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Poecilia waiapi, new species, is described from the lower Jari river drainage, in northern Brazil. It is hypothesized to be closely related to P. branneri, P. minima and P. sarrafae by sharing eight apomorphic conditions. Poecilia waiapi differs from all of its congeners by the presence of vertical dark gray bars on the flank in males (vs. bars absent in P. bifurca, P. picta and P. parae; vertical pale gray bars in P. sarrafae, P. minima and P. branneri); post-humeral blotch densely pigmented (vs. post-humeral blotch absent in P. branneri, post-humeral blotch slightly pigmented in P. sarrafae, P. minima, P. picta, P. bifurca, P. parae).
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337
Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 22, No. 4
Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 337-343, 3 figs., 1 tab., December 2011
© 2011 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany – ISSN 0936-9902
Poecilia waiapi, a new poeciliid
from the Jari river drainage, northern Brazil
(Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontoidei)
Pedro H. N. Bragança*, Wilson J. E. M. Costa* and Cecile S. Gama**
Poecilia waiapi, new species, is described from the lower Jari river drainage, in northern Brazil. It is hypothesized
to be closely related to P. branneri, P. minima and P. sarrafae by sharing eight apomorphic conditions. Poecilia waiapi
differs from all of its congeners by the presence of vertical dark gray bars on the flank in males (vs. bars absent
in P. bifurca, P. picta and P. parae; vertical pale gray bars in P. sarrafae, P. minima and P. branneri); post-humeral
blotch densely pigmented (vs. post-humeral blotch absent in P. branneri, post-humeral blotch slightly pigmented
in P. sarrafae, P. minima, P. picta, P. bifurca, P. parae).
Poecilia waiapi, espécie nova, descrita para a drenagem do baixo rio Jari, norte brasileiro. Um relacionamento
próximo com P. branneri, P. minima e P. sarrafae é hipotetizado devido ao compartilhamento de oito condições
apomórficas. Poecilia waiapi difere de seus congêneres pela presença de barras verticais cinza escuro no flanco dos
machos (vs. ausência de barras em P. bifurca, P. parae e P. picta; discretas barras verticais cinzas em P. branneri,
P. sarrafae e P. mínima); mancha pós-humeral densamente pigmentada (vs. mancha pós-humeral ausente em
P. branneri, mancha pós-humeral levemente pigmentada em P. picta, P. bifurca, P. parae, P. mínima e P. sarrafae).
Introduction
The subfamily Poeciliinae (sensu Parenti, 1981;
Costa, 1996; Costa, 1998; Ghedotti, 2000) com-
prises small killifishes, totalizing about 220 valid
species in 28 genera (Lucinda & Reis, 2005) wide-
spread along North, Middle and South America,
but with a great diversity in Middle America.
Poeciliinae may be easily diagnosed by the pres-
ence of a gonopodium, a copulatory organ in
males, constituting a modification of the anal-fin
rays 3, 4 and 5 (Regan, 1913; Rosen & Gordon,
1953). Additionally, all poeciliines are viviparous
with the exception of Tomeurus gracilis, a faculta-
tive viviparous (Rosen & Bailey, 1963). They are
widely used as experimental fishes in embryo-
logical, ecological and evolutionary studies and
are very popular in aquaria.
