Article

Mindfulness-Based Meditation to Decrease Stress and Anxiety in College Students: A Narrative Synthesis of the Research

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Objective: The primary purpose of this paper was to narratively review the research testing the effects of mindfulness meditation on stress and anxiety in the college students; reviewing the inclusion of mindfulness was a secondary purpose. Methods: A literature search resulted in 57 studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in reducing stress and anxiety in college students. Conclusions: Researchers examined anxiety in 40 studies, self-reported stress in 34, physiological stress in 11, and mindfulness in 24. Thirty-three of 40 and 25 of 34 studies showed significant decreases in anxiety and stress respectively; 22 of 24 showed an increase in mindfulness. Physiological stress had inconsistent results indicating a need for further research. Overall, mindfulness meditation shows promise in reducing stress and anxiety in college students. Additionally, there are a number of differences in mindfulness interventions including frequency, duration, instructional method, and inclusion of yoga, that need quantitative examination (meta-analysis) to determine which is most effective.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... More than 35 years later, anxiety in students remains an issue. The empirical evidence demonstrated that the reported cases of anxiety doubled in the last 15 years, as documented by Bamber andKraenzle Schneider (2016), in 2000, 11.3% university students reported the negative impact of anxiety on their academic performance during the last 12 months, while in 2015, the rate of students' reports was 21.9%. ...
... Researches demonstrated that like stress, mild anxiety can be useful in getting positive academic outcomes. It can stimulate intellectual functioning, efficiency and keep the students motivated (Bamber & Kraenzle Schneider, 2016). Anxiety is considered maladaptive when occurs in response to a perceived unrealistic danger (Germer et al., 2005). ...
... High levels of anxiety are harmful to academic outcomes. Excessive or maladaptive anxiety may hamper intellectual functioning, concentration, memory, problem solving and thus decrease the academic performance (Bamber & Kraenzle Schneider, 2016). The prolonged maladaptive anxiety can also cause depression, rumination, avoidance, and psychosomatic disturbances (Beddoe & Murphy, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
University students have to face many challenges including different social and educational settings, these changes can negatively affect their performance and develop symptoms of anxiety. Mindfulness and cognitive emotion regulation can be considered as key factors in getting awareness about one’s weakness and ability to improve it. Therefore, the present research aimed to explore the relationship between mindfulness and anxiety among students. Further, moderating role of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation(ER) strategy was investigated in the relationship between mindfulness and anxiety. A convenient sample of 210 students including both male (104) and female (106) age ranged between 18 to 26 years was drawn from various universities. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ), and Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) were used to measure the variables under study. Correlational analysis indicated a negative relationship of mindfulness with anxiety and adaptive CER strategy whereas anxiety has a positive relationship with maladaptive CER. Furthermore, interactive effect showed moderating role of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in relation with mindfulness and anxiety. Results revealed that maladaptive CER are considered as contributing factors as they lead to higher level of anxiety when combine with low level of mindfulness. Moreover, it was also suggestive fact that less use of adaptive CER strengthens the negative relationship between mindfulness and anxiety leading towards anxiety symptoms. Implications and suggestions have also been discussed.
... Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) including clinical interventions are becoming increasingly supported by research evidence for their effectiveness in providing a wide range of benefits including improved wellbeing, psychological symptoms, including of stress and anxiety, and improved behavioural regulation (Keng et al., 2011). MBIs have demonstrated a range of positive outcomes in university students including in stress reduction, anxiety and depressive symptoms, mental distress, wellbeing, life satisfaction, relationships and health-related behaviours (Cavanagh et al., 2013;De Vibe et al., 2013;Regehr et al., 2013;Bamber and Kraenzle Schneider, 2016;Dvořáková et al., 2017;Bamber and Morpeth, 2018;Chi et al., 2018;Ma et al., 2019). These findings have been demonstrated in robust randomised controlled trials and supported by meta-analyses (De Vibe et al., 2013;Regehr et al., 2013;Bamber and Kraenzle Schneider, 2016;Dvořáková et al., 2017;Bamber and Morpeth, 2018;Chi et al., 2018;Ma et al., 2019). ...
... MBIs have demonstrated a range of positive outcomes in university students including in stress reduction, anxiety and depressive symptoms, mental distress, wellbeing, life satisfaction, relationships and health-related behaviours (Cavanagh et al., 2013;De Vibe et al., 2013;Regehr et al., 2013;Bamber and Kraenzle Schneider, 2016;Dvořáková et al., 2017;Bamber and Morpeth, 2018;Chi et al., 2018;Ma et al., 2019). These findings have been demonstrated in robust randomised controlled trials and supported by meta-analyses (De Vibe et al., 2013;Regehr et al., 2013;Bamber and Kraenzle Schneider, 2016;Dvořáková et al., 2017;Bamber and Morpeth, 2018;Chi et al., 2018;Ma et al., 2019). The evaluation of Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org ...
... The combination of findings relating to self-reported stress and mindfulness is consistent with a large narrative review of 57 articles (Bamber and Kraenzle Schneider, 2016) where over 75% of the studies that examined stress as an outcome reported reductions after mindfulness related interventions. Similarly, 91% of the studies that examined mindfulness reported increases after the MBI (Bamber and Kraenzle Schneider, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental ill health among higher education students is a well-established problem; therefore, it is imperative to implement preventative approaches to support wellbeing. Blended and fully online education programmes widens access for mature or returning students; however, the psychological wellbeing of this sub-group of students is under-researched. Finally, evaluating wellbeing interventions that meet the needs of university students as well as accessible for online students is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate a brief, online and mindfulness-based intervention to assist the self-management of wellbeing and stress for both online and on-campus higher education students. The total sample included 427 participants (96% psychology students) at Monash University, Australia ( n =283) and King’s College London ( n =144), with 152 participants completing the whole study. Participants were allocated to a brief, self-guided, online and mindfulness-based intervention (over the course of one study period; n =297), or to a wait-list control group ( n =148). Baseline and end of semester questionnaires included the 14-item Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the 15-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Regression modelling revealed the intervention condition accounted for up to 12% of the variability in change in student wellbeing, stress and mindfulness between the start and end of semester (when controlling for baseline). These findings support the implementation of a brief, online and asynchronous mindfulness-based intervention for supporting student mental health and psychological wellbeing. An on-going challenge in practice includes engaging and maintaining student engagement in wellbeing initiatives.
... Although less common, several studies have investigated a variety of MBIs for college students, such as the well-known Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, as well as more specialized programs specifically targeting college students, such as Learning to BREATH (Dvořáková et al., 2017) and Koru mindfulness (Greeson et al., 2014); for an extensive list of such interventions, see Chiodelli et al. (2020) and Ma et al. (2019). Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews of MBIs for college students have found that they can reduce self-reported anxiety (Dawson et al., 2019), depressive symptoms (Huang et al., 2018;Ma et al., 2019), and perceived stress (Amanvermez et al., 2020;Halladay et al., 2019), as well as increase mindfulness (Bamber & Schneider, 2016). Bamber and Schneider (2016) theorized that MBIs immediately increase college students' state mindfulness, which can decrease both stress and anxiety, and that with repetitive practice, state mindfulness can also increase trait mindfulness, which likewise reduces stress and anxiety. ...
... Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews of MBIs for college students have found that they can reduce self-reported anxiety (Dawson et al., 2019), depressive symptoms (Huang et al., 2018;Ma et al., 2019), and perceived stress (Amanvermez et al., 2020;Halladay et al., 2019), as well as increase mindfulness (Bamber & Schneider, 2016). Bamber and Schneider (2016) theorized that MBIs immediately increase college students' state mindfulness, which can decrease both stress and anxiety, and that with repetitive practice, state mindfulness can also increase trait mindfulness, which likewise reduces stress and anxiety. The evidence for the effect of MBIs on various sleep outcomes is somewhat more mixed with some studies reporting benefits while others reporting no change (Rusch et al., 2019;Winbush et al., 2007). ...
... Further research is needed to identify which MBIs are most effective for various college student populations (e.g., students of different majors or students diagnosed with a specific mental disorder). Further research is also needed to identify the ideal intervention dosage (number of sessions per week, number of weeks, duration of each practice session, expected amount of practice outside formal sessions), and ideal mode of delivery (on-line vs. in-person; Bamber & Schneider, 2016;Spijkerman et al., 2016). Currently, there is also ambiguity as to whether interventions tailored-made for college students may hold certain advantages over interventions developed for the general population. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI), called Koru mindfulness, among college students. Methods Undergraduate students (N = 34) participated in a 4-week mindfulness curriculum embedded within a college course, while a control group (N = 35) taking a different course did not. Notably, the intervention coincided with the start of a state-wide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Despite the additional external stress, there was a significant main effect and a significant interaction between the intervention and time for state mindfulness, (the treatment group experienced increased state mindfulness). There was a significant main effect (higher for the control group) on coronavirus worry and a significant interaction between the intervention and time for perceived stress, with the treatment/control group experiencing decreased/increased stress over time. There was also a significant interaction between the intervention and time for sleep problems with the intervention group experiencing declines in sleep problems over time and also being more likely to experience optimal amounts of sleep over time. Conclusions The Koru intervention effectively increased state mindfulness, decreased stress, and improved sleep, suggesting that it is robust even under extremely stressful conditions. This study adds to the growing evidence that MBIs can play an important role in addressing rising concerns regarding the mental health of college students.
... Kadar je stopnja stresa, ki ga posameznik občuti, razmeroma nizka oz. zmerna, je lahko le-ta celo koristen, saj pripomore k višji stopnji motivacije za delo in bolj preudarnemu razpolaganju z mentalno in telesno energijo(Bamber in Schneider, 2016). Nasprotno pa ima visoka raven stresa potencialno negativne učinke na nivoju posameznikovega psihološkega, socialnega in telesnega delovanja. ...
... čuječnosti za študente namreč temeljijo na predpostavki, da lahko izvajanje čuječnostnih tehnik pripomore k bolj uspešnemu spoprijemanju s stresom, še zlasti pri psihološko bolj obremenjenih študentih (Bamber in Schneider, 2016). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Na ravni visokošolskega izobraževanja se raziskovalci in razvijalci sodobnih praks vse bolj osredotočajo na učenje in poučevanje, ki je osredinjeno na študente. Študente se tako postavlja v vlogo aktivnih udeležencev izobraževalnega procesa, udeležencev, ki lahko sooblikujejo ta izobraževalni proces in prevzemajo polno odgovornost za svoje lastne dosežke in poti, ki jih izbirajo. Pri tem so ključni dejavnik visokošolski učitelji in njihove kompetence, saj morajo oblikovati inovativna učna okolja na način, ki spodbuja in omogoča študentom sprejemati odgovorne odločitve v zvezi z lastnim izobraževalnim procesom. Znanstvena monografija Učenje in poučevanje v visokem šolstvu: spoznanja in izzivi vključuje različne sodobne poglede na to tematiko, tako iz pedagoškega in didaktičnega kakor tudi iz psihološkega zornega kota. Monografija je sestavljena iz uvodnika, ki predstavi vsebino le-te in prispevke medsebojno poveže, ter osmih poglavij z raznoliko, a med seboj pomembno povezano vsebino, ki se smiselno dopolnjuje in nadgrajuje.
