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Effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentation On Students' Cognitive Achievement in Technical Drawing

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This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidence of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Benefits of PowerPoint presentation in classroom instruction as a means to improve classroom teaching in the developing countries are also discussed. The effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentation (PPT) for teaching Technical Drawing concepts in Basic Technology was determined using a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent, non-randomized experimental group design. A 2x2x3 factorial design was employed. One hundred JSS 1 students (53 male and 47 female) categorized into 29 high, 54 medium and 17 low achievers from two secondary schools in Abuja Metropolis formed the sample. The schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught some selected concepts from Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation (PPT) while Chalkboard method (CB) was used for the control group. A validated Technical Drawing Achievement Test (TDAT) comprising a 25-item multiple-choice test was employed for data collection. The reliability coefficient of TDAT was .88 using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20). The hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Sidak post-hoc analysis. Results revealed that the students taught with PPT performed better than their counterparts taught with CB. Also, high achievers performed better than medium and low achievers respectfully. The PPT was found also to be gender friendly. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the use of PPT should be encouraged in Nigerian schools.
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Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology Volume 3, Issue 4
Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentation
On Students’ Cognitive Achievement in
Technical Drawing
Amosa Isiaka Gambari, [1], Hamdalat Taiwo Yusuf [2] , Sherifat Adepeju
Balogun [3]
[1] Federal University, Nigeria
gambari@futminna.edu.ng
[2] University of Ilorin,
Nigeria
hamdallatyusuf@yahoo.com
[3] Intelligence Quotient Academy,
Nigeria
pejuadepeju@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidence of declining
performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Benefits of
PowerPoint presentation in classroom instruction as a means to improve classroom
teaching in the developing countries are also discussed. The effectiveness of PowerPoint
Presentation (PPT) for teaching Technical Drawing concepts in Basic Technology was
determined using a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent, non-randomized experimental group
design. A 2x2x3 factorial design was employed. One hundred JSS 1 students (53 male and
47 female) categorized into 29 high, 54 medium and 17 low achievers from two secondary
schools in Abuja Metropolis formed the sample. The schools were randomly assigned to
experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught some selected
concepts from Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation (PPT) while Chalkboard
method (CB) was used for the control group. A validated Technical Drawing Achievement
Test (TDAT) comprising a 25-item multiple-choice test was employed for data collection.
The reliability coefficient of TDAT was .88 using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20). The hypotheses
were tested using ANCOVA and Sidak post-hoc analysis. Results revealed that the students
taught with PPT performed better than their counterparts taught with CB. Also, high
achievers performed better than medium and low achievers respectfully. The PPT was
found also to be gender friendly. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the use
of PPT should be encouraged in Nigerian schools.
Keywords:
PowerPoint Presentation, Technical Drawing, Cognitive
Achievement, Gender, Achievement Levels
INTRODUCTION
The instructional delivery mode employed by the teacher plays an important role in skills acquisition
and meaningful learning. Huge and giant strides have been made in countries such as Hong Kong, Japan,
Thailand, Singapore and others achieved in technology, economic empowerment and self reliance can be
attributed to among others, effective teaching and learning. The importance of education and mode of
instruction cannot be over stressed in this era of Science, Technology and Mathematics, driven by ICT.
Science, Technology and Engineering have much to offer in economic development and provision of
modern conveniences to mankind. This is why governments, institutions and managements emphasize the
need for a practically oriented technical education curriculum and the need also to provide effective media
for teaching technical subjects in Nigerian schools and colleges (Abd-El-Aziz, 2014). Most of Nigerian
classrooms from pre-primary to tertiary institutions are dominated by chalkboards and marker-boards. The
limitations of these types of instructional delivery mode include: ineffectiveness for very large group
instruction; inability to allow information storage for future use; inability to accommodate illustrations to
support the teaching; health hazard for teachers from chalk particles; it makes learning uninteresting, among
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other (Aliyu, 2003). To improve student achievement in technology related subjects in Nigeria, it is necessary
to have a paradigm shift and join the developed world in embracing constructivist approach to teaching and
learning. Such approach should be used in the country’s educational system beginning from the basic school
level up to the university. The use of PowerPoint slides for teaching is one of the right directions to achieve
such shift (Uz, Orhan, & Bilgiç, 2010).
PowerPoint is part of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) program developed by
Microsoft in 1987. It is an application program of presentation bundled in Microsoft office (El-Ikhan, 2010).
It consists of slides allowing the user to present messages (Asogwa, 2011). Information prepared on a
computer could be better projected for larger audience using a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) or DLP projector.
PowerPoint presentation could be used in the classroom for supporting student learning by combining
computer and projector to display slides for illustrating a lesson.
Potentials of Microsoft PowerPoint include: its ability to do spell check, allowing the user to add,
correct, make changes to the lessons, and finally use printout materials for students’ personal use
(Teachnology.com, 2007). PowerPoint gives the user the opportunity to incorporate visual and auditory
aspects to a presentation. It permit variety of manipulations by editing or text modification, removal of
existing slides and addition of new slides to make lesson more organized and flexible. PowerPoint
presentations can be regarded as a good instructional medium and a key for facilitating an effective teaching-
learning process. It would therefore not be out of place to explore such instructional medium in the field of
Technical Drawing of Basic Technology at Junior Secondary Level.