Presently, the subgenus Micropoecilia of the
genus Poecilia comprises six species: P. branneri
(Eigenmann, 1894), P. bifurca (Eigenmann, 1909),
P. parae (Eigenmann, 1894), P. picta (Regan, 1913),
* Laboratório de Sistemática e Evolução de Peixes Teleósteos, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68049, CEP 21944-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
E-mail: pedrobra88@hotmail.com, wcosta@biologia.ufrj.br
** Instituto de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas do Amapá – IEPA, Campus da Fazendinha, Rodovia JK, Km
10, S/Nl, CEP 68900-000, Macapá, AP, Brazil. E-mail: cecile.gama@iepa.ap.gov.br
338 Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
Bragança et al.: Poecilia waiapi
P. minima (Costa & Sarraf, 1997) and P. sarrafae
Bragança & Costa, 2011. Micropoecilia is distin-
guished from all other Poecilia subgenera by the
possession of 10 synapomorphic features: dentary
without lateral projections; posterior portion of
dorsal branchial arch short; reduced second
pharyngobranchial dentition; presence of a proc-
ess on anterior border of first hypobranchial;
latero-posterior process of fifth ceratobranchial
elongated; anterior process of supracleithrum
reduced; anterior portion of first gonapophysis
gently curved ventrally; tip of ray 5 without
retrorse claw; caudal fin of males lanceolate; males
with more dorsal fin rays than females (Bragança
& Costa, 2011). They are distributed along north-
ern and northeastern South America and in some
Caribbean islands (Rosen & Bailey, 1963) with the
southeastern most occurrence in the Mearim and
Parnaíba basins (Bragança & Costa, 2011). Bra-
gança & Costa (2011) reported a clade formed by
P. branneri, P. minima and P. sarrafae, diagnosed
by eight apomorphic conditions: presence of a
black blotch on the posterior portion of the caudal
peduncle in both sexes; middle portion of flank
with vertical pale gray bars in males; penultimate
dorsal-fin ray of males long, reaching vertical
through center of caudal fin; dorsal fin with 8
rays in males and 7 rays in females; teeth of the
external row of dentary and premaxilla conical;
5-7 teeth in the external row of dentary and pre-
maxilla; posterior process of vomer not longitu-
dinally elongated; tip of the gonopodial rays 3
and 4a ankylosed. The new species herein de-
scribed is a member of that clade, endemic to the
Jari river drainage, representing the first occur-
rence of the clade north of the Amazon river
channel.
Material and methods
Measurements and counts follow Costa (1988),
except for caudal peduncle length (between the
base of the last dorsal-fin ray and the caudal-fin
base upper extremity). Measurements are pre-
sented as percentages of standard length (SL)
except for subunits of head, which are presented
as percentages of head length (HL). Osteological
studies were made on cleared and stained speci-
mens (c&s) prepared according to Taylor & Van
Dyke (1985). Nomenclature for frontal squamation
follows Hoedeman (1956) and that for head sen-
sory canals follows Rosen & Mendelson (1960),
except for pores 6b and 7 of the infraorbital system,
here called post-orbital canal following Costa
(1996). Terminology for gonopodial and gonopo-
dial suspensorium structures follows Rosen &
Gordon (1953), except for the serrae of gonopo-
dial ray 4P, here called dorsal processes and for
the spines of ray 3, here called ventral processes
with comma shape. Delimitation of species fol-
lows the methodology of the Population Aggrega-
tion Analysis formally described by Davis and
Nixon (1992).
Institutional abbreviations are: CAS, Califor-
nia Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; IEPA,
Instituto de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas
do Estado do Amapá; MCP, Museu de Ciências
da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Gran-
de do Sul, Porto Alegre; MHNLS, Museo de
Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas; MNHN, Mu-
séum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Paris; MNRJ,
Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; MPEG, Museu
Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém; MZUSP, Museu
de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São
Paulo; UFRJ, Laboratório de Sistemática e Evo-
lução de Peixes Teleósteos da Universidade Fe-
deral do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro; UMMZ,
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann
Arbor; USNM, National Museum of Natural
History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
Poecilia waiapi, new species
(Fig. 1)
Holotype. IEPA 2763, male, 15.9 mm SL; Brazil:
Estado do Amapá: bank of rio Jari north of Lar-
anjal do Jari, 0°43'38" S 52°30'54" W, altitude 35 m;
C. S. Gama, 27 Oct 2007.
Paratypes. Brazil: Estado do Amapá: IEPA 2755,
16 males, 12.4-15.7 mm SL, 21 females, 8.6-
15.9 mm SL; UFRJ 8141, 13 males, 11.8-15.3 mm
SL, 10 females, 11.5-20.0 mm SL (8 c&s); all col-
lected with holotype. – IEPA 2026, 1 male, 12.4 mm
SL, 1 female, 11.77 mm SL; UFRJ 8142, 2 females,
12.1-15.4 mm SL (c&s); Córrego do Meio, BR-156
near Laranjal do Jari, 0°37'05" S 52°22'05" W, alti-
tude 150 m; J. F. P. da Silva, 9 Jan 2008.
