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Oral Traditions and the Verbal Arts: A Guide to Research Practices

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Abstract

The study of oral traditions and verbal arts leads into an area of human culture to which anthropologists are increasingly turning their attention. Oral Traditions and the Verbal Arts provides up-to-date guidance on how to approach the study of oral form and their performances, treating both the practicalities of fieldwork and the methods by which oral texts and performances can be observed, collected or analysed. It also relates to those current controversies about the nature of performance and of 'text'. Designed as a practical and systematic introduction to the processes and problems of researching in this area, this is an invaluable guide for students, and lecturers of anthropology and cultural studies and also for general readers who are interested in enjoying oral literature for its own sake.

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... Indeed, because of the often complex nature of African societies, some of the earlier studies of African peoples more often than not, exaggerated both their similarities and their differences and as such, earlier scholarship made too many broad generalizations often leading to misrepresentations and distortions about African cultures. The distinctive contributions of scholars such as Dundes (1965), Dorson (1972), Ben-Amos (1976), Bauman (1977), Vansina (1965Vansina ( , 1985, Finnegan (1970Finnegan ( , 1992, Ophewho (1992), Wasamba (2015) to folklore and oral literature methodology is enormous. What animates these studies is the ways in which these scholars have contested the often Western and Eurocentric views and popular images of Africa as a land without "indigenous literary traditions" and oral literature, as not worthy of any systematic study. ...
... Indeed, scholars have pointed out the significance of background preparation in negotiating entry and exit from every research community (See for example Okpewho, 1992, pp. 334-341;Finnegan, 1992;Fife, 2005, pp. 18-31) . ...
... ersonalized and focused group interviews in eliciting information from informants in addition to song recordings and performances. Indeed, scholars have pointed out the significance of background preparation in negotiating entry and exit from every research community (See for example Okpewho, 1992, pp. 334-341;Finnegan, 1992;Fife, 2005, pp. 18-31) . Finnegan, (1992) has suggested that a field researcher should be familiar with three important issues as part of background preparations before embarking on fieldwork. These are, familiarity with the various theoretical debates, ethnographic knowledge of the research community and language. Knowledge of some comparative work and theoretical debates with ...
... Sumintarsih (2012) Selain berbagai buku dan artikel ilmiah yang telah disebutkan di atas, ada beberapa konsep penelitian dari berbagai ahli yang juga turut digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Sebut saja seperti Ong (1992) dan Finnegan (1992) digunakan untuk mengungkapkan konsep kelisanan dan karakteristiknya; oral tradition, Shils (1981) untuk mengungkap soal konsep tradisi, Bauman (1975), Schechner (2013), dan Carlson (1996) Kaplan, 1999), dan Finnegan (1992). Vansina (1973) Uraian tentang wayang dengan pendekatan nilai (value) dilakukan oleh Sastroamidjojo (1964), Hassan (1977), dan Nurgiyantoro (1999). ...
... Sumintarsih (2012) Selain berbagai buku dan artikel ilmiah yang telah disebutkan di atas, ada beberapa konsep penelitian dari berbagai ahli yang juga turut digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Sebut saja seperti Ong (1992) dan Finnegan (1992) digunakan untuk mengungkapkan konsep kelisanan dan karakteristiknya; oral tradition, Shils (1981) untuk mengungkap soal konsep tradisi, Bauman (1975), Schechner (2013), dan Carlson (1996) Kaplan, 1999), dan Finnegan (1992). Vansina (1973) Uraian tentang wayang dengan pendekatan nilai (value) dilakukan oleh Sastroamidjojo (1964), Hassan (1977), dan Nurgiyantoro (1999). ...
... La question de la relation du dessin à la parole sera traitée dans la mesure où le dessin comporte une part narrative (Ricoeur 1983 ;Cruikshank 1998). Simultanément, l'examen de la situation de la sphère artistique locale fournira des informations socio-historiques nécessaires à la (1970), Peytard (1970), Finnegan (1992) et Furniss (2004) qui la définissent comme le caractère des énoncés réalisés par articulation vocale et susceptibles d'être entendus : cette conception de l'oralité considère la parole comme un langage articulé, inséparable des caractéristiques qui l'entourent telles que la diction, l'intonation, le débit, les silences, etc. Elle prend aussi en compte les contextes d'énonciation, ainsi que les pratiques d'échanges où émetteur et récepteur sont en situation de face à face (proximité physique) ou isolés l'un de l'autre (séparés par une certaine distance géographique). À partir de cette définition de l'oralité, la première hypothèse est la suivante : la pratique du dessin inuit s'inscrit au centre des interactions complexes entre les êtres vivants, les défunts et les esprits, l'expression visuelle agit sur son environnement, grâce aux intentions et aux dimensions symboliques qui lui sont associées. ...
