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Udin Boršt is an isolated conglomerate terrace in Gorenjska region, Slovenia. A number of surface karst features and caves developed here due to the predominance of carbonate gravel. It is one of the last contiguous areas of lowland forest in Gorenjska region, and a popular recreation location for the people living nearby. Due to its karst surface and the forest it offered shelter to the locals in turbulent times. Its role during the period when bandits (rokovnjači) was common and during the Second World War is still preserved in folk memory. Due to its natural and cultural heritage, the area was protected as a Memorial park in 1985, but the legislation has become outdated and needs to be amended and updated. This article presents new findings on the geomorphological and intangible cultural heritage that need to be incorporated in the amended legislation.
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Acta geographica Slovenica, 56-1, 2016, XX–XX
Mateja Šmid Hribar, Mateja Ferk
Northwest part of the Landscape park Udin Boršt with the settlemet Duplje.
Mateja Šmid Hribar, Mateja Ferk, The role and importance of the landscape park Udin Boršt
The role and importance of the landscape park Udin Boršt
UDC: 913:551.44(497.4Udin boršt)
719(497.4Udin boršt)
COBISS: 1.01
ABSTRACT: Udin Boršt is an isolated conglomerate terrace in Gorenjska region, Slovenia. Anumber of
surface karst features and caves developed here due to the predominance of carbonate gravel. It is one of
the last contiguous areas of lowland forest in Gorenjska region, and apopular recreation location for the
people living nearby. Due to its karst surface and the forest it offered shelter to the locals in turbulent times.
Its role during the period when bandits (rokovnjači) was common and during the Second World War is still
preserved in folk memory. Due to its natural and cultural heritage, the area was protected as aMemorial
park in1985, but the legislation has become outdated and needs to be amended and updated. This article
presents new findings on the geomorphological and intangible cultural heritage that need to be incorpo-
rated in the amended legislation.
KEY WORDS: geography, conglomerate karst, isolated karst, eogenetic karst, shallow karst, geomorphological
heritage, cultural heritage, landscape park, Udin Boršt
The article was submitted for publication on October 9th,2014.
Mateja Šmid Hribar, Ph.D.
Anton Melik Geographical Institute
Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Gosposka ulica13, SI– 1000Ljubljana, Slovenia
Mateja Ferk, Ph.D.
Anton Melik Geographical Institute
Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Gosposka ulica13, SI– 1000Ljubljana, Slovenia
1 Introduction
The Udin Boršt (Dukes forest) is an isolated conglomerate glacial terrace rising up to 50m above the gravel
plain Gorenjske Dobrave (Woodland of Upper Carniola) and measuring approximately15 km2. It is one
of the last contiguous areas of lowland forest in Gorenjska region (Upper Carniola), which makes it increas-
ingly popular among both locals and visitors.
Amorphologically heterogeneous landscape developed due to the geological characteristics of the con-
glomerate rock (Grad and Ferjančič1976; Žlebnik1978). The wide range of landforms creates an area with
ahigh degree of geodiversity. The assessment of the geodiversity of Udin Boršt was conducted by the methodo -
logical approach Bojan Erhartič to whom we dedicate this paper. Furthermore, the natural features turned
Udin Boršt into an important shelter for locals during foreign invasions. In order to commemorate the
importance of this area, especially during the Second World War, and its natural and cultural heritage, the
Udin Boršt was protected as aMemorial park in1985 (Odlok orazglasitvi 1985).
This study focuses on the modern role of the Udin Boršt and whether it complies with the criteria and
values based on which it was protected. Because the monument protection ordinance is outdated and must
be redefined due to the newly established Municipality of Naklo, the importance of protecting the Udin
Boršt is analysed from the viewpoint of new functions and findings.
2 Methods
The research included adetailed study of literature and legislation on nature and cultural protection, and
afield inspection of natural and cultural heritage. In order to obtain numerical data on the Udin Boršt
geomorphological heritage (Panizza2001), aquantitative Swiss method (Reynardet al.2007) was used to
evaluate the landforms. This method is based on simplified evaluation criteria divided by importance, which
renders the procedure more transparent and makes the results suitable for the academic, professional, and
nature protection community (Erhartič2010). The conglomerate karst of the Udin Boršt was treated as
ahomogenous geomorphological landscape unit, which was compared to all of Slovenia. The criteria used
include (1) scientific value: assessment of rareness, representativeness, integrity, and paleogeographic value,
and (2) additional values: assessment of ecological value (ecological impact and protected sites), aesthet-
ic value (view points, and contrast), cultural value (religious importance, historical importance, artistic
and literary importance, and geo-historical importance), and economic value (qualitative and quantita-
tive). The assessment of additional values also included aplanning value. Afive-point scale was used for
the evaluation; the scale was adapted in such away that at the same time the results also show individual
shares (100% being the highest theoretical score). Each criterion was ascribed avalue between 0 (novalue)
and100 (extremely high value) and the following scores: 0, 25, 50, 75, and100.
