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Bangladesh is characterized by both relatively high growth rates in population and expanding economies and a deficiency in domestic fossil fuel energy. Growing population and expanding economies are main causes of increasing energy demand. This study provides an overview of global liquefied natural gas (referred as LNG) technologies, business as it currently exist and examines the future potential growth in this market. In addition, this study examines the prospects for Bangladesh in this sector and the factor behind this potential entry. Over the last fifteen years, world trade in LNG is more than tripled and it is anticipated that this market will continue its rapid expansion with the technological development to meet the demand for energy. The current consumers of LNG are mainly to be found among the energy hungry economies of South East Asia as well as the western European countries. It also expected to exhibit the highest future growth rate, given the underlying economic growth of the countries found in this region and their burgeoning demand for energy. In Bangladesh, natural gas is the main source of energy that accounts for 75% of the commercial energy of the country. Most of the industries and power generation plants are driven by natural gas. Bangladesh currently produces about 2250 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd) natural gas with a shortage of about 450 mmcfd. To overcome this shortage initiative should be taken to find an alternative new source of energy such as-importing LNG, production of coal and renewable energy. For the immediate solution of this problem LNG would be good option but for long term solution all other options should take under consideration to secure the future demand of energy.
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Science Journal of Energy Engineering
2015; 3(5): 40-45
Published online December 15, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/sjee)
doi: 10.11648/j.sjee.20150305.11
ISSN: 2376-810X (Print); ISSN: 2376-8126 (Online)
An Overview on LNG Business and Future Prospect in
Bangladesh
Saiful Islam, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe Muzemder
Department of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh
Email address:
saifulpmre@gmail.com (S. Islam), shahidulpme@gmail.com (A. T. M. S. H. Muzemder)
To cite this article:
Saiful Islam, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe Muzemder. An Overview on LNG Business and Future Prospect in Bangladesh. Science Journal of
Energy Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 40-45. doi: 10.11648/j.sjee.20150305.11
Abstract:
Bangladesh is characterized by both relatively high growth rates in population and expanding economies and a
deficiency in domestic fossil fuel energy. Growing population and expanding economies are main causes of increasing energy
demand
.
This study provides an overview of global liquefied natural gas (referred as LNG) technologies, business as it
currently exist and examines the future potential growth in this market. In addition, this study examines the prospects for
Bangladesh in this sector and the factor behind this potential entry. Over the last fifteen years, world trade in LNG is more than
tripled and it is anticipated that this market will continue its rapid expansion with the technological development to meet the
demand for energy. The current consumers of LNG are mainly to be found among the energy hungry economies of South East
Asia as well as the western European countries. It also expected to exhibit the highest future growth rate, given the underlying
economic growth of the countries found in this region and their burgeoning demand for energy. In Bangladesh, natural gas is
the main source of energy that accounts for 75% of the commercial energy of the country. Most of the industries and power
generation plants are driven by natural gas. Bangladesh currently produces about 2250 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd)
natural gas with a shortage of about 450 mmcfd. To overcome this shortage initiative should be taken to find an alternative new
source of energy such as- importing LNG, production of coal and renewable energy. For the immediate solution of this
problem LNG would be good option but for long term solution all other options should take under consideration to secure the
future demand of energy.
Keywords:
LNG, Demand, Supply, Bangladesh
1. Introduction
The Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas in liquid
state at atmospheric pressure and temperatures around
161°C. The volume is reduced a factor 600times compared
to the standard conditions, which allows larger volumes of
LNG to transported by sea in refrigerated ships. In the last
decades the world-wide LNG has growth significantly to
meet the demand of natural gas allowing business
opportunities.LNG plants have been designed for high
capacities, base load plant, exceeding 150 million cubic feet
per day(MCFD) of natural gas. The designs of large
capacity LNG plants are focused mainly on the exploration
of vast natural gas fields and towards the construction of
major facilities, in order to take advantages of economies of
scale. Different technologies for liquefying natural gas have
been developed; being the most used the technologies of
two and three cycles of cooling, with cascade or propane
pre-cooling plus mixed refrigerant schemes. At present
there are two major technology licensors which have
dominated the LNG market for years.
The current consumers of LNG are mainly to be found
among the energy hungry economies of South East Asia as
well as the western European countries. It also expected to
exhibit the highest future growth rate, given the underlying
economic growth of the countries found in this region and
their burgeoning demand for energy.