... Au-delà d'une méthodologie en histoire de l'art qui néglige les sources orales comme l'ont notamment souligné Schapiro (1969) et Price (1984), je crois que la parole doit être placée au centre du travail pour explorer ses liens avec le dessin, considérant que toute forme de production reste déterminée par une intentionnalité, soit une source de motivation consciente ou inconsciente dont l'oeuvre résulte (Gell 1998). Qu'elle soit formulée verbalement ou non, la parole est agissante, elle transforme les situations, elle est dotée d'une intentionnalité (Austin 1970 ;Finnegan 1992 ;Banfield 1995 ;Cruikshank 1998 ;Furniss 2004 ;Severi 2009). L'art n'est pas tant ce qui se voit que ce qui se dit (Wittgenstein 1993(Wittgenstein [1922) et selon ce principe, la thèse propose d'étudier les représentations et les pratiques du dessin en relation à la parole pour tenter de saisir les enjeux socio-culturels, tant individuels que collectifs, liés à la création des objets d'art. ...
Thesis
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This doctoral research examines the themes of figurative practices, symbolic representations and the socio-cultural stakes specific to Inuit graphic arts in the communities of Kinngait (Cape Dorset) and Pangniqtuuq (Pangnirtung) in Nunavut (the Canadian Arctic). The notions of drawing (titiqtugaq-) and of speech (uqaq-) are central to the thesis, which is guided by an interdisciplinary approach within the perspective of ethno-history of Inuit sketch art. The thesis is organized into three parts. The first explores the configuration of Inuit thought associated with the concepts of graphic art, visual representation and creation, through their linguistic expression (Chapter II). In addition, ethnography of the local art scene looks at drawing and the socio-economic activities that are associated with it, in connection with the status of the artist (Chapters III and IV). The second part looks at figuration in relation to power words, from cosmogenesis and ancient graphic techniques (Chapter V). With this in hand, the second part then looks at the interactions between drawing and speaking from a symbolic perspective: through drawings, the thoughts and words are put into action (Chapters VI and VII). The last part of the dissertation continues the analysis by defining art as part of the socio-cultural and political dynamics of the Nunavummiut. Recourse to drawing, as a community project, is studied with reference to recent examples (Chapter VIII), prior to being placed, within an ontological dimension, at the centre of relational and socio-cosmic exchange dynamics (Chapter IX).
... Única en cada expresión o representación, se realiza de acuerdo con un modelo preestablecido, con base en una creatividad que innova a partir de un proceso dialéctico con lo convencional (Wagner, 2016). Convención e invención se recrean mutuamente: el proceso de transmisión permite cambios y adaptaciones, las cuales mantienen vigentes a la tradición (Finnegan, 1992). De esta forma, al transmitirse de generación en generación, la tradición se mantiene al mismo tiempo que se recrea, renueva y adecua a nuevas circunstancias. ...
... Las tradiciones orales pertenecen a un grupo social y tienen valor para sus miembros (o al menos una parte de éstos) por considerarlas una parte fundamental de su historia (Finnegan, 1992). Los antropólogos estudian las tradiciones orales como expresión cultural. ...
Chapter
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En este capítulo, queremos proponer una serie de ideas para poder trabajar de manera colaborativa y respetuosa con las comunidades indígenas sobre su forma de ver, entender y actuar en su entorno natural. Estas ideas se desarrollan con base en actividades alrededor de sus tradiciones orales. Para ello, primero plantearemos las particularidades de las tradiciones orales para presentar y discutir conocimiento local. Luego presentaremos algunos ejemplos de la tradición oral tének para ilustrar cómo el acercamiento a los relatos puede arrojar luz sobre los procesos locales de apropiación simbólica del espacio y su entorno natural. Con ello, discutiremos la reconstrucción del pasado a través de las tradiciones orales locales en las comunidades indígenas, mediante la propuesta de incluir metodologías de cartografía participativa como una vía para lograrlo.
... Performance is a particular way of speaking in which social actors evaluate the discourse of participants in specific social contexts such as the management of gossip disputes and confrontation-report-offence among girls through conversation (Goodwin 1990). This concept allows scholars to focus their attention on the multimodal dimension of social encounters and on a dynamic and culturally anchored conception of the backstage/frontstage dichotomy in speech events (Finnegan 1998). Gender can be a relevant social category used to explain the diversity of speech styles in performance. ...
Chapter
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Drawing from a fieldwork conducted on a French speaking Drag King Community in Brussels (Belgium), this chapter deals with gender as performance as illustrated by walking in drag king workshops. By focusing on gender as an embodied performance, walking is approached as a gender (de)construction device through which participants construct articulations between gender, movement, and space in three different cases under scrutiny in this paper: “in vitro”, “liminal”, and “in vivo” walking. I will show how walking activities in this context are not separable from a reflexive posture participants adopt on their own bodies and on their own gendered bodily transformations. The pervasive reflexive dimension in walking practices transforms the participants of drag king workshops into real explorers of gender and space, and theoreticians of walking practices. Through the detailed analysis of walking in drag king workshops, I will demonstrate why an integrated approach between interactional, ethnographic and artistic perspectives is necessary. Such a theoretical and methodological framework resituates the historical emergence of gender as performance in contemporary arts, it considers the domain of artistic performance as a theoretical resource for language, gender, and sexuality studies (LGSS), and it focuses on the corporeal, the processual, and the experiential dimensions of gender construction practices.