The social and recreational role of the Udin Boršt was evaluated using aquantitative method; that is,
two chronicles published by the local Cultural and tourism society Pod krivo jelko Duplje (hereinafter:
CTS Pod Krivo jelko Duplje; Pod Krivo jelko means under the bent fir tree) (Kronika KTD Pod krivo jelko
Duplje1997–2009; Kronika KTD Pod krivo jelko Duplje2009–2012) and the visitors’ book (Vpisna knji-
ga2012). Entries for the2003–2012 were taken into account, and visits in2012 were analysed in greater
detail in order to determine the number of places and countries the visitors come from.
3 Geomorphological heritage of the conglomerate karst of Udin Boršt
During Quaternary the Sava river and its tributaries deposited large amounts of gravel and finer sediments
in central Gorenjska region that formed the conglomerate rocks (Grad and Ferjančič1976). From the genet-
ic viewpoint, the conglomerate of Udin Boršt is in the stage of early diagenesis or eogenetic stage (Lipar
and Ferk2011; Ferk and Lipar2012). The poorly cemented conglomerates initiate dynamic processes and
fast development of the geomorphological system that results in agreat number and variety of geomor-
phological features.
Surface and subsurface karst features developed in the western and central part of the Udin Boršt, and
afluvial geomorphological system developed in its eastern part. Dolines predominate among surface geo-
morphological karst features. They are usually up to 10m deep and tens of meters in diameter. The largest
Acta geographica Slovenica, 56-1, 2016
Mateja Šmid Hribar, Mateja Ferk, The role and importance of the landscape park Udin Boršt
among them are 20 to 30 m deep, and can measure as much as 100m in diameter. The dolines are filled
with fine-grained sediments that are relatively flattened. Suffosion depressions are smaller than dolines.
These are funnel-shaped holes in unconsolidated regolith or alogenic detritus covering the conglomerate
that form when the sediments are washed into the underlying karstified bedrock. They are up to 5m wide
and 5 m deep. In some places, erosion gullies formed on the slopes of suffosion depressions. The water
that occasionally runs through them sinks to the underground at the lowest point of the depressions. North
of Strahinj a500m long blind valley is formed, stretching in the north-south direction. Its uppermost part
begins with several steep gullies that join into an increasingly wider valley. In its lower part, the bottom
of the blind valley expands into a40 m wide plain enclosed by steep slopes. At the edge of the plain sev-
eral ponors are formed through which the intermittent brook sinks into the karst underground. The water
percolates through the voids in the conglomerate to the underground water table, whereby it dissolves the
rock, widens the flow channels, and forms caves. Udin Boršt has an autogenic recharge entirely through
precipitation water, and the water flows diffusely to numerous karst springs on the edges of the terrace.
At some springs, pocket valleys formed in the upstream ends. The two longest ones are near Duplje, where
the Dupeljščica River springs from Arneš Cave, and near Strahinj, where the Lebinica River springs from
Velika Lebinca Cave.
4 Historical aspects
Except for the rare forts dating back to the Iron age and the defence posts from classical antiquity, there
is no other evidence of this area being settled. The first villages were established around the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries in the area where the forest meets the fertile plain (Fister1970). This was also when
people began clearing the forest that covered the area north of Kranj.
The Slovenian name Udin Boršt means ‘Dukes forest’ and the forest was most likely named after Archduke
KarlV. (1564–1590), who controlled and managed it (Kranjc2005). According to Kos (1960,65), »aboršt
is primarily the kind of forest that was excluded or banned from general use.« In the Middle Ages, the for-
est was only accessible to the castle lords, who used it for hunting. Others could only take wood from it if
the duke so allowed. Logging, gathering leaf litter, and picking berries was also strictly limited. Comparing
the land use on the Josephinian military map from the second half of the eighteenth century with pre-
sent-day land use (Figure1) shows that the area of the Udin Boršt has hardly changed; the only exception
is the part in the extreme south that is crossed by the freeway section from Naklo to Kranj. However, the
composition of trees has changed significantly: the former oak and hornbeam forest have been replaced
by pine (Pinus silvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) (Mulec and Pipan2005).
