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Emblica officinalis (Amla) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. Amla is called amalaki in Sanskrit. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for assorted ailments. A wide range of phytochemical components present in amla including alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids have been shown to procure useful biological activities. It is an ingredient of many Ayurvedic medicines and tonics as it removes excessive salivation and internal body heat. Research has been done with amla evaluating its role as an antioxidant. Amla is useful in ulcer prevention, for diabetic patients, and for memory effects. Amla Tonic has a hematinic and lipalytic function useful in scurvy, prevents indigestion, and controls acidity as well as it is a natural source of anti-aging.
© 2015 Journal of Oral Research and Review | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
cancer, diabetes, liver treatment, heart trouble, ulcer, anemia,
and various other diseases. Similarly, it has the application
as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, analgesic,
cytoprotective, antitussive, and gastroprotective. In addition,
it is useful in memory enhancing, ophthalmic disorders, and
lowering cholesterol level. It is often used in the form of
triphala, which is an herbal formulation containing fruits
of EO, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica in equal
proportions.[2] The presence of microbial contaminants may
affect the efcacy and stability of the active compounds. This
may also lead to the spoilage of traditional herbal preparations
and pharmaceutical drugs to which they are added. Further,
the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in plant materials
can precariously affect the human health.[3]
Chemical Constituents
EO primarily contains tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds,
amino acids, and carbohydrates. Its fruit juice contains the
highest Vitamin C (478.56 mg/100 mL). The fruit when
blended with other fruits, boosted their nutritional quality in
Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry:
A review
Harpreet Singh Grover, Himanshu Deswal, Yogender Singh, Amit Bhardwaj
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, SGT University, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Himanshu Deswal,
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Sciences,
SGT University, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.
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Emblica officinalis (Amla) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. Amla is called
amalaki in Sanskrit. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for assorted ailments. A wide
range of phytochemical components present in amla including alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids have been shown to procure useful
biological activities. It is an ingredient of many Ayurvedic medicines and tonics as it removes excessive salivation and internal body
heat. Research has been done with amla evaluating its role as an antioxidant. Amla is useful in ulcer prevention, for diabetic patients,
and for memory effects. Amla Tonic has a hematinic and lipalytic function useful in scurvy, prevents indigestion, and controls acidity as
well as it is a natural source of anti-aging.
Key words: Alternative therapy, amla, dentistry
Name of the Medicinal Plant: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (syn.
Emblica ofcinalis)
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Common name: Indian gooseberry or Amla[1]
Emblica ofcinalis (EO) enjoys a hallowed position in Ayurveda
an Indian indigenous system of medicine. According to
believe in ancient Indian mythology, it is the rst tree to be
created in the universe. It belongs to family Euphorbiaceae. It is
also named as amla, Phyllanthus emblica, or Indian gooseberry.
The species is native to India and also grows in tropical
and subtropical regions including Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Sri
Lanka, South East Asia, China, and Malaysia. The fruits
of EO are widely used in the Ayurveda and are believed to
increase defense against diseases. It has its benecial role in
How to cite this article: Grover HS, Deswal H, Singh Y, Bhardwaj A.
Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry: A review. J Oral
Res Rev 2015;7:65-8.
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Grover, et al.: Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry
Journal of Oral Research and Review
Vol. 7, Issue 2, | July-December 2015
terms of Vitamin C content.[4] Compounds isolated from EO
were gallic acid, ellagic acid, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 3,
6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, chebulinic acid, quercetin, chebulagic
acid, corilagin, 1, 6-di-O-galloyl beta D glucose, 3-ethylgallic
acid (3-ethoxy-4, 5-dihydroxy benzoic acid), and isostrictiniin.[5]
P. emblica also contains avonoids, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6”-
methyl)-rhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6”-
ethyl)-rhamnopyranoside.[6] A new acylated apigenin glucoside
(apigenin-7-O-(6” - butyryl-beta-glucopyranoside) was isolated
from the methanolic extract of the leaves of P. emblica together
with the known compounds; gallic acid, methyl gallate, 1, 2, 3, 4,
6-penta-O-galloylglucose, and luteolin-4’-O-neohesperiodoside
were also reported [Tables 1 and 2].[7]
The Ayurvedic Description of Amla
The fruit has these properties using the Ayurvedic classications:
1. Rasa (taste): Sour and astringent are the most dominant, but
the fruit has ve tastes, including sweet, bitter, and pungent
2. Veerya (nature): Cooling
3. Vipaka (taste developed through digestion): Sweet
4. Guna (qualities): Light, dry
5. Doshas (effect on humors): Quietens all three doshas: Vata,
kapha, pitta, and is especially effective for pitta.