Proponents of PowerPoint argued that it increases visual quality in the learning process. They also
contend that it takes less time to present a subject matter; therefore, more materials can be covered in the
classroom. Opponents of PowerPoint believe that it diminishes creativity and innovation besides elevating
format over content, betraying an attitude of commercialism that turns everything into a sales pitch (Tufte,
2003). Supporters of Power Point believe that it helps to keep students’ interest and attention on the lecture
(Szabo & Hastings, 2000), improves student learning (Lowry, 1999), and aids explanations of complex
illustrations (Apperson, Laws, & Scepansky, 2006). On the other hand, Creed (1997) describes PowerPoint as
a teacher-centered instructional tool that nourishes teacher-controlled lectures. Similarly, Tufte (2006)
points out that PowerPoint reduces the analytical quality of a presentation, limits the amount of detail that
can be presented, and often weakens verbal and spatial thinking.
Cognitive achievement connotes attainment in a school subject as symbolized by a score or mark on
an achievement test (Okoro, 2002) while Antherson (2003) contended that cognitive achievement depends
on several factors among which are the instructional methods, learning environment and the learner. The
brain does not pay attention to boring things. What makes PowerPoint presentations so effective is that they
add complementary, multisensory events designed to spark an emotional response among audience
members. This helps maintain audience attention and improves cognitive achievement. The most effective
presentations are the ones that are informative, educational, and entertaining (Gallo, 2009).
In recent years, studies have indicated conflicting findings about PowerPoint effectiveness in
improving student learning (Craig & Amernic, 2006; Levasseur & Sawyer, 2006). For instance, Gier and Kreiner
(2009) who studied the effectiveness of PowerPoint in a psychology class concluded that when students were
actively engaged in the class using PowerPoint presentation, information retention increased. Another
similar study conducted by Nouri and Shahid (2005) reported that students in a PowerPoint section of an
Accounting Principles II class perceived higher understandability of the presented materials than their
counterpart in another class. However, Daniels (1999) studied the effectiveness of PowerPoint in a college
level economics class and found no significant difference in student performance. Another study on
engineering students by Savoy et al. (2009) showed that there was no evidence that PowerPoint can enhance
students’ performance more than the traditional lectures. Similarly, Apperson et al. (2006); Bartsch and
Cobern (2003); Beets and Lobingier (2001) Susskind (2005); and Szabo and Hastings (2000) found little effects
of PowerPoint on students’ academic achievement.
In Nigeria, and perhaps the whole of Africa, gender bias is still very prevalent (Arigbabu & Mji, 2004).
Many researchers identified gender as one of the factors influencing students’ performance in science and
technology at the Secondary School level. On the contrary, some researchers reported no significant
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difference in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skill achievements of students by gender (Arigbabu &
Mji, 2004; David & Stanley, 2000; Din, Ming, & Esther, 2004; Freedman, 2002; Sungur & Tekkaya 2003).
Ogunkola and Bilesanmi-Awoderu (2000) carried out research on the effectiveness of two teaching methods
on students’ achievement in Biology and found that their achievement was not sensitive to gender. The
findings of Yusuf and Afolabi (2010) and Oludipe (2012) showed that gender had no influence on the students’
performance when they were taught biology and basic science respectively.
The issue of students’ achievement level as a cause of differential learning outcome has attracted the
attention of educational researchers. In Nigerian classrooms, students with different ability levels are mixed
together in the same classroom and given the same treatment without considering their individual
differences (Yusuf, 2004). Researchers have found that high ability students do perform better than the
medium and lower ability students in such situations (Gambari, 2010). Studies on influence of achievement
levels on student performance are inconclusive. For instance, Adegoke (2010) reported that only the high
ability students benefit from the conventional method of teaching. Fajola (2000), Aluko (2004), Ige (2004),
and Gambari and Olumorin (2013) found that high and medium achievers were favored than low achievers
in cooperative learning. However, Yusuf (2004) revealed that achievement levels had no influence on learner
academic performance. Part of this study examined the influence of achievement levels on students’
performance in Technical Drawing.
The use of Microsoft PowerPoint presentation as an instructional medium for teaching Technical
Drawing aspects of Basic Technology is novel in Nigerian public schools. Meanwhile, further exploration
needs to be conducted to extend and optimize the benefits of Microsoft PowerPoint presentation to other
technical and vocational subjects involving skills acquisition in order to make a paradigm shift to the new era
of Information and Communications Technology. Much has not been done on the influence of PowerPoint
presentation on students’ achievement in Nigeria. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the
effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations on students’ achievement in a Technical Drawing class at junior
secondary school level in Nigeria.
Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
(i) There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught
Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation and those taught with chalkboard.
(ii) There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female
students taught Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation.
(iii) There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of high, medium and low
achievers students using PowerPoint Presentation.
METHODOLOGY
A quasi-experimental design using non-randomized, non-equivalent, pretest, posttest experimental
group design was adopted for this study. Two levels of independent variables (experimental and control
groups), two levels of gender (male and female) and three levels of academic achievement (high, medium
and low) were investigated on students’ performance in Technical Drawing. The research design layout is as
shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Research Design of the Study
Pretest
Treatment
Posttest
O
1
O3
PowerPoint
Chalkboard
O
2
O4
Purposive sampling technique was used to select two schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC)
for the study. The schools were sampled based on facilities and manpower, school type (public schools),
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gender composition (co-educational schools). The two schools were randomly assigned to experimental
group (PowerPoint group) and control group (Chalkboard group) respectively. Intact classes of the students
classified into gender (male and female) and achievement levels (high, medium and low). The distribution of
sample for the study is shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Distribution of Sample for the Study
Groups
Gender
Achievement Levels
Male
Female
High
Medium
Low
PPT 22 23 14 21 10
CB
31
24
15
33
7
From Table 1, the groups comprised a total of 100 students; 45 students were taught Technical
Drawing using PowerPoint presentation (PPT) (Experimental Group), and 55 students were exposed to
Chalkboard method as a normal medium of instruction (Control group).