In Bangladesh, natural gas is the most important
indigenous source of energy that accounts for 75% of the
commercial energy of the country. So far 25 gas fields have
been discovered of which two of the gas fields are located
in offshore area. Currently gas is being produced from 20
gas fields. Oil was tested in two of the gas fields (Sylhet
and Kailashtila). To reduce the dependency on natural gas,
alternative energy resource including LNG must be
explored.
41 Saiful Islam and A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe Muzemder: An Overview on LNG
Business and Future Prospect in Bangladesh
1.1. Properties of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
LNG is the cleanest form of natural gas and contains more
than 90% methane therefore, LNG becomes synonyms to
methane. It is colorless, odorless, nontoxic and noncorrosive.
Its weight is less than one-half that of water. Hazardous
include flammability, freezing and asphyxia. The density of
LNG is approximately 0.41-0.5kg/L, depending on
temperature, pressure and composition, compared to water at
1.0 Kg/L. The heating value depends on the source of gas
that is used and the process that is used to liquefy the gas.
The higher heating value of LNG is estimated to be 24 MJ/L
at 164
C. This value corresponds to a lower heating value of
21 MJ/L. LNG is produced by cooling natural gas to 161
C
at which it becomes a liquid. This process reduce its volume
by a factor of more than 600 similar to reducing the volume
of a beach ball to the volume of a ping-pong ball. The ability
to convert natural gas to LNG, which can be shipped on
specially built to ocean-going ships, provides consumers with
access to vast natural gas resources worldwide.
1.2. Global LNG Market
Efforts to liquefy natural gas for storage began in the early
1900s, but it was not until 1959 that the world’s first LNG
ship carried cargoes from Louisiana to the United Kingdom,
providing the feasibility of trains oceanic LNG transport.
Five years later the United Kingdom began importing
Algerian LNG, making the Algerian state-owned oil and gas
company, Sonatrach, the world’s first major LNG exporter.
The United Kingdom continued to import LNG until 1990,
when British North Sea gas became a less expensive
alternative. [16].
Figure 1. World LNG Trade. [source: EIA.OGJ, BP Statistical Review of
World Energy].
Japan first imported LNG from Alaska in 1960 and moved
to the forefront to the international LNG trade in the 1970s
and 1980s with a heavy expansion of LNG imports. These
imports into Japan helped to fuel natural gas fired power
generation to reduce pollution and relieved pressure from the
oil embargo of 1973. Japan currently imports more than 95
percent of its natural gas and as shown in Figure serve as the
destination for about half the LNG exported worldwide.
World trade in LNG has grown dramatically over the last
fifteen years. As shown in (figure9), trade in LNG more than
tripled, growing from just over 10 Bcf/d in 1997 to 32Bcf/d
in 2012. It is anticipated that this market will continue its
rapid expansion as better production technology means more
gas reserves worldwide are available for development while
demand for energy, particularly for those with cleaner-
burning properties, is expected to grow. [16].
1.3. World LNG Supply
The current suppliers of LNG to worlds markets and those
that are expected to emerge as significant suppliers in the
future come, not surprisingly, from those countries that are
endowed with the largest natural gas reserves. Currently the
countries located in Pacific Basin that supply the largest
amounts of LNG include Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia
(Table 1). Australia has a number of LNG liquefaction
projects both under construction and in planning states,
which should see it emerges as a much more significant
supplier in future years. Also the first exports of LNG from
Russia have occurred with the completion of its Shkhalin II
project, which is Likely to be the first of several future LNG
liquefaction developments in this country. [16]
Table 1. Global LNG Supply (BCF/D) [Source: Oil and Gas Journal and BP
World Energy Statistical Review].
Exporter 2009 2010 2011 2012
Malaysia 2.8 3 3.22 3.10
Indonesia 2.5 3 2.82 2.40
Australia 2.3 2.5 2.51 2.70
Brunei 0.9 0.8 0.91 0.90
Russia 0.7 1.3 1.39 1.40
Alaska 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.10
Peru 0 0 0.5 0.50
Total Pacific Basin 9.3 10.8 11.55 11.1
Qatar 4.8 7.3 9.92 10.20
Oman 1.2 1.1 1.06 1.10
Abu Dhabi .7 .8 0.77 0.70
Yemen 0 0.5 0.86 .70
Total Middle East 6.7 9.7 12.61 12.7
Trinidad 1.9 2 1.83 1.80
Algeria 2.1 1.9 1.66 1.50
Nigeria 1.5 2.3 2.5 2.60
Egypt 1.2 0.9 .83 .60
Norway 0.30 0.5 0.38 0.50
Equatorial Guinea 0.4 0.5 0.51 0.50
Libya 0.1 0.3 0.01 0.00
Total Atlantic Basin 7.5 8.4 7.72 .5
Total World 23.5 28.8 31.88 31.30
Of those countries located in and supplying markets in the
Atlantic Basin, Trinidad, Algeria and Nigeria are currently
the dominant suppliers. Nigeria, however have a number of
LNG liquefaction projects being planned and developed that
should increase its relative significance as an LNG supplier
in years to come.