... Meditation instruction is offered in corporations, K-12 schools, and prisons, while popular books and teaching systems have flourished. Often recommended by psychologists and other healthcare providers as a way to enhance wellbeing, a growing body of research indicates that meditation practice can improve emotional control and reduce and alleviate distressing health conditions including chronic pain, depression and anxiety (Astin, 1997;Baer, 2003;Brown et al., 2007;Kabat-Zinn, 1982;la Cour & Petersen, 2015;Würtzen et al., 2013;Bamber & Schneider, 2016). Additional studies have shown meditation to enhance empathy (Beddoe & Murphy, 2004); expand self-awareness (van der Riet et al., 2014); increase compassion and social understanding (Scida & Jones, 2017); improve attentional processing (van den Hurk et al., 2010); and boost information retention (Ramsburg & Youmans, 2014). ...
... The teaching methodology used with the seminar was very different than the structured research projects teaching meditation to college students and young adults but the student reflections are consistent with those research results. Recent studies have shown a decrease in anxiety and stress (Bamber & Schneider, 2016); significantly reduced psychological distress (Canby et al., 2015); and enhancements in positive emotionality and fewer episodes of mind wandering (Miller et al., 2018). The student reflections are also consistent with research that has shown a relationship between meditation and spiritual growth (Carmody et al., 2008;Gockel & Deng, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in contemplative practices in higher education. Researchers have explored the use of meditation to address the increasing requests for counseling and as a resource for improving student mental health. Contemplative practices have also been incorporated into the fundamental learning objectives in some US universities. This study of teaching methods uses first-person narratives from twenty-three 10-week seminars to examine how meditation practice benefited undergraduate students at a large public university in the US. The seminar, “Contemporary American Buddhism: How Meditation Became a Part of the Mainstream,” provided meditation instruction within an historical and cultural context and was taught over a nine-year period. Four hundred undergraduates’ reflective writings were included in this study. During the seminars, students participated in structured in-class meditations, practiced mindfulness exercises, read contemporary texts, viewed recent media and wrote reflective exercises. Students learned how meditation has been adapted for contemporary society, engaged in critical thinking, and reflected on their experiences. An examination of their narrative self-reports indicates outcomes similar to studies using highly structured meditation protocols; an improvement in overall well-being, lessened anxiety, better focus and increased emotional control. This study of teaching methodology also shows that students expressed a desire to continue the practice once the seminar was complete. The results suggest that a structured and systematic investigation of this teaching model would add significantly to the discussion on how to teach contemplative practice to college students.
... Similarly, mindfulness-based programs show promising improvements with regard to mental, emotional, social, and physical health among college students (see review syntheses from Bamber & Schneider, 2016;O'Driscoll et al., 2017;Shapiro et al., 2011). Specifically, studies indicate that these mindfulness-based programs help in improving students' psychological and physiological well-being by reducing students' perceived stress, maintaining nonjudgemental attitudes toward different situations, and experiencing higher levels of positive states of mind (Chang et al., 2004;Ramler et al., 2016;Strait et al., 2020). ...
... While some mindfulness-based interventions have shown to be effective in reducing stress and anxiety among university students in general (Bamber & Schneider, 2016), there remains a paucity of studies that specifically focus on the efficacy of mindfulness practices among international students attending U.S. universities (Ching et al., 2015). A perusal of the literature indicates only two studies that recruited international students at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Altinyelken et al., 2020;de Bruin et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
With an increasing number of international students enrolled in U.S. higher education, they were reported to have severe mental health issues, especially during the coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) pandemic. It is critical to provide evidence‐based mental health services to help them cope with those issues and promote mental health and the overall well‐being of international students. In this article, we utilized a randomized controlled trial to pilot‐test the effectiveness of a mindfulness‐based well‐being group for international students (MBWIS) in improving participants’ overall well‐being and mental health. The results indicated that the MBWIS not only improves international students’ trait mindfulness but also increases positive mental health as well as decreases their overall psychological distress and perceived discrimination. Related findings and implications for counselors and university personnel, including how to implement MBWIS in mental health facilities, are discussed within the existing literature.
... Numerous studies have been conducted on reducing stress and preventing the stress-related problems in university students and these studies are also ongoing. They have examined keeping a diary, exercise, music therapy and, finally, meditation to struggle with stress [6]. Studies have been conducted on the effect of meditation in various groups such as university students, society and clinical population for more than forty years [7,8]. ...
... Despite all this information, stress continues to be a weakening problem for university students [6]. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of meditation on depression, anxiety, and stress levels of university students. ...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of meditation on depression, anxiety, and stress levels of university students. Design and Methods: In the study, the data were collected using personal information form and Depression, anxiety, and stress scale. The meditation group performed a 20-minute attention and awareness meditation once a week for 8 weeks. Findings: As a result of the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was no significant difference in the comparison of the anxiety, stress, and depression levels between two groups at the end of 8 weeks. Practice Implications: Consequently, it was determined that meditation was an ineffective approach for reducing the anxiety, stress, and depression levels.
... Previous literature has found that mindful coping is a protective factor when dealing with stressful events (8). Accumulating evidence has suggested that mindful coping effectively reduces stress and anxiety in college students (9). Hence, we use the four sectors to provide the foundation of mindful coping: awareness, distraction, preventing negative emotions, and constructive self-assertion. ...
... It is possible that the effect of knowledge is more important at the behavioral and attitude levels when predicting mental states, such as depression, anxiety, and stress. The previous study suggested that more knowledge about COVID-19 might help reduce anxiety and depression, but it must be directed to the promotion of health behaviors and to the recognition of fake news (9). The role of knowledge could be reduced or even silenced by other psychological constructs, such as coping and sense of control. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern. This study aimed to assess the psychological outcomes and their influencing factors among medical and non-medical University students during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey using structured questionnaires was conducted from February 20 to March 20, 2020. Psychological outcomes were assessed according to the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Influencing factors were assessed by COVID-19 knowledge, mindful coping scale, and sense of control scale. Results: Our sample is comprised of 563 University students (male = 172, mean age = 21.52). Among them, 382 are medical students. Among the participants, 12.26, 18.47, and 8.53% have moderate to severe levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. Compared with the non-medical students, the medical students had a higher knowledge level of COVID-19, a higher sense of awareness, and fewer mental health symptoms. After controlling the covariance, perceived constraints of sense of control were negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress among both medical and non-medical students. Prevention of negative emotions by mindful coping was negatively associated with depression and anxiety among non-medical students. Knowledge of COVID-19 is not associated with mental distress among medical and non-medical students. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic in China, the mental health of University students was affected. Our findings suggested that a sense of control is a protective factor for both medical and non-medical students, while mindful coping is a protective factor for only non-medical students.
... Mindfulness (the purposeful awareness and nonjudgmental acceptance of present moment experiences; Kabat-Zinn, 2003) has been proposed as a buffer against stress, given the effectiveness of mindfulness practice at improving emotion regulation and distress tolerance (Gratz, 2007;Hindman et al., 2015). However, research examining the effectiveness of mindfulness among individuals with a history of NSSI is largely limited to multi-session programs (Bamber & Schneider, 2016;Shapiro et al., 2011) while mindfulness inductions remain relatively understudied. The present study thus sought to assess the impacts of a brief mindfulness induction on state stress and state mindfulness, following a stress induction, in university students with and without a history of NSSI. ...
... State mindfulness may be elicited through mindfulness practice and has been shown to increase dispositional mindfulness over time (Kiken et al., 2015;Treadway & Lazar, 2010). As such, mindfulness-based programs have become increasingly popular within educational settings as a means to support student mental health (Bamber & Schneider, 2016) and have been found to decrease students' stress and anxiety, as well as improve their emotion regulation, resilience, and self-efficacy (Bai et al., 2020;Chiesa & Serretti, 2009;Hindman et al., 2015;Shapiro et al., 2011;Vidic & Cherup, 2019;Zeidan et al., 2010). Nevertheless, individuals with a history of NSSI report consistently low levels of dispositional mindfulness (Caltabiano & Martin, 2017;Garisch & Wilson, 2015) which have been found to, in turn, predict NSSI engagement (Caltabiano & Martin, 2017;Heath et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Stressful experiences are abundant in university and students with a history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) may be hyper-reactive to stress. While brief mindfulness inductions have been proposed as a buffer against acute stress, whether they function differently in students with a history of NSSI remains in question. This study sought to explore the impact of an online mindfulness induction on (a) two facets of state mindfulness (i.e., mind and body) and (b) state stress, following a stress induction task, in university students with versus without a history of NSSI. Participants were Canadian university students with ( n = 82; M age = 21.30 years, SD = 2.92; 87.8% female) and without ( n = 82; M age = 21.71 years, SD = 3.18; 87.8% female) a history of NSSI, matched on gender, age, and faculty, who completed baseline (T1) measures of state stress and state mindfulness. Participants were randomly assigned to complete a mindfulness induction or an active control task. All participants then underwent a stress induction, and again completed measures of state stress and state mindfulness (T2). Results from three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that state stress increased from T1 to T2 for all participants, regardless of group or condition. Among those assigned to the control condition, state mindfulness of the body was lower at T2 for participants with a history of NSSI compared to those without such a history. However, participants with a history of NSSI who completed the mindfulness induction reported greater state mindfulness of the body at T2 than students with a history of NSSI who completed an active control task. Findings highlight the unique response of university students with a history of NSSI to a brief mindfulness induction. Implications are discussed in the context of future research and clinical applications.
... Kadar je stopnja stresa, ki ga posameznik občuti, razmeroma nizka oz. zmerna, je lahko le-ta celo koristen, saj pripomore k višji stopnji motivacije za delo in bolj preudarnemu razpolaganju z mentalno in telesno energijo(Bamber in Schneider, 2016). Nasprotno pa ima visoka raven stresa potencialno negativne učinke na nivoju posameznikovega psihološkega, socialnega in telesnega delovanja. ...
... čuječnosti za študente namreč temeljijo na predpostavki, da lahko izvajanje čuječnostnih tehnik pripomore k bolj uspešnemu spoprijemanju s stresom, še zlasti pri psihološko bolj obremenjenih študentih (Bamber in Schneider, 2016). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Na ravni visokošolskega izobraževanja se raziskovalci in razvijalci sodobnih praks vse bolj osredotočajo na učenje in poučevanje, ki je osredinjeno na študente. Študente se tako postavlja v vlogo aktivnih udeležencev izobraževalnega procesa, udeležencev, ki lahko sooblikujejo ta izobraževalni proces in prevzemajo polno odgovornost za svoje lastne dosežke in poti, ki jih izbirajo. Pri tem so ključni dejavnik visokošolski učitelji in njihove kompetence, saj morajo oblikovati inovativna učna okolja na način, ki spodbuja in omogoča študentom sprejemati odgovorne odločitve v zvezi z lastnim izobraževalnim procesom. Znanstvena monografija Učenje in poučevanje v visokem šolstvu: spoznanja in izzivi vključuje različne sodobne poglede na to tematiko, tako iz pedagoškega in didaktičnega kakor tudi iz psihološkega zornega kota. Monografija je sestavljena iz uvodnika, ki predstavi vsebino le-te in prispevke medsebojno poveže, ter osmih poglavij z raznoliko, a med seboj pomembno povezano vsebino, ki se smiselno dopolnjuje in nadgrajuje.