Research Instruments
The PowerPoint (PPT) with the Technical Drawing contents was presented using laptop and a Liquid
Crystal Display (LCD) projector. The teacher presents information and displays animation of the contents in
2-dimimensional view to the learners using PPT on each of the eight units in Technical Drawing. Technical
Drawing Achievement Test (TDAT) was a researcher-developed instrument used in collecting data for the
study. It consists of section 1 and 2. Section 1 elicited students’ biodata such as name of school, class, gender,
and level of students’ achievement. Section 2 of the TDAT consists of 25-multiple-choice test items with five
options (A-E). The TDAT was validated by experts in the Industrial and Technology Education Department,
Basic Technology subject teachers, and Test and measurement specialists from the National Examinations
Council (NECO, Minna). Its reliability coefficient was obtained as .84 using Kuder Richardson (KR-21).
The study lasted four weeks. The researcher administered the TDAT on sample students as pretest to
ascertain the equivalence of the students before the treatment. Treatment followed immediately; thereafter
TDAT was administered as posttest to measure the achievement of the sample students in each group. The
scores obtained were analyzed based on the stated hypotheses, using ANCOVA. Where differences were
established, Scheffe’s post-hoc was used to locate the direction of the difference. Graphical representations
were also used to show some illustrations. The significance of the statistical analyses was ascertained at .05
alpha level.
RESULTS
The results are presented in line with the formulated hypotheses:
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught Technical
Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation and those taught with chalkboard.
To determine whether there was significant difference in the post-test mean scores of students
exposed to PowerPoint and those taught with Chalkboard, data were analyzed using the analysis of
covariance (ANCOVA). Table 3 shows the result of the analysis.
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Table 3 ANCOVA posttest on experimental (PPT) and control (Chalkboard) groups
Source of Variation Type III Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Significance
of F
Covariate
(Pre-test)
7449.383 1 7449.383 115.397 0.000
Main Effect
(Treatment)
517.769 1 517.769 8.021 0.000
Model 7982.334 2 3991.167 61.826 0.000
Residual 6261.776 97 64.554
Total 445499.000 100
Table 3 shows that F(1, 91) = 11.039, p = 0.001 for the main effect (treatment) was significant,
indicating that the method of instruction produced a significant effect on the achievement scores of students
when covariate effect (pre-test) was controlled. The result indicates that there was significant difference
between students exposed to PPT and those exposed to Chalkboard.
The performance of students in the two groups was further compared and the results are shown in
Table 3 and graphically illustrated in Figure 1.
Table 3 Mean Gain Scores of Students Taught Technical Drawing Using PPT and Chalkboard
Group
Pretest
Posttest
Mean Gain Score
PPT 18.00 68.22 50.22
Chalkboard
9.98
63.58
53.60
Table 3 shows Chalkboard group (CB) had higher mean gain score of 53.60; followed by PowerPoint
Presentation (PPT) with mean gain scores of 50.22. This shows both the groups benefited from the treatment,
with PPT having the highest posttest performance mean than those taught with CB. However, those in CB
group have higher mean gain than those in PPT.
Fig. 1. Graphical illustration of students exposed to PPT and Chalkboard.
Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female
students taught Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation.
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To determine whether there was significant difference in the post-test mean scores of male and female
students using PowerPoint (PPT), data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results
of the analysis are shown in Table 4.
Table 4 ANCOVA Posttest on Male and Female Students in PPT Group
Source of Variation Sum of Square df Mean
Square F Significance (P)
Covariate
(Pretest)
3279.717 1 3279.717 34.997 0.000
Main Effect
(Gender)
159.013 1 0159.013 1.697 0.200
Model 3288.2979a 2 1644.148 17.544 0.000
Residual 3936.014 42 93.715
Total 178226.000 45
Table 4 shows the result of the hypothesis three. The hypothesis was tested using the pretest mean
scores of both male and female students taught using PPT as covariate for the analysis of Covariance. The F
value of 1.697 was not significant at the .05 alpha level [F (1, 42) = 1.697, p > .05)]. The result shows that
there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using PPT. On this
basis, the hypothesis two is not rejected. This shows that there is no statistical difference in the achievements
of male and female students taught with PPT.
The mean gain scores between the pretest and posttest among male and female in the PPT
group were tabulated and graphically illustrated as shown in Table 5 and Figure 2.
Table 5 Mean gain scores of male and female students taught Technical Drawing using PPT
Group Pretest
Posttest
Mean Gain Score
Male 19.05 62.09 43.04
Female 17.00 61.22 44.22
Table 5 shows that female students had higher mean gain score of 44.22 while the male students had
mean gain score of 43.04. This shows that all the groups benefited from the treatment, with female students
having better performance and mean gain than the male students. The comparison in the mean scores
between their pretest and posttest is shown in Figure 2.
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Figure 2. Performances of male and female students’ taught using PPT
Hypothesis Three: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of high, medium
and low achiever students using PowerPoint Presentation.
To determine whether there was significant difference in the post-test mean scores of high, medium
and low achievement students, data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Table 5 shows
analysis of the result.
Table 5 ANCOVA Posttest of High, Medium and Low Achievers in PPT Group
Source of Variation Sum of Square df Mean
Square F Significance (p)
Covariate
(Pretest)
742.101 1 742.101 10.857 0.002
Main Effect
(Ability)
1292.632 2 646.316 9.456 0.000
Model 4421961a 3 1473.972 21.565 0.000
Residual 2802.395 41 68.351
Total 178226.00 45
Table 5 presents the result of the analysis of covariance using the pretest scores of students in the
three achievement levels as covariates. The result shows that F-value of 9.456 for the main effect was
significant at .05 alpha level [F (2, 41) = 9.456, p < .05]. This means that there is statistically significant
difference in the posttest mean scores of the high, medium and low achievement levels students. On this
basis, hypothesis three was rejected. Therefore, there is a significant difference in the performance of high,
medium and low achievement levels students taught using PPT. Sidak post-hoc analysis was used to
determine the direction of difference among the three Achievement levels. The result of the analysis is shown
in Table 6.