Commercially available as:
1. Amla juice
2. Chyavanaprash
3. Oil
4. Amla pickle
5. Amla murabba.[8]
Medical Implications
Healing options
a. Amla protects cells against free radical damage and provides
antioxidant protection
b. Amla is used to treat skin disorders, respiratory infections,
and premature aging
c. Amla is useful in hemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, and has
therapeutic value in treating diabetes
d. Amla has antibacterial and astringent properties that help
to prevent infection and help in the healing of ulcers
e. Amla is sometimes used as a laxative to relieve constipation
in piles.
Immunity booster
One reason for amla’s reputation as a general energy-promoting,
disease-preventing tonic may be its effect on the immune system.
Multiple studies have shown signicant increases in white blood
cell counts, and other measures of strengthened immunity in
rodents given amla.
Respiratory disorders
Indian gooseberry is benecial in the treatment of respiratory
disorders. It is especially valuable in tuberculosis of lungs asthma
and bronchitis.
This herb, due to its high Vitamin C content, is effective in
controlling diabetes. A tablespoon of its juice mixed with a cup
of bitter gourd juice, taken daily for 2 months will stimulate the
pancreas and enable is to secrete insulin, thus reducing the blood
sugar in diabetes. Diet restrictions should be strictly observed
while taking this medicine. It will also prevent eye complication
in diabetes.
Heart disorder
Indian gooseberry is considered an effective remedy for heart
disease. It tones up the functions of all the organs of the body
Table 1: Shows constituents found in
Emblica officinalis
Chemical constituents
Phenolic compounds
Amino acids
Vitamin C
Ellagic acid
Chebulinic acid
Chebulagic acid
Emblicanin A
Gallic acid
Emblicanin B
Citric acid
Trigallayl glucose
Table 2: Shows average percentage composition of the
fruit pulp of
Emblica officinalis
Components Percentage
Moisture 81.2
Protein 0.5
Fat 0.1
Mineral matter 0.7
Fiber 3.4
Carbohydrate 14.1
Calcium 0.05
Phosphorous 0.02
Iron 1.2 mg/100 g
Nicotinic acid 0.2 mg/100 g
Vitamin C 600 mg/100 g
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Grover, et al.: Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry
Journal of Oral Research and Review
Vol. 7, Issue 2, | July-December 2015
and builds up health by destroying the heterogeneous or harmful
and disease causes elements. It also renews energy.
Eye disorder
The juice of Indian gooseberry with honey is useful in preserving
eyesight. It is benecial in the treatment of conjunctivitis and
glaucoma. It reduces intraocular tension in a remarkable manner.
Juice mixed with honey can be taken twice daily for this condition.
Indian gooseberry has revitalizing effects, as it contains an
element which is very valuable in preventing aging and in
maintaining strength in old age. It improves body resistance and
protects the body against infection. It strengthens the heart, hair,
and different gland in the body.
Amla/treats hypertension
Amla is rich in Vitamin C and helps control blood pressure. You
can have it as amla choorna (powder) or in the form of triphala
tablets or decoction. Triphala, a combination of amla and two
other herbs is an excellent medication for high blood pressure.