... To access this particular medium, I drew on several established methods of folk literature analysis. Inspired by Ruth Finnegan (1992), these included stylistical analysis, textual analysis, the construction of typologies, and contextual analysis. I touched upon several of these to provide an exemplary kind of material way to frame questions of rice knowledge transmission, the transformation, and negotiation of knowledge. ...
Book
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Full book free to download at: https://www.aup.nl/en/book/9789048552184/rural-urban-migration-and-agro-technological-change-in-post-reform-china How do rural Chinese households deal with the conflicting pressures of migrating into cities to work as well as staying at home to preserve their fields? This is particularly challenging for rice farmers, because paddy fields have to be cultivated continuously to retain their soil quality and value. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and written sources, Rural-Urban Migration and Agro-Technological Change in Post-Reform China describes farming households' strategic solutions to this predicament. It shows how, in light of rural-urban migration and agro-technological change, they manage to sustain both migration and farming. It innovatively conceives rural households as part of a larger farming community of practice that spans both staying and migrating household members and their material world. Focusing on one exemplary resource - paddy fields - it argues that socio-technical resources are key factors in understanding migration flows and migrant-home relations. Overall, this book provides rare insights into the rural side of migration and farmers' knowledge and agency.
... Representasi penutur dalam NRLK didasarkan pada pendapat (Finnegan, 1992) bahwa penutur dikenali dari nama, profesi, umur, hubungan penutur dengan karya, dan lainlain. Penutur NRLK bernama Dariyat dengan usia 58 tahun. ...
Article
Artikel ini membahas “jejak” ekologi dalam Nyanyian Rakyat Lancang Kocik (NRLK) suku Sakai di Desa Petani Kabupaten Bengkalis sebagai sebuah penuturan sastra lisan. NRLK ditinjau dari aspek teks dan konteksnya memiliki persoalan-persoalan yang berkenaan dengan ekologi. Tujuan dari kajian Artikel ini untuk menguraikan representasi alam, representasi penutur, mengungkap tanda-tanda alegori, tanda-tanda komunikasi ironis, serta melihat pesan moral dalam NRLK sehingga dihasilkan makna mendalam mengenai ekologi. Metode yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif dengan teknik pengumpulan data secara observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi melalui teori hipersemiotika Yasraf Amir Piliang. Kajian ini menjadi sarana untuk mewujudkan kelestarian ekologi melalui sastra lisan milik suku Sakai .
... Fungsi dari sastra lisan juga digunakan untuk mengkritik secara tidak langsung fenomena yang terjadi di masyarakat. Jika tidak mungkin menyampaikan sesuatu hal secara langsung maka disampaikan dengan cara sindiran melalui cerita (Finnegan, 1992: Endraswara, 2013. Banyak terjadi di masyarakat seseorang yang melakukan tindakan secara gegabah dan emosional. ...
Article
(Title: Humanity Values in Minangkabau Children's Story). This article describes human values in oral stories for children from Minangkabau. This issue was raised because many traditional stories are neglected and underappreciated. The stories analyzed were 30 stories by considering the message of the story. The oral story data was obtained by recording and transcribing. Analyzing the story is done by reading it many times so that the news is received. The study results found that the story's message was to respect parents, especially mothers, the value of honesty was carried out under any conditions, to maintain a friendship in all forms of activity, and to restrain emotions in all actions. Keywords: humanitarian values, oral stories, Minangkabau children's stories, and huma­nita­rian values.
... The studies are highlighting the South Slavic epic traditions. Finnegan (2003) studies oral traditions and verbal arts from many aspects. Finnegan provides guidelines for approaching the study of oral form and performances. ...
Article
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Oral tradition refers to the dissemination of cultural materials through oral or oral discourse. Elements like history, literature, and other cultural heritage are transmitted across generations. However, limited scholarly attention has been devoted to mapping the overview of this research area. Thus, this study addresses the shortcoming by mapping the current trend of the study on oral tradition. The data extracted from Scopus database has been analysed using bibliometric analysis. The search using keywords related to oral tradition has extracted about 486 documents over 100 years for publication analysis. The research productivity is reported together along with document and source type, language, country/region, active institution publishing, author, subject area, keyword and publication distribution of citation analysis. The data of 132 years has shown an increament of development rate of literature on the oral tradition from 1888 until 2020. The results show that various studies have been conducted in this research area related to the collaboration of multi-authors. The published articles are using several different languages however the published documents are mostly written in the English language. Among other languages used for publications, i.e., Spanish, French, and Turkish. Our findings provide significant input on the trend of oral traditions research across the globe.
... To access this particular medium, I drew on several established methods of folk literature analysis. Inspired by Ruth Finnegan (1992), these included stylistical analysis, textual analysis, the construction of typologies, and contextual analysis. I touched upon several of these to provide an exemplary kind of material way to frame questions of rice knowledge transmission, the transformation, and negotiation of knowledge. ...