The Udin Boršt played an important protective role in the lives of the locals; its caves in particular offered
them shelter several times. Valvasor (1689) mentions alarge cave in Duplje (most likely Arneš Cave) where
the locals hid from the Ottomans and other attackers. In this regard, Vrhovnik (1885) wrote that even at
the end of the nineteenth century the Boltar farm in Duplje still had an iron gate that was believed to have
been used to close the entrance to Arneš Cave. Caves were also important hiding places from1825 to1853,
when bandits (rokovnjači) lived in the Udin Boršt. These were young men that did not want to serve in
the military and preferred to hide in the forest. Sometimes they were also joined by women. They gathered
and got married by the Bent Fir tree (pri Krivi jelki), where they also held fests called finfranje (Bohinjec1998).
During the Second World War in Yugoslavia, the Udin Boršt was one of the centres of the partisan move-
ment in Gorenjska Region.
5 Social and recreational role
The social and recreational role of the Udin Boršt is becoming increasingly important. Several tourism
and cultural societies are active in this area, which also include the Udin Boršt in their programs. The CTS
Pod krivo jelko Duplje is based in the settlement Duplje. Because the original Bent fir tree where bandits
Figure 1: The Udin Boršt and its surrounding settlements on the Josephinian military map from the second half of the eighteenth century and in the
present. p
Acta geographica Slovenica, 56-1, 2016
Viri: (levo) Rajšp 1998, (desno) GURS 2011.
© Geografski inštitut Antona Melika ZRC SAZU 0 0.75 1.5 3 km
Mateja Šmid Hribar, Mateja Ferk, The role and importance of the landscape park Udin Boršt
used to gather was felled by snow more than acentury ago, the two oldest Duplje residents planted asub-
stitute one in1998 at the society’s initiative (Šmid Hribar2009). The society holds an annual torch-lit night
walk on the first Saturday in January. Participants gather by the fir, where they are greeted by boiled pota-
toes, lard, tea, and mulled wine. The society also holds abandits’ fest in May, which is also when a»Bandits
run« takes place. The »Duplje orienteering route« and the »Bent fir tree loop trail« in the Udin Boršt were
also set up as part of the society’s activities (Kuhar and Šmid2002); in2012, this loop grew into the »Conglomerate
karst land hiking trail« (Pešpot… 2013).
An important role is also played by the Udin Boršt conservation society, which was established in2007
to prevent the construction of aregional waste-processing centre in Tenetiše. Members of the Kokrica tourism
society set up the »Mammoth land trail«, part of which runs past the place called Little mills (Mlinčki) in
the southern part of the Udin Boršt, where toy mills are set up along the creek. Awalk along the »Three
bells trail« has been held in Sebenje every Friday since2012. The Centre for sustainable rural develop-
ment Kranj is also becoming an important stakeholder, contributing to the areas development through
various projects. In2012, it set up an »bandit camp with bark tents« near the Bent fir tree, where people
can stay the night.
In addition to the locals, people from Kranj and other places in Gorenjska region often visit the Udin
Boršt. There are many organizations and active individuals operating in this area, but so far they are fairly
6 Results and discussion: the potential of the Udin Boršt’ natural
and cultural heritage
The formal protection that was applied in1985 points to the unique relationship that the locals had to this
area in the past, without which it is likely that the forest would have been cleared significantly more and
the area degraded more. However, despite being protected, this area has not received amanager or aman-
agement plan in these twenty-eight years. The Udin Boršt memorial park is included in the following two
heritage registers (Figure2):
• In line with the cultural protection legislation, it is inscribed in the Register of immovable cultural her-
itage (Register nepremične kulturne…2014) as acultural landscape that has the status of acultural monument
of local importance;
• In accordance with nature protection legislation, it belongs to landscape parks (Širša zavarovana
območja2014), and at the same time the isolated karst terrace of the Udin Boršt is inscribed in the Register
of natural values as a»surface geomorphological value, subsurface geomorphological value, hydrolog-
ical value, and geological value of national importance« (Pravilnik odoločitvi 2004).