... 5,6 Meditation has generally been regarded as an effective coping strategy. 7 Meditation encompasses a broad range of mind-training practices using a combination of breath control and body movements to sharpen practitioners' focus and concentration, to let go of consistent mental chatter, and to heighten one's awareness into exploring the meaning of life and consciousness. 8 Deeply rooted in various religious and indigenous traditions, meditation includes but is not limited to Hinduism-based yoga, Christian centered prayer and chanting, Zen meditation and Daoist-and Confucian-informed Tai Chi, all of which are meant for spiritual growth while enhancing consciousness and clarity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Media framing of health issues reflects public opinion and impacts readers’ perceptions and behavior. This study examines how meditation — a recommended stress coping strategy for college students — is framed in campus newspapers from 1997-2018. Participants A total of 494 articles were analyzed. Methods Semantic network analysis was used to automatically detect frames and the longitudinal trend. Results Five major frames emerged: (1) building a meditation community within a campus community, (2) meditation benefits, (3) yoga for enhancing mind and body awareness, (4) meditation techniques, and (5) secularizing meditation on campus. There is a shift in coverage from interest in religion to secular views of health benefits throughout the years. Discussions of adverse effects that have emerged from the literature were entirely absent. Conclusions The trend of secularizing meditation practices on college campuses is evident. Emphasizing the techniques and benefits could encourage participation and build a learning community.
... Kegiatan ini dilakukannya selama dua bulan. Aktivitas spiritual semacam ini dapat mengurangi stres pada mahasiswa kedokteran.36 ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Medical students who experience failure in the final exam are around 10%. In Indonesia, there are students who failed to pass the competency test for medical profession program students (UKMPPD) until 14 times. The impact of this failure is the occurence of mental health disorder. Students need support more than guidance on clinical knowledge and skills. This study aimed to identify the motivation and support needed by the UKMPPD retaker students in the effort to achieve graduation Methods: This research is a qualitative research with phenomenological approach, the data was obtained by in-depth interview and focus group discussion (FGD). This research was followed by 16 respondents. The data analysis was conducted by thematic analysis method. Results: Identified intrinsic motivation predictor originated from learning independence, relation, and low competence. The extrinsic motivation predictors are originated from external regulation, that is UKMPPD regulation. The motivation predictor is originated from anxiety and study period limit. The support needed by the respondents from medical schools are in the form of psychological approach, absolving the retaker students from selection tests, providing form of selection tests that compatible with the blueprint and rules of UKMPPD multiple choice question, also giving the opportunity to pass with other exam methods. Conditions of motivation can change with the factors that influence it. Changes in motivational conditions that may occur are an increase in motivational conditions, decreased motivational conditions, or persistent motivational conditions. Conclusion: The motivation condition of retaker students is amotivated and motivated (external and internal motivation). Support from medical school that can increase motivation is given to students to keep their motivation level.
... Ao ingressarem na vida universitária, os estudantes se deparam com novas demandas, que trazem consigo uma intensa carga emocional, como mudar-se de cidade e adaptar-se a novos ambientes e ciclos sociais (Bamber & Schneider, 2016). Além disso, o funcionamento das instituições que envolvem, carga horária excessiva, rigor acadêmico, competitividade e falta de acolhimento, também impactam na saúde mental dos universitários, podendo-se afirmar que este é um momento mais vulnerável para eles (Castro, 2017;Ramos et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Estudos tem mostrado um aumento nos níveis de estresse e outras psicopatologias em universitários. Porém, a busca por ajuda e a adesão a programas ou serviços de saúde mental nas universidades ainda é menor que a demanda. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os preditores de abandono entre estudantes de graduação, que se propuseram a participar de um programa baseado na Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso para redução do estresse. Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo. No total, 44 estudantes iniciaram o programa e 21 completaram a intervenção. O índice de abandono nesta amostra foi compatível com estudos anteriores. Foram realizadas análises de regressão logística binária para identificar variáveis potencialmente preditivas de abandono. As análises apontaram como principal fator preditor de desistência a sintomatologia de depressão, que apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (p=0,021) na comparação entre os grupos. Assim, considera-se fundamental incluir, nas intervenções em saúde mental para universitários estratégicas específicas para esta sintomatologia, a qual pode influenciar significativamente a não adesão aos programas.
... Trait mindfulness had a positive effect on the reduction of physical symptoms, symptoms of anxiety and depression (e.g., Murphy et al., 2012;Webb et al., 2013). Moreover, systematic reviews and meta-analyses with a focus on student samples have reported that mindfulness, as well as physical and mental health, can be improved through mindfulness-based interventions (e.g., Bamber & Schneider, 2016;Halladay et al., 2019). Further, in a meta-analysis, Sedlmeier et al. (2018) found that meditation experience had a positive impact on effect sizes. ...
Article
Background: Little is known about the relations of the mindfulness facets to mental and physical health among meditators and nonmeditators. Aim: The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the mindfulness facets and mental as well as physical health of university students with and without meditation experience using attentional control, body awareness, nonattachment, and emotion regulation as mediators. Method: Data were collected from a sample of 508 university students (meditators: n = 195, nonmeditators n = 313). Path analysis models were used to examine the associations between the mindfulness facets, all candidate mediators and the outcome variables mental and physical health complaints. Additionally, a bootstrapping procedure was used to test the significance of the indirect effects. Results: Results showed that the associations between the mindfulness facets, the proposed mediators, and mental and physical health complaints were similar between students with and without meditation experience. Nonattachment and body awareness were the most important mediators. Limitations: Only self-report questionnaires were used in the study, and the majority of the sample was women and enrolled in health and social science studies. Conclusion: The results indicated that the investigation of mindfulness at the facet level is worthwhile. The study helps to clarify the associations between the mindfulness facets and mental as well as physical health among students with and without meditation experience. Further, mindfulness mediators should be examined in intervention studies.
... This construct has been studied both as a quality cultivated through meditation practice and as a dispositional characteristic that naturally varies between individuals (Baer, 2011). There is now robust evidence supporting the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for stress reduction and overall well-being in healthy adults (Chiesa & Serretti, 2009) and in students (Bamber & Schneider, 2015;Greeson et al., 2015;Oman et al., 2008), as well as a growing body of evidence linking dispositional or "trait" mindfulness to lower perceived stress in adults who have never formally meditated (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Higher trait mindfulness may be associated with better cognitive functioning and academic achievement in college students. Although mediating mechanisms are unclear, lower stress levels could explain this relationship. Participants: Cross-sectional online survey (n = 534; 33% non-white; Apr 2018 – Sep 2019). Path analysis tested Perceived Stress as a mediator between specific facets of trait mindfulness and three measures of self-reported cognitive functioning and academic achievement: Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Concerns, and GPA. Perceived Stress fully or partially mediated the relationship between all facets of trait mindfulness and perceived cognitive functioning. Only Decentering, however, was associated with higher GPA as a function of lower stress. Lower stress can explain the link between higher trait mindfulness and better cognitive functioning, but not necessarily academic achievement. Future research is needed to address causality, examine objective measures of cognitive functioning, and extend this explanatory model to mindfulness training.
... It has been observed that cognitive, behavioural and mindfulnessbased programmes (MBPs) are effective in reducing stress and improving mental health in university students (Bamber & Morpeth, 2019;Bamber & Schneider, 2016;Dawson et al., 2019;O'Driscoll et al., 2017;Ma et al., 2019;McConville et al., 2017;Halladay et al., 2019;Regehr et al., 2013). MBPs are encompassed within the so-called 'third-wave' psychotherapies, which focus on aspects such as mindfulness, compassion, cognitive fusion, acceptance, and spirituality (Jahoda et al., 2017). ...
Article
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of a mindfulness-based programme (MBP) for reducing stress in university students and its action mechanisms and to explore the capacity of virtual reality (VR) exposure to enhance adherence to the intervention. Methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT) involved assessment time points of baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 280 students from two Spanish universities were randomly assigned to ‘MBP’, ‘MBP + VR’, or ‘Relaxation’ (active controls). Perceived stress posttreatment was the primary outcome; wellbeing and academic functional outcomes were assessed as well. Multilevel mixed-effects models were performed to estimate the efficacy of the programme. Results Both ‘MBP’ (B = −2.77, d = −0.72, p = .006) and ‘MBP + VR’ (B = −2.44, d = −0.59, p = .014) were superior to ‘Relaxation’ in improving stress, as well as most of the secondary outcomes, with medium-to-large effects posttreatment and at follow-up. The long-term effects of MBPs on stress were mediated by mindfulness and self-compassion in parallel. Treatment adherence was improved in the ‘MBP + VR’ group, with higher retention rates and session attendance (p < .001). Conclusions This RCT supports the efficacy of an MBP compared to relaxation for reducing stress in university students through mindfulness and self-compassion as mechanisms of change. VR exposure may enhance treatment adherence. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03771300.
... In particular, we are interested in consensual perceptions of mindfulness among early adults aged 18-25 years in the US, a subgroup that research suggests can especially benefit from the practice of mindfulness. In college and university settings serving this age group, for example, mindfulness has been introduced to prevent mental health problems and promote flourishing (Bamber & Schneider, 2016;Dvořáková et al., 2019). More broadly, early adults may be exposed to a range of images, views and practitioners of mindfulness on social media and potentially in a broader array of settings, including those related to medicine, mental health, business, sports and even the military (e.g., Ryan, 2012). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: Mindfulness programs are increasingly popular, yet little is known about how individuals perceive mindfulness: its origins, how it is learned, its functions, and practitioners. Using methods from Cultural Consensus Theory (CCT), the present study sought to examine whether a cultural consensus on mindfulness exists among early adults in the US, and what the content of that consensus might be.Methods: College-attending early adults aged 18-25 (Study 1 N = 275 – convenience sample; Study 2 N = 210 – nationally representative sample) completed questionnaires on beliefs about mindfulness, exposure to mindfulness, and demographics. Data were analyzed using a CCT-derived Bayesian cognitive psychometric model.Results: Early adults converged on a cultural consensus about mindfulness in both studies, and the content of this consensus was also replicated. Participants consensually agreed that mindfulness has Buddhist origins, is both spiritual (but not religious) and secular; takes patience to learn and a lifetime to master; is an antidote to suffering, but also gives one a competitive edge in the business world; is practiced more by women, and less by Conservatives. Prior exposure to mindfulness was related to greater knowledge of this cultural consensus.Conclusions: Early adults view mindfulness as a universal practice that people their age can learn, that serves both spiritual and instrumental functions, and that is not limited to wealthy or White people. Results provide useful information that can inform debates about mindfulness in the US, and guide practical efforts to increase inclusivity and participation in such programs for early adults in future.