Book
Free download of full book at: https://www.aup.nl/en/book/9789048552184/rural-urban-migration-and-agro-technological-change-in-post-reform-china How do rural Chinese households deal with the conflicting pressures of migrating into cities to work as well as staying at home to preserve their fields? This is particularly challenging for rice farmers, because paddy fields have to be cultivated continuously to retain their soil quality and value. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and written sources, Rural-Urban Migration and Agro-Technological Change in Post-Reform China describes farming households' strategic solutions to this predicament. It shows how, in light of rural-urban migration and agro-technological change, they manage to sustain both migration and farming. It innovatively conceives rural households as part of a larger farming community of practice that spans both staying and migrating household members and their material world. Focusing on one exemplary resource - paddy fields - it argues that socio-technical resources are key factors in understanding migration flows and migrant-home relations. Overall, this book provides rare insights into the rural side of migration and farmers' knowledge and agency.
... Based on Sujana [4] he uses a semiotic analysis blade, how the meaning built by the audience over the dancers of the sinden movement. Performance analysis using Finnegan's [4] theory, an element of performance by Finnegan [5,6], is the situation and the medium. The situational elements include: (a) the time, place, and distance of the situation; (b) the organizational structure and organization; (c) the behavior of audiences; and (d) the viewing community. ...
... When the arrangement is in process there are usually substitution, combination, model forming, and words or expressions addition to the formula as deemed required by the story teller. With all these, a story teller can create lines continuously based on his wish and creativity (Finnegan, 1992). Lord's idea on formulaic pattern in narrative poems has been used as the base to unravel the formal and narrative structure of CPSJ and WSJ. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates classic Sundanese oral literary text Carita Pantun Sanghyang Jagatrasa (CPSJ) and the manuscript of Wawacan Sanghyang Jagatrasa (WSJ) in terms of (1) the transformation of CPJS from oral into written text, (2) the formal structure of CPJS as a narrative poem and the formal structure of WSJ. The investigation employs oral and written literary text approaches based on Propp (1975), and Lord (1976) to examine the texts. The analysis found that (1) structurally CPJS possesses eight formulas, 13 functions, and seven spheres of actions while WSJ possesses six actant models and three functional models, (2) the transformation of CPSJ from oral literary text to a written text lies on the literary conventions, narrative technique, expressions formula, vocabulary, and sentence constructions, (3) the appearance of universal toponymy and anthroponymy in CPSJ and WSJ can semiotically be perceived as a reflection of the existence of classic Sundanese mythology which links human life, animals, and the environment in a harmonious ecology. Semiotically, the transformation is understood as an effort to preserve the moral values contained in CPJS into WSJ relevant to the situation and condition of Sundanese people’s interest.
... Performance is a particular way of speaking in which social actors evaluate the discourse of participants in specific social contexts such as the management of gossip disputes and confrontation-report-offence among girls through conversation (Goodwin 1990). This concept allows scholars to focus their attention on the multimodal dimension of social encounters and on a dynamic and culturally anchored conception of the backstage/frontstage dichotomy in speech events (Finnegan 1998). Gender can be a relevant social category used to explain the diversity of speech styles in performance. ...
... Her ne kadar birey olarak dengbêjlerin belirli bir kompozisyon ve performans momentinin ürünü olup bu anlamda değişikliğe uğramış olsalar da, kilamlar her zaman bir izleyici kitlesine yöneliktirler ve izleyiciyle 9 Örnekler çoktur, ancak Özoğlu (2004) hemhal olurlar. Bu, tüm anlatılar gibi, onları bestelendikleri ve icra edildikleri zamanın sosyal bağlamını yansıtan kaynaklara dönüştürür (Jackson, 2002;Finnegan, 1992). Kilamlar, bir yandan, akışkanlıklarıyla karakterize edilirler: Bir oral performans hiçbir zaman bir öncekiyle aynı değildir. ...
... An attempt to find similarities in these two genres may lead to a (yet another) confirmation of the common need of human all around the globe, regardless of the race, culture or society, to participate in a storytelling-based performance (Mietlinski, 1981;Finnegan, 2005). The article provides also a firm introduction to the basic rules and history of the improv theatre and the act and the festive character of storytelling in the Creole society of Suriname. ...
Article
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p>Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu wykazanie podobieństw między kultywowanymi w formie oralnej bajkami Surinamu oraz występami teatru improwizowanego. Wykorzystując metody poststrukturalistyczne oraz komparatystyczne, dokonano analizy formy i struktury dwóch wystąpień oralnych (literackiego i teatralnego), dowodząc, iż niezależnie od korzeni powstania obydwu form sztuki (geograficznych, etnicznych, estetycznych) rdzeń oraz kolejność konkretnych elementów w trakcie złożonych wystąpień oralnych są powtarzalne i zależne od potrzeb artystów i odbiorców. Jako materiał wykorzystano szereg wystąpień grup teatru improwizowanego oraz zapis występów oralnych (improwizacji) surinamskich opowiadaczy wykonany przez Willema Campagne.</p
... Mihin sosiaaliseen miljööseen laulun tekijät sijoitetaan? Metodisia oletuksia ovat muiden muassa perinteen yhteydet tiettyyn sosiaalisesti määritettyyn ikä-tai sukupuoliryhmään sekä tiettyyn aikaan ja paikkaan (Knuuttila 1992: 152;~onko 1990: 99;Finnegan 1992). ...
... The function of oral literature is also used to indirectly criticize phenomena that occur in society. If it is not possible to convey something directly, then it is conveyed by means of satire through stories (Finnegan, 1992;Endraswara, 2013). It happens a lot in someone's society who acts rashly and emotionally. ...