Exporters of LNG from the Middle East are dominated by
those from Qatar, which is currently the largest exporter of
LNG in the World. This status, however, could come under
threat from Australia over the next decades as this country
has a considerable number of LNG liquefaction projects
Science Journal of Energy Engineering 2015; 3(5): 40-45 42
being planned and developed LNG exports from the Middle
East serve markets located in both the pacific and Atlantic
basins. [16].
1.4. World Demand for LNG
The Energy Information Administration is expecting
world-wide natural gas consumption to increase from 310
Bcf/d in 2010 to 507 Bcf/d in 2040 Figure 11. Much of this
increase is due to the anticipated growth in the use of natural
gas for power generation as countries take advantage of
cleaner burning properties of this fuel. Natural gas
consumption is expected to grow considerably faster in
developing countries, as the world wide use of natural gas
increases, the size of the LNG market will grow as well.
While currently about 10% of natural gas produced globally
is liquefied, the LNG market will likely account for a
growing share of world natural gas trade as worldwide
liquefaction capacity increases. [16].
Figure 2. World Natural Gas Consumption [Source: EIA 2013 International
Energy Outlook].
The current consumers of LNG are mainly to be found
among the energy hungry economies of South Asia as well as
a number of the more developed Western European countries.
Some LNG is also imported into North and South America.
The pacific Basin is the Largest Consuming region and is
also expected to exhibit the highest future growth rate given
the underlying economic growth of the countries found in
this region and their burgeoning demand for energy. With
respect to South East Asian importers of LNG, Table 2 shows
that Japan is by far the largest importer in this region and in
fact the whole world with more than 30 LNG import
terminals currently in service and several more being
planned. Japan currently accounts for over 35% of the entire
world wide consumption of LNG and with substantial
damage to Japanese nuclear power generating capacity as a
result of the Tsunami that occurred in March 2011, LN G
imports may grow higher in future to compensate the loss of
nuclear power generating capacity. China has recently
emerged as a net importer of natural gas. With its almost
insatiable demand for Energy, it is expected to become a
major importer of LNG in the future. India is also expected to
increase its future demand for LNG.
Figure 3. World’s majorLNGexportingandimportingcountries. [Source:
BGgroup].
The developed economies of Western Europe imported 6.6
Bcf/d in2012, down from 8.7Bcf/d in 2011 as economics of
the region continue to struggle. These nations are not
expected to increase their demand for the LNG anywhere
near the same rate as the growing Asian economies. LNG is
also consumed in America, but the emergence of shale and
gas in North America means that this region is more likely to
become a net exporter of LNG rather than an importer. [16].
Table 2. Imports of LNG (Bcf/d).
Country 2009 2010 2011 2012
France 1.26 1.34 1.41 1
Spain 2.56 2.66 2.34 2.1
Portugal 0.29 0.3 0.3 0.4
Turkey 0.54 0.77 0.6 0
Belgium 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.4
Italy 0.27 0.88 0.85 0.7
Greece 0.08 0.11 0.13 0
UK 1.02 1.81 2.45 1.3
US 1.2 1.18 0.97 0.5
Puetro Rico 0.07 0.08 0.07 0
Dom. Republic 0.05 0.08 0.09 0
Mexico 0.34 0.55 0.39 0.5
Brazil 0.07 0.27 0.1 0.3
Argentina 0.09 0.16 0.42 0.5
Chile 0.06 0.3 0.37 0.4
Canada 0.08 0.19 0.32 0.2
Kuwait & United Arab Emirates
0.09 0.27 0.43 0.4
Total Atlantic Basin & America 8.771 11.59 11.88 9.4
Japan 8.39 9.04 10.34 11.5
South Korea 3.36 4.3 4.77 4.8
Taiwan 1.07 1.45 1.58 1.6
India 1.18 1.18 1.65 2
China 0.72 1.23 1.61 1.9
Total Pacific Basin 14.71 17.21 19.95 21.8
World Total 23.42 28.79 31.83 31.2
[Source: Oil and Gas Journal and BP World Energy Statistical Review]
1.5. Future Prospect of LNG in Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, natural gas is the most important
indigenous source of energy that accounts for 75% of the
commercial energy of the country. So far 25 gas fields have
been discovered of which two of the gas fields are located in
offshore area. Currently gas is being produced from 20 gas
fields. Oil was tested in two of the gas fields (Sylhet and
43 Saiful Islam and A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe Muzemder: An Overview on LNG
Business and Future Prospect in Bangladesh
Kailashtila). To reduce the dependency on natural gas,
alternative energy resource must be explored.