Diagnosis. Among species of the subgenus Mi-
cropoecilia, Poecilia waiapi is distinguished from
P. parae, P. picta and P. bifurca by having: a black
blotch on the posterior portion of the caudal
peduncle in both sexes (Fig. 1a-b) (vs. absence);
339
Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 22, No. 4
Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
penultimate dorsal-fin ray of males long, reaching
vertical through center of caudal fin (Fig. 1a) (vs.
ray short); dorsal fin with eight rays in males (vs.
seven); middle portion of flank with vertical bars
in males (Fig. 1a) (vs. absence of vertical bars);
teeth of the external row of the dentary and pre-
maxilla conical (vs. spatulate, with the preapical
portion of teeth laterally expanded, wider than
its base); five to seven teeth in the external rows
of dentary and premaxilla (vs. 11-16); vomer
posterior process short (vs. posterior process
elongated); tip of the gonopodial rays 3 and 4a
ankylosed (Fig. 2b) (vs. not ankylosed); caudal
fin of males lanceolate (Fig. 1a) (vs. caudal fin
rounded). Poecilia waiapi differs from P. minima
by having the last segment of the gonopodial
ray 5a well developed (Fig. 2b) (vs. rudimentary);
gonopodial palp surpassing gonopodial tip
(Fig. 2b) (vs. not surpassing); post-humeral blotch
long,vertically elongated, extending from the
dorsum to the abdomen in females (Fig. 1b) (vs.
post-humeral blotch short, restricted to abdomen
in females); black blotch on the posterior portion
of the caudal peduncle of males with variable
shape, ranging from a small circular blotch to an
amorphous large blotch covering most of the
posterior portion of the caudal peduncle (Fig. 1a)
(vs. triangular). Poecilia waiapi differs from P. bran-
neri by the presence of a post-humeral blotch
(Fig. 1a-b) (vs. absence). Poecilia waiapi differs
from P. sarrafae by the post-humeral blotch ex-
tremely dorsally positioned, left and right blotch-
es almost in contact on dorsum (vs.dorsally po-
sitioned, only slightly visible in dorsal view);
post-humeral blotch long, vertically elongate,
extending from dorsum, reaching to or beyond
the middle of the flank (Fig. 1a-b) (vs. post-hu-
meral blotch round or slightly vertically elon-
gated, extending from dorsum but not reaching
the middle of the flank); last segment of gonopo-
dial ray 5a wider than deep (Fig. 2b) (vs. deeper
than wide). Poecilia waiapi differs from all species
of the subgenus Micropoecilia by having vertical
dark gray bars on the flank in males (Fig. 1a) (vs.
bars absent in P. bifurca, P. picta and P. parae;
vertical pale gray bars in P. sarrafae, P. minima and
P. branneri); post-humeral blotch densely pig-
mented (Fig. 1a-b) (vs. post-humeral blotch ab-
sent in P. branneri; post-humeral blotch slightly
pigmented in P. sarrafae, P. minima, P. picta, P. bi-
furca, P. parae).
Fig. 1. Poecilia waiapi; Brazil: Estado do Amapá: Jari basin. a, IEPA 2763, holotype. male, 15.9 mm SL; b, UFRJ 8141,
paratype, female, 20.0 mm SL.
b
a
340 Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
Description. Morphometric data are presented
in Table I. Adult maximum size 15.9 mm SL for
male (IEPA 2763) and 20.0 mm SL for female
(UFRJ 8141). Dorsal profile gently convex between
snout and end of dorsal-fin base, slightly concave
on caudal peduncle. Ventral profile in male
slightly convex between lower jaw and anal-fin
base, approximately straight on caudal peduncle.
In female, due to viviparity, pregnancy resulting
in prominent convexity of ventral profile, between
lower jaw and anal-fin base. Caudal peduncle
straight in females.
Frontal squamation E-patterned. Supraorbital
sensory canal open, with 2 neuromasts on ante-
rior portion (1 and 2a) and 3 neuromasts above
eye orbit (2b, 3 and 4a); infraorbital system with
3 neuromasts (4b, 5 and 6a) in shallow groove.
Post-orbital and preorbital canals closed. Pre-
opercular canal closed, with 7 pores. Mandibular
canal absent. Longitudinal series of scales 25-27;
transversal series of scales 8; number of scales
around caudal peduncle 16.
