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Status and Future Management of Grey Goral (Naemorhedus goral bedfordi) in Pakistan

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Himalayan grey goral (HGG: Naemorhedus goral bedfordi) is endemic to Himalyas and regarded as Endangered/ Threatened. Study was designed to collect information on population biology, habitat, food and behaviour of population of HGG distributed in Pakistan, trying to understand its present status and conservational potentials. Our data suggest that the population, habitat and the species has sufficient potentials for its survival in the area, if protection from human predation is afforded to the species. HGG population is isolated into 7-8 subpopulations and is facing male-biased mortality, therefore is likely to face bottleneck effects and subsequent population crash ascribed to loss of males and genetic diversity. HGG population has a slow growth rate, attributable to internal species potentials and the natural predation of fawns/ sub-adults, which is difficult to be enhanced therefore range management strategy is suggested as management solution, with emphasis on protection from hunting, habitat management, mass awareness and supportive research. International cooperation is suggested as part of HGG population extends into Indian part of Himalayas, including Indian Kashmir
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Journal of Bioresource Management
Volume 2 |Issue 4 Article 2
2015
Status and Future Management of Grey Goral
(Naemorhedus goral bedfordi) in Pakistan
Fakhar -i- Abbas
Bioresource Research Centre, Isalamabad, Pakistan, fakharabbas@hotmail.com
Afsar Mian
Institute of Natural and Management Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Tanveer Akhtar
Department of Zoology, University of Punjab, Pakistan
!omas P. Rooney
Wright State University - Main Campus, thomas.rooney@wright.edu
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Recommended Citation
Abbas, F. -., Mian, A., Akhtar, T., & Rooney, T. P. (2015). Status and Future Management of Grey Goral (Naemorhedus goral bedfordi)
in Pakistan, Journal of Bioresource Management, 2 (4).
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
7
STATUS AND FUTURE MANAGEMENT OF GREY GORAL (NAEMORHEDUS
GORAL BEDFORDI) IN PAKISTAN
Fakhar-i-Abbas1*, Afsar Mian1,2, Tanveer Akhtar3, Thomas P. Rooney4
1 Bioresource Research Centre, 34 Bazar Road G-6/4 Islamabad Pakistan.
2Institute of Natural and Management Sciences (INAM), Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
3 Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
4 Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy.,
Dayton OH 45435 USA.
*Email: fakharabbas@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Himalayan grey goral (HGG: Naemorhedus goral bedfordi) is endemic to
Himalyas and regarded as Endangered/ Threatened. Study was designed to collect
information on population biology, habitat, food and behaviour of population of HGG
distributed in Pakistan, trying to understand its present status and conservational
potentials. Our data suggest that the population, habitat and the species has sufficient
potentials for its survival in the area, if protection from human predation is afforded to
the species. HGG population is isolated into 7-8 subpopulations and is facing male-biased
mortality, therefore is likely to face bottleneck effects and subsequent population crash
ascribed to loss of males and genetic diversity. HGG population has a slow growth rate,
attributable to internal species potentials and the natural predation of fawns/ sub-adults,
which is difficult to be enhanced therefore range management strategy is suggested as
management solution, with emphasis on protection from hunting, habitat management,
mass awareness and supportive research. International cooperation is suggested as part of
HGG population extends into Indian part of Himalayas, including Indian Kashmir.
Key words: Species potentials, habitat potential, population potentials, management.
INTRODUCTION
Himalayan grey goral (HGG:
Naemorhedus goral bedfordi, order
Artiodactyla, sub-order Ruminantia,
family: Bovidae, class: mammalia) is a
small antelope-like goat, endemic to the
Himalayas (Zhiwotschechenko, 1990;
Singh and Singh, 1986) distributed from
north Pakistan, through north India,
Nepal, Bhutan to Mishi Hills in
Mynanmar at 2,00-4,000 m above sea
line (asl) (Grubb, 1975; Schaller, 1977,
Prater, 1980; Jhonsingh, 1992; Roberts,
1997). US Fish and Wildlife Service
regards HGG as Endangered (USFWS,
1989) and IUCN as Near Threatened
(IUCN, 2001). Pakistan holds about half
of the present global population of HGG
(Anonymous, 1989), and wildlife
enthusiasts and managers regarded this
population as Vulnerable (Shiekh and
Malour, 2004). Future survival of HGG
requires serious management efforts,
based upon analysis of existing status of
its population. This paper attempts to
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
8
develop a guideline for a continued
survival of HGG population in areas
under Pakistan.