1.6. Current Scenario of Gas Sector in Bangladesh
The main source of energy of Bangladesh is indigenous
natural gas and imported petroleum. At present, daily average
gas production is about 2300-2350 mmcf. National Gas
companies’ produces around 1050-1100 mmcf (42%) and the
IOCs produces around 1200-1300 mmcf (58%),off the total
production of gas, presently used in Power sector, Fertilizer,
Captive Electricity, Industry, CNG, Commercial, Tea
Gardens and in Domestic sector (Figure12).
Figure 4. Gas consumption sectors in 2012. [source: Annual Report-2012,
Petrobangla].
As per official statistics, there is a suppressed demand of
around 500-700 mmcfd of gas. If gas was made available,
may be at this time it would have exceeded daily usage of
4000 mmcf. Moreover, during the last few years, gas
transmission pipeline has been extended up to Khulna and
Rajshahi. When those areas would be brought under full-
fledged gas supply without making available sufficient
sources of supply, it would be a real difficult situation in
maintaining supply to the present consumers what to talk
about supplying new customers of the new areas. Therefore,
an alternative has to be in place before actual supply starts in
the new areas. The only alternative to make available natural
gas is import of gas or discovery of a gas reserve like Titas or
Bibiyana fields. The means of import of gas is pipe gas or it
could be LNG. [15].
1.7. LNG for Bangladesh
Now a days, to meet immediate requirement of natural gas,
importing LNG is the main source of supply. The
government also took the initiative in 2010 and a delegation
headed by the Secretary, Energy visited Qatar in June 2010
and agreed a Memorandum of Understanding which was
signed in January 2011. In short term solution various
countries adopting the methodology of Floating Storage &
Re-gasification Unit (FSRU) instead of land based permanent
type. However, considering the cost effectiveness, with the
short term solutions one should not forget about the land-
based LNG facilities. In Bangladesh, as the port facilities is
very limited and specially for LNG vessel because of the
higher requirement of draught, it has been planned to use
FSRU near Moheshkhali where required draught is available
at about 5-6 km offshore of Moheshkhali coast. The mother
vessel carrying LNG would be transferred to the FSRU
which would be moored at about 5-6 km off-coast of
Moheshkhali. An offshore pipeline would be installed from
the FSRU and a delivery point will be stationed on-shore at
Moheshkhali Island. From the delivery point, a gas
transmission pipeline of about 85-90 km would be installed
to bring the gas at the port city of Chittagong. In Chittagong,
it would be hooked up with Karnaphully gas system and the
gas would be supplied to the customers. As per plan, initially
about 500 mmcfd of gas would be supplied for which in total
about 4 million ton of LNG would be required annually. [18]
2. Basic Issues of LNG
2.1. Import of LNG & LNG Handling Facilities
The first and foremost requirement of handling LNG
vessels is the availability of minimum 15 meter draught.
Generally maximum draught available in Chittagong port is
10-12 meter which depends on the tide again. A vessel
carrying 30,000 M.Ton of oil could not come to the
unloading jetties and need to do lighterage of 10,000 M.Ton
and then bring the vessel to the unloading jetties. Draught
of 15 meter plus is available in and around 5-6 km off-coast
of Moheshkhali. Therefore, to handle LNG vessel an
adverse and tough situation had to be faced. As land based
LNG terminal installation is not possible, there is no
flexibility of choices but to go for FSRU type facilities. The
FSRU is nothing but a LNG carrier having re-gasification
process facilities on it. The mother vessels would come to
the FSRU and transfer the LNG and the FSRU process and
converts the LNG into gas and send it to the pipeline. In our
case, from the FSRU, offshore pipeline of about 5-6 km
would be needed and then from the onshore receiving
station gas had to be brought to Chittagong area by
connecting a pipeline of about 85- 90 km of appropriate
size. Again the underwater current situation of that area
needs to be evaluated before installation of offshore
pipeline for which bathometry study had to be conducted.