... Mindfulness and optimism have been linked in several previous studies to better mental health outcomes and lower perceived stress among student samples (e.g., depression, anxiety; Bodenlos et al., 2015;Brown and Ryan 2003;Kapikiran and Acun-Kapikiran, 2016;Sha et al., 2006). Further, meta-analyses and systematic reviews with focus on student samples have shown that mindfulness and mental health can be enhanced through mindfulness-based interventions (e.g., Bamber and Schneider, 2016;Halladay et al., 2019;Kiken et al., 2015). Moreover, Heckenberg et al. (2019) found that an online mindfulness-based program for employees significantly increased optimism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbates the risk for mental health issues of university students. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress among university students during the period of the first lockdown in Germany, and the associations of possible risk and protective factors with all three outcome variables. Methods A total of 2.548 university students were included in the study. The study took place during the period of the first lockdown in Germany. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to explore the role of demographic variables, personality traits, psychological capital variables, mindfulness, COVID-19 related variables, and coping strategies on anxiety, depression and stress. Results Results showed on average mild depressive and anxiety symptoms, and moderate perceived stress among the students. Alarmingly, 35.9% of the students showed a moderate-to-severe level of depression, 27.7% reported moderate to severe symptoms of anxiety, and 25.1% perceived high stress. Mindfulness and optimism were the most relevant protective factors against depression, anxiety and stress, whereas COVID-related stressors (e.g., worries about study and financial problems, being stressed by the Corona-pandemic and media reporting, quarantine experience) as well as personal characteristics (e.g., neuroticism, older age, being female) were risk factors for increasing mental health issues and/ or stress. Conclusion The pandemic has negatively affected the mental health of students. The results emphasize the importance of both professional help for students with mental health problems and effective prevention programs on university campuses that promote coping skills, and mental health during the current pandemic.
... Less than half of the schools incorporate mindfulness meditation, although this strategy has been shown to reduce stress and anxiety in the higher education literature. 9 Only a few colleges of pharmacy are actively assessing the effect of the coping interventions. The most common reason cited was due to lacking a proper measurement tool. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To describe the programmatic stress-related interventions that colleges of pharmacy are providing for their students. Methods: A paper-based questionnaire was distributed to 80 college teams who attended two consecutive offerings of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy institute focused on promoting student well-being. The five-part questionnaire consisted of: 1) tracking and assessment of perceived student stress levels, 2) the types and formats of stress-coping interventions that are offered, 3) the measured impacts of any stress-coping interventions, 4) the level of faculty/staff training and involvement in student stress remediation, and 5) institutional demographics. Results: Of the 40 college teams responding to the survey there were similar numbers of private (44%) and public (56%) institutions. More than half (57.5%) reported measuring student stress levels. The most common interventions offered were counseling (95%), academic advising (82%), physical exercise support (77%), and relationship building activities (70%). Topics offered in the curriculum were most often related to handling substance abuse (50%), time-management (45%), and finances (40%). A majority (79.5%) of schools reported they do not offer formal training on student stress and mental health to faculty and staff and do not formally assess the impact of stress and coping interventions. Conclusion: Colleges of pharmacy are addressing student stress and well-being, yet variability exists in terms of assessment, interventions, and didactic offerings. Multiple barriers to improvement remain and mediating barriers and determining assessments for coping and interventions may be next steps for Colleges of Pharmacy.
... Several studies have been shown various methods to cope with stress such as meditation, yoga, dancing and listen to the music. The basis of all these exercises is on the mindfulness and decrease of negative emotions [14][15][16]. Staying at home and doing these exercises during the COVID-19 pandemic can provide a stress reliever condition. ...
... The closure of universities and public libraries and the limited access to alternative study spaces forced many students into an unaccustomed learning environment [31]. The rapid change in the system and environment could cause significant stress to medical students [32]. Due to the pandemic, which forced educational institutions to eliminate in-person teaching sessions, medical students needed to adapt to new educational environments, such as distance e-learning [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress in medical students during the COVID-19 health crisis and to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was presented to 1814 medical students (from first to sixth year) in a French university hospital center. Sociodemographic, occupational and medical information (psychological distress measured on the French GHQ12 scale) were collected via an online anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Variables associated with psychological distress were investigated using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis (modified Poisson regression). Results: In total, 832 medical students responded (46%) and 699 completed the questionnaire in full (39%); 625 (75%) showed signs of psychological distress and 109 (15%) reported suicidal ideation. Female gender, psychological trauma during the COVID-19 health crisis, change in alcohol consumption, and difficulties with online learning emerged as risk factors for psychological distress, whereas a paid activity, a feeling of mutual aid and cooperation within the studies framework, and recognition of work appeared to be protective factors. Conclusions: Mental health care or suicide prevention should be provided to students at risk in the aftermath of the pandemic. Knowing the educational and medical factors associated with psychological distress enables areas for prevention to be identified.
... Research has found that college students may find significant benefits in practicing mindfulness. Indeed, many students who use mindfulness in their daily lives or as an intervention have reported reduced anxiety and depression symptoms and healthier habits that improve overall physical health [13][14][15][16]. Unfortunately, there has been little effort to incorporate mindfulness practices into Med-Peds treatment strategies. ...
Article
Emerging adulthood (ages of 18-30 years) is a critical developmental period characterized by mental health challenges, particularly for college students who experience distinct mental health issues. Mindfulness-based approaches have been associated with mental health benefits. This study aimed to assess the mental health and wellbeing of college students with qualitative data obtained via their participation in a mindfulness exercise. We analyzed the sentiments and concerns of college students nearly a year into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The results led to the development of four major themes: a source code of the COVID-19 pandemic, assessments of mindfulness and wellbeing, emergent concerns, and coping strategies. The findings from this paper can inform combined internal medicine and pediatrics (Med-Peds) providers' efforts to improve the mental and physical health outcomes among emerging adults.
... Specifically, we assessed students pretraining, weekly during the 4 weeks of training, and 2 weeks posttraining to determine whether stress levels reduced throughout the duration of our study. Based on prior empirical support (Bamber & Schneider, 2016), we hypothesized that students' perceived stress levels would decrease from baseline to follow-up, which would provide preliminary support for the efficacy of the training on reducing stress among college students. ...
Article
The present study examined the efficacy of a 4-week mindfulness training program offered on a university campus focused on reducing college students’ (n = 38) perceived stress. Results showed a significant reduction in perceived stress levels throughout the duration of the study. These findings provide preliminary support for the implementation of broad mindfulness-based training in reducing psychological distress among college students. Further controlled research is needed to determine the effects of such trainings in university settings.
... The mindfulness meditation analyzed within this study is inspired by Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a westernized form of mindfulness as a contemplative practice developed by Jon-Kabat Zinn in 1979 at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (Flowers, 2014). MBSR has been used among clinical and non-clinical populations (Baer, 2003;Eberth & Sedlmeier, 2013;Goldstein, 2002) and among varied types of populations, inclusive of college students (Bamber & Schneider, 2015;Bamber & Schneider, 2020). The idea of non-judgmental present awareness is foundational to MBSR, aiming at reducing stress and increasing quality of life (Bruce & Davies, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The present study examined the differences in participants' individual psychological distress over four points in time while they received instructions on a guided mindfulness meditation practice differing in practice time between the two groups (20 minutes or 5 minutes). The study took place in an undergraduate yoga course at a large metropolitan university in the Southeastern United States. Data were collected over the four points in time during one continuous semester using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 (OQ-45.2) (Lambert et al., 2004; Tabet et al., 2019). Methods: The purpose of this 15-week quantitative study was to compare the differences in individual psychological distress among 74 students split into two treatment groups. The first treatment group received a 20-minute body scan based on Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) treatment per session. The second treatment group received a 5-minute body scan treatment per session. Results and Conclusion: Using a repeated measures ANOVA, the researchers examined how mindfulness meditation practice affected psychological distress between the 5-minute and 20-minute sessions. The results showed that as the meditation sessions
... Secondly, it dampens the stressreactivity pathway (in brain regions such as the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex) (Creswell and Lindsay, 2014;Creswell et al., 2019). The primary psychological mechanisms which mindfulness impacts is reactivity to repetitive thoughts, enhancing emotion regulation skills, fostering positive coping strategies (e.g., positive reappraisal) and increased resilience (Teasdale et al., 1995;Epel et al., 2009;Feldman et al., 2010;Hanley et al., 2015;Bamber and Kraenzle Schneider, 2016;Galante et al., 2018;Hwang et al., 2018). Mindfulness has demonstrated decreases in stress and improvements in wellbeing as a result of the biological and psychological pathways that it impacts. ...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in randomised-controlled trials and large experimental studies has been demonstrated in university student populations. Whilst these investigations have provided insight into the nature of the delivery of mindfulness-based practices, there has been little research in the implementation of self-managed online student wellbeing and mindfulness programs at university. This ecological validation study conducted in 2020 evaluated a real-world implementation of a large, university-wide, online mindfulness-based program that was accessible fully online via the tertiary institutions’ Learning Management System (LMS) student orientation site. The total sample included 833 participants from a range of disciplines and faculties at Monash University, Australia. At the end of the study, 236 (28.3%) participants were retained and completed the follow-up survey. Participants had the option to engage with the fully self-managed online mindfulness program for a 12-week semester. The mindfulness practices were pre-recorded, audio-guided sessions, and 10–15 min in length. Baseline and end of semester questionnaires included the 14-item Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the 18-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Participants who engaged with the mindfulness program over 3 or more weeks showed significant improvements in all three outcome measures, and all participants showed significant improvements in wellbeing at the end of semester. Learning analytics obtained via the LMS revealed that 58.6% (n = 489) had not logged into the mindfulness program at all, almost a third (31.0%, n = 259) logged into the program materials once or twice, and 10.2% (n = 85) of the whole sample engaged with the program actively, having logged in three or more times. The total number of student logins peaked in week 2, reduced between week 2 and week 7 and thereafter activity remained stable until the end of the semester. We hypothesise that the changes in wellbeing, stress and mindfulness at the end of the semester seen in the low engagement participants may partly be explained by the circumstances of COVID-19 restrictions improving. This study has revealed and discusses the complexities of student behaviour and implications for implementing an online mindfulness program in the real- world setting of a university.
... Evidence proposed that patients affected by stress, depression, if practice movement with mental rehearsal and meditation on the daily basis helps to share neural substrates that are potentially beneficial in reducing stress, and depression thereby increasing muscle strength and physical performance among patients. [39][40][41][42] These finding suggests that there is a probability that COVD-19 patient in inpatient unit/ward or post discharged at home, if practice these techniques, will be benefitted from relieving stress and depression. ...
Article
Full-text available
The severe acute respiratory coronavirus‑2 syndrome infection has spread worldwide and has an abrupt effect on human, economic, and health system. The data are collected from various relevant sources such as PubMed, Infection Prevention Control, World Health Organization novel coronavirus disease (COVID‑19) situation update report, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society guidelines, Society of Critical Care Medicine, World Confederation for Physical therapy guidelines, and from other Internet sources. It is observed that about 30% of COVID‑19 patients with sepsis needed hospital rehabilitation, while 20% requires a home‑based rehabilitation program. Based on the evidence, it is anticipated that severe and critical COVID‑19 patients develop postintensive care syndrome, resulting in pulmonary disabilities, dyspnea on exertion, physical deconditioning, cognitive impairment, and mental health disturbances. Most of these symptoms may also occur in patients recovered from symptoms, or who were not admitted to intensive care unit, or in older adults with chronic health conditions, or who have been deconditioned due to mobility disability, social isolation, etc. Such patients need access to effective pulmonary therapy, functional rehabilitation, and stress management in the hospital‑ and home‑based settings to regain their previous independence level. The evidence suggests that viruses could even survive in the oropharyngeal cavity and stool for up to 15 days after COVID‑19 infection has been declared cured. The physiotherapist must take proper safety measures before managing patients at home; a virtual care therapy is therefore highly recommended. Due to the increasing demands of hospital beds, the patients may need to be discharged earlier than expected. Rehabilitation act as adjuvant therapy in preparing patients for discharges, reducing the experience of disability, and ensuring the quality of treatment among recovered/discharged COVID‑19 patients in hospital‑ or home‑based settings.