Dorsal fin shaped as obtuse triangle in males,
with short side anteriorly, posteriorly elongated
part extending to middle of caudal fin; penulti-
mate ray longest, reaching vertical through
center of caudal fin. Dorsal and anal fins of female
short, approximately triangular. Caudal fin lan-
ceolate in males, elliptical in females. Pectoral fin
approximately elliptical. Pelvic fin of male long,
with narrow tip, second ray longest, reaching
base of gonopodial palp; pelvic fin of female short,
tip reaching base of 1st or 2nd anal-fin ray.
Dorsal-fin rays 8 in male, 6-7 in female; anal-fin
rays 9; caudal-fin rays 21-23; pectoral-fin rays
13-15; pelvic-fin rays 6.
Gonactinostial complex with sinuous concav-
ity on its anterodorsal border; dorsal border
ending in curved tip. Gonopodial ray 3 robust,
abruptly narrowing in distal half; 11 subdistal
segments with comma-shaped processes. Tip of
gonopodial rays 3 and 4a slightly dorsally di-
rected, last segments ankylosed. No dorsal pro-
cesses on gonopodial ray 4a segments. Subdistal
portion of gonopodial ray 4p abruptly directed
to ray 5, with 5 or 6 segments with dorsal pro-
cesses elongated towards ray 5. Ventral border
of subdistal portion of gonopodial ray 5 without
serrae, dorsally curved on medium-distal portion,
distal portion directed to tip of ray 4p, finishing
abruptly. Last segment of gonopodial ray 5a
wider than deep (Fig. 2).
Twenty-eight to thirty vertebrae. Gonapophy-
ses of vertebrae 14 and 15, at angle of approxi-
mately 30° with vertebral column. Ligastyle ab-
sent. Second radial proximal of dorsal fin between
neural spines of vertebrae 11 and 14. Pelvic-fin
base at vertical through vertebrae 7-8 in male and
Table 1. Morphometric data of Poecilia waiapi.
holotype paratypes UFRJ 8141
males females
IEPA 2763 (n = 9) (n = 6)
Standard length (mm) 15.9 12.9-16.4 15.2-17.6
Percentage of standard length
Body depth 24.2 21.7-25.6 21.6-27.7
Depth of caudal peduncle 18.0 16.0-18.1 12.8-16.0
Predorsal length 60.6 60.7-65.5 62.0-70.8
Length of dorsal-fin base 10.2 8.5-13.0 5.5-8.5
Prepelvic length 48.9 45.2-49.2 50.7-55.6
Pelvic fin length 22.1 20.7-25.9 10.3-15.7
Caudal fin length 37.9 35.4-40.6 39.4-42.6
Pectoral fin length 23.3 20.7-24.6 21.6-25.3
Anal fin length 6.8-8.8
Head length (mm) 4.18 3.57-4.19 4.0-4.65
Percentage of head length
Head depth 77.0 70.5-78.9 68.3-74.8
Head width 77.5 70.7-77.8 72.9-79.7
Snout length 17.7 12.8-18.8 15.6-18.1
Inferior jaw length 8.1 7.6-10.0 7.8-9.2
Eye diameter 39.7 36.4-42.1 38.2-41.9
Bragança et al.: Poecilia waiapi
341
Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 22, No. 4
Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
9 in female. Vomer short. Five to seven conical
teeth in external row of dentary and premaxilla;
inner rows with conical irregularly distributed
teeth. Posterior portion of dorsal branchial arch-
es short. First hypobranchial anterior border with
narrow anteriorly directed process. Fifth cerato-
branchial with elongated lateroposterior process.
Supracleithrum scale like. Second pharyngobran-
chial with 1-3 teeth on postero-medium region
of bone.
Viviparous; three cleared and stained females
(UFRJ 8141; UFRJ 8142), one with three embryos
completely developed and another with seven
embryos in different stages of development and
one with two different stage embryos.
Fig. 2. Poecilia waiapi, UFRJ 8141, 15.1 mm SL. a, Gonopodium and gonopodial suspensorium, left lateral view;
b, terminal portion of gonopodium, left lateral view. Abbreviations: gn, gonopodium; gs, gonapophyses; gt, gon-
actinosts; pl, gonopodial palp; 3, ray 3; 4a and 4p, anterior and posterior branches of ray 4; 5a and 5p, anterior
and posterior branches of ray 5.
gs
gt
gn
pl
1 mm
1 mm
pl
5p
5a
4p
4a
3
a
b
gt
gn
pl
1 mm
1 mm
pl
5p
5a
4p
4a
3
a
b
342 Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
Coloration. Male (Fig. 1a). Ground color of body
side light brown. Dorsolateral post-humeral black
blotch, densely pigmented, dorsally extending
from middle of flank to dorsum. Two to five, dark
black, densely pigmented vertical bars in middle
portion of flank, dorsally extending to dorsum.