As Bangladesh has not handled LNG vessel before,
therefore, it is very crucial to know the methodology of
handling the mother vessel and guide the mother vessel to
the FSRU. Ship to Ship transfer of LNG is another crucial
aspect of handling LNG. For all these Bangladesh need to
create appropriate technical manpower and those persons
need to be trained also. In area like Melaka Straight of
Malaysia, it looks like big lake where there is hardly any
high wave. In Kuwait, the sea is calm and quiet, and even
the Break water can be seen from a distance. But think
about the Bay of Bengal in Kutubdia / Moheshkhali Island
area. The roughness of the sea especially during monsoon
season may cause very difficult situation for handling LNG
vessels. So one can easily understand the magnitude of
activities involved in handling LNG in our situation. In
Science Journal of Energy Engineering 2015; 3(5): 40-45 44
Chittagong areas almost every year during monsoon season,
we have cyclone and tornedos. Therefore, maintaining the
continuous supply of LNG would be a challenging affairs
and alternatives arrangement must be in place during such a
situation to maintain the chain of continuous supply of
LNG. [18].
2.2. Price of LNG
Another basic issue of LNG operation would be the price
factor. Gas is already underpriced in our country as it is
considered coming from indigenous sources. Presently, in
the domestic producer level, three price regimes are
existing. First, gas price of Bangladesh Gas Fields
Company Limited (BGFCL) and Sylhet Gas Fields Limited
(SGFL); second, gas price of Bangladesh Petroleum
Exploration & Production Company Limited (BAPEX); and
third the gas price of IOCs (International Oil Companies).
When import of LNG will start, another price factor would
be added. Therefore, a suitable price mechanism needs to be
in place so that LNG can be imported on uninterrupted
basis. One might argue that present LNG price is tagged
with oil price and it would be very costly for Bangladesh to
effort. In this respect, according to a businessman of the
country who said that instead of keeping the factories or
mills in shutdown condition, if the factory can run with
higher priced gas, there will be employment opportunity as
well as the loan money from the bank which is presently
yielding no output resulting non-payment of bank loan, at
least it can be returned or process of returning the loan
would start. If consider with broader sense and not
confining within the issue of price, ultimately country
would be benefitted. However, it must be kept in mind that
4 million ton of LNG means about minimum 6 billion
dollar plus annually considering the present trend of price
of LNG. [18].
3. Long Term Vision for Bangladesh
To start with importing of LNG by Bangladeshi, FSRU
seems to be alright. Installation of FSRU and brining the
gas into the system would take minimum 24-30 months.
Now FSRU is not a proprietary to a particular supplier.
While selecting FSRU, an in-depth understanding is
required and all out efforts has to be there to minimize the
cost as much as possible. Therefore, selection of size of
FSRU is very important. Again it must be kept in mind the
size of mother vessel of LNG. FSRU of 170,000-175,000
CBM can easily handle full standard size of LNG cargo and
it would provide increased security of supply of LNG.A
smaller FSRU size can also handle LNG but the
flexibility/security would be limited. To meet the ever
increasing demand of natural gas, we must plan for a
permanent solution and that is installing a land based LNG
facilities. Because of the draught restriction, a normal cargo
vessel or oil tanker of 30,000 M.Ton cannot come to the
port facilities of Chittagong. Government has already
initiated “Deep Sea Port Project”. It would be appropriate to
include LNG facilities with the Deep Sea Port project so
that permanent LNG facilities could be installed in due
course of time. The main intention would be to reduce
costing of LNG and its facilities. Very recently Singapore
has taken an initiative to become a LNG hub like Oil hub.
As Bangladesh would be signing contract with Qatar for
import of LNG on long term basis, it may keep in mind the
development of LNG facilities around Bangladesh so that it
can take advantage as and when possible. Now in USA,
LNG is sold at much lower price than Asia. So importing of
LNG from USA may also be kept in mind. Another source
of importing LNG may be Australia too. All these options
had to be kept open while engaging import of LNG. [18].
4. Discussion
There is a widening gap between the amount of gas
supplies available and the growing demand for natural gas.