... Students themselves can deal with the academic stress by performing various activities such as healthy eating, good night's sleep, doing physical and mental exercise, regularity in studying and seeking help if necessary and to avoid negative effects of the stress, numerous approaches can be employed for stress management such as self-regulation and mindful 9 based intervention programs . The imbalanced and overloaded curriculum, physical environment of classrooms, poor interaction between student and children, improper methodology of teaching, focussing on weakness of students rather than strength, fear of punishments and high expectations of teachers may also lead to academic stress. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Every person experiences stress in their daily life. It affects all the physical, mental and social wellbeing. Every single person has an ideal level of stress, but it varies among the individuals. Data is scarce on academic stress among the medical and paramedical students. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate academic stress of students of paramedical sciences. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 135 students of paramedical sciences using a semi-structured questionnaire consisting of demographic variables and items on academic stress. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data using Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: Out of 135, 65.2% students felt academic stress during their daily life which was more in female students (71% vs 61%) and students having age group of 20-30 years (72.6%). Conclusion: Prevalence of academic stress among the students was 65.2%. Understanding the academic stress in early stage and implementing help and support system might help to mitigate the burden of stress and prevents the future illness in the students.
Article
Представлен феномен математической тревожности и рассмотрены методы, позволяющие регулировать данный вид тревожности, способы их реализации, а также потенциальное применение с точки зрения их эффективности и надежности. Описанные методы практически не проверялись на российских выборках, в связи с этим требуется их дальнейшее изучение и экспериментальная верификация, а также апробация в условиях образовательного процесса. Новая реальность смешанного и онлайн-обучения может способствовать развитию математической тревожности и привести к увеличению количества школьников, испытывающих дискомфорт при работе с числовой информацией. Это требует переосмысления и усовершенствования методов ее регуляции. Math anxiety (MA) is a feeling of fear, worry and discomfort when working with numerical information. Students with a high level of math anxiety tend to avoid mathematics and further study in areas where mathematical knowledge is required. This leads to a shortage of applicants for technical and natural sciences. The development of MA can be caused by: poor mathematical skills, genetic predisposition, socio-environmental factors. In fact, some of the same genetic and environmental reasons affect both math ability and math anxiety. This paper discusses such methods of MA regulation as: expressive writing, reappraisal, relaxation, meditation, mindfulness, art therapy, bibliography, music therapy, and psychophysiological methods (i.e. transcranial stimulation). The effects obtained by these methods, its implementation, as well as potential applications in terms of their effectiveness and reliability have been covered. The studied methods have practically not been tested on Russian samples. Therefore, their further study and experimental verification are required. Regulation methods also require testing in real conditions of the educational process. The new reality of blended and online learning could trigger math and academic anxiety. It is important that some of the proposed methods can be indirectly applied to other types of “academic anxiety” (anxiety caused and experienced by students for other specific discipline).
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There is growing concern about mental health problems in university students. For this reason, mindfulness training is becoming increasingly popular in university settings. However, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) usually present high attrition rates. This trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a MBI to reduce perceived stress and to improve the psychological well-being of university students, as well as to explore the capacity of virtual reality (VR) to enhance adherence to the intervention. Methods: This study protocol presents a randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving assessment time points of baseline, posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. A total of 280 students from the Spanish National Distance Education University (UNED) or the University of Zaragoza will be randomly assigned to a mindfulness condition, a mindfulness condition complemented by VR, and a relaxation condition to serve as a control group. Stress will be the main outcome and will be measured using the 10-item self-report Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Other well-being and academic functioning outcomes will be assessed, as well as variables that explore the impact of VR. Multilevel mixed-effects models will be calculated to estimate the efficacy of the programme, and effect size estimations will be carried out. Effects of VR in adherence to programme will be evaluated. Discussion: Some strengths of this study are the RCT design, which includes a suitable active control group and a 6-month follow-up assessment; a large sample size of university students at different stages of their courses and a variety of degrees; and the incorporation of the VR support to facilitate completion of the MBI programme. Potential limitations are the voluntary participation of the students and the utilization of self-report measures. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03771300.
Article
Within the recent rise in the incorporation of contemplative practices in higher education, mindfulness stands out as the most studied and implemented practice. However, most of its studied implementations have been focused on interventions associated with mental health. Very little attention has been given to the study of mindfulness's potential broader educational impact. This study is based on the analysis of final assignments from the course "mindfulness and edu-cation", taught to 673 students at three Faculties of Education between 2011 and 2018 and on a retrospective questionnaire. Results show that in addition to common effects of mindfulness (e. g., stress-reduction), many students recognised mindfulness as an educational practice that had transformed their view of the nature of education and sometimes of life itself. The paper lends support to the understanding and framing of mindfulness as aformative educational practice that accords with aims of higher education.
Article
Introduction Anxiety and perfectionism affect academic success of college students. Mindfulness is associated with decrease anxiety and perfectionism among college students. Objective This study evaluates the mediating role of dispositional mindfulness on the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism and anxiety in first year college students. Method The subjects, 283 first year college students (59.5% girls), completed self-reported measures of anxiety, perfectionism and dispositional mindfulness. Results Our results show that maladaptive perfectionism is associated with greater anxiety, and a higher dispositional mindfulness score is associated with less anxiety symptoms. Also, mindfulness mediates the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety symptoms, especially in girls. When the shared variance of maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism is statistically controlled, adaptive perfectionism is associated with anxiety symptoms in boys and mindfulness in girls. Conclusion This study confirms the mediating role of mindfulness on the relation between maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety. Gender differences, limits of the mindfulness measure and future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Las características de los entornos educativos contemporáneos, abundantes en actividades y uso excesivo de las tecnologías digitales, alertan a la necesidad de proveer al estudiante de una experiencia de equilibrio psicofísico al interior del aula. Esto ha despertado el interés de los y las docentes por el silencio como un acto educativo crucial para un proceso formativo menos saturado de información y más harmónico en naturaleza. Así, el presente artículo revisa literatura científica sobre el concepto de silencio como un potenciador de la neurofisiología, por ejemplo, la neurogénesis y estado basal del cerebro; pero también el desarrollo psicosocial, las habilidades auto regulativas atencionales y la calidad del procesamiento del lenguaje, sugiriendo así que su práctica posee las condiciones necesarias para ser considerada como una herramienta pedagógica, tarea a la cual este artículo está dedicado. Se expone una breve revisión de la orientación contemplativa en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, como aquel enfoque teórico y práctico interesado en el silencio como una estrategia de uso y alcance pedagógico, potenciadora del crecimiento psicológico y la transformación social, a través del desarrollo de la conciencia y la promoción del comportamiento ético-relacional. Se describen algunas implicaciones para la educación basada en competencias y la articulación de su práctica con el desarrollo de las competencias procedimentales. Finalmente, algunas limitaciones son abordadas para generar conciencia sobre el mejor camino para la promoción del silencio y sus beneficios para los entornos educativos.
Article
While mindfulness intervention research is prevalent, it is limited in (1) relation to college students’ grade point average (GPA) and retention and (2) minimum dosage recommended for the intervention. This repeated-measures quasi-experimental nonequivalent control groups study investigated differences in mindfulness, stress, flourishing, GPA, and retention between students ( n = 248) in first-year experience seminars who received a brief mindfulness intervention and the comparison group ( n = 125) who did not receive the intervention. The intervention consisted of three- to five-minute mindfulness exercises at the beginning of class that met once a week. In contrast to results of previous studies, this study—when controlling for class sections and gender—showed no significant differences in any outcome variable between groups. These results provide important evidence that a mindfulness dosing limit might exist. A post hoc binary logistic regression supported previous findings that GPA predicts retention. Implications are discussed in regard to college administrators, faculty, and student affairs professionals.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a remote mindfulness program designed to serve as a mental health resource for MS‑SLP students coping with the initial restrictions related to COVID‑19. A cursory review of the literature outlining the negative social, emotional, and psychological impact COVID‑19 has had on graduate students is presented. The benefits of mindfulness practice are well‑documented, therefore, making it an appropriate mental health resource for minimizing the loneliness, stress, anxiety, and uncertainty experienced by students. Elements of a remote mindfulness program implemented within days of the stay‑at‑home order are described including the theoretical framework, session content, as well as strategies, techniques, and resources for independent practice.
Article
Full-text available
This study looks at the effects of the combined practice of mindful meditation and aromatherapy on the wellbeing of MCAST ICS lecturers, potentially providing resources that can help them deal with various stressors. Each practice is supported with literature underlining its effects towards a holistic wellbeing. The researcher uses a qualitative narrative inquiry approach to draw meaning and understanding out of the participants’ experiences. Three MCAST ICS lecturers participated in this study. Their background in health care enables them to relate better with the benefits of mindful meditation and aromatherapy. The research design of this study consists of four stages; a pre-session held with the three participants, weekly mindful meditation sessions for six weeks, individual interviews with each participant, followed by a focus group. Three of the six sessions included aromatherapy and a mindful journal was kept throughout the sessions. The analysis format could either develop as an analysis of narrative or narrative of analysis. In this study both formats were used, however, due to the word count limit only the analysis of narrative is seen. The researcher elicited whole segments from the individual transcripts to develop various themes. To examine the data for the emergent themes the researcher chose to use thematic narrative analysis as it focuses on the ‘told’ (Riessman 2008). In this case the ‘told’ is what helped identify the common patterns found across the narratives. As themes started to emerge, whenever possible the researcher used the MAXQDA software to facilitate the process. Mindful meditation was found to lead to a series of events that enhance self-awareness, thus enhancing holistic wellbeing and positively effecting the individual’s approach towards work and family. This can be achieved because mindful meditation has the potential to enhance one’s social skills, soft skills, and emotional intelligence. Furthermore, combining aromatherapy with mindful meditation was found to positively enhance one’s experience. However, it was not the only decisive factor since the ambience was also an influencer.
Article
Full-text available
Background There is clear consensus among influential education reports that an expansive range of intrapersonal (e.g., self-regulation) and interpersonal competencies (e.g., empathy) highly influence educational and career success. Research on teaching and learning these competencies is limited in engineering education. Purpose/Hypothesis This study explores the impacts of a mindfulness training program on first-year engineering students and aims to understand potential impacts on the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies. Design/Method A four-session mindfulness-based program was designed, developed, and facilitated to cultivate intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies. Qualitative data were collected from a total of 35 students through a post-survey (n = 32), 3-month follow-up survey (n = 24), and interviews (n = 18). A thematic analysis process accompanied by validity and trustworthiness checks was employed to analyze the data. Results The results suggest that the majority of students became more mindful, which led to improved intrapersonal competencies (e.g., self-regulation, focus, resilience, and well-being) and interpersonal competencies (e.g., empathy, communication, teamwork, and leadership). Discussion/Conclusions The study provides compelling evidence that mindfulness training can support the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies among engineering students, which can support their overall academic experience, personal, and professional development. Future design and development work will be needed to evaluate the integration and scalability potential of mindfulness training within engineering programs.