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Table 6 Sidak Post-hoc Analysis of Significant Difference in Mean Score Achievement Levels of Students
Taught Using PPT
Variable (i) Variable (j) Mean Difference Significance Level
High Medium 7.740* 0.039
Low 17.758* 0.000
Medium High 7.740* 0.039
Low 10.019* 0.017
Low High 17.758* 0.000
Medium 10.019* 0.017
Table 6 shows there are significant differences in posttest mean scores between the high and medium
Achievement levels students in favor of high Achievement level students (mean diff = 7.740, p = .039) and
between the high and low Achievement levels students favoring the high Achievement level students (mean
diff = 17.758, p = .000). It also shows that there is a significant difference between the posttest mean scores
of medium and low Achievement levels students taught using PPT in favour of medium achievers (mean diff
=10.019, p = .017). Table 7 shows the main gain scores for the three Achievement levels.
Table 7 Mean gain scores of students taught with PPT on the basis of achievement levels
Group Pretest Posttest Mean Gain Score
High 20.36 72.21 51.85
Medium 18.05 61.52 43.47
Low 14.60 47.10
32.50
Table 7 shows that high achievers had mean gain of 51.85, followed by the medium achiever with
mean gain score of 43.47 and then the low achievers with mean gain score of 32.50. This shows that all the
three levels of students benefited from the treatment but high achievement level students benefited more.
The mean gain scores of the three achievement levels are graphically illustrated in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Achievement levels of students’ taught Using PPT
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DISCUSSION
The results of testing hypothesis one reveals that there is a significant difference in the learning
achievements in favor of the group taught technical drawing concept using PowerPoint presentation. This
result agrees with the findings of Gier and Kreiner (2009) who reported that PowerPoint increased students’
retention in a psychology class. It also supported the findings of Nouri and Shahid (2005) that students in
PowerPoint Accounting Principles II class perceived higher understandability of the presented materials than
their counterparts in a non-PowerPoint class. However, the results of this study disagree with Savoy et al.
(2009), Apperson et al. (2006), Bartsch and Cobern (2003), Beets and Lobingier (2001) Susskind (2005), and
Szabo and Hastings (2000) who did not find any beneficial effects of PowerPoint on students’ academic
achievement.
The results of hypothesis two shows that there is no gender effect on the achievement of male and
female students taught isometric and orthographic projection concepts with IWB. This finding is in agreement
with the results of Ogunkola and Bilesanmi-Awoderu (2000) who carried out research on the effectiveness
of two teaching methods on students’ achievement in Biology and found that their achievement was not
sensitive to gender. The findings also agree with Gambari (2010), Oludipe (2012) and Yusuf and Afolabi (2010)
which showed that gender had no influence on students’ performance in physics, biology and basic science
respectively.
The results of hypothesis three test revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean
achievements in favor of the high achievers taught technical drawing concepts with PPT. This result agrees
with the findings of Adegoke (2010) and Gambari and Olumorin (2013) in physics, Aluko (2004) in chemistry,
Fajola (2000) in biology, Gambari (2010) and Yusuf (2004) in social studies which revealed that high ability
students do perform better than the medium and lower ability students. However, Yusuf (2004) revealed
that achievement levels had no influence on learner academic performance.
CONCLUSION
The paper identified the needs to shift from traditional talk-and-chalk method of teaching to
PowerPoint presentation based on its benefits to teachers and students. It was observed that students
exposed to PowerPoint presentation (PPT) performed better than their counterparts taught with chalkboard
method of teaching. The innovative technology using PPT seems to be the answer. It was found to be effective
in teaching Technical Drawing and benefits high, medium and low achievers students, and is also gender
friendly.
RECOMMENDATIONS
In this space age, Nigerian schools and educators are expected to be in the vanguard to propel the use
of various ICT tools in promoting effective teaching and learning. Therefore, it is recommended that the use
of IWB (PPT) should be encouraged in Nigerian schools especially for teaching technological based and other
practical oriented courses. This could be achieved if government and other education stakeholders could
provide IWB (PPT) to schools with adequate infrastructure and training of teachers on its usage.
Recommendations
1. Teachers should be encouraged to use IWB with PowerPoint presentation in teaching basic
technology at junior secondary school.
2. Since the findings of this study show that low and medium achievers benefited and
performed better when taught with PowerPoint presentation, therefore, Nigerian public schools should be
equipped with necessary ICT facilities to leverage the potentials of PowerPoint presentation and improve
student performance.
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3. Further empirical studies should be carried out on the use of PowerPoint presentation for
instructional purposes, on different subjects and at different levels to provide sound basis for the integration
of PowerPoint in Nigerian schools.
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... On the contrary, Anagbogu and Eezeliora (2007) exposed students to different scientific training based on cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills and found that girls scored significantly higher than boys. Meanwhile, Balogun (2014) and Gambari et al. (2014), Gambari et al. (2015) discovered no significant difference in the performance of male and female student taught basic technology no matter the medium of delivery. ...
... Balogun (2010) has actually shown that male students performed better than female counterparts in science and technology related subjects. On the contrary, Gambari (2010), Gambari et al. (2014), Balogun (2014), Gambari et al. (2015) discovered no significant difference in the performance of male and female student taught basic technology no matter the medium of delivery. ...