Black blotch on posterior portion of caudal pe-
duncle with variable shape, ranging from small
circular blotch to amorphous large blotch cover-
ing most of posterior portion of caudal peduncle.
Upper half of caudal fin with black marginal
stripe. Dorsal, pectoral and pelvic fins hyaline.
Female (Fig. 1b). Ground color of body side
light brown. One to four black post-humeral
blotches dorsally extending to dorsum. Usually
black precaudal blotch, approximately elliptical.
Fins hyaline.
Distribution. Known only from the lower Jari
river, northern Brazil (Fig. 3).
Etymology. The name waiapi is in honour of the
Waiãpi indigenous group that live in western
Amapá state, along the Jari river drainage. A noun
in apposition.
Discussion
Bragança & Costa (2011) listed six valid species in
the subgenus Micropoecilia: P. branneri, P. picta,
P. minima, P. bifurca, P. parae and P. sarrafae and
reported 10 synapomorphies diagnosing the
subgenus but two characters have been reviewed:
anterior process of supracleithrum reduced and
caudal fin of males lanceolate. The reduced ante-
rior process of supracleithrum is not a valid syn-
apomorphy because other Poecilia species present
this character state and the lanceolate caudal fin
of males, is not a synapomorphy because P. parae,
P. bifurca and P. picta have a rounded caudal fin
Poe cilia waiapi is then placed in Micropoecilia since
it possesses eight synapomorphic features. Poe-
cilia waiapi is hypothesized to be more closely
related to P. branneri, P. minima and P. sarrafae
than to the other species by having: teeth of the
external row of the dentary and premaxilla coni-
cal (vs. spatulate, with the preapical portion of
teeth laterally expanded, wider than its base); five
to seven teeth in the external rows of dentary and
premaxilla (vs. 11-16); vomer posterior process
short (vs. posterior process elongated); tip of the
gonopodial rays 3 and 4a ankylosed (Fig. 2b) (vs.
not ankylosed); males with 8 dorsal fin rays (vs. 7
fin rays); penultimate dorsal-fin ray of males long,
reaching vertical through center of caudal fin
(Fig. 1a) (vs. ray short); a black blotch on the
posterior portion of the caudal peduncle in both
sexes (Fig. 1a-b) (vs. absence); caudal fin of males
lanceolate (Fig. 1a) (vs. caudal fin rounded); mid-
dle portion of flank with vertical bars in males
(Fig. 1a) (vs. absence of vertical bars). Poecilia
waiapi has the northern-most distribution among
species of the clade and is the only species inhab-
iting the right margin of the Amazon river region,
in the Jari river drainage, Amapá state.
Comparative material. Comparative material is listed
in Bragança & Costa (2011). Additional comparative
material: P. sarrafae: Brazil: Estado do Maranhão: UFRJ
7786, 1; UFRJ 3811, 98; MZUSP 51070, 4; USNM 342715,
4; UFRJ 4614, 4; UFRJ 3905, 5; Parnaíba river, Jandira.
UFRJ 3897, 53; Parnaíba river between Jandira and
Araioses. MCP 22046, 1; tributary of Mearim river.
USNM 88280, 10; MNRJ 15175, 517; igarapé Arari,
Mearim river basin. Estado do Piauí: UFRJ 4961, 15;
Cachoeira do Urubu. – MCP 22047, 3; riacho Sumaré.
– MCP 22050, 33; riacho dos Macacos. – MCP 22052, 49;
riacho on the Usina Santana dam. MCP 22053, 23;
riacho Palo. – MCP 22054, 108; riacho Fundo. – MCP
22055, 209; rio Peritoró.
Fig. 3. Distribution of Poecilia waiapi. T, type locality.
T
4°N
52°W 48°W
4°S
0 200 km
Bragança et al.: Poecilia waiapi
T
4°N
52°W
48°W
4°S
0
200 km
343
Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 22, No. 4
Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to Érika Malakian for her assistance in
the IEPA collection and to the anonymous reviewers
for the corrections and suggestions on the manuscript.