Article
The general issue of children’s mental health has become a growing concern in the UK in recent decades. There has been a specific concern about the increased stringency and pressure of formal educational assessments with some students reported as, experiencing high levels of test anxiety. This paper investigated a school-based test anxiety intervention Beating Exam Anxiety Together (BEAT) developed by educational psychologists from Kent EPS and delivered to two secondary (high) schools in the North-West of England for students aged 15–16 years. No comparison group was used, instead single participant cases were observed at two points: one before the delivery of BEAT and another after the intervention. A mixed methods approach was employed to provide a rich account on how the intervention was delivered. Quantitative data from the experimental study, using the Revised Test Anxiety Scale (RTA), show that 13 out of 14 participants reported a reduction in test anxiety post intervention. Qualitative data strongly support the quantitative findings, highlighting that participants feel better equipped to manage their test anxiety levels and feel better prepared to cope in an exam situation. Implications for pastoral staff supporting in schools, and future research, are considered.
Article
Introduction: Loneliness is an epidemic in the modern world, putting millions of people at risk of serious mental and physical health problems. Statement of the Problem: Despite its relevance to many domains within psychology, the topic of loneliness receives little to no coverage in most psychology textbooks. Also, many students struggle with loneliness and may benefit from teachers prioritizing social connection in their classrooms. Literature Review: I briefly review the research on loneliness. I also provide a quick overview of the research on students’ sense of connection and its relationship to academic motivation and performance. Teaching Implications: I discuss ways to incorporate the topic of loneliness into psychology courses and explain how teachers can promote social connection in their classrooms. Conclusion: Psychology teachers should consider educating students about the topic of loneliness (as it relates to the courses they teach) and designing their courses with students’ fundamental social needs in mind.
Article
Full-text available
El presente documento tiene como finalidad adelantar revisión sobre la relación del Mindfulness con la educación, en especial la capacidad de esta herramienta para fortalecer las habilidades blandas, postulándose como una posible estrategia en el marco del proceso de Retención del Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje SENA. Metodología: se realizo la búsqueda en la literatura contó con veinticuatro referencias de estudios nacionales e internacionales del Mindfulness y su relación con las dinámicas educativas y el impacto en las habilidades blandas. Conclusiones: Se examinó el concepto de habilidades blandas en cuatro estudios encontrando que están sociadas al éxito y beneficio en la vida laboral e interpersonal, en cuanto al Mindfulness se abordó en quince documentos y finalmente en dieciocho documentos de educación relacionados con Mindfulness o habilidades blandas. El Mindfulness se muestra como una herramienta prometedora en el fortalecimiento de habilidades blandas disminuyendo la deserción escolar.
Article
Background Fourth-year nursing students are under stress due to internal, external, and situational stressors. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an online mindfulness intervention on fourth-year nursing students' depression, anxiety, stress, and coping. Methods Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping was used to guide the proposed intervention using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest one-group design. Students took the pretest at the start of the semester, 2 weeks later they started the intervention for 4 weeks. The posttest was administered 2 weeks after completion of the intervention. Results Nursing students who completed the 4-week online mindfulness intervention reported decreased anxiety and stress. Open-ended questions revealed the intervention was beneficial, and the time spent practicing mindfulness was valuable. Conclusion The online mindfulness intervention resulted in lowered anxiety and stress in nursing students' engaged in clinical courses and warrants further study.
Article
Introduction Because of their regular contact with students, faculty can find themselves in the position of needing to support student’s emotional needs, a task for which not everyone feels well trained. Statement of the Problem COVID-19 has exacerbated existing mental health concerns and created additional problems related to low levels of motivation, increased loneliness, and heightened levels of stress. Literature Review Fortunately, psychological science can explain the causes of these symptoms as well as offer evidence-based interventions. The literature related to motivation, loneliness, and stress is reviewed with an emphasis placed on common studies or theories that are covered in typical psychology curriculums. Teaching Implications Evidence-based classroom interventions and assignments designed to promote student well-being are discussed. Conclusion Grounding discussions of student’s emotional reactions within the psychological literature may help instructors without a mental health background better support student’s emotional needs, illustrate course concepts, and model the practice of clinical science while helping to promote student well-being.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We examined 3-month effects of a mindfulness-based intervention with first-year college students. First, we evaluated the intervention effects on measures of life satisfaction and distress. Second, we examined the potential mediators of these effects, in particular a change in mindfulness states and the use of mindfulness practice after the intervention was completed. Methods The study recruited 109 first-year undergraduates at a large, public university living in the residential halls (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4, 66% females). The sample was randomized to an intervention and control group and 3 months after the end of the intervention both groups completed follow-up. Results We found intervention effects on distress and life satisfaction at the 3-month follow-up, controlling for gender and attendance of therapy before college (distress: Beta = − 0.177, SE = 0.092, p = 0.055, life satisfaction: Beta = 0.186, SE = 0.075, p = 0.014). Furthermore, we found that the growth in self-reported mindfulness mediated the effects of the intervention at the 3-month follow-up on distress (Beta = − 0.452, SE = 0.089, p = 0.000), but not on life satisfaction (Beta = 0.081, SE = 0.096, p = 0.394). The use of mindfulness practices after the intervention (between post-test and follow-up) mediated the intervention effects on both distress and life satisfaction at follow-up (distress: Beta = − 0.231, SE = 0.097, p = 0.018, life satisfaction: Beta = 0.219, SE = 0.074, p = 0.003). Conclusions These findings support the notion that self-reported mindfulness can be increased and this shift may mediate the longer term outcomes of mindfulness interventions.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For the present study in this paper was to narratively review the research. Uses of mindfulness meditation to Reduce stress and anxiety in Sports; reviewing the inclusion of mindfulness was a secondary purpose. Methods: A literature search resulted in 84 studies on the uses of mindfulness meditation in reducing stress and anxiety in Sport person. Conclusions: Researchers examined anxiety in 35 studies, and mindfulness in 19. 09 and 13 of 17 studies showed significant decreases in anxiety and stress respectively. Overall, mindfulness meditation is very useful for reducing stress and anxiety in sport person. Additionally, there are a number of differences in mindfulness interventions including frequency, duration, instructional method, and inclusion of yoga, that need quantitative examination (meta-analysis) to determine which is most effective.
Article
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) activities have been shown to have psychological benefits. Studies have identified increased perceived levels of stress in graduate students; however, this is not specific to graduate nursing students. There is very little data on the use of MBSR as a nonpharmacologic tool to decrease stress levels in graduate nurse practitioner students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of MBSR improves the overall perceived stress of graduate nursing students. The pilot MBSR program covered topics such as different forms of mindfulness meditation practice, mindful awareness during yoga postures, and mindfulness during stressful situations. Perceived stress scores mean for the sample ( n = 25) was elevated at 26 (+4) indicating moderate stress prior to the MBSR training and significantly decreased post 14-week MBSR training (+6) ( p < .05). This finding suggests that the MBSR activities have contributed to the overall reduction in stress in these students. The graduate family nurse practitioner students are now familiar with the benefits of MBSR and can share this practice with their patients. Having this skill as a part of their clinical tool kit and practice will allow them to apply this to patient care and subsequently provide holistic care.
Article
Full-text available
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Full-text available
This preliminary study examined the feasibility and potential utility of mindful awareness practices (MAPs) in terms of enhancing student learning in the college classroom, as well as improving psychological well-being. One of two identical undergraduate psychology sections included a 10-minute MAP at the beginning of every class (mindfulness group n = 37; control group n = 23). Primary learning and secondary self-report outcomes were obtained. Controlling for significant demographic covariates, students in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant increases in mindful awareness traits and reductions in rumination and state anxiety compared with controls. While mindfulness intervention did not lead to significant improvement in academic performance across the semester, 81% of students self-reported positive effects of MAPs on their learning. It is concluded that it is feasible to incorporate MAPs into a regular college classroom. MAPs may help improve student psychological well-being. Although students perceived themselves to benefit from their mindfulness practice, further research is needed to examine the effects of MAPs on student academic performance.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the increasing interest in mindfulness, the basic components and action mechanisms of mindfulness remain controversial. The present study aims at testing the specific contribution of two components of mindfulness -attention to cognitive experience (metacognition) and awareness of interoceptive sensations (metainteroception)- in the treatment of chronic worry. Forty five female university students with high scores in the Penn State Worry Questionnaire were split into three groups: a mindfulness cognitive training group, a mindfulness interoceptive training group, and a non-intervention control group. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention using physiological indices of autonomic regulation (skin conductance, heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and self-report indices of mindfulness and clinical symptoms (chronic worry, depression, positive and negative affect, and perceived stress). Both mindfulness training groups showed significant improvement after the intervention in self-report indices of mindfulness and clinical symptoms. However, the interoceptive training group was superior in also showing significant improvement in the physiological indices of autonomic regulation. The relatively small sample size may have increased the probabilities of type I and II errors. Our Intervention program was relatively short. The participants were all female. These results support the hypothesis that, in the context of treating chronic worry, the interoceptive and cognitive components can be somewhat dissociated and that, when both components are applied separately, compared to a non-intervention condition, the interoceptive component is more effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness has been practiced in the Eastern world for over twenty-five centuries but has only recently become popular in the West. Today, interventions such as “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy” are used within the Western health setting and have proven to be successful techniques for reducing psychological distress. However, a limitation of such interventions is that they tend to apply the practices of mindfulness in an “out of context” manner. To overcome this, a newly formed Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) program focusses on the establishment of solid meditative foundations and integrates various support practices that are traditionally assumed to effectuate a more sustainable quality of well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of MAT for improving psychological well-being in a sub-clinical sample of higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Utilizing a controlled design, participants of the study (n=14) undertook an 8-week MAT program and comparisons were made with a control group (n=11) on measures of self-assessed psychological well-being (emotional distress, positive affect, and negative affect) and dispositional mindfulness. Participants who received MAT showed significant improvements in psychological well-being and dispositional mindfulness over controls. MAT may increase emotion regulation ability in higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Individuals receiving training in mindfulness meditation may benefit by engendering a broader, more ethically informed, and compassionate intention for their mindfulness practice.
Article
Full-text available
Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.