There are a lot of industrial units exists in the country which
just cannot go into operation in the absence of gas. To meet
this demand it is time think about alternative energy sources
like LNG, coal and renewable energy, but to meet immediate
requirement of natural gas, importing LNG is the main
source of supply as Bangladesh has port facilities. One might
argue that present LNG price is tagged with oil price and it
would be very costly for Bangladesh to effort. Therefore, a
suitable price mechanism needs to be in place so that LNG
can be imported on an uninterrupted basis. Finally, it can be
said that for the long term solution of the energy crisis in
Bangladesh proper step should be taken to reduce the
dependency of natural gas in power generation sector where
most of the gases are used instead of that coal based plant
should be developed.
5. Conclusion
Currently, there are different technological options with
the potential to be applied in future LNG developments.
These alternative technologies are mainly made up of two
and three cycles of cooling, with schemes either cascading
process or more pre-cooling with propane plus mixed
refrigerants. However, the selection of liquefaction natural
gas technology most appropriate depends on the priorities
and conditions for each project.
The current consumers of LNG are mainly to be found
among the energy hungry economies of South East Asia as
well as the western European countries. It also expected to
exhibit the highest future growth rate, given the underlying
economic growth of the countries found in this region and
their burgeoning demand for energy. Bangladesh is also
thinking about LNG option to meet the demand of natural
gas.
In the last decades the world-wide LNG has growth
significantly to meet the demand of natural gas allowing
business opportunities. It also expected that this market will
continue its rapid expansion as better technologies are
available.
45 Saiful Islam and A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe Muzemder: An Overview on LNG
Business and Future Prospect in Bangladesh
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Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2014,
pp. 164-178.
... In Chittagong, it would be hooked up with Karnaphully gas system and the gas would be supplied to the customers. It is estimate that 4 million ton of LNG would be required annually [3,4,19,33]. ...
Article
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Bangladesh is one of the densely populated countries in the world. The energy consumer is increasing gradually in the country. The key energy source in the country is natural gas but the supply is less than the demand. The annual gas consumption is about 1 Tcf per year and it is expected that the gas demand will be approximately 58.2 Tcf at the end of 2050.The country is facing gas crisis right now. The pipeline supply is not accessible in all of the part of the country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) can be a solution for this problem. The LPG demand is increasing sharply because of its very clean burning, cost effectiveness, easy transportation facilities. Currently, the LPG demand in Bangladesh is almost 100,000 mt per year. Kailashtila, Sylhet and Chittagong LPG plants are supplying roughly 15-20 percent of the current demand and private players import the remaining 80 percent. The price of LPG has dropped by more than 50 percent in the international market although the price does not match in Bangladesh with the world market yet. On the other hand, the price of natural gas in the country has increased by 26.29 percent on an average, with a hike of 50 percent for domestic users. LNG can be imported to decrease the pipe line gas crisis. Bangladesh is proceeding with a plan for setting up 3.5 million tons per year LNG import facility at Matarbari in Maheshkhali Island to Chittagong city. It requires 600 times less space than natural gas and neither corrosive nor toxic for LNG. It is estimated that about 4 million ton of LNG would be required annually in the country. The government of Bangladesh should be more positive to introduce LPG and LNG for developing all the part of the country.
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Abstract: This research deliberately searches the present scenario of renewable and non-renewable resources in Bangladesh and also focuses on their effective management. Therefore, the research is unique in terms of focusing the present scenario of natural resources and the research highlights the present conditions of natural resources. Most of the study and research on NRs focus on superficial problems, poverty, gender, and scientific measure of resource degradation. This research gives special attention to find the present scenario and to find the actors who are responsible for NRs management. There are considerable opportunities of Bangladesh to boost the economic growth through renewable and nonrenewable resource. With the help of these resources Bangladesh can generate electricity and can meet the required demand in the future. Therefore, the Government and the Private sector should work hand to hand to emphasize more renewable energy sources to produce electricity to solve our power crisis problem. Renewable energy sources discussed above can help Bangladesh to produce more power in order to reduce Load-shedding problem. Time has come to look forward and work with these renewable energy fields to produce electricity rather than depending wholly on conventional method. In addition, we observed that Bangladesh has a huge amount of natural Gas and other mineral resources. Proper and corruption free management can be able to solve the problem of energy crisis.
