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Artificial Beings: The Conscience of a Conscious Machine

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Abstract

This book demonstrates that not only is it possible to create entities with both consciousness and conscience, but that those entities demonstrate them in ways different from our own, thereby showing a new kind of consciousness.

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... Values inside these call frames are known to the MELT garbage collector, which scans them and possibly moves them. Expliciting these call frames facilitates introspective runtime reflection [18,19,20] at the MELT level; this might be useful for some future sophisticated analysis, e.g., in abstract interpretation [2,3] of recursive functions, as a widening strategy. Concretely, local MELT values (and stuff) are aggregated in MELT call frames (represented as generated C local struct-ures) organized in a single-linked list. ...
... Since Gg-c requires each pointer to be of a gengtype-known type, values are really different from 20 The Ocaml runtime has similar macros. 21 In the old days of GCC version 4.3 the Gimple representation was physically implemented in tree-s and the C data structure gimple did not exist yet; at that time, Gimple was sharing the same physical structures as Trees and Generic [so Gimple was mostly a conventional restriction on Trees] -that is using many linked lists. ...
... More generally, making MELT more high-level and more declarative (in J.Pitrat's [19,20] sense) to be able to express GCC passes easily and concisely is an interesting challenge, and could be transposed to other legacy software. ...
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The GCC free compiler is a very large software, compiling source in several languages for many targets on various systems. It can be extended by plugins, which may take advantage of its power to provide extra specific functionality (warnings, optimizations, source refactoring or navigation) by processing various GCC internal representations (Gimple, Tree, ...). Writing plugins in C is a complex and time-consuming task, but customizing GCC by using an existing scripting language inside is impractical. We describe MELT, a specific Lisp-like DSL which fits well into existing GCC technology and offers high-level features (functional, object or reflexive programming, pattern matching). MELT is translated to C fitted for GCC internals and provides various features to facilitate this. This work shows that even huge, legacy, software can be a posteriori extended by specifically tailored and translated high-level DSLs.
... And in the miscellany of mss to be regularized, the island of the most overall and fundamental mss can be identified, particularly, by the questions: "What is the Consciousness/ Cognizing/ the Universe?" [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17], "The origin of cognizing, cellulars, humans?" and "The meaning of it all?" by R. Feynman [2]. ...
... Unfortunately, consciousness has no a proper denotative description. For example, Jaquez Pitrat [16] provides 6 ongoing versions of consciousness. If some of its versions have convincingly been argued, we would be glad to try to model them and then examine the adequacy of the models. ...
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Assuming that computer-depended solvers of combinatorial games can be developed to approach the adequate models of human cognizing, what follows is an attempt to argue similar statements, in general, for negentropics, exempted from cellular and computer dependencies. For a type of negentropics, octaves, capable to enhancing the power of cognizing, but so far limited in that, we argue that they can adequately model cognitive development of newborns by Piaget. We also argue that these generalized cognizers are sufficient to reveal the earliest negentropics-energizers, then, octaves, which, in turn, are assumingly constellations of basic 1/2 place classifiers. And since physicists assume that information can originate in Nature, thus, inseparable from its classification, while the chains linking octaves to the highest cognizers have already been tracked, it might be possible that the chains between the originated classifiers and octaves also are not excluded in Nature.
... • MELT deals with "high-level" dynamically typed values (objects, lists, closures, tuples, boxed numbers, boxed Gimple-s, etc...) and raw GCC stuff (e.g. raw long, raw Gimple, raw Tree-s, raw basic blocks), and enable reflective [6] and functional programming styles. ...