... The natives' literature, identity, and culture depend on their native language. Our ancestors share experiences verbally to guide the coming generation (Finnegan, 2003). In the global world, technology has facilitated the world through the process of translation. ...
... The interview was word verbatim transcribed (Appendix 3) including every pause, mispronunciation and grammatical errors in speech to insure an approximate recording of the interviewee's narration. On reflection what has also become apparent during the interview process and after word transcribing as [7] points out is that 'looking to words on their own is too narrow' as the interview process when word verbatim transcribed does not succinctly capture the 'kinesics and proxemics; accent, intonation and emphasis; acoustic and visual elements; transcription and interpretation: all are at play in this ethnography of speaking' Using the NVivo program a word cloud was also constructed to create a visual aid for research purposes in identifying the most prominent themes commentated on in the interview that could be used to further aid in the analysis of the interview when engaging with wider literature at a later stage (Appendix 4 & 5). ...
... Through Levi Strauss structuralism, the researchers can explain the process of Dayak people's trust in Temputuutn and the impact perceived by the community. This is carried out because of the communication patterns and traditions in myths and rituals (Finnegan, 1992: 1). ...
Thesis
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H παρούσα μελέτη επιχειρεί να διερευνήσει τα μουσικά παιχνίδια των παιδιών σε ένα αυθεντικό πλαίσιο επιτέλεσης, την ελληνική σχολική αυλή. Eστιάζει στον τρόπο που τα παιδιά νοηματοδοτούν τα μουσικά παιχνίδια, καθώς και στις πρακτικές και στους τρόπους επικοινωνίας και αλληλεπίδρασης που αναπτύσσσουν κατά τη διάρκεια της ζωντανής επιτέλεσης. Tα μουσικά παιχνίδια που παίζουν τα παιδιά στον ελεύθερο χρόνο τους αποτελούν ένα πολύ πρόσφατο ερευνητικό πεδίο, το οποίο έχει αναπτυχθεί σε ορισμένες χώρες της Ευρώπης και της Αφρικής, καθώς και στην Αυστραλία και στην Αμερική (K. Marsh, 2008. Grugeon, 2001. Dzansi, 2004. Harrop-Allin, 2010. Harwood, 1998b). Καθώς παρατηρήθηκε ερευνητικό κενό στην Ελλάδα, προέκυψε η ανάγκη για την εις βάθος διερεύνηση των μουσικών παιχνιδιών των παιδιών που συμβαίνουν αυθόρμητα στις ελληνικές σχολικές αυλές σήμερα. Η παρούσα έρευνα επιδιώκει να ανοίξει μια σχετική συζήτηση στον ελλαδικό χώρο καθώς και να συνεισφέρει στη διεθνή σχετική βιβλιογραφία.
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In this article, I attempt to shed light on the complex relationship between class stratification and carnival performances in Agiasos, a mountainous village located on the Greek island of Lesbos. Rooted in fertility rites, early twentieth-century carnival there featured a collision of worldviews and attitudes between the "haves" of the village-landowners with strong links to the Church of Holy Mary, that is, one of the most important pilgrimage sites of the Aegean Sea-and the "have-nots," the working class of the village. Following a turbulent period marked by World War ΙΙ (1939-45), the Greek Civil War (1943-49), and military rule (1969-74), the return to democracy was marked by the emergence of a new white-collar class, consisting of people with academic titles who set about to create and manage popular culture. As a result, the carnival community became informally divided between manual laborers and "the creative class," the latter of whom appointed themselves the "guardians" of carnival tradition, dictating the terms under which the ritual should be performed. Based on fieldwork carried out in the village of Agiasos, this essay highlights the way the economic elite of Agiasos has been using carnival performances to exclude undesirable, unruly individuals from the village. KEYWORDS carnival social class wage-earners performance exclusion culture-bearers guardians of tradition
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This study aims to examine children’s musical games in a natural performance context, the Greek school playground. It focuses on the meaning children attribute to their musical games, as well as the practices they develop, and the ways they interact and communicate during these musical performances. The musical games children play in their free time is a very recent research area, which has developed mainly in a few countries in Europe and Africa as well as in Australia and the US (K. Marsh, 2008. Grugeon, 2001. Dzansi, 2004. Harrop-Allin, 2010. Harwood, 1998b). While there is a research gap in Greece, there is a need to investigate children’s musical games in depth as they take place spontaneously in the Greek school playgrounds today.
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The Angkola oral tradition of mangupa is as household advice by appealing to Allah SWT. This tradition is trusted by indigenous communities to restore the spirit to the body (paulak tondi tu badan). As the object of study is the performance analysis by using Duranti theory (2001: 14) with a view of a) performance, b) indexcality, and c) participation and theory of the performance. Finnegan (1991, 1992: 92-93) states that there are 3 elements such as: a) composition, a form that is composed, b) transmission, the selection process that will continue the oral tradition, and (3) the audience. The methods used are surveys, interviews with key informants, primary data source at the ceremony and secondary data by collecting field data, analyzing data. The result of the analysis of traditional Angkola data is divided into four components: a) Ceremonial place, b) Ceremonial time c) Traditional tools, d) Traditional leaders and participants. The transmission of customary philosophy: sangap, hamomora. and hamoraon. The audiences are all who attended the Angkola traditional wedding ceremony in the tradition of mangupa. The advice on mangupa consists of: 1) mangupa text using the name of Allah SWT, 2) mangupa texts of prayer and hope, 3) mangupa text of hope, and 4) mangupa text with philosophical Angkola custom.
