Article

Pharmacognostical study of a medicinal plant of india–sarcostemma acidum

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Abstract

Sarcostemma acidum is widely used by the folk people in the treatment of verity of diseases and disorders. The present study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the plant. Methods: macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and other WHO recommended parameters for standardization were performed. Result: A perennial leafless, jointed shrub with green, cylindrical, fleshy glabrous, twining branches having milky white latex, taste bitter; Flower white or pale greenish white with fragrant odour. The microscopy reveals dicotyledonous plant having circular vascular bundles in stem, absence of pith in root and anomocytic type of stomata on stem bark. Other physicochemical tests like moisture content, ash value, extractive values were determined and Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presences of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, phytosterols, saponins and lignins. Extraction of chemical constituents and chromatographically analysis (TLC) were performed. Conclusions: The microscopic using histological identification, microscopic constants, and other physico chemical examinations of Sarcostemma acidum can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and botanical identification technique is useful in standardization, hence would be of immense value in authentication of plan. © 2014, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.

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... Somlata (SarcostemmaacidumWight.&Arn.)is a perennial jointed trailing shrub with green, cylindrical, fleshy glabrous branches containing milk white latex, bearing opposite leaves which are reduced to scales (Fig. 1). The length of the stem is 2 to 4 meter and diameter 0.5 to1cm; the root is brownish in color with a depth of 5 to 8 inches containing 3 to 5 sub root branches, colorbrownish; The plant flowers between July to February and bears light yellow, purple [10] or white or pale greenish actinomorphic flowers in umbels with 0.8 to 1cm diameter containing sepals, petals, stamens (5 each) 2 ovaries and androcium and gynocium are joined together with the help of 5 stigma and bears fruits follicles, with flatand ovate seeds [11,12] .The shrub is distributed wildly in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and European countries. In India it is distributed in dry rocky places in Coast of Coromandel , Konkan, Deccan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,Western Ghats (Sahya mountain ranges)Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar and Bengal [10,11] . ...
... and gums and waxes [16] . The plant stem decoction shows presence of sucrose, terpines, phytosterol and saponins, ethanol extract contains redusing and nonredusing sugar, triterpinoids and phytosterol, Chloroform extract contains steroids and triterpinoids [12] . ...
... Sarcostemmaacidumpossess a significant therapeutic potential and showsbitter, cooling, emetic, narcotic, and rejuvenating effect. The plant is generally used in vitiated condition of pith, hydrophobia, psychopathy,dipsia, general debility, depression, pyschosis and fatigue [11] .The plantis a natural source of membrane stabilizers and can be an alternative remedy for phytosterol and saponins, ethanol extract contains redusing and nonredusing sugar, triterpinoids and phytosterol, Chloroform extract contains steroids and triterpinoids [12] . ...
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Somlata or Moon plant (Sarcostemma acidum Wight. & Arn.) existing in warmer regions in European and Asian countries like India, China, Pakistan, Srilanka, Iran has various religious and pharmacological significances. The perennial, fleshy, glabrous branched, milky latex secreting shrub has been considered by majority of the researcher as an important candidate for divine “soma plant”, mentioned in Vedic literatures. The plant with unique features has been given several names from one region to another. There are also alike species but are considered poisonous to human use. However certain species like Ceropegia juncea are similar to S.acidum on the basis of their use and property. The plant mainly contains alkaloids, phenols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, free amino acids, steroids, fixed oils, fats, mucilages, gums, wax etc. The stem also contains sucrose and phytosterol.The plant shows antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial gastroprotective, antioxidant, antifertility, insecticidal activities and thus hasa wide pharmaceutical application. The ethanol, acetone or methanol fraction of the plant extract both singly or in combination, exhibits strong therapeutic properties and can be used in preparing new formulations to cure various human ailments. This article is a comprehensive study of morphology, distribution, chemical composition and pharmaceutical uses of the plant. Moreover the study recommends more research on this plant to explore its various medicinal properties along with new approaches for its preservation.
... Leaves are opposite mainly reduced to scales (Fig. 1b) [14]; roots are brownish, and flowers actinomorphic, with pale green or white in colour. The plant is bitter, cooling, narcotic, acrid, emetic, and rejuvenating [15] containing carbohydrate terpenes, phytosterols, saponins, and lignin [16]. The plant possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, anti-ulcer, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and central nervous system inhibitory property [17][18][19][20][21]. ...
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... Among these, sacidumlignan A (1) showed moderate antimicrobial activities against two Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. [11] THERAPEUTIC USES Narcotic, emetic, pitta, dipsia, antiviral, rejuvenating, hydrophobia, antimicrobial, lactation, rheumatic pain, diabetes, edema, antidote, and anti-inflammatory [5,11,[24][25][26][27][28][29] Pulpy mesocarp Nasal drops (externally remedy) in epilepsy [10,30] Fruit and seed Anti-rabies [31] OTHER USES India Brahmins now use the stalks of S. brevistigma under the name "Pitica" or "Putica" as Soma. It is possible that they used the plant in their religious worship as a surrogate of Soma. ...
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Natural products had been used by many cultures and traditions from thousands of years for their bioactive pharmacophores by modern pharmaceutical companies. The potential bioactive phytocompounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and steroids are potential source for drug discovery. The present review deals with chemical compounds, medicinal properties, biological activities, and pharmacological effects of Sarcostemma acidum Roxb. Voigt. The plant species S. acidum Roxb. Voigt is a member of the Asclepiadaceae family, locally known as Khair, Khimp, Khurasni tanto, Art thor, Soma, and Somavalli. In English, Moon plant and Moon creeper, and in Hindi, Somlata used in the Indian traditional system of medicine. This review focused on different properties of S. acidum Roxb. Voigt a multifaceted plant.
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