... • a runtime (implemented as the melt.so GCC plugin) provides many utilities, notably an efficient MELT generational copying garbage collector (tuned for frequent allocation of many temporary MELT values), built above the GCC mark 5 The MELT reader parses '1 exactly as (quote 1), and ?(cstring same "fflush") exactly as (question (cstring same "fflush")), etc. 6 The GCC compiler (version 4.7) is itself in transition, aiming to be progressively and partly rewritten in C++ code. MELT actually is translated to the common subset of C and C++ code which is acceptable inside GCC plugins. ...
Article
This paper introduces the MELT framework and domain-specific language to extend the GCC compiler. It explains the major internal representations (Gimple, Tree-s, . . .) and the overall organization of GCC. It shows the major features of MELT and illus-trates why extending and customizing the GCC compiler using MELT is useful (for instance, to use GPGPUs thru OPENCL). It gives some concrete advices and guide-lines for development of such extensions with MELT.
... And in the miscellany of mss to be regularized, the island of the most overall and fundamental mss can be identified, particularly, by the questions: "What is the Consciousness, Cognizing, the Universe?" [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17], "The origin of cognizing, cellulars, humans?" and "The meaning of it all?" by R. Feynman [2]. ...
... Unfortunately, consciousness has no a proper denotative description. For example, Jaquez Pitrat [16] provides 6 ongoing versions of consciousness. If some of its versions have convincingly been argued, we would be glad to try to model them and then examine the adequacy of the models. ...
... He also wrote the MALICE system, the descendant of Jean-Louis Laurière constraint programming system Alice, using metaknowledge to optimize constraint problem solving. Jacques Pitrat worked for many years on the bootstrapping of Artificial Intelligence with the CAIA system (Pitrat, 2013), an artificial researcher in Artificial Intelligence. He was convinced that human intelligence had to be helped by Artificial Intelligence to improve Artificial Intelligence systems so as to make them more intelligent than humans. ...
... For example, in chess game trees for the given positions P, the classifiers of proper in P strategies can be questioned [9,10]. ...
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The Meaning of It All Richard Feynman Whether It Is the Brain We Exist in… Michael Alkire Can God Be Modeled? Thomas B. Sheridan God is Nature ! Albert Einstein CONSTRUCTING MODELS OF BEING BY COGNIZING Edward M. Pogossian Cognitive Modeling Direction at the Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia e-mail: epogossi@aua.am Abstract 1.Following Jean Piaget, we interpret cognizing as mental doings on learning and organizing mental systems (mss), while learning and organizing are mostly reduced to revelation and acquisition of mss accumulated in communities. To ground the fundamental hypotheses of Piaget that cognitive doings are learned stage by stage from certain root doings to the highest ones by means of only a few rules, we construct an extension of object-oriented programs , mentals, to approach the expressive power of natural languages in representation of realities and confirm the adequacy of mentals in modeling cognizing by several criteria. Then we argue that mentals, including the rules of their cognitive development, are reducible to certain roots, including 1- and 2- place classifiers, and a chain of development of classifiers to various cognitive mentals can be tracked based on the - algorithms (inductors) of revelation of 1/2 place classifiers of increasing abstractness, aimed to model the law of accommodation by Piaget, and - procedures of acquisition of mss from communities and their processing for several cognitive doings, aimed to model the law of assimilation by Piaget. 2. Then, we question whether these 1/2 place classifiers can originate in Nature and develop to the highest levels of cognizing allowing to construct their own AI robots. A positive answer to this question could resolve the mystery of the origin of cellular realities, since their enormous complexity cannot be attained by chance but it can only be constructed. The promises of the positive answer rely on the uniformity of the measures of negentropicity by Schrödinger and information by Shannon as well as on the hypotheses of physicists, referring to J. Parondo, that information (and, therefore, negentropics) can originate in Nature. 3. Consequently, one may question whether this origination is unique to our solar system or is manifold in the Universe? Following the anthropic principle, conditions similar to those of our solar system are manifold in the Universe. Thus, we can assume that powerful cognizers can originate in various regions of the Universe and self-develop to the highest levels allowing them to reproduce themselves in various modes. Keywords: Piaget, cognition, adequate, constructive, modeling, classifiers, neuron nets, negentropics, information, cellular, origination, anthropic principle.
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