Article
Full-text available
Theory suggests that heightening state mindfulness in meditation practice over time increases trait mindfulness, which benefits psychological health. We prospectively examined individual trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during a mindfulness-based intervention in relation to changes in trait mindfulness and psychological distress. Each week during the eight-week intervention, participants reported their state mindfulness in meditation after a brief mindfulness meditation. Participants also completed pre- and post-intervention measures of trait mindfulness and psychological symptoms. Tests of combined latent growth and path models suggested that individuals varied significantly in their rates of change in state mindfulness in meditation during the intervention, and that these individual trajectories predicted pre-post intervention changes in trait mindfulness and distress. These findings support that increasing state mindfulness over repeated meditation sessions may contribute to a more mindful and less distressed disposition. However, individuals' trajectories of change may vary and warrant further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Whereas traditional sports psychology interventions emphasize controlling or reducing distress, mindfulness-based interventions teach tolerance and acceptance of negative thoughts, feelings, and emotions. In the present pilot study, an entire men’s Division I athletic team (n=13) provided voluntary consent and participated in a brief mindfulness-based intervention. Over 5 weeks, the team attended eight 90-min group intervention sessions immediately followed by 1-hr Hatha yoga sessions. Completer analyses showed that following the intervention, participants reported greater mindfulness, greater goal-directed energy, and less perceived stress than before the intervention. Compared with a nonrandomized control group (student athletes from various club sports; n=13), intervention participants reported greater goal-directed energy and mindfulness. We also explored written feedback from players to identify ways to improve the intervention. Implications for practitioners for improving mindfulness-based interventions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants: Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list control group, would reduce perceived stress and sleep problems, and increase mindfulness, self-compassion, and gratitude. Results: As hypothesized, results showed significant Group (Koru, Wait-List)×Time (Pre, Post) interactions for improvements in perceived stress (F[1, 76.40]=4.50, p=.037, d=.45), sleep problems (F [1, 79.49]=4.71, p=.033, d=.52), mindfulness (F [1, 79.09]=26.80, p<.001, d=95), and self-compassion (F[1, 74.77]=18.08, p<.001, d=.75). All significant effects were replicated in the wait-list group. Significant correlations were observed among changes in perceived stress, sleep problems, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Conclusions: Results support the effectiveness of the Koru program for emerging adults in the university setting.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness meditation is a well-validated intervention for symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders in adults, with meta-analyses showing moderate effect sizes. This study marks the first published meta-analysis of the burgeoning literature on mindfulness meditation with youth (conducted between 2004 and 2011) and identifies specific outcomes and sub-populations for whom mindfulness may be particularly helpful. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed journal articles published in English, study participants under 18 years of age, and a description in the methods section of mindfulness as the chief component of an intervention. A systematic search was conducted, of which upon review, 20 articles met inclusion criteria. Mindfulness interventions with youth overall were found to be helpful and not to carry iatrogenic harm, with the primary omnibus effect size (del ) in the small to moderate range (0.23, p <.0001), indicating the superiority of mindfulness treatments over active control comparison conditions. A significantly larger effect size was found on psychological symptoms compared to other dependent variable types (0.37 vs. 0.21, p =.028), and for studies drawn from clinical samples compared to non-clinical sample (0.50 vs. 0.20, p =.024). Mindfulness appears to be a promising intervention modality for youth. Although to date the majority of studies on mindfulness with youth engage generally healthy participants recruited from schools, the findings of this meta-analysis suggest that future research might focus on youth in clinical settings and target symptoms of psychopathology.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the efficacy of a brief mindfulness intervention for alleviating the affective consequences of interpersonal dependency. Seventy undergraduate students with high trait dependency underwent a mood induction to exacerbate the core cognitive and affective features of interpersonal dependency. Participants were then randomly assigned to listen and participate in a 20-min recording of either a mindfulness treatment or a distraction (control) treatment. Relative to those in the distraction group, mindfulness group participants reported greater increases in state mindfulness and greater reductions in state anxiety and state negative affect. Mediation analyses supported the notion that the decentering facet of state mindfulness fully mediated the improvements in both state anxiety and state negative affect. The findings of this study evince that mindfulness training may be a beneficial adjunct for treating interpersonal dependency and possibly dependent personality disorder.
Article
Full-text available
MSW students may experience considerable stress during graduate school due to multiple life demands and the challenges of social work curricula, which often involves exposure to distressing client situations. Students' quality of life may be negatively impacted without sufficient tools to manage these stressful experiences. This paper presents evaluative findings of a course/module designed to enable MSW students in a university in the Southwestern United States to increase their quality of life and build stress coping abilities by incorporating mindfulness into their daily self care routines. Findings reveal that after completing the course/module, students reported increased quality of life even though perceived stress levels did not improve. Accordingly, mindfulness holds significant promise for bolstering students' ability to cope with the challenges of graduate school and preparing for professional practice.
Article
Full-text available
Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students. A total of 288 students (mean age = 23 years, 76% female) from the University of Oslo and the University of Troms[latin small letter o with stroke] were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The control group continued with their standard university courses and received no intervention. Participants were evaluated using self-reported measures both before and after the intervention. These were: the 'General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory Student version, Perceived Medical School Stress, Subjective Well-being, and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire' and additional indices of compliance. Following the intervention, a moderate effect on mental distress (Hedges'g 0.65, CI = .41, .88), and a small effect on both subjective well-being (Hedges'g 0.40, CI = .27, .63) and the mindfulness facet 'non-reacting' (Hedges'g 0.33, CI = .10, .56) were found in the intervention group compared with the control group. A higher level of programme attendance and reported mindfulness exercises predicted these changes. Significant effects were only found for female students who additionally reported reduced study stress and an increase in the mindfulness facet 'non-judging'. Gender specific effects of participation in the MBSR programme have not previously been reported, and gender differences in the present study are discussed. Female medical and psychology students experienced significant positive improvements in mental distress, study stress, subjective well-being and mindfulness after participating in the MBSR programme.Trial registrationNCT00892138.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the relationship between mindfulness and alcohol problems in college students, as well as the role of stress as a mediator in this relationship. Participants: Participants were 310 students from a small, private college in the Northeast. Methods: Students completed self-report measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the Rutgers Alcohol Problems Index. Results: Mindfulness was negatively correlated with alcohol problems and stress, whereas stress positively correlated with alcohol problems. Results implicated stress as fully mediating the relationship between mindfulness and alcohol problems. Alcohol problems were negatively correlated with the Acting With Awareness and Describing Experience facets of mindfulness. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based stress reduction or other mindfulness programs may be useful in decreasing alcohol problems on college campuses via the effects on stress.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine potential psychological health benefits of participating in a brief (5-week) mindfulness-based stress reduction (brief MBSR) program integrated into an academic course. Participants: Participants were 119 undergraduate students (treatment: n = 72; control: n = 47) enrolled in elective academic courses on addictive behaviors, between January 2010 and May 2012. Methods: This study employed a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design comparing changes in psychological health between brief MBSR treatment and parallel control groups. Baseline and follow-up data were collected synchronously across semesters for both groups. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed significant improvements in psychological health, measured by mindfulness (Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale: p ≤ .001; Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Scale: p ≤ .001) and self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale: p ≤ .001), among brief MBSR participants compared with the parallel control cohort. Significant reductions in trait anxiety were not evident. Conclusions: Brief MBSR programs can improve psychological health; however, longer MBSR programs may be needed to improve psychological distress, such as trait anxiety.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Graduate healthcare students experience significant stressors during professional training. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a behavioural intervention designed to teach self-regulatory skills for stress reduction and emotion management. This study examines the impact of MBSR training on students from five healthcare graduate programs in a quasi-experimental trial. Methods: A total of 13 students completed the MBSR program and were compared with 15 controls. Both groups answered validated questionnaires measuring anxiety, burnout and empathy at baseline, at conclusion of the course (week 8) and 3 weeks post-course completion (week 11). Results: Significant decrease in anxiety at weeks 8 and 11 compared with baseline (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively) was observed using the Burns Anxiety Inventory. Significant increase in empathy at week 8 (P<0.0096) was observed using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Week 11 demonstrated a decrease in empathy from baseline (not statistically significant) across all subjects. No significant differences in burnout scores at weeks 8 and 11 were observed between those in the intervention and control groups. Conclusions: These results provide supportive evidence of MBSR as a behavioural intervention to reduce anxiety and increase empathy among graduate healthcare students.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness meditation is a method to relax the mind that decreases stress, which otherwise would increase serum cortisol. So, mindfulness meditation should decrease serum cortisol. To study the effect of mindfulness meditation on mental health by using Thai GHQ28 questionaire and study the effect of mindfulness meditation on stress by using serum cortisol. Volunteer subjects were 30 second year medical students, aged 19.1 +/- 0.55 year olds (range 18-20) from Srinakharinwirot University. They were screened by Thai GHQ28 and blood was drawn to measure cortisol at 8:00 am before and after a four-day mindfulness meditation programme. The comparison of Thai GHQ28 scores and serum cortisol levels before and after meditation were analysed by paired t-test. The subjects were 66.77% female and 33.33% male. The average score of Thai GHQ28 before and after the mindfulness meditation was 1.50 (SD 2.53) and 0.77 (SD 2.08) respectively. The average serum cortisol levels before mindfulness meditation was 381.93 nmol/L (SD 97.74) becoming significantly lower after mindfulness meditation 306.38 nmol/L (SD 90.95). The difference was statistically significant in cortisol level, but not statistically significant in Thai GHQ28. Mindfulness meditation lowers the cortisol levels in the blood suggesting that it can lower stress and may decrease the risk of diseases that arise from stress such as psychiatric disorder, peptic ulcer and migraine. Then, mindfulness meditation should be used in combination with standard treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Objective An effective career in medicine requires empathy and compassion, yet the demands of a medical education increase stress and decrease students’ ability to connect with patients. However, research suggests mind-body practices improve psychological well-being. This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effects on medical students of an 11-week elective course, Embodied Health or EH, which combines yoga and meditation with neuroscience didactics. Methods The effects on 27 first- and second-year medical students were evaluated via surveys in four areas: empathy, perceived stress, self-regulation, and self-compassion. Scales used were 1. Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, which measures empathy among health students and professionals and medical students on a scale of 1 (least empathetic) to 7 (most empathetic); 2. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, a measure of the perceived uncontrollability of respondents' lives, from 0 (least stressed) to 4 (most stressed); 3. Self-Regulation Questionnaire, which measures the development and maintenance of planned behavior to achieve goals, from 1 (least self-regulated) to 5 (most self-regulated); and 4. Self-Compassion Scale, which measures self-criticism, from 1 (least self-compassionate) to 5 (most self-compassionate). Students also reflected on EH's impact on their well-being in a post-course essay. Results Self-regulation and self-compassion rose 0.13 (SD 0.20, p = 0.003) and 0.28 (SD 0.61, p = 0.04), respectively. Favorable changes were also seen in empathy and perceived stress, which went up by 0.11 (SD 0.50, p = 0.30) and down by 0.05 (SD 0.62, p = 0.70), respectively; these changes did not reach statistical significance. Students’ essays were found to discuss the following recurrent themes: 1) Reconnection between mind and body; 2) Community in a competitive environment; 3) Increased mindfulness; 4) Confidence in use of mind-body skills with patients; and 5) Stress management. These themes overlapped with the measures EH affected quantitatively. Conclusion A mind-body course for medical students increased self-regulation and self-compassion. Qualitative themes discussed in students’ post-course essays reflected these effects.
