in a 10% aqueous gelatin solution [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Banana waste, especially corms, has potential as a source of haircare agents due to its active compound, anthraquinone, which is known to promote hair growth. This study aimed to assess preparations of hair tonic shampoo containing Musa acuminata Colla corm extract and evaluate their characteristics and stability. Methods: Three shampoo formulas were prepared containing 8%, 10%, and 12% corm extract. Physical stability tests were performed at high (60±2 °C) and room temperature (25±2 °C) for three weeks. The shampoo formulas were evaluated for their organoleptic properties (colour, form, and odour), homogeneity, pH, density, viscosity, rheology, foam height and stability, and surface tension. Results: The shampoo formulas with corm extract were white to yellowish-white, creamy, and smelled of banana, and were homogenous without precipitation. The formulas had a pH of 6.08–6.12, a density of 1.027–1.054 g/ml, foam height of 3.56–3.63 ml, the surface tension of 28.92–29.85 dyne/cm, viscosity of 16,000–120,000 cps and pseudoplastic flow properties. Conclusion: The natural hair tonic shampoo formulas prepared with M. acuminata corm have good characteristics.
... It thought that green tea contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which a major polyphenol that can give antioxidant and anti-cancer effect (Patel, Sharma, Chauhan, Thakur and Dixit, 2015). Reported that the tea polyphenolic EGCG compound can stimulate human hair growth when it tested among mice that show positive significant elongation of hair follicle (Amin et al., 2014). Apart from EGCG compound present that gives pharmacological effect, there also has catechins in the green tea that can also quickly reduce the 5α-reductase that can act as treatment and prevention agent for hair loss problem (Zink and Traidl-Hoffmann, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hair loss or alopecia is a common dermatological issue that can affect millions of human population of all ages and both gender, male and female. Frequently, alopecia has been found to be associated with significant adverse effects or reduction of psychological and self-esteem. Consequently, this may lead to psychological problems such as depression and anxiety, thus it may negatively impact the quality of life as well. There are several types of hair loss including androgenetic alopecia (AGA), alopecia areata (AA), alopecia totalis (AT), Alopecia Universalis (AU), cicatricial alopecia (CA), senescent alopecia (SA), traction alopecia (TA) and telogen effluvium. However, this review will focus on the androgenic alopecia only. Androgenic alopecia (AGA) also known as male pattern baldness is referred to as hair loss that often occurs in men after puberty caused by the androgen. In addition, this review will discuss on the hair growth cycles and their mechanism on the androgenic alopecia and lastly the management of androgenic alopecia using plant derivatives and methods used in order to prolong the efficacy of androgenetic alopecia treatment.
... Hair tonic has been used by Native Americans to overcome baldness using several species of plants [7]. The use of hair tonic has advantages as easy and suitable for use on the scalp, both in trans-appendageal absorption, easily spread, not greasy, and does not leave residues on the scalp that can cause irritation [8]. A gel is a preparation that is easier to formulate than other semisolid preparations and has good dispersion [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Previous research has proven that the water fraction of the Angiopteris evecta root has hair growth activities. The objective of this research was to determine the formula of gel and hair tonic preparations of pakis munding (Angiopteris evecta L.) which met the requirements as a pharmaceutical preparation, good and effective in stimulating hair growth. Methods: Formulation of hair tonic and gel preparations were made using 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 % of A. Evecta root water extracts as active compounds. The formulation of the two preparations was based on the standard formulation method. The evaluation and formulation test were carried out by organoleptic examination and homogeneity, pH, viscosity, scattering power test, stability test, and safety test based on the standard preparations including Indonesian pharmacopeia. Statistical tests were carried out on both formulas against rabbits based on the modification of the Tanaka method. Comparison of statistics on both formulas was also carried out. Results: It was found both formulas fulfill standard requirements as pharmaceutical preparations. Statistically, the best activity in hair tonic preparations was at a concentration of 12.5% and for gels at a concentration of 10.0% ethanol extract seen from measurements of hair length. Statistically, using the Independent T-test to find out the significant differences in the average hair length on hair tonic and gel, it was found there was no significant difference between the two formulas. It was found that the best formula for hair tonic and gel was in the addition of 10.0% and 12.5% extracts, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained in this research work clearly indicated that both hair tonic and gel formulas of A. evecta root water extract may be used as stimulating hair growth.