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The background of the research problem is students assume that Indonesian language courses are subjects that are considered easy and do not need to be studied on the grounds that they are able to speak Indonesian verbally, Indonesian has been used in everyday life both in formal and non-formal environments. This reason makes students assume that learning Indonesian does not need to be learned and is not included in the use of international languages as the language of communication between countries. If this continues, it can indicate the students' thinking that Indonesian is not important to learn and understand, thirdly, students assume that Indonesian language courses are only for meeting SKS and not for the importance of learning Indonesian language. If this statement is true then this subject is not yet based on its desire to know Indonesian language learning. The purpose of this study was to determine students' perceptions and attitudes towards first semester Indonesian language learning at IAIN Padangsidimpuan. This research method uses descriptive qualitative approach with this research data collection instrument in the form of questionnaires, observation and interview processing techniques and data analysis of this research is data editing, data reduction and drawing conclusions namely compiling data editions into systematic sentences. The result showed that the students think that bahasa Indonesia is easy to study, on the other hand they still unable to use it whether in daily communication or even in written expression. Their attitude to bahasa Indonesia is still low, it means that they are not care about bahasa Indonesia lesson because they think that it is not important for them, it is shown by inability of the students in writing scientific article
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and Keywords This chapter examines the imaginative aspects of performance, drawing on fieldwork con ducted in drag king workshops in Brussels. To collectively imagine a future performance, participants navigate between several possible chronotopes, including a present space-time (the here-and-now of the interaction, in which participants think of a performance that has not yet taken place) and a past space-time (in which participants recruit cultural models in order to think about an upcoming performance). The ethnographic, linguistic, and interactional analysis sheds light on "staged" and "everyday" performances, refresh es the debate between performance and performativity, and highlights creative assem blages of bodies, spatialities, and temporalities. The chapter suggests that a considera tion of imagination in the analysis of performance will enhance language and sexuality re search by reframing gender through the idea of a body that exceeds itself and carries the power to transform lives.
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This thesis deals with what is generally referred to as online hate speech. More specifically, I focus on posts about the Swedish-speaking population in Finland published on the web forum Suomi24. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse how online hate speech directed at the Swedish-speaking population in Finland is expressed in this public forum. This is done through a content analysis of the published texts focusing on affect, performance, and performativity. With affect theory as a point of departure, I explore how online hate speech is performed in relation to the intersectional categories class, gender, language, and ethnicity. In doing this, I analyse the material using a self-developed affective tool model. The model includes four affective tools: emotional words, emotive expressions, metaphors, and orthographic practices. Inspired by a performance perspective, I discuss online hate speech as a folkloristic genre. I also analyse the performative effects of online hate speech by showing how the claims made about the Swedish-speaking population are reiterated and which norms and values are upheld as a result. The title Parasites and “better people”: Affect in online hate speech directed at the Swedish in Finland is based on quotes from the material analysed in the thesis. The word “parasites” is used directly about Swedish-speakers in Finland in a couple of posts, and the idea of Swedish-speakers viewing themselves as “better people” is floated throughout the material. Affect theory is the starting point for my understanding and analysis of the material. The term online hate speech lacks a general scientific definition. I have deliberately chosen to use this emic, non-scientific “inside” term to stay close to my research material, and close to my folkloristic roots. Online hate speech is commonly defined as hostile utterances directed at individuals and/or groups in the form of comments, e-mails, blog posts, and various discussions on the Internet. The affective tools are the outset for my content analysis. By content analysis, I refer to a qualitative analysis of the material content to grasp what is expressed through the published texts. The affective tools are four different means of expressing and mediating affect through text. Emotive expressions are expressive in character. They are not named emotions but convey affect. Emotional words are words for feelings like “hate” or “love”. Metaphors are figures of speech, and a manner of talking about an entity by experiencing and understanding it via something else. Orthographic practices such as capital letter, punctuation and (mis)spelling usage convey and strengthen a message. The affective tools are essential to my analysis of online hate speech as a genre, ii since it is through them that hate can be expressed and mediated to the reader of the text. My understanding of online hate speech as a folkloristic genre is grounded in a research context. As a genre I view online hate speech as an etic concept. (Online hate speech in general is a non-academic concept.) The scope of the genre is set by me to enable the analysis. Genre is a means of creating order within many different texts. Through defining a text as an example of online hate speech, I am interpreting both content and intent of the text. Etic definitions of genre are intended for research; however, it is necessary to be aware of the emic perspective to understand the context. As a Swedish�speaking Finn, I also have an inside