Article
This research deliberately searches the present scenario of renewable and non-renewable resources in Bangladesh and also focuses on their effective management. Therefore, the research is unique in terms of focusing the present scenario of natural resources and the research highlights the present conditions of natural resources. Most of the study and research on NRs focus on superficial problems, poverty, gender, and scientific measure of resource degradation. This research gives special attention to find the present scenario and to find the actors who are responsible for NRs management. There are considerable opportunities of Bangladesh to boost the economic growth through renewable and nonrenewable resource. With the help of these resources Bangladesh can generate electricity and can meet the required demand in the future. Therefore, the Government and the Private sector should work hand to hand to emphasize more renewable energy sources to produce electricity to solve our power crisis problem. Renewable energy sources discussed above can help Bangladesh to produce more power in order to reduce Load-shedding problem. Time has come to look forward and work with these renewable energy fields to produce electricity rather than depending wholly on conventional method. In addition, we observed that Bangladesh has a huge amount of natural Gas and other mineral resources. Proper and corruption free management can be able to solve the problem of energy crisis.
Article
There is new trend in the value of oil and gas in the world, with the value of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) soaring higher. It is due to its uses as a potential fuel in the several parts of the world, its demand in the petrochemical industries for plastics and automotive composites productions, and other uses. These results in steadily increases in price. There is also increase in volume of feed gas, which demands efficient LPG processing and recovery technology. This paper mainly focuses on comparative economic investigation options for Liquefied Petroleum Gas plant, which processes feed from natural gas wells and dehydrating units to produce Liquefied Petroleum Gas along with natural gasoline having a higher value as separate product. Recovery of LPG is possible but raises both the initial cost of plant and operational cost considerably. The value of LPG recovered should be high enough to widen the operating margins between the processing costs and the market price for which the recovered liquids can be sold. Therefore, the most economic means of extracting this product must be used. This was done using two alternatives; the Conventional Fractionation process and Single column overhead recycle process (SCORE). Both alternatives were simulated with Hysys and are analyzed based on product recovery level, energy required and fixed capital cost. There are two feeds to the plant, one from the natural gas wells and the other from dehydrating units of natural gas processing plants with a total flow rate of 6.99 MMSCFD. Analysis of result from modeling shows that Single column overhead recycle process has a total product recovery of 97.2 % while Conventional fractionation process has a total recovery of 88.5 %, the require energy margin between the alternatives is about 38.9 % in favor of conventional process and the fixed capital cost is in the favor of Single column process. Sensitive to choosing the most economic option of LPG recovery between the conventional process and SCORE process is the recovery level of LPG from each of the options, total energy required and the cost of the equipment. From the analysis, it shows that, it is more economical to use the Single column overhead recycle process, as compared to conventional fractionation process.
Article
Laboratory methods for producing water (or methanol)-LNG gels are described. The resulting gel is shown to be material wherein the water (or methanol) gelant interacts with methane to form a clathrate. Yield stress measurements of gels are reviewed, and a very tentative correlation suggested between static stress and both water gelant concentration in the final LNG and in the carrier methane gas. This correlation is used along with a thermodynamic analysis to allow an estimation of the additional work required to produce a suitable water-gelled LNG.
Comparison of Baseload Liquefaction Processes
  • K J Vink
  • R K Nagelvoort
Vink, K.J. and Nagelvoort, R.K. 1998. Comparison of Baseload Liquefaction Processes, Paper presented at the 1998
Pek -Liquefaction Process Comparison of C3MR and DMR for Tropical Conditions-GPA 81 1st annual convention
  • R Nibbelke
  • S Kauffman
R. Nibbelke, S. Kauffman B. Pek -Liquefaction Process Comparison of C3MR and DMR for Tropical Conditions-GPA 81 1st annual convention, 2002.
En: Fundamentals of the global LNG Industry
  • Chabrelie Marie
Chabrelie Marie F. LNG the way ahead. En: Fundamentals of the global LNG Industry, pp. 10-14, Londries: Petroleum Economist, 2007.
Carbon, Eudardo; Technology Evaluation Methodology for standard Gas Monetization Options, 19 th WPC
  • Roberto Coll
Coll, Roberto; Carbon, Eudardo; Technology Evaluation Methodology for standard Gas Monetization Options, 19 th WPC, 29 th June-3 rd July, Madrid, 2008.
A Novel Concept for Large LNG Basehold Plants- AICHE Spring National Meeting
  • H Bauer
H. Bauer – A Novel Concept for Large LNG Basehold Plants- AICHE Spring National Meeting, 2001.