... The purpose of the ANOVA test was to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference from the treatment group as a whole. Furthermore, to see statistically significant differences between test groups, the smallest significant difference test [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research has been conducted for 3 (three) months in April to June 2018. The research includes the maintenance of test animals and the manufacture of extracts that will be in the Basic Laboratory of Universitas Samudra. The method used in this study consisted of making coffee extracts, making combination of solvents and test activity of preparation. Hair length data and hair weight obtained were then processed statistically to see if there was a significant difference between the test area and the treatments. Normal and homogeneous data distribution is processed for the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that treatment 3 (0.113 cm day⁻¹) on day 21 was faster than positive treatment (0.101 cm day⁻¹), negative treatment (0.060 cm day⁻¹), 4 treatment (0.099 cm day⁻¹) and 5 (0.090 cm day⁻¹) treatment. From the measurement of hair weight measured for 21 days showed treatment 3 resulted the largest hair weight of 0.207 g, followed by positive treatment 0.193 g, 4 treatment of 0.187 g, treatment 5 with 0.177 g and the lowest weight was in the treatment negative by 0.127 g.
... Some of them have been scientifically reported. These include the mixture of kemiri (Aleurites moluccana) and soybean (glycine max) extracts, seledri (Apium graveolens) extract, daun pare (Momordica charantia) ethanol extract, mangkokan (Nothopanax scutellarium) leaves extract, kacang panjang (Vigna sinensis) leaves extract, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanol extract [4][5][6]. One of the plants that have not been recognized by the public and has long been proven for generations by the community at the foot of the Galunggung mountainside was a plant called Paku/Pakis Gajah or Paku/Pakis Munding (Sundanese) (Angiopteris evecta). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aims to determine characteristics and alopecia activity of Pakis Gajah (Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst) Hoffm.) growing in Galunggung mountainside, West Java.Methods: A. evecta was collected, determined and extracted using ethanol 95% by maceration. The extract was characterized based on Farmakope Indonesia method. Phytochemical screening was applied based on Farnsworth’s method. Its alopecia activity was determined by Tanaka method on male Angora rabbits.Results: The results showed that A. evecta simplicia had dried shrinkage characteristics of 3.35%; ash content 4.73%; water soluble sari content 20.11%; ethanol soluble concentration 5.94%; density 0.820; pH of extract 5.33; microchemical examination with H2SO4 gives a dark brown color, with 2N NaOH giving a bright yellow color, with the alkaline solution giving fluorescence, with FeCl3 giving a greenish-green color; its chemical contents were polyphenols, flavonoid, steroids, triterpenoids, quinones, monoterpenoid, and sesquiterpenoids. Alopecia activity showed that the water fraction and n-hexane had hair growth stimulating activity and water fraction was the fraction that had the most excellent activity, while ethyl acetate did not have such activities. The alopecia results were compared with minoxidil standards.Conclusion: These results indicated that the water fractions A. evecta had the most alopecia activity on research animal. Our results suggest before it can be used in humans, it is necessary to do further research on the bald volunteers.
Book
The first volume to explore Muslim piety as a form of economy, this book examines specific forms of production, trade, regulation, consumption, entrepreneurship and science that condition – and are themselves conditioned by – Islamic values, logics and politics. With a focus on Southeast Asia as a site of significant and diverse integration of Islam and the economy – as well as the incompatibilities that can occur between the two – it reveals the production of a Muslim piety as an economy in its own right. Interdisciplinary in nature and based on in-depth empirical studies, the book considers issues such as the Qur’anic prohibition of corruption and anti-corruption reforms; the emergence of the Islamic economy under colonialism; ‘halal’ or ‘lawful’ production, trade, regulation and consumption; modesty in Islamic fashion marketing communications; and financialisation, consumerism and housing. As such, it will appeal to scholars of sociology, anthropology and religious studies with interests in Islam and Southeast Asia.