... This finding is contrary to the findings of Akpotohwo and Ehimen, (2014) who found out Nigerians can compete favourably in any part of the world, irrespective of their gender. The finding is contrary to the findings of Gambari et al. (2014), Balogun (2014), Gambari et al. (2015), Adegbija and Falode (2014) who discovered no significant difference in the performances of male and female students no matter the medium of delivery. Thus, there are conflicting results in gender-related researches as studies vary in their learning contexts such as the methodology, populations, geographical location and research tasks. ...
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This study examined three modes of podcast augmented instruction and pre-service Physics teachers' achievement, and retention in Colleges of Education in North-Central, Nigeria. It was a pretest, posttest and delayed posttest and quasi experimental research using 4x2 factorial design. Three hundred and sixty-three students from intact Physics classes in four Colleges of Education were selected from two clusters based on convenience and substantial population, and were used as the sample for the study. The study answered three research questions and tested three hypotheses. Thermal Physics lessons were delivered as classroom lecture. Audio, Enhanced and Video podcast lessons on same content were published online and broadcasted as augmented instructions. Thermal Physics Achievement Test and Thermal Physics Retention Test were used as data collection instruments. The reliability coefficient of the test instruments was 0.78. The data collected were analyzed based on the research question and hypotheses using mean and MANCOVA in SPSS. The result revealed that students taught Physics using Video Podcast Augmented Instruction and Audio Podcast Augmented Instruction achieved better than their counterpart taught using Enhanced Podcast Augmented Instruction or Classroom Lecture Only groups. It also revealed gender had significant effect on the achievement of the students taught using Podcast Augmented Instruction. It is recommended that the use of podcast (audio, enhanced and video) should be encouraged in our higher institution in Nigeria with special consideration for video podcast in practical oriented courses. Introduction There is virtually no sector of life that has not experienced technological paradigm shift from conventional to digital, ranging from e-banking to e-health, to e-commerce, to e-governance and then to our own constituency which is education that has e-learning. In the recent times, education has experienced technological advancement which has created new ways for teaching and learning. Educators are adopting various ways to communicate effectively with learners in the language they understand best. Many educational institutions are using virtual learning environment and incorporating e-learning into their traditional methods of teaching as part of blended or hybrid learning approach.
... In addition to social media, the PowerPoint Software was initially a part of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) program that wasfirst developed by the Microsoft company (Gambari, Yusuf, & Balogun, 2015),designed and released in July 1987 to enhance and facilitate the visual presentations through its slides (Dreams Time, 2019); and despite not being originally developed for educational purposes, the Microsoft PowerPoint presentations found their way into the educational field(Childress, 2019) It is said that people learn differently because of their different styles to do so. Some learn by listening, others through visual presentations, while some learn by exercising and practicing in both ways(Childress, 2019). ...
... Some learn by listening, others through visual presentations, while some learn by exercising and practicing in both ways(Childress, 2019). The PowerPoint presentations present their users with the opportunity to use auditory aspects and visual effects, and it is valued as a good instructional medium capable of facilitating students' learning because of its ability to cover the content of any material easily in a much lesser time than the traditional teaching approach (Gambari, Yusuf, & Balogun, 2015). ...
... In addition, many believe that the slides can grab the attention of the students and hold on to their interest during the presentation much longer than the classic teaching method. Despite that, some believe that the Microsoft PowerPoint presentations are not that much useful as an instructional medium because they limit the amount of details of the presented content, while others see it as a teacher-centered instructional tool because the teacher is in control and does nothing more than presentinghis lecture or lesson in a different way (Gambari, Yusuf, & Balogun, 2015). ...
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This research aims at examining the impact of the flipped classroom through the WhatsApp social medial platform and the Microsoft PowerPoint presentations on the learning of twenty two students, equally divided into two groups, in the third year secondary class, section general science in a Lebanese public school during the Coronavirus pandemic. In addition, this study aims to presenting the mathematical lesson "the numerical sequences" in a new learning environment that differs than the one these students are used to through interaction, collaboration, and the features of the WhatsApp social media platform and the Microsoft PowerPoint presentations. For this study, the researchers have relied on the purposive non probability sampling technique and usedit for their experiment to select the class of heterogeneous students. The qualitative data, through the open ended interview of this concurrent triangulation mixed method study, has revealed that the flipped classroom through the WhatsApp social media platform and the Microsoft PowerPoint presentations has eased students' learning, positively influencedtheir understanding, self-confidence and behavior, made them share their learning responsibilities more than they got used to in the past, saved them too much time, reduced the pressure inside the class during the learning session, and provided them valuable time to invest inside the classroom through interactions and collaborations with each other and their teacher. The qualitative data has also revealed that teachers' practices are fundamental in the success of the flipped classroom because their students tend to alienate themselves from any additional collaboration with their teachers because of the latter's inappropriate practices, and that the well-constructed presentations and the interaction between each other and/or their teacher through the WhatsApp social media platform are important in terms of student's perseverance and understanding of the lesson contentthrough the flipped classroom. The quantitative data has revealed that only two students in the first group failed the assessment exam while three students in the second exam failed their own exam, and that most students performed very well with each group averaging 7.659 and 7.727 over 10 respectively. The researchers have recommended math teachers to change their practices, otherwise the inertia in education won't be surpassed, and use this kind of flipped classroomscapable of easing their teaching and students' learning.Finally, students were recommended to fully participate in this kind of digital learning environment that differs from the one they are used to make this concept a success and start changing the landscape of education.
... Beside social media, the PowerPoint Software was originally a part of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) program developed by the Microsoft company (Gambari, Yusuf, & Balogun, 2015). It was designed and first released in July 1987 to facilitate and enhance the visual presentations through its slides (Dreams Time, 2019). ...