Natural cure for anemia
Amla is rich in Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, an essential ingredient
that helps in the absorption of Iron. Supplements of amla can
be very benecial to patients suffering from Iron deciency
Nature has gifted us with defensive antioxidant mechanisms-
superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione (GSH), GSH
peroxidases, reductase, Vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols),
Vitamin C, etc., along with several dietary components. Higher
consumption of components/nutrients with antioxidant
capabilities has been associated with lower frequency of numerous
human morbidities or mortalities are per many epidemiological
studies. Diverse potential applications of antioxidant/free radical
manipulations in prevention or control of disease has been
revealed by ongoing research. Natural products from dietary
components such as Indian spices and medicinal plants are
known to possess antioxidant activity.[1] The study by Poltanov et
al. investigated the chemistry and antioxidant properties of EO
fruit extracts. Extracts produced positive responses in the total
phenol, total avonoid, and total tannin assays.[10]
Excellent source of Vitamin C
Amla is the most concentrated form of Vitamin C found in the
plant kingdom, and when the whole fruit is used rather than an
active ingredient, the Vitamin C is easily assimilated by the human
body.[11,12] The Vitamin C in the amla fruit is bonded with tannins
that protect it from being destroyed by heat or light.
Enhances food absorption
The regular use of Amla-Berry can strengthen digestion,
absorption, and assimilation of food. People taking it and notice
that they enjoy the taste of food better. It enhances all thirteen
digestive res (Agni). However, it works more slowly and gently
than ginger or other digestion-enhancing herbs, so it can be taken
by people with a lot of Pitta without fear of creating excess
stomach acid. In addition, it improves assimilation of iron for
healthy blood.[8]
Balances stomach acids
It improves digestion but does not heat the body; Amla-Berry is
ideal for calming mild to moderate hyperacidity and other pitta-
related digestive problems.[8]
Nourishes the brain and mental functioning
Amla-Berry is good for the brain. It is medhya nurturing for
the mind and enhancing coordination among dhi (acquisition),
dhriti (retention), and smriti (recall). It helps sharpen the intellect
and mental functioning. It supports the nervous system and
strengthens the senses.[13,14]
Helps the urinary system
Because it enhances all the 13 agnis (digestive res) and supports
Apana Vata, Amla-Berry is especially supportive to the urinary
system and can be helpful if you experience a mild burning
sensation while urinating. It supports natural diuretic action but
does not force water from the body like diuretic pills. In other
words, it helps to eliminate waste from the body but does not
overstimulate the urinary system.
Good for the skin
Because Amla-Berry strengthens digestion, helps the liver
detoxify, and is rich in Vitamin C and other minerals, it is
very good for the complexion. Amla-Berry moisturizes the
skin, cleanses the tissues of toxins, and supports immunity
of the skin against bacterial infection. It helps to enhance
glow and luster.[8]
Promotes healthier hair
Amla-Berry boosts absorption of calcium, thus creating healthier
bones, teeth, nails, and hair. It also helps to maintain youthful hair
color and retards premature graying, and supports the strength of
the hair follicles, so there is less thinning with age. The crushed
fruits have a good effect on hair growth and prevent hair graying.
Acts as a body coolant
Although Amla-Berry is good for all doshas and seasons, it is
especially effective in the hot season to cool pitta dosha. It is
especially good rasayana for people with pitta and vata body types.
In Tibetan medicine, the fruit has been described as having a
sour taste with cooling potency.
It is used medicinally for the treatment of diarrhea. As a fruit
decoction, it is mixed with sour milk and given by the natives in
cases of dysentery. The bark partakes of the astringency of the
fruit. A decoction and evaporation of the root solution produces
an astringent extract equal to catechu. An infusion of the leaves
with fenugreek seed is given for chronic diarrhea.[8]
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Grover, et al.: Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry
Journal of Oral Research and Review
Vol. 7, Issue 2, | July-December 2015
Dental Implications
Dental problems
The roots of EO (10 g) are grinded and taken twice daily for
1-day only after taking food. Alternatively, the leaves of EO
are squeezed, and the juice is extracted. This juice is put in
the ear (a few drops) to nd relief from a toothache. A nal
alternative is to grind the node of an EO and mix it with
water. After vigorous stirring, it is ltered through a cloth.