Article
Full-text available
Permasalahan yang belakangan ini sering terjadi pada sebagian besar masyarakat salah satunya adalah kerontokan. Kerontokan adalah suatu kelainan dimana rambut terlepas dari permukaan kulit dengan jumlah diluar batas normal. Beberapa tanaman yang telah diteliti memiliki potensi sebagai perangsang pertumbuhan rambut adalah kangkung, teh hijau, mangkokan, alpukat, kembang sepatu, pakis munding, seledri, lidah buaya, akar manis, mentimun, kacang panjang, waru dan meniran. Tanaman tersebut dibuat sediaan hair tonic untuk memudahkan dalam penggunaannya. Hair tonic termasuk sediaan kosmetik yang berfungsi menjaga kesehatan rambut, merangsang pertumbuhan rambut, serta menguatkan rambut. Tujuan pembuatan artikel review ini untuk memberikan informasi mengenai ekstrak atau fraksi tanaman dengan formulasi dan evaluasi sediaan herbal hair tonic perangsang pertumbuhan rambut yang paling baik. Metode yang digunakan yaitu studi pustaka secara elektronik dengan mengakses situs pencarian jurnal internasional dan nasional menggunakan kata kunci formulation of hair tonic. Hasil dari artikel review ini menunjukkan bahwa formulasi sediaan herbal hair tonic sebagai perangsang pertumbuhan rambut dari ekstrak atau fraksi tanaman harus terdiri dari pelarut, humektan, peningkat penetrasi, anti oksidan, pengkelat, serta pengawet dengan hasil evaluasi meliputi pengujian penampilan, aroma, pH, homogenitas, stabilitas, viskositas, dan bobot jenis sesuai persyaratan yang diperuntukkan. Dari artikel review ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa sediaan herbal hair tonic sebagai perangsang pertumbuhan rambut yang mengandung 2.5% ekstrak daun teh hijau menunjukkan formula terbaik dimana formula tersebut terdiri dari bahan 75% etanol, 10% propilen glikol, 1% tween 80, 0.1% mentol, 0.2% sodium metabilsulfit, 0.025% Na2EDTA, 0.075% metil paraben, dan aquades dengan hasil evaluasi sesuai persyaratan yang diperuntukkan dan hasil uji aktivitas dengan parameter bobot rambut sebesar 22.20 mg/cm2.
Article
Full-text available
Aloe vera contains lignin, folic acid, vitamin A, and 20 types of amino acids, while Glycyrrhiza glabra L. contains glycyrrhizin, steroids, and beta-glycyrrhetinic acid that benefit for hair health. This research aimed to produce hair tonic with the best activity from the combination of aloe vera and licorice extract. The phytochemicals in the aqueous extract of licorice and Aloe vera were screened. The hair tonic was then prepared with 3 formulas using 7.5% Aloe vera extract and 2.5% licorice extract, as well as 96% ethanol with varying percentages, namely 5, 10, and 15%. Afterward, the formulas were tested for their activity as hair fertilizer on 4 white male rabbits for 28 days. The evaluation of hair tonic preparation included organoleptic observation, pH, specific weight, viscosity, and hedonic tests. It measured hair growth rate, the acceleration of hair growth, and hair weight. The results showed that hair tonic containing a mixture of 7.5% of Aloe vera extract, 2.5% of licorice extract, and 96% ethanol with different percentages (i.e., 5, 10, and 15%) created a good hair fertilizer. Hair tonic prepared with 15% of 96% ethanol exhibited an optimum activity. It was characterized by brown color, distinctive odor, homogeneity, a specific weight of 1.0577 g/mL, a viscosity of 2.8479 cP to distilled water, and pH 5.5. Its effectiveness as hair fertilizer was evidenced by a hair growth rate of 2.6617 cm in 28 days, a hair growth acceleration of 0.1635 cm/day, and a hair weight of 0.1854 gram in 28 days.
Article
Full-text available
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Tea extracts are source of polyphenols, which are antioxidant components. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The main catechin compounds found in green tea are (-) Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG), (-) Epigallocatechin (EGC), (-) Epicatechin Gallate (ECG) and (-) Epicatechin (EC) and other compounds. An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from the substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. A molecule with one or more unpaired electron in its outer shell is called a free radical. Free radicals are formed from molecules via breakage of a chemical bond such that each fragment keeps one electron, by cleavage of a radical to give another radical and, also via redox reactions. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions. They do this by being oxidized themselves, so antioxidants are often reducing agents. Antioxidants play a significant role in our health. They are the compounds that protects cell against the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species. This review highlights the potentials of green tea with respect to its antioxidant constituents.