understanding of the subject. The genre definition of online hate speech is based on online communication: there is a platform where a message is published and/or can be received, and it comprises an incidence of someone being offended. However, online hate speech is not always expressed through explicit aggressivity and resentment; it might be conveyed in a composed and objective manner. In researching online hate speech as a genre, I see how crude statements about Swedish�speakers are mediated and reiterated in a discussion forum, but there is a wider context. The mediated texts are not independent opinions, they are continuations of a dream of a monolingual Finnish nation originating from a time long before Finland’s independence from Russia in 1917. The transmitted texts are not contained within the forum but are spread online and into other contexts. Online hate speech leaks into other genres in both public and private domains; it is resounded in the parliament and in private conversations. The digital world is not separate from the analogue “reality”, rather it is a part of the same entirety. Finland has two national languages, Finnish and Swedish. “The public authorities shall provide for the cultural and societal needs of the Finnish�speaking and Swedish-speaking populations of the country on an equal basis” (The Constitution of Finland 731/1999, 17 §). Swedish-speakers constitute around 5.2 percent of Finland’s population of 5.5 million. Conflicts between the two language groups have flared up with varying intensity since the mid-1800s when the idea of an independent nation began to evolve. Peace between the language groups was made with the end of the war in 1945. However, the debate is still heated at times, especially when it comes to the mandatory teaching of Swedish in Finnish schools. The material for this thesis consists of about 350 discussion forum posts from Suomi24 published and collected between 2015 and 2017. Suomi24 is one of the most visited web forums for social networking in Finland, with more than iii two million visitors per month. During my search for online hate speech directed at the Swedish-speaking population, I came across hate speech directed at several other minorities, for example asylum seekers, sexual minorities, and religious minorities. Online hate speech targets many different groups. Please note that I do not imply that the majority of Finnish-speakers partake in hate speech directed at the Swedish-speaking population or any other group. However, research shows that the debate climate overall, both online and offline, has become more aggressive over the years. Online hate speech is affective, it conveys affect, and works through affect. Affect is a combination of emotions, corporeality, and cultural context, and it is shaped between individuals and their contexts. I view online hate speech as a performance, where the performer calls upon the audience using affective tools. Affective utterances work through performance; they create affective communities and call for action. Affects are performative. Through analysing the web forum material, I show the performativity of online hate speech, how it produces and upholds negative sentiments about the people it targets. Actual societal impact is outside of my scope, but previous research has shown how an online environment where xenophobia and misogynistic opinions are given space can contribute to real acts of violence. What goes on online does not necessarily stay online. I have paid extra attention to the intersectional categories of language, ethnicity, class and gender. It is through different combinations of these that the Swedish-speaking population is framed as the opposite of Finnish�speakers, and even their enemy. The analysed quotes include examples of Swedish-speakers being called quislings, and their loyalty towards the Finnish nation is questioned. Swedish-speakers are thought of as being upper-class and descendants of old Swedish nobility. Homophobia is a visible theme in online hate speech, and the sexuality and masculinity of Swedish men are up for scrutiny. Swedish-speaking women, on the other hand, are depicted as raging feminists or even as a female grim reaper. The Swedish language acts as a marker for what is not considered genuinely Finnish. The idea of a monolingual nation as a sign of a strong and independent nation is expressed through the quotes about Swedish-speakers as unwanted citizens. Historical concepts and events are used to justify positions regarding Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. History is produced in online hate speech to give it a sense of authority. The people who are singled out as objects of hatred are dehumanised by being portrayed as animals, likened to diseases, or described as an unnecessary cost. Finally, online hatred expresses a backward-looking value conservatism and presents heteronormativity as the only alternative. iv Swedish-speakers are posed as a threat to the Finnish nation, and by that, online hate speech is sanctioned. The publisher of the hate becomes the victim. The online hate speech produces history in which the Finnish-speaking population comprises the only legitimate inhabitants of Finland, and Swedish�speakers are occupiers. Along with immigrants, sexual minorities, feminists and others, Swedish-speakers are depicted as an obstacle and a threat to the homogeneous ideal life that the online hate mongers express a longing for. Thus, the hatred towards Swedish-speakers in Finland conveyed through online hate speech is not unique: minorities around the world are affected similarly.
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This book contains a study of the structure which includes the structure of the performance, the value of the performance and singing of the Jaipong dance, the function of the performance and song of the Jaipong dance, and the revitalization of the Jaipong dance. The location of this research is Tanjung Mekar Village, East Karawang District, Karawang Regency, West Java Province. Data collection with ethnographic descriptive method. Data was collected by means of interviews, observation, literature, recording, and documentation. The informants in this study were jaipong dance performers, musicians, dancers, sinden and the audience. Data were analyzed by filtering, reducing, interpreting, inferring, and verifying data. Performance analysis uses Finnegan's theory.