This water is put drop by drop in the right ear if the teeth on
the left-hand side are in pain and vice versa. The remedy is
continuing for 3 days.[15]
As an extremely rich source of Vitamin C, Indian gooseberry
is one of the best remedy for scurvy. Powder of the dry herb,
mixed with an equal quantity of sugar, can be taken in doses of
one teaspoon, thrice daily with milk.[9]
Mouth ulcers
A decoction of the leaves is used as a chemical-free bactericidal
mouthwash. Bark of the root mixed with honey is applied to
inammations of the mouth, and a decoction of the leaves is
also useful as a mouthwash in the treatment of aphthae. Another
remedy suggests root bark rubbed with honey is used in aphthous
stomatitis (an inammation of the mouth).[15]
EO scientically is the most widely used herb in the Ayurvedic
system of medicine. Amla has said to be useful against many
severe diseases, including diabetes, respiratory disorder, diarrhea,
heart diseases, and dental disease. Amla cleanses the mouth,
strengthens the teeth. The presence of amla results in an
enhanced cell survival, decreased free radical production, and
higher antioxidant levels. There are various classic Ayurvedic
preparations, such as Chyawanprash, in which amla is used as a
chief ingredient. It helps to improve intelligence and memory
power. Triphala and Brahma Rasayana are other classic medicine
in which amla is being used since time immemorial. Amla should
be used in various forms and preparations by dental patients for
the maintenance of oral hygiene.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conicts of interest.
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... Oleic Acid (28.4%), Stearic Acid (2.15%), Palmitic Acid (3.0%) and Myristic Acid (1.0%) (Figure 11) [68]. It contains a small amount of essential oil, fixed oil, and phosphides in its seeds. ...
... Fruits extracts has antiviral properties and also functions as an antibacterial and antifungal agent. Emblica significantly reduced UV induced erythema, had excellent free-radical quenching capabilities and chelating properties for iron and copper [68]. ...
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Phyllanthus emblica also known as Emblica officinalis belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. It is also known as Indian gooseberry, emblic myrobalans, and Amla (in Hindi). It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cryoprotective, antiaging, antidiabetic and hepatoprotective properties. The fruit of Amla is rich in vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and contains several bioactive phytochemicals. It also contains polyphenols such as ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, gallic acid, chebulagic acid, apeigenin, quercetin, corilagin, leutolin. It has antimicrobial and anti-ulcerative property. It is used for management of oral ulcers and periodontal diseases.
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Emblica Officinalis is a natural, efficacious, an antioxidant with the richest natural source of Vitamin C. Emblica Officinalis berries have the highest amount of naturally occurring vitamin C of any ripe fruit in the world used as a traditional food. Numerous studies conducted on Emblica Officinalis fruit suggest that it has anti-viral properties and also functions as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent. The gelatinous plum-sized Amla fruit contains naturally occurring vitamin, heat stable vitamin C. A clinical study on patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed that the vitamin C contained in Emblica Officinalis was better assimilated than synthetic vitamin C. Further research of contemporary and traditional medical literature indicates that Emblica Officinalis either in combination with other herbs or alone has been useful in the amelioration of colds, warts, skin afflictions, influenza, anemia, diabetes, lung conditions, elevated cholesterol and as an immune restorative in cancer conditions. It is one of the best natural antiageing remedies Emblica Officinalis is used in treatment of Acne and other skin problems. Emblica Officinalis is amazingly effective natural anti-ageing product. Emblica Officinalis is very effective in treatment of Acidity and Peptic ulcers. Emblica Officinalis is rich in Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron, essential amino acids and many other vitamins and minerals and anti-oxidants. Regular Use of Emblica Officinalis improves immunity, fights cancers, rejuvenates the body. It fights chronic diseases like hypertension, high Cholesterol, Diabetes, AIDS, influenza, Chronic cough and cold, Chronic infections, Chronic fatigue and Chronic inflammatory conditions. Ayurveda describes it as one of the best herbs for Diabetes, bleeding disorders, strength and stamina promoter.
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Emblica officinalis (Amla) are widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. This article discuses and summarizes important medicinal values of Emblica officinalis (EO). In this communication, we reviewed the applications of EO in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The use of EO as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, analgesic, cytoprotective, antitussive and gastroprotective are also reviewed. Its applications for memory enhancing, ophthalmic disorders, lowering cholesterol level are focused. The effects of EO in neutralizing snake venom and as an antimicrobial are also included. This paper also review the retrospective studies on the Amla at molecular level.