For the purpose, we developed a
multi-prong strategy to collect
information on HGG biology with
reference to the area under present
analysis (reported as Fakhar-i-Abbas et
al., 2008, 2011, 2012). We carried out an
extensive survey of northern hilly parts
of Pakistan, contacted local hunters,
prominent persons, grazers and wildlife
field staff for their recent HGG sighting
and also searched each tract for indirect
HGG indicators, like, foot prints, hair,
etc.. We selected tracts having HGG
population for detailed studies, which
fell in 7 administrative regions, viz.,
Mardan, Bunner, Islamabad, Abbotabad,
Mansehra, Kohistan and Azad Kashmir
(Figure 1). We conducted transect (50 m,
9-10 in each stand) sampling in 51
stands following Cox (1990) to establish
vegetative types using TWINSPAN (a
DOS based computer programme) for
HGG habitat potentials. We used
variable quadrat sampling (scanning a
circular area around some cliff for HGG;
Volshina, and Nesterov 1992) in 98
stands during different seasons and
recorded number, sex and age of HGG
observed and calculated population
densities using estimates on optimally
scanned area, and developed HGG
population estimates, sex structure and
age structures for different areas. HGG
population densities were associated
with biotic and abiotic habitat variables.
We also collected HGG faecal pellets (n
=15) and analyzed these using micro-
histological techniques (Holechek et al.,
1982) for general analysis of HGG
feeding preference. We determined
water, protein, fat, sugar and ash
contents of each food species using
chemical method (Anonymous, 1963)
and used these to draw inferences on
HGG energy and water budgeting. We
conducted round the clock observations
on a stock of semi-captive flock of
HGG, for analysis of time budgeting,
supported with limited general field
observations.
Based upon information on HGG
distribution and biology, we worked out
future survival potentials of HGG
population in Pakistan, and proposed
future management strategy workable in
Pakistan.
Figure 1: Potential and present
distribution of HGG in Pakistan.
GORAL BIOLOGY
Our research data (Table 1)
suggested that during 2004-06 a
population of 681 (600 - 800) HGG was
present over some 4,839 km2 (5,000
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
9
km2) of potential habitat of Himalayan
hills extending into Pakistan with
average density of 0.15 ± 0.02 (SEM)
heads km-2. Major part of this population
(around 350) was present in Azad
Kashmir (200) and Bunner (153).
Female/ male sex ratio of 1.92 indicated
preponderance of females in adult
population. We recorded an average of
0.31 sub-adults per adult female, and
sub-adult/female ratio was the highest in
breeding season (February-March; 0.50),
which gradually dropped to 0.11–0.17 in
November-December. This allowed us
to propose a lamb survival rate of 22-
34% during the first year of the life.
Mean herd size was 1.72 ± 0.11 (SEM),
having larger herds in summers (1.96 ±
0.16, SEM) compared to winters (1.38 ±
0.10, SEM), suggesting solitary nature
Table 1: Distribution and structure of HGG population in different broad
localities of Pakistan and AJK during 2004-06. M= male, F= female, Sub= sub-adult,
Pop= estimated population (abridged from Fakhar-i-Abbas et al., 2012).