... Collaborat and n Interactio Media Social : 4 igure F PowerPoint presents its users with the opportunity to use visual effects and auditory aspects in their presentations. It is regarded as a good instructional medium that can facilitate students' learning because of its ability to cover the content of any material in an easy way and a much lesser time than the traditional teaching approach (Gambari, Yusuf, & Balogun, 2015). ...
... Despite that, some believe that it is not that much useful as an instructional medium because it focuses on the format more than the content and limits the amount of details of the presented content. Others label it as a teacher-centered instructional tool because it is controlled by the teacher who is just presenting the content of the lecture or lesson differently (Gambari, Yusuf, & Balogun, 2015). ...
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This research aim sat examining the impact of teaching "counting" in mathematics, through WhatsApp, a social media platform, and the PowerPoint presentations on 22 students in the second year secondary scientific in a private school in Beirut during the corona virus pandemic. It also aims at integrating social media and PowerPoint in the curriculum by presenting "counting" in a digital learning environment. Additionally, it aims at determining the necessity of WhatsApp in this experiment, students' willingness to study a second lesson in the same way and their personal opinions concerning teaching "counting" and other math lessons to students in another classes and levels. This research determines the class average and the percent of students who passed the online exam that was prepared specifically to assess their performance at the end of the experiment. The sample of the study is formed by 22 students in the second year secondary scientific through the purposive sampling technique. For statistics, the researchers used the average, frequencies and percent,bar diagrams and a scatter plot to represent the data of the study. Results of the study show that "counting" can be taught via WhatsApp and the PowerPoint presentations. Most of the participants were positive about this digital learning environment because of the way the lesson was presented through the PowerPoint slides and the teacher-student WhatsApp interaction and collaboration. 54.5% of the participants were willing to study a second lesson in the same way,95.45%of the students passed the exam and the class average turned out to be 16.0455 over 20. The researchers recommend math teachers to leave the bricks of the classes that have been surrounding them for many years, embrace this digital experiment that motivates their creativity and provide their students, who must participate and collaborate with them, with proper online interaction. They also recommend them using the combination of WhatsApp and PowerPoint to create a conceptual field that enables them developing students' learning in complex situations, the "counting" lesson. Finally, they also recommend other researchers to replicate this experiment in other math topics.
... 335 PowerPoint is widely used in many fields including banking, commerce, education, health and governance to present ideas and concepts to a larger audience using a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) projector. In education, PowerPoint can be used in the classroom by combining computer and LCD projector to display slides of concepts to students (Gambari, Yusuf & Belogun, 2015). It can also be used to make interactive preparation of concepts by incorporating visual and auditory components to one's presentation, which can be uploaded on virtual platforms for students' consumption. ...
... Once PowerPoint is installed, it can be used to develop presentations without internet connectivity hence it is a powerful tool that can be used even in remote and underdeveloped areas to make teaching with ICT possible. The use of PowerPoint in instructional delivery, improves students' academic performance, makes learning more interactive and eliminates gender disparity in achievement (Gambari, Yusuf & Belogun, 2015). ...
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This study explored the effect of PowerPoint integration on students’ motivation and achievement in less endowed Senior High Schools (SHSs). The study employed the embedded mixed method approach involving quasi-experimental design in which 80 students were randomly selected from two government-assisted Senior High Schools and assigned to control and experimental groups. Teacher-made Pre- and Post-Geometry Achievement Tests (GAT) and semi-structured interviews were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data respectively. During treatment, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) was integrated using PowerPoint presentation to teach the experimental group while the control group was taught by conventional instruction approach. Both pre-GAT and post-GAT were administered to participants and their responds were scored to obtain quantitative data. Descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test were used to analyze the GAT scores while the qualitative data were thematically analyzed. The results showed that participants in both groups had improved in their post-GAT compared to their pre-GAT. However, it was revealed that study participants in the experimental group achieved better in the post-GAT than those in the control group. It was also revealed that there was no influence of gender in the achievement of the group taught by PPT presentation. Finally, the findings revealed that ICT integration promotes students’ motivation. In conclusion, ICT integration approach to teaching and learning mathematics concepts was found to promote students’ motivation and increased achievement in mathematics than the conventional instruction. The implications for practice and research are discussed.
... Some of the limitations of these types of instructional delivery mode (Gambari, Yusuf and Balogun, 2018) are: ineffectiveness for very large group instruction, inability to allow information storage for future use, inability to accommodate illustrations to support the teaching, health hazard for teachers from chalk particles, uninteresting learning. The adopting constructivist approach in teaching technology related subjects would go a long way in improving students' achievement in Nigeria. ...
... The findings of this study as corroborated by various researchers revealed the status of technical drawing in Nigerian technical colleges. The using the traditional approach in passing instructions in schools result to ineffectiveness, inability to store information for future use, inability to accommodate illustrations to support the teaching and uninteresting learning among others (Gambari, Yusuf and Balogun, 2018). The submission of the above scholar was also substantiated in the explorative survey carried out by the researchers as the technical drawing classrooms in the technical colleges visited are set up traditionally without any component of a 21st century classroom. ...
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This study determined enhancing effectiveness in teaching and learning technical drawing for sustainable development in Nigerian technical colleges. Two research questions focusing on status of Technical Drawing in Nigerian Technical Colleges and mechanisms for enhancing teaching and learning of Technical Drawing guided the study. The population of the study was all the 152 technical college administrators in state government owned technical colleges in South- Western States of Nigeria. A 30-item self-developed questionnaire was used to collect data from all the 152 respondents. The questionnaire was validated by three experts and its reliability coefficient was established at 0.92 using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient method. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study found that traditional mode of classroom instruction dominated the teaching and learning of technical drawing and that procurement of ICT facilities and retraining of technical drawing teachers would enhance teaching and learning of the subject. The study recommended, among others that relevant stakeholders responsible for the administration of technical colleges should procure ICT facilities for teaching and learning of technical drawing.