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Fable is one of Sentani verbal folklore that was passed down by parents to children to teach morals. One of them is about the importance of preserving environment. Nowadays, unfortunately, fable is not frequently told anymore. Children and even most Sentani people do not recognize it. From long observation, Sentani children do not pay attention much to the nature as well. Data of fables were obtained from some informants, i.e. tribal chiefs (ondofolo, khote) and elderly people in East Sentani (Ayapo, Waena, and Asei Island) and Central Sentani (Sentani and Ifale) in 2017-2018. By adopting socio-cultural approach, this paper aims to discuss about (1) the natural environment of Sentani people, (2) the use of fables in environmental education for children. This study found that (1) fable is creative and innovative materials in teaching children about environment: nature, fauna, and flora that can be done informally, nonformally, and formally, (2) children have emotional ties with the fables and want to learn more, and (3) it is an alternative way of revitalizing Sentani fables and disseminating the socio-cultural values embedded in them. This study is benefecial to motivate Sentani children to learn more about their ancestor’s heritages, love their environment, and be proud of their identity. Key words: fable, environment, Sentani folklore, revitalizationAbstrak: Fabel merupakan salah satu folklor verbal Sentani yang dahulu dituturkan secara oral dari para orang tua ke anak-anak untuk menyampaikan berbagai ajaran moral. Salah satunya adalah tentang pentingnya merawat lingkungan. Saat ini, fabel sudah jarang dituturkan lagi. Anak-anak bahkan sebagian orang Sentani tidak mengenalinya. Melalui pengamatan yang cukup lama, anak-anak Sentani kini tidak lagi memperhatikan lingkungan hidup mereka. Data fabel dikumpulkan dari para informan, yaitu para pemangku adat (ondofolo, khote) dan para tua-tua adat di Sentani Timur (Ayapo, Waena, dan Pulau Asei) dan Sentani Tengah (Sentani dan Ifale) pada 2017-2018. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosial-budaya, paper ini bertujuan untuk membahas (1) lingkungan alam masyarakat Sentani dan (2) penggunaan fabel dalam pendidikan lingkungan bagi anak-anak. Studi ini menemukan bahwa (1) fabel merupakan materi yang kreatif dan inovatif untuk mengajarkan anak-anak tentang lingkungan: alam, fauna, dan flora yang dapat dilakukan secara informal, nonformal, dan formal, (2) anak-anak mempunyai hubungan emosi dengan fabel yang dipelajarinya dan ingin belajar lebih banyak fabel, (3) penggunaan fabel sebagai pengajaran merupakan cara alternatif dalam merevitalisasi dan diseminasi fabel Sentani dan nilai sosial-budaya yang terdapat di dalamnya. Studi ini bermanfaat untuk memotivasi anak-anak Sentani untuk terus mempelajari dan mencintai pusaka budaya leluhur mereka, mencintai lingkungan hidup mereka, dan bangga akan indentitas mereka. Kata kunci: fabel, lingkungan, folklor Sentani, revitalisasi
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'When a person dies, a library is lost' is an adage in oral history that underpins and motivates this thesis. Not only is personal history lost but also social history. This thesis explores the use of oral history methods to record personal and professional histories in Solomon Islands and to recover post-war social history that might otherwise be lost or forgotten. The thesis presents the life histories and oral testimonies of 27 Islanders and seven expatriates who lived and worked in Solomon Islands during the colonial and independence eras, and relates their experiences to the post-war social history of Solomon Islands. The life histories and oral testimonies are presented in three collective case studies. The first case study includes four individuals (two indigenous and two expatriate) who were prominent in Solomon Islands government and civil society. The second case study includes five Australian missionary nurses and relates to their recollections of their work at Fauabu hospital on Malaita from 1968 to 1984. The third case study records the career histories of 25 nurses who trained during the colonial era and became nursing officers after Solomon Islands achieved Independence in 1978. The interview narratives were summarised and supplemented with other source materials to produce individual, group and collective histories. These histories illuminate multiple connections, changes and continuities in Solomon Islands since the Pacific War ended in 1945. The thesis presents a new model of oral history methodology in six 'domains' (visual, spatial, oral-aural, textual, numerical and digital) covering three phases of oral history: primary (recording and collection), secondary (curating and processing), and tertiary (analysis and interpretation). I also develop a social history framework which enables individual and group lives to be situated within their wider social, historical and geographical contexts, and viewed from the micro (personal and group), meso (social, institutional and cultural) and macro (national and international) perspectives. The thesis examines literature from oral history, social history and sociology in particular, C. Wright Mills' Sociological Imagination (1959) and R.W. Connell's Southern Theory (2007). I also draw on, and draw attention to, Solomon Islands history and anthropology, and decolonisation of Pacific history and research. Pacific scholars such as Tracey Banivanua Mar, David Gegeo, Kabini Sanga, Linda Tuhiwai Smith and Teresia Teaiwa argue that Pacific history and research by outsiders often ignore or diminish Indigenous history and peoples. Decolonising oral history methods requires methods and protocols that are culturally appropriate and the engagement of Indigenous people in all phases of the research process. However well-intentioned outsiders might be, using oral history methods in academic research can recolonise (or neocolonise) Pacific oral history by adopting hegemonic academic methodologies and protocols. The contributions made by this thesis fall into three categories. Firstly, it collects individual and collective histories and illuminates multiple levels and contexts of social history in post-war Solomon Islands. Secondly, it contributes to the history of nursing and medical services, revealing the extent to which they have been shaped by the colonial legacy, as well as the extent to which they continue to be influenced by international agencies in the post-independence era. Thirdly, it presents two heuristics, a conceptual model of oral history and a social history framework, that bring clarity and coherence to the complexities of oral history research and to the social history of Solomon Islands.
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