Locality
Habitat Area
(km
2
)
Gorals
Average
Pop
(#)
Ratio
Observed (#)*
Density
(km2,
±SEM)
Sex(F/
M) Subadult/
Female
Total Sampled M F Sub T
Major
Minor
(#)
Abbotabad
11
109
2
3
2
7
0.06±0.03
41
1.50
0.66
Mansehra
15
209
6
13
5
24
0.14±0.06
100
2.17
0.38
Mardan
9
100
11
10
5
26
0.27±0.07
85
0.91
0.50
Bunner
10
129
14
27
8
49
0.38±0.10
153
1.93
0.30
Kohistan
5
84
1
2
1
4
0.050.03
53
2.00
0.50
Margalla
6
42
2
7
2
11
0.25±0.09
49
3.50
0.29
Kashmir
16
223
12
32
6
51
0.21±0.06
200
2.46
0.29
Overall
102
896
49
94
29
172
0.15±0.02
681
1.92
0.31
for HGG though individuals may
aggregate into small groups (Fakhar-i-
Abbas et al., 2012).
Phytosociological studies on
habitat suggested presence of at least 99
endospermic plants species, with three
well defined layers, i.e., tree (22
species), shrub (25), herb (21) and
grasses (21). Pinus roxburghii was the
most widely distributed species. Most
species showed a low constancy of
appearance. Eight (8) vegetative types
were identified through TWINSPAN
analysis (Table 2). This indicated
diversity in the habitat exploited by
HGG in different parts of its distribution
range. HGG density in different
vegetative types was different;
attributable to available physic-biotic
conditions. Herb (y= 0.005X + 0.1718;
R2= 0.5446) and shrub (Y = 0.007X +
0.1407; R2= 0.5369) cover had a positive
association, while trees had a negative
association (Y = - 0.006X + 0.472; R2=
0.7136) with HGG density. HGG
population moved to lower altitudes
(800 - 2,200 m asl; peak at 1,200 m)
during winter and to higher altitudes
(1,400 - 2.600 m asl; peak at 2,100 m)
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
10
Table 2: Composition, location and HGG density (±SEM) in different vegetative types in Goral habitat in Pakistan
and AJK. A= Acacia modesta-Dodonaea viscose, B = Olea ferrugonea-Acacia modesta, C = Dodonaea viscose-Pinus
roxburghii, D= Dodonaea vicosa-Pinus roxburghii-Myrsine africana, E= Carissa opaca-Anthraxon prionodes, F= Pinus
roxburghii-Carissa opaca, G= Stipa sibirica, H= Pinus roxburghii-Brachypodium sylvaticum, Pro = Proportion of available
HGG habitat (abridged from Fakhar-i-Abbas et al., 2008).
Veg.
Type
Herb
Shrub
Tree
Total
Altitude
(m)
Distribution
HGG
density
(km
-2
)
# Cover (%) #
Cover
(%)
#
Cover
(%)
# Cover (%) District Pro (%)
A
14
28.9±3.1
4
37.4±7.2
9
37.4±7.2
27
90.0 ± 3.2
800-1750
Mardan
6.6
0.24±0.12
B
13
22.6±2.3
4
25.5±2.3
6
23.9±3.8
24
72.0±3.4
650-1180
Mardan
4.3
0.23±0.05
C
16
14.7±4.3
7
29.5±6.5
5
40.8±3.4
27
95.1±7.3
700-2600
Mardan, Bunner
15.1
0.41±0.08
D
33
22.6±1.4
21
33.1±2.2
19
33.1±2.2
73
85.6±1.8
800-2600
Mardan, Bunner,
50.6
0.50±0.10
E
23
45.1±9.1
7
28.2±6,7
6
9.3±2.6
36
82.6±0.3
1200-2000
Kashmir
4.0
0.39±0.10
F 22 44.3
±7.0
5 22.6
±3.0
7 17.2
±6.6
34 84.1
±2.1
1100-3000
Mansehra, Centre
Kashmir
12.8 0.26
±0.04
G
22
52.8±2.8
4
16.3±2.6
2
6.5±2.7
29
75.6 ±2.5
133-2600
South Kashmir
3.4
0.70±0.30
H
23
55.3±0.12
6
20.±0.05
2
13.±0.04
31
89.±0.15
1100-2000
South Kashmir
1.4
0.12±0.14
Table 3: Relative consumption of different broad food types and preference by HGG in Pakistan (abridged from
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al., 2012).