The1985 protection ordinance is outdated. In1994, the new municipality of Naklo was established
in this area, but an additional reason for amending the ordinance is also that, despite the fact that The insti-
tute of the Republic of Slovenia for nature conservation classifies Udin Boršt under landscape parks, it is
currently formally protected only as amemorial park. The new ordinance will have to incorporate new
findings in the field of geomorphology and findings connected with the increasingly important social and
recreational role of the area, and its intangible heritage, clearly highlighting the purposes and goals of the
Because there is aclear interconnection between natural and cultural heritage in this area, it is rec-
ommended that the Udin Boršt be safeguarded as part of the joint protection of monuments and nature in
line with Article15 of the Cultural heritage protection act (2008). Article 60of this same act requires prepa-
ration of adetailed management plan. The new ordinance will have to define the activities allowed in this
area, the manager, and his or her responsibilities and tasks, and highlight individual smaller natural and
cultural heritage units. The premises of the management plan could be based on the findings of this arti-
cle. Figure2 shows the current natural and cultural heritage of the Udin Boršt.
The exceptional opportunity to establish an outdoor laboratory is among the most important scien-
tific prospects for this area. Thanks to the many years of protection, the area’s living and non-living nature
Figure 2: Natural and cultural heritage of the Udin Boršt. p
Acta geographica Slovenica, 56-1, 2016
Udin bo r št
Dobr a va
Vel i ka g m a j n a
Žiganja vas
Malo Naklo
Zgornje Duplje
Spodnje Duplje
Zgornje Tenete
Srednja vas-
Spodnje Tenetiše
Dolge njive
Pri Krivi jelki
Authors of content: Mateja Ferk, Mateja Šmid Hribar; Author of the map: Manca Volk Bahun
Source: Register of immovable cultural heritage (Rkd), Ministry for culture 2013 (on 6.7.2013), Register of natural values Slovenian Environment Agency 2012.
Map source: GURS 2013; © Anton Melik Geographical Institute ZRC SAZU 2013
Protected landscape area
Hidrological heritage/
Proposed Hidrological heritage
Geomorphological heritage/
Proposed Geomorphological heritage
Heritage ecosystems
Heritage trees
Geomorphological, Geological heritage
Subterranean geomorphological heritage
Cultural landscape
Archeological heritage
Settlement heritage
Archeological heritage
Memorial heritage
Garden arhitectural heritage
Religious arhitectural heritage
Religious-secular arhitectural heritage
Geathering place
Natural heritage Cultural heritage
0 0,5 1 km
Mateja Šmid Hribar, Mateja Ferk, The role and importance of the landscape park Udin Boršt
has been preserved well, and at the same time its easy accessibility makes it possible to carry out research
and familiarize interested groups with environmental processes in the Udin Boršt. The most important fac-
tors for effective protection include education, raising awareness, and participation of locals and visitors in
these activities (Polajnar2008; Smrekaret al.2011).
6.1 Natural and geomorphological heritage of the Udin Boršt
Due to its conglomerate bedrock, acombination of karst and fluvial geomorphological system, and diverse
terrain with specific vegetation, the Udin Boršt is an area with ahigh degree of geodiversity and an impor-
tant part of geomorphological heritage (Erhartič 2010). The environmental protection significance is increased
by the homogeneity of the spatial unit and the density and diversity of its geomorphological features; in
the case of the Udin Boršt, it would make sense to connect and protect it as ageopark. The karst of Udin
Boršt can be defined several ways based on various criteria: as conglomerate or isolated karst (Habič1981),
shallow karst (Žlebnik1978), or eogenetic karst (Lipar and Ferk2011; Ferk and Lipar2012).
Table 1: Quantitative evaluation of the Udin Boršt’ geomorphological heritage (Erhartič 2010).
Criterion Score Average Average
Scientific value Assessment of rareness 75 75
Representativeness 50
Integrity 75 75
Paleogeographic value 100
Additional values Assessment of ecological value Ecological impact 75 75
Protected sites 75
Esthetic value View points 50 37.5
Contrast 25
Cultural value Religious importance 0 43.75
Historical importance 75 58.75
Artistic, literary importance 50
Geohistorical importance 50
Economic value Qualitative 50 37.5
Quantitative 25
Planning value Accessibility 100 100
Total average 58.33 61.46 66.88
The Udin Boršt has ahigh average scientific value (75%) because (1) conglomerate karst is rare in Slovenia,
especially in the eogenetic stage of diagenesis; (2) it has many features comparable to classic karst in terms
of size; (3) the slightly elevated conglomerate terrace can easily be distinguished from the surrounding area,
representing adistinct landscape unit; and (4) it is arichly layered and excellently preserved assembly of infor-
mation on the palaeoenvironment. The high average ecological value (75%) is the result of the many years
of protection and the unsuitability of the karst land for agricultural use, which is why the lowland forest with
diverse undergrowth has been preserved. The low average esthetic value (37.5%) is due to forest vegetation,
which makes it more difficult to identify the landforms, and the relatively level landscape that reduces visu-
al diversity. The average cultural value (43.75%) reflects the many centuries of people’s connection with the
forest, which was often used as ashelter in times of foreign invasions, and the importance of the Udin Boršt
conglomerate karst, based on which eogenetic karst features in continental sediments were defined for the
first time (Lipar and Ferk2011). The low average economic value (37.5%) results from the fact that the Udin
Boršt s’ tourism and scientific potential has been underexploited. Accessibility was given the highest score
(100%) because there is afreeway interchange nearby, and the woods are crisscrossed by roads and contain
many well-marked hiking trails. The categories evaluated differ from one another and the authors are aware
that they cannot be put on the same level; nonetheless, the sum of all the average scores (scientific and added
value) was used to calculate atheoretical total score of the Udin Boršt’ geomorphological heritage (67%) in
order to be able to compare it with the scores of other geomorphological heritage sites in the future.