Medicinal plants and their products are often prone to microbial contamination. Gamma irradiation is a well-recognized phytosanitary treatment for the elimination of bacteria, moulds and insects. The present study was carried out to see the effect of gamma radiation treatment on the proximate nutrients, ascorbic acid, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenolics and alkaloidal content, as well as on the DPPH radical scavenging activity of Emblica officinalis. The radiation treatment up to the dose level of 12 kGy showed increase in the levels of phenolics and flavonoids. No effect of irradiation was observed on the concentrations of saponins and alkaloids. Tannin content remained unaffected at low doses. Gamma irradiation also enhanced the DPPH scavenging activity and extraction yields of the methanol and aqueous extracts of the samples. The proximate analysis showed no significant effect on the levels of moisture, protein, fiber and carbohydrates. The crude fats increased with the increase in gamma irradiation dose. The data suggest that gamma irradiation up to 12 kGy could safely be used to sanitize the Emblica officinalis fruits and it may also be beneficial for enhancing the certain biological activities and phytochemicals.
Ayurveda, which is the oldest health system in the world, appreciates and uses amla to treat a host of diseases and promote positive health. Amla [Emblica officinalis, or emblic myrobalan], is called amalaki in Sanskrit. It is extensively used as a rejuvenator in ayurveda. It is also used widely in combination with other two [chebulic and belleric] myrobalans [fruit-bearing plant species] as triphala. Amla is indeed, the key ingredient in the popular ayurvedic recipe, Chyavanaprasha. More than anything, it may be called as "King of Rasayana" [rejuvenation], owing to its multiple health benefits. Phyllanthus emblica or Indian gooseberry (Amla) possesses a vastethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. The fruit is rich in quercetin, phyllaemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin and vitamin C and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. A wide range of phytochemical components including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins have been shown to posses' useful biological activities. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of the fruit shows antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumour, antigenotoxic, antiinflammatory activities, supporting its traditional uses. In this review, we have focused our interest on phytochemistry, traditional uses, cancer chemopreventive activity of Phyllanthus emblica both in vivo and in vitro. In view of its reported pharmacological properties and relative safety, P. emblica could be a source of therapeutically useful products.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is perhaps the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. Many ailments are treated by the fruit which is used either alone or in combination with other plants. These include common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. E. officinalis possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, antihypercholesterolemic, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. Furthermore, experimental studies have reported that E. officinalis and some of its phytochemicals also exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. E. officinalis is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities. These properties are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.
The fruit of Emblica officinalis has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of different ailments and is also an ingredient of various traditional medicinal herbal formulations in India and other countries. To investigate the protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction, male Wistar rats were orally administered 20% alcohol (5 g/kg of body weight/day) and EFE (250 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 60 days. Alcohol-treated rats showed significantly lowered activities of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and reduced glutathione compared with those of experimental control rats. Furthermore, alcohol feeding lowered the activities of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of cytochromes followed by increased levels of nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and protein carbonyls. No significant change was observed in membrane potential. Administration of EFE to alcohol-treated rats, lowered the levels of NO, protein carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SDH, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of cytochromes. The active tannoid principles present in EFE with its antioxidant as well as NO scavenging properties might have contributed to the observed protection against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction.
Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) (Euphorbiaceae) has a distinguished history in Ayurveda medicine and is ascribed a number of medicinal properties and as a dietary supplement, its use is increasing in Western countries. It is thought that its beneficial properties are a function of its antioxidant potency. The study investigated the chemistry and antioxidant properties of four commercial E. officinalis fruit extracts in order to determine if there are any qualitative-quantitative differences. All extracts produced positive responses in the total phenol, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. The presence of predominantly (poly)phenolic analytes, e.g. ellagic and gallic acids and corilagin, was confirmed by RP-HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection. Despite ascorbic acid being a major constituent of E. officinalis fruits, the furanolactone could not be identified in one of the samples. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of antioxidative efficacy. The extract designated IG-3 was consistently amongst the most effective extracts in the iron(III) reduction and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays while the extract designated IG-1 demonstrated the best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. All extracts appeared to be incapable of chelating iron(II) at realistic concentrations.