Type
Consumed
Availability (% cover) Preference index (consumed/ availability)
Species (#)
Proportion (%)
Tree
3
1,15
11.17
0.10
Shrub
13
36.07
10.80
3.31
Herbs
12
62,76
6.14
10.27
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
11
during summer (Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,
2012).
Faecal pellet analysis and field
observations revealed that HGG
consumed a minimum of 28 plant
species, with tree: shrub: herb appearing
in the ratio of 1: 31: 55 (Table 3). The
species mainly (59%) subsisted on 6
grass species (Chrysopogon aucheri,
Themeda anathera, Poa pratensis,
Digitaria decmnens, Apluda mutica,
Aristida cyanatha), though leaves of
shrubs (Myrisine africana, Daphne
oleoides, Carissa opaca, Rubus
elipticauli) also contributed appreciable
part (31%). Food species preference
index (consumed/ available) suggested
that Chrysopogon aucheri (112 X),
Digeteria decumbens (62 X), Apluda
mutica (50 X) and Rubus ellipticus (49
X) and Themeda anathera (29 X) were
preferred by HGG. Food species on the
average provided 77.8 ± 2.6% (SEM)
water, 8.6 ± 0.4% (SEM) ash (minerals),
6.8 ± 0.7% (SEM) carbohydrates, 5.6 ±
0.2% (SEM) proteins and 1.3 ± 0.1%
(SEM) fats. Average food provided
4,440 kcal (around 4,500 kcal) of energy
and 5.45 L of metabolic water per day to
adult HGG (adult: 25-28 kg, Primrose,
1911), which was sufficient to meet its
regular requirements (Fakhar-i-Abbas et
al., 2008).
Studies on behavior of semi-
captive HGG stock revealed that sub-
adults spent 33%, 12%, 22%, 14% and
8% of time while sleeping, ruminating,
resting, feeding, and in agonistic
activities, respectively. Adults spent
lower proportion of time while sleeping
(25%), resting (14%) and feeding (8%),
and higher proportion in ruminating
(26%) and agonistic activities (13%)
compared with juveniles. HGG spent
major part of night while sleeping, has a
crepuscular feeding behavior and goes
for day time rest during hotter parts of
the day. Field observations indicated that
HGG remains vigilant to environmental
changes while feeding, ruminating and
resting. HGG preferred drinking from
source of running water rather than from
a stagnant water body. HGG depended
upon camouflaging and threat behavior
for defense (Fakhar-i-Abass et al, 2011).
SURVIVAL POTENTIALS
More detailed studies are
required for a better understanding of
HGG biology. However, on the basis of
results of the present study, we
developed some insight into the present
status of HGG population of Pakistan.
The survival potentials of HGG
population can be viewed from three
aspects, i.e., population status, habitat
potentials and species potentials.
a. Population status: With
presently collected data we suggest the
presence of 600-800 HGG distributed
over some 5,000 km2 of potential
favourable HGG habitat tracts with
overall density of 0.15±0.02 km-2.
Because HGG populations was not
present in some areas despite holding
favourable habitat, we conclude that
during 2003-2006 HGG was present
over 3,025 km2 with overall density of
0.27±0.05 km-2. We did record some
high population densities for certain
populations (1.08/ km-2 for Nawa Kal,
Bunner; 1.0 for Titalbar, Azad Kashmir)
surviving in isolated patches indicating
that HGG can tolerate higher densities if
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
12
habitat conditions allow. Himalayan
goral (Naemorhedus goral) is endemic
to Himalayan range and the sub-species
N. g. bedfordi (Himalayan grey goral) is
limited to the western flanks of the
species distribution range (Shackleton,
1997). Precise estimates on HGG
populations present in adjacent parts of
India and Indian part of Kashmir are not
available. Reports from the Indian part
of HGG distribution range suggested
that HGG populations were largely
limited to sanctuaries and protected
forests (Roy et al., 1995; Pendharkar and
Goyal, 1995; Mishra and Johnsingh,
1996; Ilyas, 1998). Cavallini (1992)
reported absence of HGG in 10
sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh (India).