... This is an indication that gender of the students plays part in students' achievement when power point instructional package was used. This finding agreed with the findings of Gambari et al (2015) [5] who found out that male students performed better than their female counterparts on their exposure to power point instructional package but no significant difference was observed in their achievement. However, the present finding was in disagreement with the studies of Ofili (2016) [16] and Uba (2014) [19] which stated that female students performed better than their male counterparts and as such a significant difference was observed in their achievements. ...
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The objective of teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies (CRS) as a subject in Nigerian secondary schools is to bring up children who can respect the beliefs and feelings of others; appreciate dignity of labour and moral values that make an individual a good citizen. The achievement of secondary school students in the subject in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) has been a source of worry to the researchers. In the quest for answers to these emergent problems, the present study investigated the controlling differential effects of power point instructional package and gender on academic achievement of secondary school students in Christian Religious Studies in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions while two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of the study was quasi experimental design involving 2x4x2 factorial design. The population consisted of 1,363 SS2 students offering CRS in Uhunmwode L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria. The sample size was 88 SS2 students drawn from two intact classes of two coeducational schools out of 52 public secondary schools in the area of study. The instrument, Christian Religious Studies Achievement Test (CRSAT) was used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using mean to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The result of the study revealed that students taught Christian Religious Studies using power point instructional package had a higher mean score than those in control group who were taught using conventional instructional medium. The result of the study further revealed that both male and female students in the experimental group improved in their achievement in CRS but female students achieved better than the male students after their exposure to treatment. This shows that gender is a significant factor in students' achievement in using power point instructional package. Based on this, power point instructional package stands as an effective and efficient instructional medium to enhance students' academic achievement in CRS. Thus, recommendation was made for the adoption and constant use of power point instruction by the CRS teachers in particular and other teachers in general.
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One of the fundamental purposes and goals of learning and teaching around the world has been the active participation of students in higher education institutions. The teacher's knowledge alone is insufficient to ensure that the students understand the subject during the curricular transaction. The manner in which the lecture is delivered is equally important. As a result, in addition to the conventional method, PowerPoint presentations are being used on a larger scale. Furthermore, it enhances students' sense of pleasure and commitment and assists the teacher in attaining its objectives. It can also play an important part in creating a dynamic environment for teaching and learning when deployed as an efficient cutting-edge tool. In this paper, the focus is given on understanding using PPT as an effective cutting edge tool for innovative teaching-learning and impressive presentation through a questionnaire-based online survey of 915 students and teachers from 20 different states and 2 Union Tertiaries of India and 6 overseas countries too. The analysis of the collected data confirms that using multiple modalities in PPT might bring together all types of learners, kinesthetic, auditory, and visual and provide them the opportunity to be active learners and increase their interactivity.
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This study identified practices required by Agricultural Education lecturers in the development and utilization of PowerPoint for quality instruction in South-East Nigerian universities. Two specific objectives were posed to guide the study with corresponding research questions and hypotheses. A survey research design was suitably adopted for the study. The target population for the study was 56 lecturers of Agricultural Education in 6 public universities offering Agricultural education in South-East Nigeria. Census was used for the study. A researcher-developed structured questionnaire validated by 3 experts was used as an instrument for data collection. The reliability of the instrument was determined at an index of .86 using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient test. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as Mean to answer research questions and standard deviation to show degree of responses. Independent Sample t-test was used to test the 2 stated hypotheses at .05-level of significance. The study found that lecturers of Agricultural Education require 17-practices in the development of PowerPoint and 10-practices in the utilization of PowerPoint for quality instruction South-East Nigerian universities. Therefore, the study concluded that there are 17-practices on PowerPoint development and 10-practices on PowerPoint utilization for quality instruction in South-East Nigerian universities. It was recommended by the study that Agricultural education lecturers should adopt these practices identified by the study for quality instruction in South-East Nigerian universities.
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Expanded PowerPoint instruction is a teaching approach through slide show presentations. This study is concerned about enhancing the academic performance and learning interest of Grade 10 students in biology. This was conducted at Siocon National High School, Siocon Compostela, Compostela Valley for School Year 2016 – 2017. The data were obtained using a quasi-experimental nonequivalence pretest-posttest research design. A validated researcher-made achievement test was administered as the pretest to both groups before the treatment was given for two weeks and was subjected afterward to the post-test. The data were analyzed using Mean, Standard Deviation, and ANCOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The findings show that students' academic performance with the Expanded PowerPoint presentation is far better than those students taught with a conventional approach using the K to 12 Science Module. This likewise reveals that the students taught with expanded PowerPoint presentations had a very high level of interest in learning the five biology topics covered in this study. It was recommended that Teachers should be encouraged to attend training and seminar workshops on the making of expanded PowerPoint presentations.
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This study investigated the effect of cooperative, competitive and individualistic instructional strategies on the performance of high, medium and low academic achievers using video instructional package. A total of 120 senior secondary school mathematics students were randomly assigned into cooperative, competitive, individualized, and conventional teaching methods. Students from each group were stratified into high, medium and low achievers. Video Instructional Package (VIP) on mathematics and Geometry Achievement Test (GAT) were used as treatment and test instruments, respectively. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe test were used for data analysis. Findings indicated that there was significant difference in the performance of the groups in favour of cooperative learning strategy. Students' achievement levels had significant influence on their performance in competitive and individualized instructional settings. It was recommended that mathematics teachers should employ cooperative learning strategies to improve students' performance to bridge the gap among high, medium and low achievers.
