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... The solids deposition in commercial areas is generally more than in residential areas (Sartor and Boyd 1972). This can be masked by street sweeping, which is often more frequently applied in commercial areas, and reduces the solids loading (Sutherland and Jelen 1997). Visual observation during the monitoring period made clear that the street surface close to The eight-direction flow approach (Jenson and Domingue (1988)) to determine the size of the paved area connected to a gully pot Digital elevation data of The Hague (from 2014) from AHN3 (Van der Zon (2013) and from similar dataset owned by the municipality for Rotterdam (from 2016). ...
... Pitt et al. 2005;Walker and Wong 1999;Amato et al. 2010). Sutherland and Jelen (1997) concluded that outdated street sweeping technologies could not pick up the finer solids and increased solids loadings to gully pots by loosening immobile solids. It was concluded that sweeping technology improved meanwhile and became efficient in reducing solids loadings. ...
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Gully pots are utilized for conveying runoff to drainage systems, as well as for reducing the system's solids loading by retaining suspended solids. However, the accumulation of solids in gully pots reduces their removal efficiency, leading to an increase in solids transport towards the drainage system. This article aims to identify the main drivers of the solids accumulation in gully pots and, thus the relevant processes for wash-off models. The solids accumulation rates in 407 gully pots were monitored within a period of ~14 months and were analysed by means of a linear mixed model and a regression tree. The parameters vegetation factor, rainfall volume, and filling degree are the main drivers of the accumulation process. These parameters are linked to the solids build-up in a catchment, solids transport, and solids retention in gully pots, which means that none of these 3 processes is dominant. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Street sweeping is expected to have long-term effect, since sweeping reduces the solids load on streets (e.g. Sartor and Boyd 1972;Bender and Terstriep 1984;Sutherland and Jelen 1997;Amato et al. 2010), which makes less solids available for the next storm events. Therefore, instead of looking at the effect of street sweeping in time slots of a few weeks (as done in the RT), the effect of street sweeping is analysed over a period of two times 5 months in this section. ...
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Urban runoff remobilises solids and their associated pollutants from urban-built environments and transports them to drainage systems via gully pots. This study presents an extensive monitoring campaign on the solids loading to drainage systems, including 104 gully pots as sampling locations and lasting 2 years. The solids loading is modelled with Build-Up and Wash-Off (BUWO) models and a Regression Tree (RT). The performance of the RT is substantially better than the performance of the BUWO models, such that it is not recommended to use a single BUWO model to predict the loading of a set of gully pots/catchments. It is discussed whether the generally observed mismatch between monitoring data and wash-off models, both in this study and in literature, points to a fundamental misunderstanding of the underlying processes. Finally, the results show that an increased street sweeping frequency does not significantly reduce the solids loading to drainage systems.
... As an example, Selbig (2016) demonstrated a significant reduction in mean total suspended solids concentrations in samples collected from a gutter of a street swept by mechanical sweeper (74% of reduction) and vacuum sweeper (85%). However, there is still considerable uncertainty with regard to pollutant reduction efficiencies, which are extremely variable depending on the frequency and timing of sweeping between storms and the high variability of stormwater quality loads (Hixon and Dymond, 2018;Kang et al., 2009;Sutherland and Jelen, 1997). Regardless, all the different street sweeping techniques proved to be more efficient for the removal of non-resuspendable coarser particles. ...
Article
Non-exhaust emissions (NEE) of particulate matter (PM) from brake, tyre, road pavement and railway wear, as well as resuspension of already deposited road dust, account for up to 90% by mass of total traffic-related PM emitted. This review aims at analysing the current knowledge on road traffic NEE regarding sources, particle generation processes, chemical and physical characterization, and mitigation strategies. The literature on this matter often presents highly variable and hardly comparable results due to the heterogeneity of NEE sources and the absence of standardized sampling and measurement protocols. As evidence, emission factors (EFs) were found to range from 1 mg km−1 veh−1 to 18.5 mg km−1 veh−1 for brake wear, and from 0.3 mg km−1 veh−1 to 7.4 mg km−1 veh−1 for tyre wear. Resuspended dust, which varies in even wider ranges (from 5.4 mg km−1 veh−1 to 330 mg km−1 veh−1 for cars), is considered the prevailing NEE source. The lack of standardized monitoring approaches resulted in the impossibility of setting international regulations to limit NEE. Therefore, up until now the abatement of NEE has only been achieved by mitigation and prevention strategies. However, the effectiveness of these measures still needs to be improved and further investigated. As an example, mitigation strategies, such as street washing or sweeping, proved effective in reducing PM levels, but only in the short term. The replacement of internal combustion engines vehicles with electric ones was instead proposed as a prevention strategy, but there are still concerns regarding the increase of NEE deriving from the extra weight of the batteries. The data reported in this review highlighted the need for future studies to broaden their research area, and to focus not only on the standardization of methods and the introduction of regulations, but also on improving already existing technologies and mitigating strategies.