Pedharkar and Goyal (1995) reported
densities of 0.31-0.36 km-2 for different
tracts of Simbalbara Sanctuary
(Himachal Predash, India) without
attempting population estimates. With
the population of around 700 HGG
distributed in general unprotected or
poorly managed protected areas with
densities equivalent to those recorded for
one of the sanctuaries of India, we
propose that HGG population was in
reasonably happier state along the
distribution range of the subspecies/
species extending into Pakistan.
However, this population requires a care,
if the subspecies/ species are to be saved
for the future generations. There are
indications to suggest a rise in HGG
population of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
(KPK, Pakistan) under protection Safdar
Shah, Conservator Wildlife, KPK, 2013;
personal communication).
We do not have data on the
decline rate in HGG population. The
KPK Wildlife Department conducted
HGG population census for some
selected areas (Anonymous 2000, 2000a,
2003). These census estimates of HGG
were fairly close to the population
estimates for respective tracts under our
present study. Considering the
reasonable proximity of the population
estimates for 2000-2003 period and
2003-2006, we propose a stability of
HGG population over the recent year in
KPK. We believe that HGG population
in the area is trying to stage a comeback
under protection afforded by KPK
Wildlife Departments. However, with
the complete absence of HGG
populations in some of its previously
reported range {Himalaya and
Hindukush at 800-2,500 m above sea
level, Stebbins, 1912; Cherat, Murree
Hills, Dir, Swat, Roberts, 1997; absent
from otherwise suitable tracts, Fakhar-i-
Abbas et al. 2012)} we propose a
contraction in HGG distribution range,
indicating a decline in HGG population
during the last century. Collective
consideration of the two facts suggests
that sufficient habitat is still available in
the area to support a spillover of HGG
populations at a stage when it exceeds
the carrying capacity level of the
existing HGG distribution range.
Considering 2003-2006
distribution (Figure 1) we propose that
HGG population is spatially divided into
7-8 subpopulations, isolated through
geographic and habitat barriers. Analysis
on level of isolation between such
subpopulations requires studies using
molecular markers, but with the present
information we presume that isolated
smaller subpopulation can lodge into
serious consequences under the bottle-
neck effect and genetic fixation. We
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
13
recorded female biased sex ratio, caused
by partial mortality of males, which can
be an indirect indicator of hunting
pressure (Mishra, 1993; Forsyth, 1999;
Topp et al., 2009). Goral is polygamous
(Owen-Smith, 1979; Gosling, 1986;
Myslenkov and Voloshina, 1998)
therefore imbalanced sex ratio is not
expected to have serious consequences
in general recruitment potentials.
However, the effect of such imbalanced
sex ratio can have serious consequences
in the smaller populations, which can
play havoc if the environmental stresses
exceed certain limits. Fewer number of
males adding into population gene pool
may also result in narrowed population
genetic diversity, facilitating population
genetic fixation.
Direct data on reproductive
biology and population growth potentials
are not available. However, our data
suggest 0.50 fawns per female in late
spring/ early summer, declining to 0.11-
0.17 during winter. With this
information we propose that a minimum
of 0.11 fawns per female survived the
first crucial year of their life. Keeping in
view the female biased sex ratio, we
estimated a minimum of 0.072 fawns/
adult being added annually in the
population, i.e., annual addition of 7.2%
into the population. Believing the
average life span of HGG is 14-15 years
(Hofmann, 2004), we expect an annual
natural mortality of 6.7-7.1%.
Considering the two facts together, we
suggest an annual HGG population
growth rate of 0.06-0.54%. This growth
rate is very low, yet is reasonably good
with goral standards (producing one
fawn/ female/ year; Hofmann, 2004).