Article
Background: Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) is the second most consumed beverage in the world. Green tea is the least processed and thus contain rich antioxidant level, and believed to have most of the health benefits. Methods: We commenced to search bibliographic collection of peer reviewed research articles and review articles to meet the objective of this study. Results: From this study, we found that the tea beverage contains catechins are believed to have a wide range of health benefits which includes neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-parasitic effects. The four major catechin compounds of green tea are epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and epicatechin gallate (ECG), of which EGCG is the major constituent and representing 50-80% of the total catechin content. And also contain xanthine derivatives such as caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, and the glutamide derivative theanine. It also contains many nutritional components, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, fluoride, and potassium. We sum up the various green tea phytoconstituents, extraction methods, and its medicinal applications. Conclusion: In this review article, we have summarized the pharmacological importance of green tea catechin which includes antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic and cosmetic application.
Article
Full-text available
Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products). Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations). Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants) relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism.
Article
Full-text available
Although telogen effluvium, or shedding-the most common type of diffuse hair loss in both women and men-is usually self-limiting, the condition may become chronic if the trigger is not identified and corrected. The authors discuss the physiologic and emotional triggers, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies, including the importance of patient education and reassurance.
Article
Full-text available
To pical minoxidil solution 2% stimulates new hair growth and helps stop the loss of hair in men with androgenetic alopecia and women with female pattern hair loss. Results can be variable, and historic experience suggests that higher concentrations of topical minoxidil may enhance efficacy. The purpose of this 48-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of 5% topical minoxidil with 2% topical minoxidil and placebo in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. A total of 381 women (18-49 years old) with female pattern hair loss applied 5% topical minoxidil solution (n = 153), 2% topical minoxidil solution (n = 154), or placebo (vehicle for 5% solution; n = 74) twice daily. Primary efficacy variables were change in nonvellus hair count at week 48, and patient and investigator assessments of change in hair growth/scalp coverage at week 48. After 48 weeks of therapy, 5% topical minoxidil was superior to placebo for each of the 3 primary efficacy measures. The 2% topical minoxidil group demonstrated superiority over placebo for hair count and investigator assessment of hair growth/scalp coverage at week 48; differences in patient assessment of hair growth at week 48 were not significantly different from placebo. The 5% topical minoxidil group demonstrated statistical superiority over the 2% topical minoxidil group in the patient assessment of treatment benefit at week 48. Both 5% and 2% topical minoxidil helped improve psychosocial perceptions of hair loss in women with female pattern hair loss. An increased occurrence of pruritus, local irritation, and hypertrichosis was observed with 5% topical minoxidil versus 2% topical minoxidil and placebo. In this 48-week study of 381 women with female pattern hair loss, 5% topical minoxidil was superior to placebo on each of the 3 primary efficacy end points: promoting hair growth as measured by change in nonvellus hair count and patient/investigator assessments of hair growth and scalp coverage. Application of 2% topical minoxidil was superior to placebo for assessments of nonvellus hair counts and investigator assessment of hair growth/scalp coverage at week 48; differences in patient assessment of hair growth at week 48 were not significantly different from placebo. At week 48, the 5% topical minoxidil group demonstrated statistical superiority over the 2% topical minoxidil group in the patient assessment of treatment benefit. Both concentrations of topical minoxidil were well tolerated by the women in this trial without evidence of systemic adverse effects. With the introduction of numerous herbal remedies for hair loss, of which most have not been tested in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, it is important to describe well-controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy and safety of topical drugs.