... Nonetheless, it is found that the removal of RDS (especially for fine RDS) can be effectively improved by employing tandem sweeping operations, e.g. mechanical sweeping followed immediately by a vacuum-assisted machine (Sutherland and Jelen, 1997), modified mechanical broom and water wash street sweeper (Amato et al., 2009), modified regenerative-air vacuum sweeper followed by a washer (Chang et al., 2005) etc. ...
Article
Understanding of the impacts of key influential factors on RDS related heavy metal (HM) contamination is crucial for developing effective RDS management strategies to support the stormwater pollution mitigation. In this paper, three factors (i.e. traffic condition, slope of road and antecedent dry period) were considered to investigate their influences on the accumulation of RDS and adsorbed HMs. Positive correlations between truck and Zn/Ni content in RDS, car and Cu/Pb content in fine RDS, as well as bus and Cu content in coarse RDS were observed. Relative to sloping stretches, RDS from level stretches generally presented finer size distributions and aggravated HM contamination in fine fractions. Moreover, the fine RDS and adsorbed HMs increased significantly with the accumulation of RDS. Based on these findings, optimized RDS management strategies were proposed to enhance the removal of washable RDS in pollution hotspots. For example, tandem sweeping technologies, performing high efficiency in capturing fine particles, are suggested to be employed during the steady period of RDS accumulation, in order to reduce fine RDS effectively. The outcomes of this study provide useful reference for the source control of stormwater runoff pollution.
... Nonetheless, it is found that the removal of RDS (especially for fine RDS) can be effectively improved by employing tandem sweeping operations, e.g. mechanical sweeping followed immediately by a vacuum-assisted machine (Sutherland and Jelen, 1997), modified mechanical broom and water wash street sweeper (Amato et al., 2009), modified regenerative-air vacuum sweeper followed by a washer (Chang et al., 2005) etc. ...
Article
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Little is known about the particles attached on the surfaces of coarse (> 150 μm) road-deposited sediments (RDS), which are potential contributors of stormwater pollution. Therefore, the size distributions and heavy metal (including Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni) pollution of RDS were evaluated taking these attached particles into consideration. Moreover, the relationships of RDS contamination with traffic types were further discussed. The results showed that < 22, 22–38.5, 38.5–150, > 150 μm RDS and attached particles accounted for 2.1 ± 1.8%, 8.5 ± 5.7%, 50.7 ± 6.8%, 38.6 ± 8.3%, and 2.0 ± 1.2% of total RDS mass, respectively. The size distributions of attached particles were comparable to that of representative stormwater particles, suggesting their great potential to contribute stormwater particles by desorption. The Zn pollution of attached particles was remarkable, which was significantly higher than that of both fine (< 150 μm) and coarse (> 150 μm) RDS. The Cu and Pb pollution were comparable to that of fine RDS, which were significantly higher than that of coarse RDS. Conversely, the Cr and Ni pollution were comparable to that of coarse RDS, which were significantly lower than that of fine RDS. Traffic types were found to be closely related with RDS contamination, and thus are indicative of specific RDS pollution. For example, electrombile in old residential area is indicative of abnormal Pb pollution due to past emissions of leaded gasoline; lorry is indicative of remarkable Zn pollution of > 22 μm RDS due to abrasion of tires and metallic substances. Accordingly, traffic type is accessible to identify the typical pollutants in RDS to promote effective RDS management.
... Some earlier studies in the USA found street sweeping effective in removing litter and coarser fractions of sediments, but the effect on urban runoff was not satisfactory (Bender & Terstriep 1984;Sartor & Gaboury 1984). Since these studies were performed, new street sweepers have been developed and some recent studies indicate that street sweeping can be an effective method to reduce pollutant transport from streets (Sutherland & Jalen 1997;German & Svensson 2001). German and Svensson (2002) observed that the removal of finer particles was important for controlling diffuse pollution. ...
Article
Experimental results are described to evaluate the diffuse pollution profile according to land use in the catchments and street sweeping as a best management practice (BMP). We studied the variation of pollutant concentrations in outfalls discharging runoff from residential, commercial and high-traffic areas and in street sweeping. Pollution profiles varied with the land use in the catchments and seasons along with other factors such as rainfall intensity, construction works and street maintenance. Microbial indicator organisms were relatively high in all three outfalls. Heavy metal concentrations were low with lead (Pb) as the predominant heavy metal. The organic and solid contents were low but non-degradable and persistent. Relatively high quantities of pollutants were found in street sweeps in all catchments suggesting street sweeping as an effective measure to control diffuse pollution. Regular and frequent sweeping is important as a BMP.
... Street sweepings, the residues collected by motorized sweeping equipment from the streets, 20 represent materials which have accumulated on impervious surfaces over time. While previous studies have highlighted the major role of residues on streets as a source of metals and suspended solids in urban stormwater, 21,22 little is known about their contribution to the ARGs in receiving water bodies during storm events. ...