6.2 Cultural heritage
In terms of cultural heritage, the Udin Boršt has already been recognized as acultural landscape in the past;
in addition, the Udin Boršt memorial park contains several archaeological sites and examples of memorial her-
itage. Architectural and settlement heritage can be found on its edges in the surrounding villages that are inseparably
connected with the forest. This is also reflected in rich oral tradition, which is part of intangible heritage. In
addition, for several years now the Udin Boršt has been apopular venue for various events (Table2). In recent
years, the Little mills and Bent fir tree meeting points have become the main places for socializing (Figure3).
Table 2: Events held in the Udin Boršt.
Event Location Date Organizer
The Udin Boršt friendship Kapnik monument April 27th (since 1986) Kokrica Sports Society
and memory walk (from Kokrica)
Bandits’ fest (finfranje) Bent fir tree Third Saturday in May (since 1998) CTS Pod Krivo jelko Duplje
Torch-lit walk From various settlements in First Saturday in January CTS Pod Krivo jelko Duplje
the area to the Bent Fir tree (since 2002)
Various walks during Lifelong Various locations in the Udin Boršt May (since 2004) CTS Pod Krivo jelko Duplje
Learning Week
Mammoth land walk From Kokrica past the Little September (since 2008) Kokrica Tourism Society
Mills area
The Udin Boršt Friendship Kapnik monument April 27th (since 2009) Tržič independence war veterans
and memory walk (from Križe) organization, Slovenian partisan
veterans league, Tržič municipal
Slovenian officers association
Three bells walk Along the forest trails between Once a year for large groups, Sebenje local community and Križe
Žiganja Vas, Novaki, and Sebenje otherwise every Friday at 6:00 pm, primary school
or 5:00 pm in winter (since 2012)
Acta geographica Slovenica, 56-1, 2016
Figure 3: The Bent Fir tree meeting point in the Udin boršt (left) and decorated Bent Fir tree.
Mateja Šmid Hribar, Mateja Ferk, The role and importance of the landscape park Udin Boršt
Since2003, visitors have been entering their names in the visitors’ book, kept inside abox in the shel-
ter at the Bent Fir tree. Their number has been growing constantly since2003 (the only exception was2006;
Figure4). According to the visitors’ book (2012), 18,645people visited the area in2012; they came fromnine-
ty-one places, not only in Slovenia, but also Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Italy, Switzerland, Germany,
the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, and Nicaragua (i.e.,ten countries outside Slovenia). On January1st, 2012alone,
145people from thirteen different places visited the Bent fir tree area. Some even celebrate New year’s eve
there (Vpisna knjiga2012). Students from the nearby primary schools also visit the Udin Boršt several times
ayear. They are greeted by »bandits« in the clearing in front of the Bent fir tree.
According to the findings and the UNESCO cultural and natural heritage evaluation criteria (Operational
guidelines 2013; The Asia1995), it can be concluded that the area has local significance because of:
• Its unique cultural tradition (the1998 reprint of the story Pod krivo jelko[Under the bent fir tree], which
revived interest in the bandits);
• Its direct connection with events or living tradition (oral tradition passed on from one generation to
another by people in the nearby villages indirectly influenced the establishment of the CTS Pod Krivo
jelko Duplje; the clearing with the new Bent fir tree is visited by more than 18,000people ayear; build-
ing the bandit bark tents in the forest; Second World War memorials); and
• The important testimony of the Earth’s history and geological processes with regard to the development
of landforms (eogenetic karst).