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on Junior Secondary Students' academic achievement in basic science, using cooperative learning strategy. This study employed a quasi experimental design. Data collected was analyses using descriptive and independent samples t-test statistical methods.
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The present essay offers a comprehensive review of the effects of computer-generated slides in the classroom, beginning with an overview of the ongoing debate over whether. To date, much of this debate has been testimonial in nature; in an effort to move beyond testimonials, this essay will attempt to ground the pedagogical debate over PowerPoint in various learning theories. Extant research on such slides is examined in four subcategories: (1) student reactions; (2) learning outcomes; (3) learning styles; and (4) slide variation effects. This essay closes with a discussion of how various research findings help inform (but by no means settle) the debate over PowerPoint and pedagogy.
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This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-supported jigsaw II cooperative learning strategies on the performance of senior secondary students in physics. The study also determined how moderating variables of gender and attitude to physics when Jigsaw II cooperative learning is used as an instructional strategy. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary school class II physics students from four intact classes in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. 80 students from two intact classes were assigned into Jigsaw II and Individualized Computer Instruction (ICI) groups. Computer-Assisted Learning Package (CALP) on physics and Physics Achievement Test (PAT) were used as treatment and test instruments. Analysis of Covariance and Scheffe's test were used for data analysis. Findings indicated that students taught physics using computer-supported Jigsaw II performed better than those taught using individualized computer instruction. In addition, students exposed to Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy had positive attitude to physics than those taught with ICI. However, students' gender had no influence on their performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other physics teachers should be encouraged to use computer-supported cooperative instructional strategy to improve students' cognitive and affective outcomes. Introduction Physics is one of the core science subjects in Nigeria educational system offered at senior secondary school level. Its importance in modern technological development of any nation made it imperative for its inclusion in the curriculum for science oriented students (FRN, 2004). In spite of the importance of physics as a requirement for many specialized science and engineering courses at the tertiary educational institutions, students' performance at the Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in Nigeria has been poor. The percentage of students that passed physics at credit level has consistently being less than 50% for the past ten years (West African Examination Council [WAEC] Report, 2012). Adegoke (2011) reported that students are not actively involved in developing knowledge; they receive information passively and are less motivated. The instructional method employed by the teacher plays an important role in the acquisition of skills and meaningful learning. However, the lecture method uses by teachers have been criticized because only hardworking students can benefit from it. The poor performance of students in physics can be improved with innovative teaching and learning methods integrated with technology and elements of problem solving (Gambari, 2010). Computer has been found to be effective device for classroom instruction using different software (Gambari & Mogbo, 2006; Tekos & Solomonidou, 2009; Yusuf & Afolabi, 2010). Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) is designed normally for individual learning, but it has been found to be more effective with cooperative learning than individualized instruction (Johnson & Johnson, 2008). The use of computer as a medium for cooperative
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This study investigated the relative effectiveness of cooperative and individualistic instructional strategies on students' problem solving abilities in secondary school chemistry. It made use of a 3 x 3 x 2 quasi-experimental, non-randomized factorial design. Two hundred and fifty (250) Senior Secondary two (SS II) chemistry students were purposively sampled from three public secondary schools in Ilesa Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Two research instruments: Researcher's Instructional Packages for solving Chemistry Problems (RIP) and Chemistry Performance Test (CPT) were developed, validated and used for the study. The reliability of the Chemistry Performance Test (CPT) was determined and found to be 0.62 using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation formula. Five hypotheses were raised and tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Two experimental groups (Cooperative Instructional group, Individualistic Instructional group) and a control group were used. The results of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the performance of chemistry students exposed to cooperative instructional Strategy, individualistic instructional strategy and conventional teaching method. Both the cooperative instructional strategy and individualistic instructional strategy improved the performance of the learners. The cooperative instructional strategy was found to be most effective in enhancing better performance of the learners. African Research Review Vol. 1 (1) 2007: pp. 121-130
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We investigated whether students liked and learned more from PowerPoint presentations than from overhead transparencies. Students were exposed to lectures supported by transparencies and two different types of PowerPoint presentations. At the end of the semester, students preferred PowerPoint presentations but this preference was not found on ratings taken immediately after the lectures. Students performed worse on quizzes when PowerPoint presentations included non-text items such as pictures and sound effects. A second study further examined these findings. In this study participants were shown PowerPoint slides that contained only text, contained text and a relevant picture, and contained text with a picture that was not relevant. Students performed worse on recall and recognition tasks and had greater dislike for slides with pictures that were not relevant. We conclude that PowerPoint can be beneficial, but material that is not pertinent to the presentation can be harmful to students' learning.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of course design on both actual and self-reported student outcomes. The authors examined data gathered from three courses, each with a different design, during one semester at a major university in the Southwest. One passive design was used and was patterned after the traditional method of lecture, notetaking, and multiple-choice exams. Two active designs were used. One active design was a participative course where students helped plan the course by developing the syllabus and deciding what criteria should be graded. The other active design was experiential in nature where students were exposed to assignments and activities designed to simulate real-world tasks and experiences. Results indicated that students perceived active course designs to be more useful to their future than passive designs. However, course design appeared to have no impact on student grades, satisfaction, or perceptions of how a course was conducted.
Article
This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial design. The sample for the study comprised 120 first year senior secondary school students (SSS I) sampled from three private secondary schools, in Oyo State, Nigeria. The students' pre-test and post test scores were subjected to Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The findings of the study showed that the performance of students exposed to CAI either individually or cooperatively were better than their counterparts exposed to the conventional classroom instruction. However, no significant difference existed in the performance of male and female students exposed to CAI in either individual or cooperative settings. Based on the research findings recommendations were made on the need to develop relevant CAI packages for teaching biology in Nigerian secondary schools.