Article
Stormwater runoff has been known to cause increases in bacterial loadings in urban streams. However, little is known about its impacts on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in urban watersheds. This study was performed to characterize the ARG composition of various environmental compartments of an urban watershed and to quantify their contributions of microbes and ARGs to an urban stream under wet weather conditions. Shotgun metagenomic results showed that the ARG abundance in wet weather flow was significantly higher than in base flow. Multidrug resistance genes were the most common ARG type across environmental samples. Vancomycin resistance genes were abundant in embankment soil and street sweeping samples. Analyses using SourceTracker estimated storm drain outfall water to be the biggest contributor of microbes (54-57%) and ARGs (82-88%) in the urban stream during wet weather flows. Furthermore, results on street sweepings showed that wash-off from streets was the biggest known contributor of microbes (41-45%) and ARGs (92-96%) in storm drain outfall water. Pantoea and Pseudomonas were associated with the highest numbers of ARGs and were most abundant in stormwater-related samples. Results from this study can advance our knowledge about ARGs in urban streams, an important medium linking environmental ARGs to the general public.
... The ability of several different sweeping technologies to pick up accumulated sediment of various sizes was evaluated by Sutherland and Jelen (1997). They suggested that reductions of up to 80% in annual TSS and associated pollutant washoffs might be achieved by using bimonthly to weekly sweepings. ...
Article
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Previous publications on restoring clogged permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICPs), and also on available street sweeping equipment, are reviewed in some detail. Special drainage cell geometries, called cupules, in specific PICPs were tested under moving regenerative-air pick-up heads in a laboratory rig, and early results have been discussed in a previous paper. Reported here are follow-up field tests on three different parking lot pavements at one installation of rapidly cleaned out PICPs (RCPP) using a wide range of readily available street cleaning equipment. Rapid cleanout of the special purpose cupules at various sweeper speeds is measured and reported for a regenerative air sweeper, two types of mechanical sweepers, and a portable blower with two pick-up head directions of travel and for different filter media. A cost comparison of sweeper performance is presented. Preliminary results of these initial RCPP field tests evidently conflict with recommendations by authorities. Results are, however, considered to be initial, because of insignificant diminution in surface infiltration rates caused by clogging. However, according to the present study, routine RCPP management should ensure that rapid cleanouts similar to those observed here will continue to be experienced over extended time, and RCPP left uncleaned for a prolonged time will be restored more quickly and easily than is the case with the current generation of PICPs. Inexpensive and easy renewal of filter media could lead to improved pavement and deicing management strategies. Accompanying this paper are two short videos that show our field procedures for pavement installation, cleanout and restoration. An algorithm is provided for estimating minimum cost cleanout of PICPs.
Article
Municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) permittees face costly obligations to reduce pollutant of concern (POC) loadings for achieving waste load allocations (WLAs) assigned from total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Because of the magnitude of reductions necessary to achieve WLAs at a watershed scale, implementation of nonstructural best management practices (BMPs) that can be applied to large areas within the watershed appears necessary. Street sweeping serves as an example because streets exist throughout urban watersheds, often are directly connected to the storm sewer, and are found to contain an abundance of contaminants. Although pollutant removal from street sweeping has been evaluated for decades, an understanding of the impact on water quality in receiving streams is elusive. The current review of rigorous street sweeping studies, in the context of application toward WLAs, suggests that impacts are potentially significant in reducing downstream pollutant loads. Because there are few adequate sampling studies, a lack of feasible methodologies, and perhaps an inability to evaluate impacts downstream from street sweeping altogether, alternative methods have emerged to quantify POC reductions as measures of effectiveness required for regulatory compliance.
Article
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Annual runoffs and pollutant loads for six homogeneous Nationwide Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water sites in Portland, Oregon, were simulated using SIMPTM, the Simplified Particulate Transport Model, calibrated to local runoff quality data. Results clearly showed that current linear or exponential sediment accumulation models fail to represent the seasonal variation of accumulation and runoff quality without resorting to arbitrary seasonal rates that depend upon the results they would compute. And the calibrated model results suggested that simplified annual pollutant load calculations , of concentration times volume, could overestimate expected loads by up to seven times. In addition, results of a street sweeping testing showed that tandem street sweeping (i.e. mechanical followed by vacuum) was much more effective than previously concluded by the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP).
Article
A presentation is given of the results and conclusions from the EPA-sponsored demonstration study of nonpoint pollution abatement through improved street cleaning practices. An important aspect was the development of sampling procedures to test street cleaning equipment performance in real-world conditions. Other areas explored in this study include: (1) accumulation rate characteristics of the various pollutants associated with street dirt; (2) runoff flow characteristics, concentrations and total mass yields of monitored pollutants in runoff, and street dirt removal capabilities and effects on deposition in the sewerage for various kinds of storms; (3) costs and labor effectiveness of street cleaning, runoff treatment, and combined runoff and wastewater treatment; and (4) results of a special study of airborne dust losses from street surfaces.
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