The proposed growth rate, however,
does not take into account the mortality
coming from human predation.
Judging the present status of
HGG under IUCN criteria (Anonymous,
2001) we propose that HGG population
maintained a Vulnerable status, with a
population of <1,000 fragmented into 7-
8 isolated subpopulation. We do not
have information on status and
distribution of HGG population in Indian
Kashmir. Even if this population is
continuous with HGG population of
Pakistan and total numbers exceeds
1,000 limit isolation between
subpopulations still persists and HGG
maintains a Vulnerable status.
Population isolations can have serious
consequences in a female biased
population, where fewer males add into
population gene pool and population
crash becomes more eminent under
complete absence of males. With this
status, we believe that population of
HGG requires protection to ensure its
continued survival.
b. Habitat potentials: HGG is
associated with Pinus roxburghii and
prefers habitat with sufficient open area
with ledges of steep rocks. However,
there is a high degree of heterogeneity in
vegetative composition in HGG phyto-
habitat, indicated by high species
diversity and low constancy of
appearance for different species. We
believe that this attributes stability to
habitat ensuring continued HGG survival
under future natural odds (emerging
problem of dieback in Pinus sp.??) and
deforestation. The area receives
sufficient precipitation to support growth
of herbs and shrubs, ensuring food and
shelter for HGG. Natural springs and
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
14
streams of freshwater ensure the
continued supply of running water, liked
by HGG. We could not find any
evidence indicative of habitat causing a
serious problem for survival of the
present population of HGG, and believe
that available habitat has potentials of
holding even a larger population of HGG
than the one held in 2004-2006.
Under the existing trends, we feel
that HGG potential habitat area (falling
at lower altitudes close to human
habitation) will in coming years face a
heavier grazing and wood cutting
stresses, resulting in shrinkage in habitat
resources/ area. As trees are not directly
being exploited by HGG species for food
or shelter, therefore we believe that
HGG will be able to adjust limited
degree of habitat degradation, caused
through logging. Shrub cover though
does not appear to affect HGG density,
yet this is required for the protection of
the fawns (Pyrah, 1974). HGG is more
likely to face increased competition from
sheep/ goat grazing herds, which are
ever increasing with increasing human
population, their aspirations for better
living standards, and consequent
economic needs of the people. However,
arduous rocky habitat, preferred by
HGG, is often not exposed to serious
grazing stress from livestock, goat
having potential to exploit arduous tract
being a browser.
c. Species potentials: HGG is fully
adjusted to survive under the available
conditions of HGG areas distribution in
Pakistan. The species has a broad
feeding niche, basically depending upon
grazing grasses but can subsist upon
available herbs, shrubs and even lower
branches of trees, under the odd
conditions. It has an extended spatial
niche, achieved through movement of its
populations between different altitude
during summer and winter, allowing a
relief to its habitat under harsh
environmental conditions. HGG also
exploits an extended hyper-volume
niche, selecting valleys for grazing and
open rocky ledges/ peaks for rest.
HGG exhibits sufficient
behavioural adjustment to ensure its
survival. Cautious nature HGG, both
during grazing and rest, camouflaging
colouration, crepuscular feeding habit,
males exposing to predation to save
females and restoring to threat behaviour
to find an escape from predator,
collectively ensure optimal surviving
conditions for this species. The fact that
loose groups of HGG can live over 50 ha
and males mark territory over 22-25 ha
(Hofmann, 2004) suggested that a much
larger population can be held over the
presently available habitat. HGG has
potentials to adjust its herd size in
accordance with available conditions, a
smaller herd size during winter when
food resources are scarce, lowering
intra-specific feeding competition and
stress on vegetation resources.
We could not find serious
potential predators for adult HGG,
though fawns face a higher predation.