No less important to the wider society is the social and recreational role of the largest contiguous low-
land forest in Gorenjska region, which is apopular area for socializing and relaxing.
7 Conclusion
The Udin Boršt combines aspects of natural and cultural heritage. The evaluation of the Udin Boršt’ geo-
morphological heritage evaluated according to geomorphosite assesment proposed by Erhartič (2010) shows
17628 18164
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Number of visitors/število obiskovalcev
Number of visitors
Ye a r
Figure 4: Number of visitors from 2003 to 2012 entered in the Bent fir tree visitorsbook (source: Kronika KTD Pod Krivo jelko Duplje 1997–2009; Kronika
KTD Pod Krivo jelko Duplje 2009–2012).
that this area has high scientific and ecological value. The most important but still insufficiently used prospec-
tive of this area include its scientific and research potential, with an exceptional opportunity to establish
an outdoor laboratory. Direct exchange of researchers’ and locals’ experience could have an important impact
on the development of the surrounding settlements. Aspects of intangible cultural heritage are also strong-
ly present in the Udin Boršt. According to the findings described and the nature- and cultural protection
legislation, the outdated ordinance on protecting the Udin Boršt will have to be amended and the area should
be safeguarded as part of joint protection of monuments and nature.
Due to its significant geomorphological heritage, the area could also be declared ageopark in order
to appropriately protect its karst landscape and forest and to use it for educational purposes. Its future man-
agement will have to take into account and connect all the roles described for the Udin Boršt. Especially
the different dynamics of natural and man-made processes (Urbanc2009) and principles within the land-
scape should be considered. Various stakeholders distributed across three municipalities will have to be
persuaded to act together. In order to activate the development potential, effective management needs to
be put in place, in which cooperation between local stakeholders and connecting various heritage and other
values into acomprehensive range of tourism products is of key importance (Šmid Hribar and Ledinek
Finally, future land-use planning in this area will also have to bear in mind the recreational and social
role of the forest, which is also indicated by the number of visitors between2003 and2012.
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Green areas and especially their distribution and composition are the key factor that makes urban people’s lives more comfortable and healthier. Even though Ljubljana residents also have many other green areas at their disposal in their immediate vicinity, the area of Rožnik Hill and Tivoli Park as an urban forest with dispersed park features continues to be the most popular recreational destination, with roughly 1,750,000 visits per year. In 1984 it was designated a protected landscape area through an ordinance. In the past decades, a number of conflicts have arisen in this area between various stakeholders, such as landowners, park users, and specialist services, which is why these types of areas require careful and prudent management. © 2016, Anton Melik Geographical Institute. All rights reserved.
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This paper focuses on caves in Pleistocene carbonate conglomerates in Slovenia and for the first time defines them as eogenetic. The conglomerates show no deep burial that would resemble the mezogenetic stage of diagenesis and are still in the phase of early diagenesis (i.e. eogenetic stage). Based on speleological analysis the eogenetic caves were grouped into four types; (1) linear stream caves, (2) shelter caves, (3) breakdown caves, and (4) vadose shafts. All four types of caves, described in this paper, can appear individually, however, complex cave systems are often a combination of passages of different types.
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Some fundamental concepts on geosites and particularly on geomorphological assets (geomorphosites) are reviewed and a methodology for their survey and assessment is presented and pointed out. Also, a case study in the province of Modena is presented. Keywordsgeomorphosite-geomorphological asset-geosite-Modena-Italy
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Udin Boršt is a karstified terrace of carbonate rock, which is of fluvioglacial origin, and is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. There are 15 registered caves, which have been interpreted as caves in conglomerate, while karst of Udin Boršt itself was interpreted as conglomerate karst, shallow karst or isolated karst. In this article, caves in Udin Boršt have been interpreted as eogenetic caves. Based on porosity and bedding material, different types of caves and cave passages have developed. Four general types of eogenetic caves found in Udin Boršt are; linear stream caves, shelter caves, breakdown caves and vadose shafts.
Geomorphosites comprise natural features and processes, which can carry a certain value, whether that be scientific, aesthetic, historical, cultural, social, economic or other. With the intention of reducing the subjective impacts and enabling a mutual comparison, several assessment methods burst onto the scene. The article mentions four procedures of geomorphosite assessment on the basis of Slovene methodology. Which assessment method seems most adequate, depends on the research aims. For the needs of nature protection, greater emphasis should be put on scientific and management aspects, with additional emphasis on the social component or the cultural value to guarantee a more comprehensive study.