Article
Full-text available
Although mindfulness meditation practice appears to confer positive effects on various clinical conditions, physiological responses to this practice in healthy individuals are largely unknown. This study is aimed at evaluating the physiological effects of short-term mindfulness meditation in university students intending to take a written term examination. Young healthy university students (n=18) recruited as participants were divided equally into a meditation group without examination stress, a non-meditating group with examination stress, and a meditation group with examination stress. The meditation intervention groups were offered mindfulness practice twice daily of 1 h each time for a period of 5 weekdays, except for weekends, for 3 consecutive weeks. The parameters measured included heart rate, blood pressure and serum cortisol. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were also obtained to monitor any negative psychological symptoms. All parameters were measured before intervention, just after intervention, which also coincided with the eve of the academic examination and at 3 weeks after. The DASS-Stress scale was significantly (p<0.05) reduced after intervention in the meditation group with no examination challenge. However, no significant changes were found in the cardiovascular and cortisol outcomes amongst all groups for all time lines. Even though these findings did not show any significant physiological responses to the short-term mindfulness practice in stressful conditions, nonetheless, the results demonstrate the potential benefits of this practice in alleviating stress in the neutral environment of university students. Future studies should address the effects of mindfulness practice in larger groups exposed in stressful situations.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness has been practiced in the Eastern world for over twenty-five centuries but has only recently become popular in the West. Today, interventions such as “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy” are used within the Western health setting and have proven to be successful techniques for reducing psychological distress. However, a limitation of such interventions is that they tend to apply the practices of mindfulness in an “out of context” manner. To overcome this, a newly formed Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) program focusses on the establishment of solid meditative foundations and integrates various support practices that are traditionally assumed to effectuate a more sustainable quality of well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of MAT for improving psychological well-being in a sub-clinical sample of higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Utilizing a controlled design, participants of the study (n=14) undertook an 8-week MAT program and comparisons were made with a control group (n=11) on measures of self-assessed psychological well-being (emotional distress, positive affect, and negative affect) and dispositional mindfulness. Participants who received MAT showed significant improvements in psychological well-being and dispositional mindfulness over controls. MAT may increase emotion regulation ability in higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Individuals receiving training in mindfulness meditation may benefit by engendering a broader, more ethically informed, and compassionate intention for their mindfulness practice.
Article
Full-text available
The scientific interest in meditation and mindfulness practice has recently seen an unprecedented surge. After an initial phase of presenting beneficial effects of mindfulness practice in various domains, research is now seeking to unravel the underlying psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms. Advances in understanding these processes are required for improving and fine-tuning mindfulness-based interventions that target specific conditions such as eating disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. This review presents a theoretical framework that emphasizes the central role of attentional control mechanisms in the development of mindfulness skills. It discusses the phenomenological level of experience during meditation, the different attentional functions that are involved, and relates these to the brain networks that subserve these functions. On the basis of currently available empirical evidence specific processes as to how attention exerts its positive influence are considered and it is concluded that meditation practice appears to positively impact attentional functions by improving resource allocation processes. As a result, attentional resources are allocated more fully during early processing phases which subsequently enhance further processing. Neural changes resulting from a pure form of mindfulness practice that is central to most mindfulness programs are considered from the perspective that they constitute a useful reference point for future research. Furthermore, possible interrelations between the improvement of attentional control and emotion regulation skills are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has demonstrated that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) improves psychological functioning in multiple domains. However, to date, no studies have examined the effects of MBSR on moral reasoning and decision making. This single group design study examined the effect of MBSR on moral reasoning and ethical decision making, mindfulness, emotion, and well-being. Additionally, we investigated whether there was an association between the amount of meditation practice during MBSR and changes in moral reasoning and ethical decision making, emotions, mindfulness, and well-being. Results indicated that MBSR was associated with improvements in mindful attention, emotion and well-being. Further, amount of meditation practice was associated with greater improvement in mindful attention. Two-month follow-up results showed that, MBSR resulted in improvements in moral reasoning and ethical decision making, mindful attention, emotion, and well-being. This study provides preliminary evidence that MBSR may potentially facilitate moral reasoning and decision making in adults.
Article
Full-text available
Preparation for the role of therapist can occur on both professional and personal levels. Research has found that therapists are at risk for occupationally related psychological problems. It follows that self-care may be a useful complement to the professional training of future therapists. The present study examined the effects of one approach to self-care, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), for therapists in training. Using a prospective, cohort-controlled design, the study found participants in the MBSR program reported significant declines in stress, negative affect, rumination, state and trait anxiety, and significant increases in positive affect and self-compassion. Further, MBSR participation was associated with increases in mindfulness, and this enhancement was related to several of the beneficial effects of MBSR participation. Discussion highlights the potential for future research addressing the mental health needs of therapists and therapist trainees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility uniquely and separately accounted for variability in psychological distress (somatization, depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress). An ethnically diverse, nonclinical sample of college undergraduates (N = 494, 76% female) completed a Web-based survey that included the self-report measures of interest. Consistent with prior research, psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with each other, and tested separately, both variables were negatively associated with somatization, depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Results also revealed that psychological flexibility and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in all 4 measures of distress. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both constructs are important for understanding the onset and maintenance of somatization, depression, anxiety, and general distress.
Chapter
Full-text available
Since its introduction to the behavioral science research community 25 years ago, interest in mindfulness has burgeoned. Much of that interest has been among clinical researchers testing the efficacy of mindfulness-based or mindfulness-integrated interventions for a variety of conditions and populations, and this volume is testament to the vitality of investigation and diversity of applied knowledge that now exist in the field. In the last 5 years or so, researchers have also become interested in describing and operationalizing the mindfulness construct itself. This more recent line of work is important for four reasons: The first concerns the basic scientific principle that a phenomenon can be studied only if it can be properly defined and measured.
Article
Background/Context Although mindfulness originated in Eastern meditation traditions, notably Buddhism, researchers, clinicians, and, more recently, educators suggest that the cultivation of mindfulness may be beneficial to Westerners uninterested in adopting Buddhist or other Eastern spiritual traditions. Mindfulness is understood as sets of skills that can be developed with practice and taught independently of spiritual origins as a way of being or relating to present-moment experience. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This pilot study adds to this literature on mindfulness training for nascent mental health professionals, who may be at risk for occupational stress and burnout. This study aims to (1) expand on preliminary research supporting the helpfulness of mindfulness interventions for graduate students in psychology and (2) investigate the feasibility and helpfulness of a novel adaptation of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) that emphasizes relational awareness. Population/Participants/Subjects This sample consisted of clinicians-in-training (N = 21) within a graduate department of counseling and clinical psychology at an urban university. All students were in their first or second year of graduate school; 20 participants were enrolled in a psychology master's program, and 1 participant was a doctoral student in clinical psychology. Intervention/Program/Practice The authors investigated a novel 6-week interpersonal mindfulness training (IMT) program modeled after the manualized MBSR intervention, with an added emphasis placed on relational awareness. IMT aims to reduce perceived stress and enhance interpersonal well-being and, as such, may be particularly well-suited for psychotherapy trainees. IMT was integrated into a semester-long graduate course in psychology. Research Design A pre-post design was used to examine outcomes associated with participation in IMT. Findings/Results Results suggest that IMT with psychology graduate students is a feasible intervention that positively affects mindfulness, perceived stress, social connectedness, emotional intelligence, and anxiety. Of special interest are changes in interpersonal well-being that suggest potential benefits for future mental health professionals. Conclusions/Recommendations High attendance rate and positive program evaluations suggest that IMT can be successfully taught within a graduate psychology curriculum. We suggest that mindfulness training may be a useful complement to the standard training of future clinicians.
Article
Objective: Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey that ACHA developed in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health Status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors. and impediments to academic performance. Participants: The spring 2007 reference group includes ACHA-NCHA data from 71.860 students at 107 institutions of higher education. Methods: Officials at participating institutions administered the ACHA-NCHA to all Students, to randomly selected students. Or to students in randomly selected classrooms. ACHA collected data between January and May 2007. Results: Results from the spring 2007 reference group (N = 71.860) are presented. Conclusions: These data expand the understanding of the health needs and capacities of college students.
Article
Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Objective Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) involves approximately twenty hours of therapist contact time and is not universally available. MBCT self-help (MBCT-SH) may widen access but little is known about its effectiveness. This paper presents a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of MBCT-SH for students. Method Eighty students were randomly assigned to an eight-week MBCT-SH condition or a wait-list control. Results ANOVAs showed significant group by time interactions in favour of MBCT-SH on measures of depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life, mindfulness and self-compassion. Post-intervention between-group effect sizes ranged from Cohen’s d=0.22 to 1.07. Engagement with MBCT-SH was high: participants engaged in mindfulness practice a median of two to three times a week and 85% read at least half the intervention book. Only 5% of participants dropped out. Conclusions This is the first published RCT of MBCT-SH and benefits were found relative to a control group. MBCT-SH has the potential to be a low-cost, readily available and highly acceptable intervention. Future research should include an active control condition and explore whether findings extend to clinical populations.
Article
Background Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. Objectives To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. Design A randomized controlled trial. Participants/Setting Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n = 21) and a wait list (WL) control (n = 23) were analyzed. Methods The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 hours every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Results Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. Conclusion A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study.
Article
First-year students in higher education deal with an increasing number of mental health issues. Cost-effective and time-efficient programs that ease transitions and reduce risk of depression are needed. To date, programs informed by both cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based-behavioral therapy (ABBT) approaches have produced some positive outcomes, but methodological limitations limit their utility. The aim of the present study was to address some of these limitations, by developing and preliminary testing the efficacy of a one-session ABBT intervention with first-year undergraduates and first-year law students. Ninety-eight first-year students were randomly assigned to receive either a single-session 90-min ABBT workshop within their first month of school or to a waitlist control condition. Students who received the intervention reported significantly less depression and more acceptance. Moreover, increase in acceptance over the course of the semester was associated with reductions in depression. Implications of these findings for future interventions are discussed.
Article
This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety, depression, and interpersonal problems compared with the NT group. At the 6-month follow-up, only MI participants maintained the reduction in anxiety, depression, and academic problems; conversely, only IP participants maintained reductions in interpersonal problems.
Article
Mindfulness-based skills training has been increasingly incorporated into psychotherapeutic treatment for a variety of presenting complaints, most notably anxiety- and stress-related disorders. While there has been considerable literature documenting efficacy of full mindfulness-based treatment regimen (e.g., Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction [MBSR]), fewer studies have examined the influence of incorporating distinct elements of these treatments in psychotherapy practice. The present study examined the efficacy of two brief elements of an empirically supported mindfulness-based protocol (MBSR), hatha yoga and body scan, in the reduction of anxiety and stress symptoms. Female undergraduate students (N = 91) completed three weekly 45-min sessions of MBSR-based hatha yoga or body scan, or were included in the waitlisted control condition. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups (i.e., waitlist control, hatha yoga, and body scan) on indices of anxiety and stress. Women in both the hatha yoga and body scan conditions had significantly greater reductions in anxiety and stress compared to those in the waitlist control condition. Significant differences in postintervention indicators of mindfulness (i.e., present-moment awareness and acceptance) were not observed. Overall, findings are consistent with the argument that brief, discrete elements of the MBSR treatment protocol are effective at reducing symptoms of anxiety and stress, providing further evidence supporting the use of mindfulness-based skills training in psychotherapy.