Leopard (Pathera pardus) would be
effective predator for adult HGG, yet its
present population of this predator is
limited. Wolf (Canis lupus), jackal (C.
aureus) and some raptors can predate
fawns. We presume that major part of
66-78% fawn loss during the first year of
life is claimed by such predators during
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
15
summer. However, stable HGG
populations recorded in protected areas
indicate potentials of HGG to amicably
face natural fawn loss. Populations of
these predators have, however, started
increasing with the help of community
based conservation.
d. Future Threats: Considering
these facts together, we propose that
HGG has sufficient potentials of its
continued survival under natural
conditions of the area. However,
distribution range of HGG falls within
an easy access of human population.
Anthropogenic activities of ever
increasing human populations, its
demands for better amenities of life, and
increasing livestock grazing and wood
cutting pressures are the potential threats
for HGG habitat and privacy. Gradually
extending communication links and
means of transportation can be the
additional threats for HGG future
survival.
MANAGEMENT
With the present analysis, we
propose that HGG population surviving
in Pakistan and AJK has sufficient
survival potentials due to: a). reasonably
good geographic range of distribution,
b). many sub-populations surviving
under different habitat conditions of
different tracts, c). stable or slightly
increasing populations under the present
regimen, d). smaller home range/
territory, and potentials of amicably
sustaining certain degree of aggregation
under environmental odds, e). reasonable
population density distribution with
goral standards, f). seasonal movements
and extended hyper-volume niche, g).
wider food preference and consuming
grasses, herbs and shrubs, and h). no or
very limited predation/ hunting stress.
We regard HGG population as
Vulnerable to extinction, because, 1).
present population is small (<1,000), and
2). fragmented into 7-8 smaller isolated
subpopulations, which can have serious
consequences under future changing
environmental conditions, attributable to
human interference in habitat and
privacy of HGG. Turning this HGG
population into a viable population
therefore requires increasing its size
(>1000 heads) and breaking isolations
between subpopulations. Increase in
population size is difficult as presently
recruitment rate into the population is
almost equal to the expected natural
mortality, and we expect an annual
growth rate of only 0.01%. This low
growth rate is attributable to low HGG
recruitment potentials (single birth/
annum) and high fawn mortality (10-
15% surviving first year of life). Low
recruitment potentials are species
specific and can hardly be increased.
Fawn survival rate can be increased
under a better protection and habitat
management, to enhance natural growth
population rate. Sufficient number of
protected areas has already been
declared within HGG distribution range,
therefore creation of additional protected
areas will have no appreciable effect on
HGG population built up. Better
protection and management will,
however, be required in the existing
protected areas. HGG, being distributed
within better human populated tracts,
will require effective public participation
in future conservation measures.
Fakhar-i-Abbas et al.,: Naemorhedus goral in Pakistan
J. Bioresource Manage. (2015) 2(4): 7-19.
16
Future survival of HGG requires
continued protection, with special
concentration on HGG population of
Azad Kashmir. The isolation between
populations also needs broken through
development of habitat corridors and
active translocation of males between
populations. We expect continuation of
Azad Kashmir HGG population with
HGG population in Indian Kashmir. This
demands international cooperation in
research and management of HGG.
Habitat limitation being not immediate
problem, but keeping to future trends
habitat management plan needs to be
organized. Mass awareness campaign
and organization of conservation clubs
in schools and general community is also
required for, not only, saving HGG but
also the other wildlife species and the
vulnerable Himalayan mountain
landscape. Research on population level
for monitoring population growth, level
of isolation between subpopulations
using mDNA, habitat monitoring for
analysis of HGG carrying capacity,
tracking population movement for
possible identification of ecotypes and
ecotype identification using molecular
markers (barcoding) is required to
support management strategy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are thankful to the KPK and
Azad Jammu and Kashmir Wildlife
Departments for their help and support
in collection of basic data of HGG
biology.
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Chemical methods for analysis of fruit and vegetable products
  • Anonymous
Anonymous, 1963. [CDA] Canadian Department of Agriculture.1963. Chemical methods for analysis of fruit and vegetable products. Can Dept Agric Pub, 1154: 8-21.