This study was supported by PIBIC – UFRJ (Programa
Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação Científica – Univer-
sidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) and CNPq (Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológi-
co).
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Received 11 June 2011
Revised 17 November 2011
Accepted 23 November 2011
344 Copyright © Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
Bragança et al.: Poecilia waiapi
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INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS
Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters
An international journal for field-orientated ichthyology
Articles appearing in this journal are indexed in:
AQUATIC SCIENCES and FISHERIES ABSTRACTS
BIOLIS - BIOLOGISCHE LITERATUR INFORMATION SENCKENBERG
CAMBRIDGE SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS
CURRENT CONTENTS/AGRICULTURE, BIOLOGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES and SCIE
FISHLIT
ZOOLOGICAL RECORD
C O N T E N T S
Asai, Toshinobu, Hiroshi Senou and Kazumi Hosoya: Oryzias sakaizumii, a new ricefish
from northern Japan (Teleostei: Adrianichthyidae) .............................................................. 289
Freyhof, Jörg, Füsun Erkakan, Cevher Özeren and Anabel Perdices: An overview of the
western Palaearctic loach genus Oxynoemacheilus (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) ................. 301
Costa, Wilson J. E. M.: Simpsonichthys margaritatus, a new seasonal miniature killifish from
the upper Paraná River basin, central Brazilian Cerrado (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivul-
idae) .............................................................................................................................................. 313
Kottelat, Maurice and Tan Heok Hui: Identity of Rasbora beauforti, a cyprinid fish from
Borneo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) ................................................................................................. 319
Britz, Ralf, Maurice Kottelat and Tan Heok Hui: Fangfangia spinocleithralis, a new genus and
species of miniature cyprinid fish from the peat swamp forests of Borneo (Teleostei:
Cyprinidae) .................................................................................................................................. 327
Bragança, Pedro H. N., Wilson J. E. M. Costa and Cecile S. Gama: Poecilia waiapi, a new
poeciliid from the Jari river drainage, northern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprin-
odontoidei) ................................................................................................................................... 337
Vila, Irma, Sergio Scott, Marco A. Mendez, Felipe Valenzuela, Patricia Iturra and Elie Pou-
lin: Orestias gloriae, a new species of cyprinodontid fish from saltpan spring of the
southern high Andes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) .............................................................. 345
Kullander, Sven O. and Tyson R. Roberts: Out of Lake Tanganyika: endemic lake fishes
inhabit rapids of the Lukuga River .......................................................................................... 355
Marshall, Bruce Gavin, Bruce Rider Forsberg, Laura Lorraine Hess and Carlos Edwar de
Carvalho Freitas: Water temperature differences in interfluvial palm swamp habitats
of Paracheirodon axelrodi and P. simulans (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the middle Rio
Negro, Brazil ................................................................................................................................ 377
Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters
An international journal for field-orientated ichthyology
Volume 22 Number 4 December 2011
Cover Photograph
Oxynoemacheilus paucilepis (photograph by Jörg Freyhof)
Jörg Freyhof, Füsun Erkakan, Cevher Özeren and Anabel Perdices
(this volume pp. 301-312)
... The poeciliids Poecilia (Micropoecilia) parae Eigenmann, 1894 and Poecilia (Poecilia) vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were sampled in lower portions of coastal rivers of Amapá. In the Jari River, Poecilia (Micropoecilia) waiapi Bragança & Costa, 2012 and two rivulids, Anablepsoides gamae Amorim, 2013 andA. jari Costa, Bragança &Amorim, 2013, were found. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent field expeditions in the Jari river drainage, in addition to examination of uncatalogued poeciliids, allowed the identification of specimens as Poecilia (Pamphorichthys) scalpridens (Garman, 1895). The known range of this species includes lakes and igarapés in the lower reaches of tributaries near the main channel of the Amazon River between Parintins and the mouth of the Tapajós River. Here, we expand the range of P. scalpridens by about 300 km. We provide the main diagnostic characters of P. scalpridens to facilitate identification of specimens collected in future field surveys. Citation: Bragança PHN, Ottoni FP, Gama CS, Henschel E (2021) Range extension of a small livebearer fish, Poecilia scalpridens (Garman, 1895) (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae): a new record for the Jari river drainage, Amapá, Brazilian Amazon. Check List 17 (4): 1081-1087.
Article
The identity of Rasbora beauforti has remained uncertain since its original description in 1937 as a result of the loss of the original material. Recent attempts to collect it at and near the type locality did not yield any species fitting the original description but created the suspicion that the original description is based on a series including more than one species. A neotype is designated; R. beauforti is now a junior synonym of R. cephalotaenia.
Article
Full-text available
The cardinal (Paracheirodon axelrodi) and green neon tetras (P. simulans) are ornamental fish species which occur separately in two different types of palm swamp habitat in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. These palm swamp habitats are part of extensive interfluvial regions which flood as a function of seasonal precipitation and remain flooded in some regions even during dry periods, due to a high water table and waterlogged, hydromorphic soils. Hydrostatic sensors installed in P. axelrodi and P. simulans habitats recorded daily changes in water level and water temperature every 15 minutes during a 5-month period between September 2009 and January 2010. Significant differences in water temperature were encountered between the two habitats, especially in regards to maximum daily water temperatures. In P. simulans habitats water temperatures ranged from a low of 24.6 to a high of 35.2 °C, while in P. axelrodi habitats temperatures varied between 25.1 and 29.9 °C. The high values recorded at P. simulans sites may indicate a possible thermal tolerance to extreme temperatures, which could partially explain the segregation of the two species in distinctive interfluvial habitats.
Article
Full-text available
Oxynoemacheilus is a species-rich genus of nemacheilid fishes known from Albania eastwards to Central Iran. There are 58 available species-group names and 41 species are recognized here as valid. Four species occur in Europe (O. bureschi, O. merga, O. pindus, O. theophilii) and 38 species are found in Anatolia and the Middle East. Barbatula paucilepis, Cobitis tigris, Nemacheilus tigris cyri, N. namiri, Noemacheilus tigris seyhanensis and Orthrias an-gorae ercisianus recently placed in Paracobitis as well as Nun galilaeus and Seminemacheilus tongiorgii are all transferred to Oxynoemacheilus.
Article
Full-text available
Fangfangia spinicleithralis, new genus, new species, is described from peat swamp forest habitats in Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. It differs from all other cyprinids in having the anteroventral tip of the left cleithrum projecting into a strong anteriorly directed spine and a pointed posteriorly directed spine at the posteroventral aspect of each cleithrum. In addition, it can be diagnosed by the following characters: the base of the dorsal hemitrich of the first pectoral-fin ray with serrated margin, multicuspid pharyngeal teeth, ventrally directed lateral processes on vertebra 1, the high number of procurrent caudal-fin rays (14-18 dorsally, 11-15 ventrally), absence of scales with the exception of six or seven tubular lateral line ossicles, and the greatly elongated middle radials in the anal fin, which may reach half the length of proximal radials.
Data
Full-text available
Fangfangia spinicleithralis, new genus, new species, is described from peat swamp forest habitats in Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. It differs from all other cyprinids in having the anteroventral tip of the left cleithrum projecting into a strong anteriorly directed spine and a pointed posteriorly directed spine at the posteroventral aspect of each cleithrum. In addition, it can be diagnosed by the following characters: the base of the dorsal hemitrich of the first pectoral-fin ray with serrated margin, multicuspid pharyngeal teeth, ventrally directed lateral processes on vertebra 1, the high number of procurrent caudal-fin rays (14-18 dorsally, 11-15 ventrally), absence of scales with the exception of six or seven tubular lateral line ossicles, and the greatly elongated middle radials in the anal fin, which may reach half the length of proximal radials
Article
Full-text available
Orestias gloriae, new species, is described from the isolated springs that drain into the Carcote saltpan in the southern high Andes, in the Chilean Altiplano, at an altitude of 3706 m a.s. 1. (21°16'58.6'S 68°19'28.4" W). This is the only fish species found in these saltpan springs characterized by scarce vegetation, aquatic insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. The new species is separated from other species of Orestias by several unique characters such as a truncated cephalic lyre-like pattern of neuromasts represented only by the rostral series followed by few and large neuromasts irregularly placed; discontinuous series of infraorbital and preopercle-mandibular neuromasts; thick and irregularly-shaped ornamented cycloid scales covering the skull roof; scales covering the posterior part of the skull roof ankylosed into a plate. Additional characters are the presence of a protractile mouth and a characteristic karyotype. Although differences in sizes is a common sexually dimorphic feature found in Orestias, differences in the dentition on the fifth ceratobranchial distinsguish males and females of O. gloriae.
Article
Full-text available
The cardinal (Paracheirodon axelrodi) and green neon tetras (P. simulans) are ornamental fish species which occur separately in two different types of palm swamp habitat in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. These palm swamp habitats are part of extensive interfluvial regions which flood as a function of seasonal precipitation and remain flooded in some regions even during dry periods, due to a high water table and waterlogged, hydro- morphic soils. Hydrostatic sensors installed in P. axelrodi and P. simulans habitats recorded daily changes in water level and water temperature every 15 minutes during a 5-month period between September 2009 and January 2010. Significant differences in water temperature were encountered between the two habitats, especially in regards to maximum daily water temperatures. In P. simulans habitats water temperatures ranged from a low of 24.6 to a high of 35.2 °C, while in P. axelrodi habitats temperatures varied between 25.1 and 29.9 °C. The high values recorded at P. simulans sites may indicate a possible thermal tolerance to extreme temperatures, which could partially explain the segregation of the two species in distinctive interfluvial habitats.
Article
Full-text available
The cardinal (Paracheirodon axelrodi) and green neon tetras (P. simulans) are ornamental fish species which occur separately in two different types of palm swamp habitat in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. These palm swamp habitats are part of extensive interfluvial regions which flood as a function of seasonal precipitation and remain flooded in some regions even during dry periods, due to a high water table and waterlogged, hydromorphic soils. Hydrostatic sensors installed in P. axelrodi and P. simulans habitats recorded daily changes in water level and water temperature every 15 minutes during a 5-month period between September 2009 and January 2010. Significant differences in water temperature were encountered between the two habitats, especially in regards to maximum daily water temperatures. In P. simulans habitats water temperatures ranged from a low of 24.6 to a high of 35.2 °C, while in P. axelrodi habitats temperatures varied between 25.1 and 29.9 °C. The high values recorded at P. simulans sites may indicate a possible thermal tolerance to extreme temperatures, which could partially explain the segregation of the two species in distinctive interfluvial habitats.
Article
Full-text available
Oxynoemacheilus is a species-rich genus of nemacheilid fishes known from Albania eastwards to Central Iran. There are 58 available species-group names and 41 species are recognized here as valid. Four species occur in Europe (O. bureschi, O. merga, O. pindus, O. theophilii) and 38 species are found in Anatolia and the Middle East. Barbatula paucilepis, Cobitis tigris, Nemacheilus tigris cyri, N. namiri, Noemacheilus tigris seyhanensis and Orthrias an-gorae ercisianus recently placed in Paracobitis as well as Nun galilaeus and Seminemacheilus tongiorgii are all transferred to Oxynoemacheilus.
Article
Poecilia sarrafae, new species, is described from the Parnaíba and Mearim river basins, in northeastern Brazil. It is hypothesized to be closely related to P. branneri and P. minima by sharing eight apomorphic conditions: teeth of the external rows of dentary and premaxilla conical; 5-7 teeth on the external rows of dentary and premaxilla; vomer process not longitudinally elongated; tip of gonopodial rays 3 and 4a ankylosed; dorsal fin with 8 rays in males and 7 rays in females; penultimate dorsal-fin ray of male elongated; presence of a black blotch on the posterior portion of the caudal peduncle in both sexes; middle portion of flank with vertical pale gray bars in males. Poecilia sarrafae differs from all of its congeners by the presence of a round or slightly vertically elongated post humeral blotch (vs. slightly ventrally dislocated post humeral blotch in P. minima; vertically elongated post humeral blotch in P. parae, P. bifurca and P. picta; post-humeral blotch absent in P. branneri).
Article
Simpsonichthys margaritatus, new species, is described from the Verde River floodplains, upper Paraná River basin, central Brazil. It is distinguished from all other congeners by having series of small light blue to light yellow spots arranged in close proximity on the dorsal and caudal fins in males and oblique dark brown bars on the anal fin in females. It is member of a clade including miniature species endemic to an area of central Brazilian high plateaus drained by rivers connected to the lower section of the Paranaíba River and adjacent upper tributaries of the Araguaia River The new species seems to be more closely related to S. cholopteryx, from the upper Araguaia River basin, by both having oblique red bars on the anal fin in males.