Article
We have previously established that the relative concentrations of propylene glycol and ethanol as a binary solvent system have a significant effect on the skin penetration of 2% solutions of minoxidil at 50 μL/cm2. The present work extends these studies and investigates the penetration of minoxidil from the different vehicle combinations as functions of application volume and occlusion. Decreasing the application volume has a variable effect which depends on vehicle composition. Penetration of minoxidil from 100% ethanol solutions decreased linearly with application volume. Generally, irrespective of the volume applied, the penetration of minoxidil increased with increasing ethanol fraction with a maximum penetration at 90% ethanol. Penetration from all the formulations was enhanced upon occluding the skin, with greatest increase evident in solutions with higher volatile fraction. Penetration of minoxidil in vivo showed trends similar to those seen in vitro.
Article
Green tea is believed to be beneficial to health because it possesses antioxidant, antiviral and anticancer properties. The potential toxicity of green tea when administered at high doses via concentrated extracts, however, has not been completely investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of green tea extract in ICR mice using a subacute exposure paradigm. In this study, mice were orally administered (gavage) green tea extract at doses of 0 (as normal group), 625, 1250 and 2500mg/kgbody weight/day for 28days. The results showed that oral administration of green tea extract did not cause adverse effects on body weight, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis or histopathology. Additionally, administering green tea extract via gavage significantly reduced triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These observed effects could be attributed to the high levels of catechins present in green tea as these compounds have been reported to have beneficial health effects. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for green tea extract derived from the results of the present study was 2500mg/kgbody weight/day.
Article
We examined uptake of the model therapeutic agent, minoxidil, into appendages, stratum corneum (SC), and through human skin, under the influence of different vehicles. Quantitative estimation of therapeutic drug deposition into all three areas has not previously been reported. Finite doses of minoxidil (2%, w/v) in formulations containing varying amounts of ethanol, propylene glycol (PG), and water (60:20:20, 80:20:0, and 0:80:20 by volume, respectively) were used. Minoxidil in SC (by tape stripping), appendages (by cyanoacrylate casting), and receptor fluid was determined by liquid scintillation counting. At early times (30 min, 2 h), ethanol-containing formulations (60:20:20 and 80:20:0) caused significantly greater minoxidil retention in SC and appendages, compared to the formulation lacking ethanol (0:80:20). A significant increase in minoxidil receptor penetration occurred with the PG-rich 0:80:20 formulation after 12 h. We showed that deposition of minoxidil into appendages, SC, and skin penetration into receptor fluid were similar in magnitude. Transport by the appendageal route is likely to be a key determinant of hair growth promotion by minoxidil.
Article
Diffuse hair loss can affect both sexes at any age. Anything that interrupts the normal hair cycle can trigger diffuse hair loss. Triggers include a wide variety of physiologic or emotional stresses, nutritional deficiencies, and endocrine imbalances. Loss of telogen-phase hairs is the most common. Hair loss during the anagen phase is usually caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Finding the cause, or trigger, of the hair loss requires a thorough history and examination and will enable appropriate treatment. Patient education is key in the management of diffuse hair loss.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of polyphenolic compounds, present in noncommercially available green tea, on hair loss among rodentts. In an experimental study, we randomly assigned 60female Balb/black mice, which had developed spontaneous hair loss on the head, neck and dorsal areas into two equal groups; A (experimental) and B (control). Group A received 50% fraction of polyphenol extract from dehydrated green tea in their drinking water for six months. Group B received regular drinking water. Both groups were fed regular rodent diets (Purina Rodent Chow 5001) and housed individually in polycarbonate cages. The results showed that 33% of the mice in experimental Group A, who received polyphenol extract in their drinking water, had significant hair regrowth during six months of treatment (p = 0.014). No hair growth was observed among mice in the control group, which received regular water.
Article
Green tea is a popular worldwide beverage, and its potential beneficial effects such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidant properties are believed to be mediated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of polyphenols. Recently, it was reported that EGCG might be useful in the prevention or treatment of androgenetic alopecia by selectively inhibiting 5alpha-reductase activity. However, no report has been issued to date on the effect of EGCG on human hair growth. This study was undertaken to measure the effect of EGCG on hair growth in vitro and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. EGCG promoted hair growth in hair follicles ex vivo culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth stimulation of DPCs by EGCG in vitro may be mediated through the upregulations of phosphorylated Erk and Akt and by an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were also obtained in in vivo dermal papillae of human scalps. Thus, we suggest that EGCG stimulates human hair growth through these dual proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs.