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Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of species and bibliography

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Abstract and Figures

The Australian phasmid fauna has been revised prior to publication of a field guide by the same authors. Six new genera are described: Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock, Davidrentzia Brock & Hasenpusch, Micropodacanthus Brock & Hasenpusch, Paratropidoderus Brock & Hasenpusch and Spinosipyloidea Hasenpusch & Brock. Sixteen new species from various parts of Australia are described and figured: Candovia robinsoni Brock & Hasenpusch, Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Scionecra milledgei Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea brevicerci Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea garradungensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea larryi Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea lewisensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea rentzi Brock & Hasenpusch, Sipyloidea whitei Brock & Hasenpusch, Spinosipyloidea doddi Hasenpusch & Brock [all Necrosciinae], Pachymorpha spinosa Brock & Hasenpusch [Pachymorphinae], Davidrentzia valida Brock & Hasenpusch [Platycraninae], Micropodacanthus mouldsi Brock & Hasenpusch, Micropodacanthus sztrakai Brock & Hasenpusch, Paratropidoderus spinosus Brock & Hasenpusch and Podacanthus keyi Brock & Hasenpusch [Tropidoderinae]. A number of new combinations are proposed, new synonyms and incorrect synonymy corrected following detailed examination of type and other material: 1. (Lonchodinae): Austrocarausius Brock, 2000: Carausius macerrimus Brunner, 1907 is a new synonym of Austrocarausius nigropunctatus (Kirby, 1896). Denhama Werner, 1912: D. austrocarinata (Otte & Brock, 2005), D. longiceps (Brunner, 1907), D. striata (Sjöstedt, 1918) and D. eutrachelia (Westwood, 1859) are transferred from Hyrtacus Stål, 1875, the latter species also removed from synonymy with Hyrtacus coenosa (Gray, 1833). D. gracilis (Sjöstedt, 1918), a former Marcenia species, is also transferred. Hyrtacus Stål, 1875 (= Marcenia Sjöstedt, 1918 syn. n.): H. caurus (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. transferred from Lonchodes Gray, 1835 (three new synonyms also reported for this species: Bacillus peristhenellus Tepper, 1905, Hyrtacus cunctatrix (Sjöstedt, 1918) and Hyrtacus nigrogranulosus Sjöstedt, 1918). Marcenia frenchi (Wood-Mason, 1877) is a new synonym of Hyrtacus tuberculatus Stål, 1875. 2. (Necrosciinae): Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. n.: A. carterus (Westwood, 1859) comb. n., transferred from Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893 (= Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. n.). Candovia Stål, 1875 is removed from synonymy with Hyrtacus, along with the type species, C. coenosa. This has resulted in all former Australian species placed in Parasipyloidea Redtenbacher, 1908 being transferred to Candovia i.e. C. aberrata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. annulata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. granulosa (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. pallida (Sjöstedt, 1918), comb. n., C. spurcata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n. and C. strumosa (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. In addition, C. evoneobertii (Zompro & Adis, 2001) comb. n. and C. peridromes (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. (including its new synonyms Clitarchus longipes Brunner, 1907, Bacunculus tener Brunner, 1907 and E. cercatus (Redtenbacher, 1908)) are transferred from Echetlus Stål, 1875. Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock gen n.: C. australica (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893: S. bella (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. (new synonym S. ovabdita Rentz & John, 1987) is transferred from Necroscia Serville, 1838, S. caeca Sjöstedt, 1918 rev. stat., is removed from synonymy with Sipyloidea carterus (Westwood, 1859). Rhamphosipyloidea Redtenbacher, 1908: R. queenslandica (Sjöstedt, 1918) comb. n. is transferred from Sipyloidea, also removed from synonymy with carterus. 3. (Pachymorphinae): Pachymorpha Gray, 1835: P. pasithoe (Westwood, 1859) is a new synonym of P. simplicipes Serville, 1838. 4. (Eurycanthinae). Eurycantha Boisduval, 1835: E. sifia (Westwood, 1859) is a new synonym of E. calcarata Lucas, 1870. 5. (Phasmatinae): Vetilia Stål, 1875 is a new synonym of Acrophylla Gray, 1835, resulting in the transfer of these species to Acrophylla: A. enceladus (Gray, 1835) comb. n. and A. thoon (Stål, 1875) comb. n. Vetilia ligia Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of Acrophylla wuelfingi Redtenbacher, 1908. A. paula (Tepper, 1905) and A. aliena Redtenbacher, 1908 are new synonyms of A. nubilosa Tepper, 1905. A. caprella (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. is transferred from Ctenomorpha Gray, 1833. Anchiale Stål, 1875 (= Ctenomorphodes Karny, 1923 syn. n.), resulting in the transfer of A. briareus (Gray, 1834) comb. n. and A. tessulata (Gray, 1835) which is renamed Anchiale austrotessulata name nov., as tessulata Gray is preoccupied by Anchiale tessulata (Goeze, 1778). Austroclonistria Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of Arphax Stål, 1875, as A. serrulataa Redtenbacher, 1908) is a new synonym of Arphax dolomedes (Westwood, 1859). Ctenomorpha Gray, 1833: Paractenomorpha macrotegmus (Tepper, 1887) is confirmed as a synonym of Ctenomorpha marginipennis Gray, 1833. Hermarchus Stål, 1875: H. polynesicus Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of H. insignis (Kaup, 1871). Paronchestus Redtenbacher, 1908: P. cornutus (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. is transferred from Acrophylla Gray, 1835 and P. pasimachus (Westwood, 1859) from Onchestus Stål, 1875. 6. (Platycraninae): Megacrania batesii (Kirby, 1896) is removed from synonymy with Megacrania alpheus (Westwood, 1859). 7. (Tropidoderinae): Didymuria Kirby 1904: D. virginea Stål, 1875 is removed from synonymy with D. violescens (Leach, 1814). Lysicles Stål, 1877: L. periphanes (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. is transferred from Echetlus Stål, 1875. Tropidoderus Gray 1835: T. michaelseni Werner, 1912 is removed from synonymy with T. childrenii (Gray, 1833). 8. (Xeroderinae): Cooktownia Sjöstedt, 1918 becomes a new synonym of Xeroderus Gray, 1835, as Cooktownia plana Sjöstedt, 1918 is a new synonym of Xeroderus kirbii Gray, 1835. Lectotypes are designated for Clitarchus longipes Brunner, 1907, Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher, 1908 and Vetilia ligula Redtenbacher, 1908. As a result of this work, there are now 104 Australian species (+ 1 subspecies) and in order to facilitate further research on these insects, an updated checklist is provided, also a detailed bibliography.
Content may be subject to copyright.
ZOOTAXA
Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida),
including a checklist of species and bibliography
PAUL D. BROCK & JACK HASENPUSCH
Magnolia Press
Auckland, New Zealand
1570
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
2 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
PAUL D. BROCK & JACK HASENPUSCH
Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of species and bibliography
(Zootaxa 1570)
84 pp.; 30 cm.
31 August 2007
ISBN 978-1-86977-151-5 (paperback)
ISBN 978-1-86977-152-2 (Online edition)
FIRST PUBLISHED IN 2007 BY
Magnolia Press
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ISSN 1175-5326 (Print edition)
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Accepted by B. Mantovani: 2 Jul. 2007; published: 31 Aug.2007 3
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2007 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1570: 181 (2007)
www.mapress.com/zootaxa/
Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of
species and bibliography
PAUL D. BROCK1 & JACK HASENPUSCH²
1 The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, U.K.
E-mail: pauldbrock@btinternet.com
² Australian Insect Farm, PO Box 26, Garradunga, Nr. Innisfail, Queensland 4860, Australia.
E-mail: info@insectfarm.com.au
Table of contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Studies made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Abbreviations for depositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Diapheromeridae: Lonchodinae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Denhama Werner, 1912 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Diapheromeridae: Necrosciinae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Candovia Stål, stat. rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Candovia robinsoni Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Robinson’s Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock, gen. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Rhamphosipyloidea Redtenbacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Paluma Winged Beak-abdomen Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . .14
Scionecra Karny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Scionecra milledgei Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Milledge’s Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Sipyloidea Brunner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Sipyloidea brevicerci Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Short-cerci Winged Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Sipyloidea garradungensis Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Garradunga Green-winged Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Sipyloidea larryi Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Hurricane Larry Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Sipyloidea lewisensis Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Mt. Lewis Winged Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Sipyloidea rentzi Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Rentz’s Sipyloidea Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Sipyloidea whitei Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [White’s Winged Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Spinosipyloidea Hasenpusch & Brock, gen. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Spinosipyloidea doddi Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Dodd’s Spiny Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Diapheromeridae: Pachymorphinae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Pachymorpha Gray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Pachymorpha spinosa Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Spiny Pachymorpha Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Davidrentzia Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Davidrentzia valida Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Rentz’s Strong Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Micropodacanthus Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Micropodacanthus mouldsi Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Mould’s Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Micropodacanthus sztrakai Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Jiva’s Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Paratropidoderus Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Paratropidoderus spinosus Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Orange-spined Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Podacanthus Gray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Podacanthus keyi Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Key’s Stick-insect] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Checklist of Australian phasmids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
4 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Abstract
The Australian phasmid fauna has been revised prior to publication of a field guide by the same authors. Six new genera
are described: Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock, Davidrentzia Brock &
Hasenpusch, Micropodacanthus Brock & Hasenpusch, Paratropidoderus Brock & Hasenpusch and Spinosipyloidea
Hasenpusch & Brock. Sixteen new species from various parts of Australia are described and figured: Candovia robinsoni
Brock & Hasenpusch, Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Scionecra milledgei Hasenpusch & Brock,
Sipyloidea brevicerci Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea garradungensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea larryi Hasen-
pusch & Brock, Sipyloidea lewisensis Hasenpusch & Brock, Sipyloidea rentzi Brock & Hasenpusch, Sipyloidea whitei
Brock & Hasenpusch, Spinosipyloidea doddi Hasenpusch & Brock [all Necrosciinae], Pachymorpha spinosa Brock &
Hasenpusch [Pachymorphinae], Davidrentzia valida Brock & Hasenpusch [Platycraninae], Micropodacanthus mouldsi
Brock & Hasenpusch, Micropodacanthus sztrakai Brock & Hasenpusch, Paratropidoderus spinosus Brock & Hasen-
pusch and Podacanthus keyi Brock & Hasenpusch [Tropidoderinae].
A number of new combinations are proposed, new synonyms and incorrect synonymy corrected following detailed
examination of type and other material: 1. (Lonchodinae): Austrocarausius Brock, 2000: Carausius macerrimus Brun-
ner, 1907 is a new synonym of Austrocarausius nigropunctatus (Kirby, 1896). Denhama Werner, 1912: D. austrocari-
nata (Otte & Brock, 2005), D. longiceps (Brunner, 1907), D. striata (Sjöstedt, 1918) and D. eutrachelia (Westwood,
1859) are transferred from Hyrtacus Stål, 1875, the latter species also removed from synonymy with Hyrtacus coenosa
(Gray, 1833). D. gracilis (Sjöstedt, 1918), a former Marcenia species, is also transferred. Hyrtacus Stål, 1875 (= Marce-
nia Sjöstedt, 1918 syn. n.): H. caurus (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. transferred from Lonchodes Gray, 1835 (three new syn-
onyms also reported for this species: Bacillus peristhenellus Tepper, 1905, Hyrtacus cunctatrix (Sjöstedt, 1918) and
Hyrtacus nigrogranulosus Sjöstedt, 1918). Marcenia frenchi (Wood-Mason, 1877) is a new synonym of Hyrtacus tuber-
culatus Stål, 1875. 2. (Necrosciinae): Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. n.: A. carterus (Westwood, 1859)
comb. n., transferred from Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893 (= Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. n.). Candovia Stål,
1875 is removed from synonymy with Hyrtacus, along with the type species, C. coenosa. This has resulted in all former
Australian species placed in Parasipyloidea Redtenbacher, 1908 being transferred to Candovia i.e. C. aberrata (Brunner,
1907) comb. n., C. annulata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. granulosa (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. pallida (Sjöstedt,
1918), comb. n., C. spurcata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n. and C. strumosa (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. In addition, C.
evoneobertii (Zompro & Adis, 2001) comb. n. and C. peridromes (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. (including its new syn-
onyms Clitarchus longipes Brunner, 1907, Bacunculus tener Brunner, 1907 and E. cercatus (Redtenbacher, 1908)) are
transferred from Echetlus Stål, 1875. Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock gen n.: C. australica (Redtenbacher, 1908)
comb. n. Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893: S. bella (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. (new synonym S. ovabdita Rentz & John, 1987) is
transferred from Necroscia Serville, 1838, S. caeca Sjöstedt, 1918 rev. stat., is removed from synonymy with Sipyloidea
carterus (Westwood, 1859). Rhamphosipyloidea Redtenbacher, 1908: R. queenslandica (Sjöstedt, 1918) comb. n. is
transferred from Sipyloidea, also removed from synonymy with carterus. 3. (Pachymorphinae): Pachymorpha Gray,
1835: P. pasit ho e (Westwood, 1859) is a new synonym of P. sim pl icipes Serville, 1838. 4. (Eurycanthinae). Eurycantha
Boisduval, 1835: E. sifia (Westwood, 1859) is a new synonym of E. calcarata Lucas, 1870. 5. (Phasmatinae): Vetilia
Stål, 1875 is a new synonym of Acrophylla Gray, 1835, resulting in the transfer of these species to Acrophylla: A. encela-
dus (Gray, 1835) comb. n. and A. thoon (Stål, 1875) comb. n. Vetilia ligia Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of Acro-
phylla wuelfingi Redtenbacher, 1908. A. paula (Tepper, 1905) and A. aliena Redtenbacher, 1908 are new synonyms of A.
nubilosa Tepper, 1905. A. caprella (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. is transferred from Ctenomorpha Gray, 1833. Anchiale
Stål, 1875 (= Ctenomorphodes Karny, 1923 syn. n.), resulting in the transfer of A. briareus (Gray, 1834) comb. n. and A.
tessulata (Gray, 1835) which is renamed Anchiale austrotessulata name nov., as tessulata Gray is preoccupied by Anchi-
ale tessulata (Goeze, 1778). Austroclonistria Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of Arphax Stål, 1875, as A. serru-
lataa Redtenbacher, 1908) is a new synonym of Arphax dolomedes (Westwood, 1859). Ctenomorpha Gray, 1833:
Paractenomorpha macrotegmus (Tepper, 1887) is confirmed as a synonym of Ctenomorpha marginipennis Gray, 1833.
Hermarchus Stål, 1875: H. polynesicus Redtenbacher, 1908 is a new synonym of H. insignis (Kaup, 1871). Paronchestus
Redtenbacher, 1908: P. corn utu s (Tepper, 1905) comb. n. is transferred from Acrophylla Gray, 1835 and P. pasimachus
(Westwood, 1859) from Onchestus Stål, 1875. 6. (Platycraninae): Megacrania batesii (Kirby, 1896) is removed from
synonymy with Megacrania alpheus (Westwood, 1859). 7. (Tropidoderinae): Didymuria Kirby 1904: D. virginea Stål,
1875 is removed from synonymy with D. violescens (Leach, 1814). Lysicles Stål, 1877: L. periphanes (Westwood, 1859)
comb. n. is transferred from Echetlus Stål, 1875. Tropidoderus Gray 1835: T. michaelseni Werner, 1912 is removed from
synonymy with T. childrenii (Gray, 1833). 8. (Xeroderinae): Cooktownia Sjöstedt, 1918 becomes a new synonym of
Xeroderus Gray, 1835, as Cooktownia plana Sjöstedt, 1918 is a new synonym of Xeroderus kirbii Gray, 1835.
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Lectotypes are designated for Clitarchus longipes Brunner, 1907, Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher, 1908 and
Vetilia ligula Redtenbacher, 1908.
As a result of this work, there are now 104 Australian species (+ 1 subspecies) and in order to facilitate further
research on these insects, an updated checklist is provided, also a detailed bibliography.
Key words: Phasmida, new genera, new species, new combinations, synonyms, Australia
Introduction
The Australian phasmids are nocturnal and generally poorly studied before 1998, except for a few ‘pest’ spe-
cies reported on by a few authors. This lack of knowledge inspired the authors to write a field guide (in
progress) with detailed taxonomic changes presented in this paper. Even basic information, such as details of
food plants, is rarely recorded. The fauna, is, however, not neglected. There are several recent revisions of
genera (Brock (1998, 2000, 2002), Brock & Hasenpusch (2003, 2006), Hasenpusch & Brock (2006)) and sev-
eral catalogues on Australian phasmids. Rainbow (1897) published the first list, followed by Tepper (1902),
Vickery (1983) and Balderson et al (1998). Estimates of the true number of Australian phasmids have ranged
from 150 to 200 species. Although Balderson et al is a comprehensive catalogue, many species are only
known from the type (originally described) material.
Studies made
Our studies are based on widespread collecting by ourselves and others, review of literature records, also
detailed examination of a number of museum and private collections (including nearly all known type mate-
rial). This has resulted in the need to describe a number of new species, list others as synonyms and correct
erroneous synonymy, hence an up to date checklist of species has been prepared, along with a detailed bibliog-
raphy.
Vickery’s 1983 list of Australian species is worth a comment, as he stated ‘All synonymy is from the liter-
ature; no new synonymy is presented in this work”, but it has been difficult locating references to some of the
presumably non-cited classification he used. Some obscure references relate to Rainbow (1897) and may not
have been confirmed by Kirby (1904) or Brunner & Redtenbacher (1906–08) (the sequence for each species
can be found in Otte & Brock, 2005, expanded in the Phasmida Species File http://phasmida.orthoptera.org).
It is likely that some classification has been obtained from the Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra
(ANIC) (for example, the genus Anasceles Redtenbacher, 1908 is cited ‘specimens thought to be undescribed
species of Anasceles are in ANIC.’). However, the classification presented here is fully researched and whilst,
in some cases, agrees with Vickery, decisions for synonymy have been reassessed. The taxonomy used is that
of Bradley & Galil (1977), as updated by subsequent authors (summarised in Otte & Brock (2005)).
Abbreviations for depositories
AMSA Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia
ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia
BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
MVMA Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
QMBA Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia
SAMA South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia
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The above depositories house new taxa. Some paratypes are lodged in the authors’ private collections.
Paul Brock’s collection is affiliated with BMNH and it his intention to transfer paratypes to BMNH at a later
date. As part of this study, type and other specimens have been examined in many museum and private collec-
tions, outside of Australia, much time spent on checking type material in:
MCSN Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova, Italy
NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria
OXUM Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford, United Kingdom
Diapheromeridae: Lonchodinae
Whilst revising Hyrtacus Stål, 1875 (= Marcenia Sjöstedt, 1918 syn. n.), from critical examination of the type
species, it became evident from body morphology and eggs that only small, robust species belong to this
genus, leaving a another genus to accommodate the related, slender species normally strongly associated with
the genus Hyrtacus. In the event, Denhama Werner, 1912 has already been described and is here transferred
from Tropidoderinae. The genus is redescribed in the light of additional species.
Denhama Werner, 1912
Type species. Denhama aussa Werner, 1912: 53, by monotypy.
Characteristics of the genus
Remarkably elongate wingless, small to large phasmids (several species awaiting description), body
smooth or ridged, plain or with a bold longitudinal black stripe running the length of the body. Males could
not conceivably be any slenderer. Head elongate. Pronotum little more than half length of head. Mesonotum
very elongate, typically eight to nine times length of pronotum. Metanotum much shorter. Antennae long,
considerably exceeding length of fore femora. Legs unarmed, long, hind legs easily exceeding end of anal
segment. Operculum exceeding 9th abdominal segment (male subgenital plate similar). Supraanal plate rather
weakly formed, often a long ‘extension’ ending in a rounded or almost truncate tip. End of anal segment in
males usually excised in centre. Cerci short, in both sexes, often concealed.
Egg. Remarkably long, thin cigar-shaped, simple capsule, glued to suitable surfaces. Micropylar plate
elongate, from rim to base.
Notes: no other known Australian genera have such long, slender bodies, this distinguishes them at a
glance from the related, small, more robust Hyrtacus spp, in which females have a beak-like end of abdomen,
unlike the flimsy structure in Denhama, which can easily drop off dead material.
Species included
D. aussa Werner, 1912, D. austrocarinata (Otte & Brock, 2005) comb. n. (= Marcenia carinata Sjöstedt,
1918, = Hyrtacus cylindricus Sjöstedt, 1918), D. eutrachelia (Westwood, 1859) stat. rev. (removed from syn-
onymy with Bacteria coenosa Gray, 1833), D. gracilis Sjöstedt, 1918 comb. n., D. longiceps (Brunner, 1907)
comb. n. (= Hyrtacus imitans Brunner, 1907), D. striata (Sjöstedt, 1918) comb. n.
Notes
These insects are mainly found in drier parts of Australia, amongst herbaceous vegetation and grasses, on
or near the ground.
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Diapheromeridae: Necrosciinae
Austrosipyloidea Brock & Hasenpusch, gen. nov.
Type species. Necroscia carterus Westwood, 1859: 138, pl. 15:5, here designated.
Characteristics of the genus
Elongate medium-sized winged phasmids, body length c. 110 mm in females, c. 75 mm in males.
Body smooth, pale, with a bold longitudinal black stripe running the length of the body in type species,
fainter on the abdomen. Head slightly longer than wide. Pronotum same length as head or slightly longer.
Mesonotum elongate, four to five times length of pronotum. Metanotum and medium segment slightly shorter.
Antennae long, easily exceeding length of fore legs. Fore wings short, hind wings reasonably long, not reach-
ing end of 5th – 6th abdominal segment. Legs unarmed, moderately long, hind legs short of anal segment, par-
ticularly in females. Operculum curved sharply to slightly rounded tip, not reaching end of 9th abdominal
segment. Male subgenital plate similar length, end broader, subtruncate. Cerci remarkably long, narrow dou-
ble pronged structure, over twice length of elongate anal segment.
Egg. Smooth oval capsule, with dome-shaped operculum. Micropylar plate broad, almost running the full
length of the dorsal surface.
Notes: no other known Australian (or world) Necrosciinae have the double pronged, fragile long cerci
characteristic of this genus, which is close to Sipyloidea. Slenderer than nearly all Necrosciinae, there is, how-
ever, a look-alike species (Sipyloidea gracilipes Sjöstedt, 1918) in north Queensland, which even has a similar
black longitudinal body stripe, but it lacks the long cerci; to complicate matters, there is an intermediate
‘form’ in Western Australia (near Millstream), which has cerci of an intermediate length. The egg of S. gracil-
ipes appears sufficiently different to be excluded from this new genus for the time being, pending further stud-
ies.
Species included
A. carterus (Westwood, 1859) comb. n. (transferred from Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893) (= Sipyloidea debili-
tata Redtenbacher, 1908, Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. n.).
Derivation of name
Australian ‘Sipyloidea’, named after a mountain in Lydia, where Niobe was turned into stone.
Candovia Stål, stat. rev.
Candovia Stål, 1875c: 12, 70. Type species. Phasma (Bacteria) coenosa Gray, 1833: 17, 28, pl. 2:2, by monotypy.
Candovia; Kirby, 1904: 331, Brunner, 1907: 301, Vickery, 1983: 7, Balderson et al, 1998: 370, Otte & Brock, 2005: 162
(all as synonym of Hyrtacus Stål, 1875)
Genus reinstated (removed from synonymy with Hyrtacus Stål, 1875), as C. coenosa belongs to this group of
small to medium-sized, wingless Australian Necrosciinae, formerly placed in Parasipyloidea Redtenbacher,
1908. It includes species with short and moderately long cerci, which has caused confusion with other genera,
particularly Echetlus Stål, 1875 (Phasmatidae: Platycraninae), which is not related.
Species included
C. aberrata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n., C. annulata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n. (both from Parasipyloidea),
C. coenosa (Gray, 1833) comb. n., (transferred from Hyrtacus) (=Phasma (Bacteria) fragilis Gray, 1833), C.
evoneobertii (Zompro & Adis, 2001) comb. n., (transferred from Echetlus Stål, 1875), C. granulosa (Brunner,
1907) comb. n., C. pallida (Sjöstedt, 1918) (both from Parasipyloidea), C. peridromes (Westwood, 1859)
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
8 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
comb. n. (transferred from Echetlus) (= Clitarchus longipes Brunner, 1907 syn. n., = Bacunculus tener Brun-
ner, 1907 syn. n. (previously listed as a synonym of Echetlus peristhenes (Westwood, 1859), = E. cercatus
(Redtenbacher, 1908) syn. n.), C. robinsoni Brock & Hasenpusch sp. n., C. spurcata (Brunner, 1907) comb. n.,
C. strumosa (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. (both from Parasipyloidea)
Notes
Figures of the male, female and egg of C. coenosa (long-legged for the genus) will be included in Brock
& Hasenpusch (in progress). This species is present in ANIC, as ‘Parasipyloidea sp. 2’ from New South
Wales. The Asian Parasipyloidea species do not appear to belong to the same genus as Australian species;
hence Parasipyloidea is retained as a valid genus.
Candovia robinsoni Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Robinson’s Stick-insect]
(Figs. 1–12)
Description
Male (holotype) (Figs. 1–5): Small, slender dark brown insect, slightly mottled with darker flecks. Body
length 40 mm.
Head: Longer than wide, eyes small. Slightly raised area between eyes, dark central longitudinal line on
this elevation only, crescent shaped anteriorly. Antennae with 40 rather indistinct segments, paler alternate
segments towards tip, exceeding length of fore legs.
Thorax: Elongate, mainly smooth with few sparse granulations. Pronotum marginally shorter than head,
with bold central indentation and lines beneath. Mesonotum over five times length of pronotum,
Metanotum almost three times shorter. Black central spot present at posterior of mesonotum.
FIGURE 1. Candovia robinsoni holotype male (AMSA), 40 mm.
FIGURE 2. Candovia robinsoni end of abdomen in
holotype male, dorsal view. FIGURE 3. Candovia robinsoni end of abdomen in holotype
male, lateral view.
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Abdomen: Elongate, smooth, with a few small black spots and blotches. Subgenital plate compact, reach-
ing over half length of 9th abdominal segment; anal segment shorter than 9th abdominal segment, emarginated
in centre; cerci short and slender, rounded at tip.
Legs: Slender and fairly elongate.
Paratype males (10 specimens).
Same as holotype except for minor size differences (body length 40–42 mm), but one was rather darker in
life, along with the corresponding female.
FIGURE 4–6. Candovia robinsoni. 4. end of abdomen in holotype male, ventral view. 5. male on Lomandra. 6. Can-
dovia robinsoni female paratype (AMSA), 52 mm
46
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Paratype females (3 specimens) (Figs. 6–9)
Small, plump fairly plain green insects in the wild, but a darker form, mottled with darker flecks was
found in copula. Mouthparts are orange. Body length 52–61 mm.
Apart from obvious size and colour differences, description as in male. In the female, however, the abdo-
men is carinate, with several lines. End of anal segment subtruncate, slightly emarginated in centre. Opercu-
lum flat, tapering sharply to almost pointed tip, just exceeding end of 9th abdominal segment. The smaller
(AMSA) has the left leg and right tibia broken off and missing.
FIGURE 7–9. Candovia robinsoni. 7. end of abdomen in female paratype (BMNH), dorsal view. 8. end of abdomen in
female paratype (BMNH), lateral view. 9. end of abdomen in female paratype (BMNH), ventral view.
Egg (Fig. 12). Almost oval, heavily sculptured and rugged capsule, broad central micropylar plate, darker,
inset, with surrounding area swollen. Operculum flat, except for short capitulum, minimal sculpturing present.
Capsule length 2.2 mm, width 1.2 mm, height 1.4 mm.
Holotype , Australia: New South Wales, Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, Nr. Robertson, 14.ii.2007,
P.D. Brock (AMSA). Paratypes: All Australia: , same data (AMSA), , same locality, iii.2000 M. Robinson
(AMSA), , , New South Wales, Rose Ella, Mt. Murray, Nr. Robertson, 15.ii.2007, P.D. Brock (ANIC), 4 ,
New South Wales, Springcroft, Mt. Murray, Nr. Robertson, 15.ii.2007, P.D. Brock (BMNH), , , New South
Wales, Rose Ella, Mt. Murray, Nr. Robertson, 15.ii.2007, P.D. Brock (BMNH), 3 , New South Wales, Spring-
croft, Mt. Murray, Nr. Robertson, 15.ii.2007, P.D. Brock (P.D. Brock coll.). Eggs (not paratypes) have also
been deposited in each collection mentioned above.
78
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Distribution
So far found in pockets of temperate rainforest in a small part of the Southern Highlands, New South
Wales, near Robertson, but likely to be reasonably widespread. In addition to the localities / specimens men-
tioned, nymphs were observed just outside Barren Grounds Nature Reserve and at Robertson Nature Reserve.
It may be the same species collected at Barrington Tops, New South Wales (ANIC, listed as Parasipyloidea
sp. 13, c. 43mm, c. 68mm), but this ‘form’ has rather longer cerci in the female; eggs are similar.
Notes
This species is easily distinguished from other Candovia species by its short size (males of other species
are 50 mm+, females 70mm+) and stout appearance of the female. At Barren Grounds, several nymphs and
two adult males were exclusively found on Lomandra (Lomandraceae), an unusual phasmid food plant. How-
ever, this species turned out to be a versatile feeder observed on Acer palmatum (Aceraceae), Doryphora sas-
safras (Monimiaceae), Hypericum (Clusiaceae), Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) and Rosa (Rosaceae). Numerous
nymphs were found on one small Hypericum shrub along the roadside, also a darker coloured mating pair
(Fig. 11), giving these individuals a rather different appearance. In different conditions, these insects gradually
changed colour. The orange mouthparts in females may be a warning to possible predators, in any case these
insects readily emit a secretion when disturbed, otherwise remain remarkably well hidden in the daytime.
Derivation of name
Named after Martyn Robinson (Australian Museum, Sydney), a very knowledgeable naturalist who
informed the authors about this delightful little species, prompting a search for these insects in the Robertson
area.
FIGURE 10. Candovia robinsoni mating pair (Mt. Murray), female feeding on Rosa flower.
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FIGURE 11. Candovia robinsoni mating pair (Mt. Murray), unusual darker colour form.
FIGURE 12. Candovia robinsoni egg a) dorsal, b) lateral (scale bar, 1 mm).
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
TABLE 1. Measurements of C. robinsoni.
Cornicandovia Hasenpusch & Brock, gen. nov.
Type species. Parasosibia australica Redtenbacher, 1908: 482, here designated.
Characteristics of the genus
Elongate small, green, wingless phasmid, body length c. 56 mm in female (male not yet known).
Body mainly smooth, key feature is the double-horned head. Head slightly longer than wide, at posterior
armed with two large conical horns, pointing forwards. Pronotum smooth, same length as head. Mesonotum
sparsely and irregularly granulated, four times length of pronotum. Metanotum considerably shorter. Anten-
nae long, probably exceeding length of fore legs (tip broken). Legs unarmed, moderately long, hind legs short
of anal segment. Abdomen with carina present. 8th abdominal segment half length of 7th, 9th considerably
shorter than 8th, but about same length as anal segment, whose tip is rounded, incised in centre. Operculum
long, carina present, tapered to rounded tip, reaching end of 9th abdominal segment. Cerci short, fairly broad,
tapering to rounded tip.
Notes: no other known Australian (or world) Necrosciinae have the double-horned head. Other represen-
tatives of Parasosibia Redtenbacher, 1908 (all from India), have spined heads. This genus is one of several
non-winged Necrosciinae. Vickery (1983: 9) stated ‘This species should be placed in a new genus, near Chon-
drostethus Kirby’, which belongs to the Lonchodinae. However, we agree with Redtenbacher, in that it
belongs to the Necrosciinae.
Species included
C. australica (Redtenbacher, 1908) comb. n. (transferred from Parasosibia Redtenbacher, 1908).
Derivation of name
Horned ‘Candovia’, due to a general similarity with Candovia species.
Male (holotype) Female (paratypes)
Body length 40 mm* 52–62 mm+
Head 2 mm 3.3 mm
Antennae 36 mm 39 mm
Pronotum 1.9 mm 3.3 mm
Mesonotum 10 mm 14 mm
Metanotum 3.5 mm 5 mm
Median Segment 2.2 mm 3 mm
Fore Femora 14.5 mm 15–16 mm
Mid Femora 9.5 mm 10.5–11 mm
Hind Femora 13 mm 15–16 mm
Fore Tibiae 16 mm 18 mm
Mid Tibiae 11 mm 12–13 mm
Hind Tibiae 16 mm 18 mm
Cerci 0.4 mm 1.2 mm
*(paratypes 40–42 mm) +Apart from length, other measure-
ments exclude the 52mm specimen
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Rhamphosipyloidea Redtenbacher
Sipyloidea (Rhamphosipyloidea) Redtenbacher, 1908: 543. Type species. Sipyloidea (Rhamphosipyloidea) brevipennis
Redtenbacher, 1908: 550, by subsequent designation of Zompro, 2004: 321.
Rhamphosipyloidea; Bradley & Galil, 1977: 183, Zompro, 2004: 321, Otte & Brock, 2005: 309.
Species included
Australian: R. palumensis Hasenpusch & Brock, sp. n., R. queenslandica (Sjöstedt, 1918) comb. n.
(removed from synonymy with Sipyloidea carterus (Westwood, 1859)). There are also six Asian species,
including the type species R. brevipennis (Redtenbacher, 1908).
Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Paluma Winged Beak-abdomen Stick-
insect]
(Figs. 13–17)
Description
Female (holotype) (Figs. 13–16): Slender brown short-winged species, mottled with darker flecks and
lines; femora and tibiae faintly banded. Body length 76 mm.
FIGURE 13. Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis holotype female (QMBA), 76 mm.
FIGURE 14. Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis end of abdomen in holotype female, dorsal view.
FIGURE 15. Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis end of abdomen in holotype female, lateral view.
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
FIGURE 16. Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis female, colour in nature
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Head: Longer (4 mm) than wide (3 mm), eyes small. Black central longitudinal line, also two fainter lines
running either side of eyes to back of head, the inner line dark brown, outer line black, also running through
the eyes. Antennae with 44 indistinct segments, exceeding length of fore legs.
Thorax: Elongate, with few sparse, short, tubercles. Pronotum slightly shorter than head, with bold central
indentation and lines beneath. Mesonotum less than five times length of pronotum, sparsely granulated, dor-
sally, laterally and on the paler ventral surface. Also with 5 almost paired, but well spaced tubercles, dorsally.
Laterally with thicker, but partly obscured black line, with some darker mottled areas dorsally. Metanotum
almost four times shorter.
Wings: Rather abbreviated, fore wings short, subtruncate. Hind wings whitish brown, reaching just over
end of 3rd abdominal segment; pre-anal part mottled brown.
Abdomen: Elongate, smooth, with mottled darker spots and blotches, with an irregular black line laterally on
raised segments 8–10. Anal segment typical beak-shaped in this genus, operculum tapered to rounded tip, 2
mm short of end of beak.
Legs: Long and elongate, hind legs easily exceeding body length. Left mid-leg broken off and missing.
Paratype females (2).
Same as holotype except for minor size differences (body length 71–80 mm), rather plainer, with less con-
spicuous dark lines and bands in 71mm specimen (ANIC), which has left mid-leg broken off and missing. In
80mm AMSA specimen fore legs and left mid leg missing.
Male not yet known.
Egg (Fig. 17). Capsule long and thin, heavily sculptured, with bold, darker, micropylar plate on lower
half, with a marked central ridge. Operculum flat, sculpturing present. Capsule length 2.7 mm, width 1.1 mm,
height 1.1 mm. The eggs in Rhamphosipyloidea more closely resemble the type species of Sipyloidea (S. sipy-
lus) than many species attributed to that genus.
FIGURE 17. Rhamphosipyloidea palumensis egg a) dorsal, b) lateral (scale bar, 1 mm).
Holotype , Australia: Queensland, Paluma, 914 m., 19° 0´ S; 146° 12´ E (GPS), 18.ii.2006, Stop 5.
D.C.F. Rentz, P.D. Brock & J. Hasenpusch (QMBA). Paratype: , same data, reared from a large nymph
(ANIC), , Queensland, Birthday Cr[ee]k, near Paluma, 18.i.1967, K195628 (AMSA). Eggs (not paratypes)
have also been deposited in QMBA and ANIC.
Distribution
So far found in only in rainforest in Paluma, north Queensland, but likely to be reasonably widespread.
Notes
This species is closely related to, but easily distinguished from the gaudier R. queenslandica (Sjöstedt,
1918) by its lack of large conical thoracic spine-like tubercles in the female. Readily accepted raspberry
leaves Rubus sp. in captivity.
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Derivation of name
Named after the type locality, Paluma, with its wonderfully varied habitats and fauna.
TABLE 2. Measurements of R. palumensis.
Scionecra Karny
Scionecra Karny, 1923: 241. Type species. Necroscia osmylus Westwood, 1859: 135, by original designation.
Scionecra; Vickery, 1983: 10, Balderson et al, 1998: 354, Otte & Brock, 2005: 312.
Species included
Australian: S. milledgei Hasenpusch & Brock, sp. n., S. queenslandica (Sjöstedt, 1918). There are also
twenty-one other Asian species, including the type species, S. osmylus (Westwood, 1859).
TABLE 3. Summary of differences between Australian Scionecra species.
Female (holotype) Female (paratypes)
Body length 76 mm 71–80 mm
Head 4 mm 3.5–4 mm
Antennae 57 mm 55–60 mm
Pronotum 3.3 mm 3–3.5 mm
Mesonotum 15.5 mm 15–16 mm
Metanotum 4 mm 4 mm
Median Segment 3.5 mm 3 mm
Fore wing 4.5 mm 4–4.5 mm
Hind wing 18 mm 17–18 mm
Fore Femora 22 mm 19.5 mm
Mid Femora 16 mm 14–16 mm
Hind Femora 21.5 mm 19.5–21 mm
Fore Tibiae 23 mm 22 mm
Mid Tibiae 16 mm 16 mm
Hind Tibiae 24.5 mm 24 mm
Cerci - -
Species / body colour Body length Head / eyes Legs
S. milledgei Male 64–65 mm
Female 90–95 mm Light brown, two black
longitudinal lines Moderately long, in male
exceeding end of abdo-
men, in female almost
reaching end of 7th abdom-
inal segment
S. queenslandica Male 54–66 mm (type),
specimens from Kuranda
as small as 43 mm
Female 102 mm
Dark brown Short, in male about reach-
ing end of abdomen, in
female only reaching end
of 5th abdominal segment
We aim to examine more material, to check that features are consistent across a number of specimens. However,
the egg differences alone clearly show these are distinct species
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Scionecra milledgei Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Milledge’s Stick-insect]
(Figs. 18–28)
Description
Female (holotype) (Figs. 18–22): Elongate, dark brown, indistinctly mottled species, with short cerci.
Body length 95 mm.
FIGURE 18. Scionecra milledgei holotype female (QMBA), 95 mm.
FIGURE 19–21. Scionecra milledgei. 19. end of abdomen in holotype female, dorsal view. 20. end of abdomen in holo-
type female, lateral view. 21. end of abdomen in holotype female, ventral view.
Head: Longer than wide, eyes small, lighter brown with two black stripes. Narrow black central longitudi-
nal line, with three broader partial blackish lines either side of eyes; the lateral mark no longer than eyes.
Antennae with numerous indistinct segments, basal and second segments broader than third and subsequent
segments; second segment shorter than third. Antennae exceeding length of fore legs (14 segments up to end
of femora, a further 23 to end of tibiae, then many more to tip). Three orange ocelli between eyes.
Thorax: Pronotum same length as head, with central indentation. Mesonotum over five times length of
pronotum, with conspicuous, but sparse, short tubercles. Metanotum one third length of mesonotum.
19 20
21
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Wings: Fore wings short, subtruncate at tip. Hind wings dusky brown, exceeding end of 5th abdominal
segment; pre-anal part mottled, as in body colour.
Abdomen: 8th–10th segments significantly reduced in length. Anal segment subtruncate at tip; operculum
tapered towards tip, not reaching half length of anal segment. Cerci short, rounded at tip.
Legs: Moderate length, hind legs not reaching end of 7th abdominal segment. Fore femora rather incurved
at base and broadened.
Paratype female (1)
Same as holotype, except shorter. Body length 90 mm.
FIGURE 22. Scionecra milledgei holotype female, colour in nature.
Paratype males (3) (Figs. 23–27)
Shorter and slenderer, otherwise similar to the female. Anal segment similar shape, subgenital plate also
broad, but not quite reaching end of 9th abdominal segment. Hind legs exceed end of abdomen. Body length
64–65 mm.
FIGURE 23. Scionecra milledgei male paratype (QMBA), 64 mm.
Egg (Fig. 28). Oval, dark brown heavily sculptured capsule, net-like (including operculum), broad black
micropylar plate almost from base to rim; broader at base. Operculum flat, sculptured. Capsule length 1.6 mm,
width 1.2 mm, height 1.2 mm.
Holotype , Australia: Qld: 16 Km W. of Paluma, 807m., 18.ii.2006, D.C.F. Rentz, P.D. Brock & J.
Hasenpusch, Stop 2 (QMBA). Paratypes (all north Queensland, Australia): , same data (QMBA), , Mt.
Spec, Paluma Ra., 5–7.i.1965, Brooks (ANIC), , , 14km. N. Paluma, 25.i.2001, J. & P. Hasenpusch (J.
Hasenpusch coll.). Eggs (not paratypes) have also been deposited in QMBA.
Distribution
So far found in only in and around Paluma, north Queensland.
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
20 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 24–26. Scionecra milledgei. 24. end of abdomen in male paratype, dorsal view. 25. end of abdomen in male
paratype, lateral view. 26. end of abdomen in male paratype, ventral view.
FIGURE 27. Scionecra milledgei male paratype, colour in nature.
24 25
26
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
FIGURE 28. Scionecra milledgei egg a) dorsal, b) lateral (scale bar, 1 mm).
Notes
Observed feeding on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in dry Eucalyptus country. We were extremely fortunate to
collect two specimens, as a hunting spider took a liking to the male! Initially this new species was thought to
be a size variant of the variable Scionecra queenslandica (Sjöstedt, 1918), but eggs are quite distinctive (the
sculpturing is not present in queenslandica eggs), as well as other features (see table). We are not entirely con-
vinced that S. queenslandica and S. milledgei are correctly placed in Scionecra, a study of eggs may assist, if
any become known from Asian members of the genus. It appears that S. queenslandica (type localities in the
Atherton Tableland) is a rainforest species whereas S. milledgei prefers dry Eucalyptus country.
Derivation of name
Named after Graham Milledge (Australian Museum, Sydney), a keen entomologist who has considerably
assisted our studies on phasmids by obtaining interesting specimens and eggs from various parts of Australia.
TABLE 4. Measurements of S. milledgei.
Sipyloidea Brunner
Sipyloidea Brunner, 1893: 84, 86. Type species. Necroscia sipylus Westwood, 1859: 138, by original designation.
Sipyloidea; Kirby, 1904: 374 (as synonym of Necroscia Serville, 1838), Redtenbacher, 1908: 540, Vickery, 1983: 10,
Balderson et al, 1998: 355, Otte & Brock, 2005: 316.
Female (holotype) Male (paratype)
Body length 95 mm 64 mm
Head 3.3 mm 2.3 mm
Antennae 63 mm 50 mm
Pronotum 3.3 mm 2.3 mm
Mesonotum 18 mm 11 mm
Metanotum 7 mm 5.5 mm
Median Segment 5 mm 3.5 mm
Fore wing 4 mm 2.5 mm
Hind wing 47 mm 31 mm
Fore Femora 21 mm 18 mm
Mid Femora 14 mm 10 mm
Hind Femora 20 mm 17 mm
Fore Tibiae 19.5 mm 18 mm
Mid Tibiae 12 mm 10 mm
Hind Tibiae 20 mm 18 mm
Cerci 0.7 mm 0.3 mm
Note: no additional measurements for 90 mm female paratype
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
22 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Species included
Australian: S. bella (Tepper, 1905) comb. n., (= S. ovabdita Rentz & John, 1987, syn. n.), S. brevicerci
Hasenpusch & Brock, sp. n., S. caeca (Sjöstedt, 1918), comb. n., S. garradungensis Hasenpusch & Brock sp.
n., S. gracilipes (Sjöstedt, 1918), S. larryi Hasenpusch & Brock, sp. n., S. lewisensis Hasenpusch & Brock, S.
nelida Rentz & John, 1987, S. rentzi Brock & Hasenpusch, sp. n., S. similis Rentz & John, 1987, S. whitei
Brock & Hasenpusch, sp. n. There are also fifty-five other Asian species, including the type species, S. sipylus
(Westwood, 1859).
TABLE 5 Summary of differences between Australian Sipyloidea species.
Species / body colour Head Thorax granulations Hind Wings Cerci
S. bella, nelida and
similis are colourful
green and pink insects
- - Micropterus in
female -
These similar species belong to the ‘Nelida’ group, are easily distinguished from all other taxa by the colour and micropterous
wings (females) - they require a more detailed key (see John et al, 1987)
S. brevicerci
Dark brown, indis-
tinctly mottled
Bold central line and faint
lines either side of eyes
(brown with 1 black stripe); no
spots present between eyes
Mesonotum conspicu-
ously, but sparsely
granulated
Long, dusky
brown Short in both sexes
( 0.5 mm), hardly
visible beyond end
of abdomen
Very closely related / similar to S. larryi, but legs are shorter than body length. Eggs also differ
S. caeca
Brown, mottled Bold black central line and
faint lines either side of plain
brown eyes; no spots present
between eyes
Mesonotum conspicu-
ously, but sparsely
granulated
Long, whitish
brown Moderately long (
1.4 mm) and slender
A slenderer, smaller species in both sexes compared with similar mottled brown spp; again, legs shorter and eggs are very distinctly
indented
S. garradungensis
Green Faint central line. Eyes dark
brown; no spots present
between eyes
Mesonotum inconspic-
uously granulated Shortened in in
particular, yellow Moderately long (
1.5 mm) and slender
S. gracilipes
Usually light brown /
sometimes mid brown;
more elongate than
other spp
Bold black central and lateral
lines may be present; eyes
brown; no spots present
between eyes
Mesonotum sparsely
granulated Long in , whit-
ish, rather shorter
in
Fairly short ( 0.8
mm)
S. larryi
Brown, mottled or
plain
Bold central line and bands
either side of eyes (brown with
12 black stripes); usually
with 3 black spots between
eyes, unless heavily mottled
Mesonotum conspicu-
ously granulated Long, dusky
brown Moderately long (
1.5 mm), stout
Very closely related / similar to S. brevicerci, but legs longer than body length. Eggs also differ
S. lewisensis
Brown, mottled Dark central and outer bands /
lines before eyes (brown with
1 black stripe); no spots
present between eyes
Mesonotum conspicu-
ously granulated, also
tuberculated (unlike
other species, comment
also applies to head
and pronotum)
Long in , whit-
ish brown, rather
shorter in
Short ( 0.8 mm),
longer in
S. rentzi
Green Pale lateral band by brown
eyes; no spots present between
eyes
Mesonotum sparsely
granulated Long, whitish
with a hint of yel-
low
Long ( 3.5 mm)
and slender
S. whitei
Dark brown / black Bold black central and lateral
lines; eyes brown with 2 nar-
row black stripes; no spots
present between eyes
Mesonotum sparsely
granulated Long in , whit-
ish brown, rather
shorter in
Fairly short ( 0.8
mm)
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Sipyloidea brevicerci Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Short-cerci Winged Stick-insect]
(Figs. 29–33)
Description
Female (holotype) (Figs. 29–31): Fairly stocky, robust-looking, dark brown, mottled species (legs indis-
tinctly banded lighter and darker shades), with short cerci. Body length 79 mm.
FIGURE 29. Sipyloidea brevicerci holotype female & male paratype (QMBA), 79 & 54 mm.
FIGURES 3032. Sipyloidea brevicerci. 30. end of abdomen in holotype female, lateral view. 31. end of abdomen in
holotype female, ventral view. 32. end of abdomen in male paratype, lateral view.
30
31
32
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
24 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Head: Almost as wide as long, eyes small. Bold black central longitudinal line, with fainter lines either
side of eyes, which have a narrow black stripe. Antennae with c. 80 indistinct segments, basal and second seg-
ments broader, but shorter than third segment. Antennae easily exceeding length of fore legs.
Thorax: Pronotum slightly shorter than head, with central almost central cross-like indentation. Mesono-
tum not quite three times length of pronotum, conspicuously granulated, mainly along ridges. Metanotum less
than twice length of mesonotum.
Wings: Fore wings large, subtruncate at tip. Hind wings dusky brown, reaching end of 6th abdominal seg-
ment; pre-anal part mottled, as in body colour.
Abdomen: Ridged. Anal segment shorter than 9th, tapered to an almost rounded at tip, deeply incised in
centre; operculum broad, almost rounded at tip, exceeding end of 9th segment. Cerci short, rounded at tip,
almost hidden beneath abdomen.
Legs: Moderate length, hind legs not reaching end of abdomen. Inconspicuously banded dark brown and
paler brown, fore femora rather broadened.
Paratype females (9).
Same as holotype except for minor size differences (body length 66–82 mm).
Paratype males (4) (Figs. 29, 32).
Smaller, similar to the female, except much slenderer. Anal segment similar shape, subgenital plate also
broad, but not quite reaching end of 9th abdominal segment. Hind legs exceed end of abdomen. Body length
54–60 mm.
Egg (Fig. 33). Small, oval, dark brown heavily sculptured capsule (including operculum), broad central
micropylar plate almost central rim. Capsule length 1.6 mm, width 1.2 mm, height 1.2 mm.
Holotype , Australia: north Queensland, Polly Creek, Garradunga, nr. Innisfail, 20.i.1993, J. Hasenpusch
(QMBA). Paratypes (all north Queensland, Australia): , same data (in copula with holotype), , same data
except 11.i.2006 (both QMBA), , same data, except i.iii.2006 (ANIC), , same data, except 13–19.ii.2006, J.
Hasenpusch & P.D. Brock (BMNH), , same data, except 25.x.1997, P.D. Brock & J. Hasenpusch, 2 , same
data as previous entry, except 29.x.1997, , same data, except reared by P.D. Brock on Rubus fruticosus,
xii.1998 (all P.D. Brock coll.), same data, J. Hasenpusch, except 19.xi.2006, 3 , same data except collected
25.ix.2000, 13.i.2006, 13.xi.2006, , Ella Bay, 16.xi.2006 (all J. Hasenpusch coll.). Eggs (not paratypes) have
also been deposited in all collections mentioned above.
FIGURE 33. Sipyloidea brevicerci egg a) dorsal, b) lateral (scale bar, 1 mm).
Distribution
So far found only in rainforest in north Queensland, from Garradunga.
Notes
Observed feeding on rainforest plants, including Brombya platynema (Rutaceae) and fairly easy to rear,
including on Rubus (Rosaceae). This species is very similar in appearance to S. larryi, although the eggs indi-
cate an affinity with S. garradungensis; it is possible they have a hybrid origin.
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Derivation of name
Short cerci, a key feature in this species.
TABLE 6. Measurements of S. brevicerci.
Sipyloidea garradungensis Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Garradunga Green-winged Stick-insect]
(Figs. 34–42)
Description
Female (holotype) (Figs. 34–37): Slender, uniform mid-green, species with short cerci; wings shortened.
Body length 73 mm.
FIGURE 34. Sipyloidea garradungensis holotype female (QMBA), 73 mm.
Head: Rather longer than wide, eyes small, dark brown. Faint central longitudinal line. Antennae with
numerous indistinct segments, basal and second segments broader; first segment longer, second and third seg-
ments same length. Antennae easily exceeding length of fore legs, final segment but one, white.
Thorax: Pronotum marginally shorter than head, with central almost central cross-like indentation.
Mesonotum well over four times length of pronotum, inconspicuously, sparsely granulated. Metanotum only
one third length of mesonotum.
Female (holotype) Female (paratypes) Male (paratypes)
Body length 79 mm 66–82 mm 54–60 mm
Head 4.5 mm 3.3–4.5 mm 2.5 mm
Antennae 65 mm 60–65 mm 40 mm
Pronotum 4 mm 3.5–4 mm 2.3 mm
Mesonotum 11 mm 10.5–12 mm 8.5 mm
Metanotum 5 mm 4.5–5 mm 3.5 mm
Median Segment 5 mm 4.4–5 mm 3.5 mm
Fore Wing 5 mm 4–5 mm 2.5 mm
Hind Wing 45 mm 38–45 mm 30 mm
Fore Femora 19 mm 17–19 mm 17 mm
Mid Femora 12 mm 11–12 mm - mm
Hind Femora 17 mm 15–18 mm 15 mm
Fore Tibiae 17 mm 15–18 mm 23 mm
Mid Tibiae 10 mm 9–10 mm - mm
Hind Tibiae 16 mm 15–17 mm 15 mm
Cerci 0.5 mm 0.4–0.6 mm 0.2 mm
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
26 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 35–37. 35. end of abdomen in holotype female, dorsal view. 36. end of abdomen in holotype female, lateral
view. 37. end of abdomen in holotype female, ventral view.
Wings: Fore wings large, subtruncate at tip. Hind wings whitish, with a hint of pale yellow, rather short-
ened, hence not reaching end of 4th abdominal segment; pre-anal part plain, as in body colour, except base
brownish green.
Abdomen: Elongate, tapering from longer 7th abdominal segment. Segments 8–10 (anal segment) about
equal in length, end of anal segment tapered, deeply incised in centre; operculum slender, tapering sharply to
the tip, reaching end of 9th segment. Cerci moderately long and slender, rounded at tip.
Legs: Long, hind legs easily exceeding end of abdomen.
Paratype females (6).
Same as holotype except for size differences (body length 60–77 mm).
Paratype males (19) (Figs. 38–41)
Smaller, similar to the female, except much slenderer. Anal segment similar shape, subgenital plate simi-
lar, tip broader and almost rounded, again not quite reaching end of 9th abdominal segment. Body length 45–
57 mm.
FIGURE 38. Sipyloidea garradungensis male paratype (QMBA), 57 mm.
35 36
3
7
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
FIGURES 39–41. Sipyloidea garradungensis. 39. end of abdomen in male paratype, dorsal view. 40. end of abdomen
in male paratype, lateral view. 41. end of abdomen in male paratype, ventral view. 42. egg a) dorsal, b) lateral (scale bar,
1 mm).
Egg (Fig. 42). Small, stout pale brown capsule, not quite rounded, sculptured with larger network pattern.
Operculum rising almost dome-like from ridge, circular sculpturing at peak. Micropylar plate, broad, running
from centre of capsule to rim. Capsule length 1.5 mm, width 1.5 mm, height 1.8 mm.
Holotype , Australia: north Queensland, Polly Creek, Garradunga, nr. Innisfail, 13.ii.2006, P.D. Brock &
J. Hasenpusch (QMBA). Paratypes (all north Queensland, Australia): , same data (QMBA), , , same data,
except 26.x.1997 (BMNH), , same data, except 18.ix.2000, J. Hasenpusch (J. Hasenpusch coll.), , same
data, except reared by P.D. Brock on Eucalyptus, xii.1998, , same data, except x.1997, , north Queensland,
Ella Bay, 14.ii.2006, J. Hasenpusch & P.D. Brock (all P.D. Brock coll.), , north Queensland, Ella Bay,
5.xi.2006, J. Hasenpusch (J. Hasenpusch coll.), , 17.15S 145.38E, Lake Barrine, Atherton Tableland, Qld,
28.i.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-8, , same data except 7.ii.1988, , same data, except 12.iii.1988, same
data, except 6.xii.1985, J. Balderson, collected as nymph matured 23.i.[19]86, Lake Eacham, Q[ueensland],
2.v.1955, Norris & Common, 17.35S 145.42E, Palmerston Nat. Park, 12km SE of Millaa Millaa, Qld,
15.xii.1985, J. Balderson, 2 , 17.06S 145.37E, Mt. Haig road, 11km NE. of Tinaroo Dam Wall, Atherton
Tableland, Qld, 5.ii.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-15, , 17.05S 145.35E, Mt. Haig, 22km NE by N of Atherton,
Qld, 16.iii.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-35, , 17.23S 145.45E, nr. Butchers Creek (village), Atherton Table-
land, Qld, 600–680m., 2.iii.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-29, 2 , 17.10S 145.39E, nr. Cathedral Fig, Danbulla
Forestry Reserve, 13km NE by N. of Yungaburra, Qld, 25.iii.1988 at light, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-19a, ,
17.35S 145.43E, 9km W. of Crawfords Lookout (1 road km S. of Palmerston Hwy.), Palmerston Nat. Park,
Qld, 9.ii.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-16, , 17.16S 145.29E, The Crater, Mt. Hypipamee Nat. Park, Atherton
Tableland, Qld, 24.ii.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-22, , 17.02S 145.37E, Davies Ck, (15 road km from
Kennedy Hwy.), 22km E. by S. of Mareeba, Qld, 24.iii.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-28b, , 17.12S 145.40E,
Gillies Range (1.2 km S. of Cathedral Fig turn-off), 12km NE. of Yungaburra, Atherton Tableland, Qld,
9.iii.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-33 (all ANIC). Eggs (not paratypes) have also been deposited in all collec-
tions mentioned above.
39
40
41
42
a b
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28 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Distribution
So far found only in rainforest in north Queensland, from Garradunga to Atherton Tableland. This species
most probably has a restrictive range, as searches in many other localities in north Queensland have not pro-
duced further specimens.
Notes
Occasionally observed feeding on rainforest plants, including Rubus and fairly easy to rear, including on
raspberries Rubus (Rosaceae) and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). From the eggs, this species may be closely related
to S. brevicerci, but is very similar in general appearance to the larger S. rentzi, which has considerably longer
cerci. S. garradungensis is quick to take flight, or females use a startle display, flashing open their yellowish
hind wings and holding them open for several seconds. The type series size variation relates to smaller speci-
mens from the Atherton Tableland; large specimens are all from Garradunga. In ANIC, listed as Sipyloidea sp.
2.
Derivation of name
Named after the type locality at Garradunga, a rainforest area rich in insect life, including phasmids.
TABLE 7. Measurements of S. garradungensis.
Sipyloidea larryi Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Hurricane Larry Stick-insect]
(Figs. 43–51)
Description
Female (holotype) (Figs. 43–45, 51): Fairly stocky, robust-looking, mid brown, mottled wings (dark
blotches) and indistinctly mottled legs; cerci moderately long. Body length 80 mm.
Head: Almost as wide as long, eyes small. Bold central longitudinal line, with two fainter lines before
eyes, which have a partly obscured dark stripe reaching back of head. Three black spots present between eyes.
Female (holotype) Female (paratypes) Male (paratypes)
Body length 73 mm 60–77 mm 45–57 mm
Head 3.5 mm 3.2–3.5 mm 2.2–2.5 mm
Antennae 65 mm 55–65 mm 51–59 mm
Pronotum 3.3 mm 3–3.3 mm 1.7–2 mm
Mesonotum 15 mm 11–15 mm 8–10 mm
Metanotum 5 mm 3.5–5 mm 2.5–3 mm
Median Segment 5 mm 3.5–5 mm 2.5–3 mm
Fore Wing 5 mm 3.5–5 mm 2.5–3 mm
Hind Wing 23 mm 17–23 mm 17–23 mm
Fore Femora 20 mm 15–20 mm 13–17 mm
Mid Femora 15 mm 11–15 mm 8–11 mm
Hind Femora 20 mm 15–20 mm 12–15 mm
Fore Tibiae 22 mm 17–22 mm 15–19 mm
Mid Tibiae 15 mm 11–15 mm 10–13 mm
Hind Tibiae 21 mm 16–21 mm 14–18 mm
Cerci 1.5 mm 1.2–1.5 mm 1–1.3 mm
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Antennae with c. 88 indistinct segments, basal and second segments broader, third segment marginally longer
than second. Antennae easily exceeding length of fore legs.
FIGURE 43. Sipyloidea larryi holotype female (QMBA), 80 mm.
FIGURES 44–45. Sipyloidea larryi holotype female 44. end of abdomen, dorsal view. 45. end of abdomen, lateral view.
Thorax: Pronotum same length as head, with central almost central cross-like indentation. Mesonotum not
quite three times length of pronotum, indistinctly carinate, ridges conspicuously granulated. Metanotum less
than twice length of mesonotum.
Wings: Fore wings large, subtruncate at tip; hind part with large black blotch; lateral margin darker
brown. Hind wings dusky brown, reaching almost end of 7th abdominal segment; pre-anal part same as body
colour except for several large blackish blotches.
Abdomen: Anal segment same length as 8th & 9th segments, tapered to an almost rounded tip, incised in
centre; operculum tapered to a rounded tip, fractionally short of end of anal segment. Cerci moderately long,
fairly slender, rounded at tip.
Legs: Long, hind legs exceeding end of abdomen. Apices of all femora and tibiae darker brown, fore fem-
ora hardly broadened. Right hind leg broken off and missing.
Paratype females (15).
Same as holotype except for minor size differences (body length 76–85 mm) and variation in colour. The
attractive black blotches are absent in some specimens, but vary in extent and may be present on the thorax.
4
445
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30 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Plainer examples lack the dark band from eyes to back of head, so far always noted in males; whilst often pale
to mid-brown, some females are dark brown and rather mottled.
Paratype males (22) (Figs. 46–48).
Smaller, similar to the female, except much slenderer. Anal segment similar shape, subgenital plate reach-
ing end of 9th abdominal segment. Hind legs exceed end of abdomen. Body length 53–60 mm.
FIGURE 46. Sipyloidea larryi male paratype (QMBA), 52 mm.
FIGURE 47. Sipyloidea larryi end of abdomen in male paratype, dorsal view. 48. end of abdomen in male paratype, lat-
eral view. 49. egg a) dorsal, b) lateral (scale bar, 1 mm).
Egg (Fig. 49). Large for the size of the species, oval, dark brown, rather plain capsule (including opercu-
lum), although sometimes mottled. Narrow micropylar plate from base to three-quarter length of capsule.
Capsule length 2.4 mm, width 1.5 mm, height 1.8 mm.
Holotype , Australia: north Queensland, Polly Creek, Garradunga, nr. Innisfail, 13.ii.2006, J. Hasen-
pusch & P.D. Brock (QMBA). Paratypes (all north Queensland, Australia): , same data (QMBA), 2 , ,
same data (ANIC), 2 , same data, , Ella Bay, 25.ii.2006, J. Hasenpusch (all BMNH), 2 , , ex. Cairns,
reared on bramble (Rubus fruticosus) by P.D. Brock, iii.1996, , Cairns, 26.x.1997 (as nymph), P.D. Brock, ,
Polly Creek, Garradunga, nr. Innisfail, x.1997, , same data, except 26.x.1997, P.D. Brock & J. Hasenpusch,
2, same data, except 19.i.2002, J. Hasenpusch, , same data, except 21.ix.2006, J. Hasenpusch (all P.D.
Brock coll.), , 16°48 S; 145°38 E (GPS), Qld, Kuranda, 335 m., (Top of the Range) 19 Butler Dr, 15–
31.i.2005, D.C.F. Rentz, , same data, except 20–30.xi.2004, , 16°40 S; 145°38 E (GPS), Qld, Kuranda,
a b
47
48
49
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
335 m., (Top of the Range) 11 Victor Pl, 12.i.2006, 381m, G. & R. Wilson & D.C.F. Rentz (all ANIC), , 5 ,
Polly Creek, Garradunga, nr. Innisfail, 12.xi.2006, J.Hasenpusch, 4 , same data except 2.xi.2006, 3 , 1 ,
19.xi.2006, 2 , , 26.xi.2006, , 19.i.2007 (all J.Hasenpusch coll.). Eggs (not paratypes) have also been
deposited in all collections mentioned above.
FIGURE 50. Sipyloidea larryi mating pair, Garradunga.
FIGURE 51. Sipyloidea larryi holotype female, Garradunga (note parasite).
Distribution
So far found only in rainforest in north Queensland, where it appears to be widespread. In addition to the
type series, also noted from Davies Creek (17km E. by S. of Mareeba), Mt. Haig, The Boulders and Yung-
aburra.
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32 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Notes
Observed feeding on low-growing rainforest plants, including Rubus (Rosaceae). This species is very
similar in appearance to S. brevicerci, but commoner is some years than others, and appears to be much more
widespread. The three black spots between the eyes in larryi is a reasonably reliable feature enabling them to
be distinguished from brevicerci, whose eggs are, however, quite distinct. S. larryi is sometimes found paired
and readily takes flight. In captivity, known to accept a wide range of plants, including Acronychia acidula,
Eucalyptus, Meliocope elleryana, Psidium guajava, and Rubus.
Derivation of name
Named after cyclone Larry, a Category 5 Cyclone that devastated the town of Innisfail and much of its
surrounding rainforests in March 2006, home of these and many other wonderful and unusual insects.
TABLE 8. Measurements of S. larryi.
Sipyloidea lewisensis Hasenpusch & Brock, spec. nov. [Mt. Lewis Winged Stick-insect]
(Figs. 52–61)
Male (holotype) (Figs. 52–56): Slender, dark brown, indistinctly mottled, particularly on legs; cerci moder-
ately long. Body length 50 mm.
Head: Almost as wide as long, eyes small. Broad cream side band between eyes and back of head, dark
brown stripe beneath, narrower dark brown stripe between. Eye brown, with a black stripe. Head also with
narrow central longitudinal line; three darker lines mentioned, continuing to end of pronotum. Antennae with
82 indistinct segments, basal and second segments broader and slightly longer than third / subsequent seg-
ments. Right antenna partly broken off, but left antenna easily exceeding length of fore legs. Back of head
rather swollen.
Thorax: Pronotum slightly longer than head, slightly granulated, with central indentation. Mesonotum
almost three times length of pronotum, heavily granulated, some smaller tubercles also present. Metanotum
less than twice length of mesonotum.
Female (holotype) Female (paratypes) Male (paratypes)
Body length 80 mm 76–85 mm 53–60 mm
Head 4 mm 4 mm 2.7–3 mm
Antennae 65 mm 62–65 mm 5.2–5.8 mm
Pronotum 4 mm 4 mm 2.5–2.8 mm
Mesonotum 11 mm 11–13 mm 9–9.5 mm
Metanotum 5 mm 5–6 mm 4 mm
Median Segment 4 mm 4–5 mm 3 mm
Fore Wing 6 mm 5–6 mm 3.2–3.3 mm
Hind Wing 46 mm 43–47 mm 30–32 mm
Fore Femora 21 mm 20.5–24 mm 18–19 mm
Mid Femora 15 mm 14–15 mm 11–12 mm
Hind Femora 21 mm 19–22 mm 16–17 mm
Fore Tibiae 23 mm 20.5–24 mm 18.5 mm
Mid Tibiae 14 mm 13.5–15 mm 11.5–12 mm
Hind Tibiae 21 mm 20–22.5 mm 18–19 mm
Cerci 1.5 mm 1.3–1.5 mm 0.9–1.0 mm
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FIGURE 52. Sipyloidea lewisensis holotype male (QMBA), 50 mm.
FIGURES 53–55. Sipyloidea lewisensis holotype male. 53. head and thorax. 54. end of abdomen, dorsal view. 55. end
of abdomen, lateral view. 56. end of abdomen, ventral view.
53
54 55 5
6
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
34 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Wings: Fore wings large, subtruncate, margin with a pale longitudinal band. Hind wings whitish, reaching
half length of 7th abdominal segment; pre-anal part same as body colour.
Abdomen: Segments with median and lateral longitudinal carina. End of anal segment subtruncate,
slightly rounded at edges, subgenital plate tapering to an almost rounded tip, slightly incised in centre, reach-
ing end of 9th abdominal segment. Cerci almost as long as anal segment, rounded at tip.
Legs: Long, hind legs exceeding end of abdomen. Right mid leg broken off and missing.
Paratype male (1).
Same as holotype except for minor size and colour (paler) differences (body length 51 mm), left fore leg
broken off and missing.
Paratype females (3) (Figs. 57–61).
Larger, similar to the male, except much broader, paler brown and more mottled in two instances. Differ-
ences include: a much more granulated and tuberculated head, pronotum and mesonotum, hind wings rather
short, only reaching about half of 5th abdominal segment. Abdomen with five longitudinal carina. Operculum
tapered to tip, reaching beyond end of 9th abdominal segment. Smaller specimen in QMBA with both fore legs
broken off and missing. Body length 64–74 mm.
Holotype , Australia: north Queensland, Burton Ridge, Mt. Lewis, 1050 m., 11.i.2002, J. Hasenpusch
(QMBA). Paratypes (all north Queensland, Australia): 2 , same data, , same data, except 7.i.2002 (all
QMBA), , ca 16°31 S; 145°16 E (GPS), ca 7 km N. of Mount Lewis (ca 31.5 road km. from Julatten turn-
of), 16.i.1988, D.C.F. Rentz, Stop A-12 (ANIC).
FIGURE 57. Sipyloidea lewisensis 2 x female paratypes (QMBA), 64 & 74 mm.
FIGURE 58. Sipyloidea lewisensis head and thorax in female paratype.
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
FIGURES 5961. Sipyloidea lewisensis female paratype. 59. end of abdomen, dorsal view. 60. end of abdomen, lateral
view. 61. end of abdomen, ventral view.
Distribution
So far found only in rainforest on Mt. Lewis, north Queensland.
Notes
Observed feeding on low-growing rainforest plants. Easily distinguished from similar brown, mottled
Sipyloidea species, by the heavily granulated and tuberculated head, pronotum and mesonotum. In ANIC,
listed as Sipyloidea sp. 17.
Derivation of name
Named after the type locality, Mt. Lewis, a dense rainforest regarded as a Gondwanan refuge area with
high altitudes and many endemic plants and some insects.
5
9
6
0
6
1
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36 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
TABLE 9. Measurements of S. lewisensis.
Sipyloidea rentzi Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [Rentz’s Sipyloidea Stick-insect]
(Figs. 62–68)
Description
Female (holotype) (Figs. 62–65): Elongate, dark green, long-winged; cerci long and thin. Body length 84
mm.
Head: Almost as wide as long, eyes small, dark brown. Narrow cream line from eyes to back of head.
Antennae with numerous indistinct segments, basal and second segments broader, third segment marginally
longer than second. Antennae easily exceeding length of fore legs.
FIGURE 62. Sipyloidea rentzi holotype female (ANIC), 84 mm.
Male (holotype) Male (paratype) Female (paratypes)
Body length 50 mm 51 mm 64–74 mm
Head 2.5 mm 2.5 mm 4 mm
Antennae 55 mm 58 mm 63–74 mm
Pronotum 2.8 mm 2.6 mm 4 mm
Mesonotum 8 mm 8 mm 13–14 mm
Metanotum 3.5 mm 3.5 mm 3–4 mm
Median Segment 3.5 mm 3.5 mm 3–4 mm
Fore Wing 4 mm 4 mm 4–4.5 mm
Hind Wing 29 mm 28 mm 20–22 mm
Fore Femora 16 mm 16.5 mm 22 mm
Mid Femora 10 mm 10.5 mm 13–15 mm
Hind Femora 15 mm 15 mm 18.5–21 mm
Fore Tibiae 17 mm 18 mm 14.5 mm
Mid Tibiae 10 mm 10 mm 13–14.5 mm
Hind Tibiae 17 mm 17 mm 20–24 mm
Cerci 0.8 mm 0.8 mm 0.7–0.8 mm
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FIGURES 63–65. Sipyloidea rentzi holotype female. 63. head and thorax, lateral view. 64. end of abdomen, dorsal view.
65. end of abdomen, lateral view.
Thorax: Pronotum same length as head, with almost central indentation. Mesonotum sparsely granulated,
more than four times length of pronotum, with paler lateral line. Metanotum considerably shorter than
mesonotum.
Wings: Fore and hind wings large, latter whitish with a hint of yellow, exceeding end of 6th abdominal seg-
ment.
Abdomen: Anal segment slightly longer than 9th abdominal segments, sharply tapered from half length to
an almost rounded tip. Operculum tapered to a rounded tip, not reaching half length of anal segment. Cerci
long, very slender, rounded at tip.
Legs: Long, hind legs exceeding end of abdomen.
Paratype females (1).
Same as holotype except body length 85 mm.
Paratype males (4) (Figs. 66–68).
Smaller, similar to the female, except much slenderer. Cream line from eyes to head broader. Anal seg-
ment similar shape, subgenital plate not reaching end of 9th abdominal segment. Body length 57–60 mm.
Holotype , 16°48 S; 145°38 E (GPS), Qld, Kuranda, 335 m., (Top of the Range) 19 Butler Dr, 15–31.i.2005,
D.C.F. Rentz (ANIC). Paratypes (all north Queensland, Australia): , same data, except 15–31.i.2004, ,
same data, except 1–15.ix.2003, , same data, except 1–15.xi.2003, , 16°40 S; 145°38 E (GPS), Qld,
Kuranda, 335 m., (Top of the Range) 11 Victor Pl, 12.i.2006, 381m, G. & R. Wilson & D.C.F. Rentz, ,
16°50 S; 147°37 E (GPS), Qld, 1.5 km S. of Kuranda on Kennedy Highway ‘Arona’, 10.xii.[20]03, D.C.F.
Rentz & J. Van Pelt, rainforest, grassland & Acacia (all ANIC).
63
64 65
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
38 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 66. Sipyloidea rentzi male paratype (ANIC), 60 mm.
FIGURES 67–68. Sipyloidea rentzi male paratype. 67. end of abdomen, dorsal view. 68. end of abdomen, lateral view.
Distribution
So far mainly found at garden lights in Kuranda, Queensland.
Notes
Closely related to S. garradungensis, but rentzi is more elongated, with some different features, notably
long, thin cerci almost two and a half times longer. Wings in the female are also much longer than garradun-
gensis. Unfortunately no eggs of rentzi are available for study.
Derivation of name
Named after the collector and well known specialist in orthopteroid insects, David C. F. Rentz (born
1942).
67
68
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TABLE 10. Measurements of S. rentzi.
Sipyloidea whitei Brock & Hasenpusch, spec. nov. [White’s Winged Stick-insect]
(Figs. 69–75)
Description
Male (holotype) (Figs. 69–73): Slender, dark brown insect; body, legs and antennae indistinctly mottled.
Bold black central longitudinal line runs whole length of body. Body length 56 mm.
FIGURE 69. Sipyloidea whitei holotype male (ANIC), 56 mm.
Female (holotype) Female (paratype) Male (paratypes)
Body length 84 mm 85 mm 57–60 mm
Head 3.5 mm Otherwise as HT 2.2 mm
Antennae 74 mm 58–60 mm
Pronotum 3.5 mm 2 mm
Mesonotum 15 mm 12 mm
Metanotum 5 mm 3 mm
Median Segment 5 mm 4 mm
Fore Wing 5.5 mm 3 mm
Hind Wing 48 mm 29 mm
Fore Femora 24 mm 20–24 mm
Mid Femora 17 mm 12–13 mm
Hind Femora 23 mm 17–18 mm
Fore Tibiae 27 mm 21–22 mm
Mid Tibiae 17 mm 13.5–14 mm
Hind Tibiae 23 mm 19 mm
Cerci 3.5 mm 1.7 mm
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
40 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 70–73. Sipyloidea whitei holotype male. 70. head and thorax. 71. end of abdomen, dorsal view. 72. end of
abdomen, lateral view. 73. end of abdomen, ventral view.
Head: About as wide as long, eyes moderate size. Apart from the narrow, bold black central longitudinal
line, lines run between eyes to back of head, inner line narrow, laterally a broader black band. Antennae with
c. 46 indistinct segments.
Thorax: Pronotum longer than head, with central indentation. Mesonotum four times length of pronotum,
sparsely granulated. Metanotum less than three times length of mesonotum.
70 71
72
7
3
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AUSTRALIAN STICK INSECTS (PHASMIDA)
Wings: Fore wings large. Hind wings whitish brown, reaching almost end of 6th abdominal segment; pre-
anal part same as body colour, with several darker flecks.
Abdomen: End of anal segment subtruncate, subgenital plate reaching end of 9th abdominal segment.
Cerci slender, of moderate length, rounded at tip.
Legs: Moderately long, about reaching end of abdomen.
Paratype males (19).
Same as holotype except for size differences (body length 44–64 mm), rather unusually, two specimens
longer than the shortest females.
Paratype females (4) (Figs. 74–75).
About the same size or slightly longer, similar to the male, except much broader, one specimen paler,
wings relatively short, only reaching about half length of 5th abdominal segment. Operculum tapered to tip,
reaching beyond end of 9th abdominal segment. Cerci fairly short. Body length 61–68 mm.
FIGURE 74. Sipyloidea whitei female paratype (MVMA) 61 mm.
FIGURE 75. Sipyloidea whitei end of abdomen in female paratype, lateral view.
BROCK & HASENPUSCH
42 · Zootaxa 1570 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Holotype , South Australia: 33°52 S; 136°40 E (GPS), 7 km NE. by E. of Arno Bay, 7.ii.1978, D.C.F.
Rentz, Stop 14 (ANIC). Paratypes (all Australia): , New South Wales, 9 mi. WNW. of Monia Gap, 2.ii.1964,
M.J.D. White, , New South Wales, 3 mi. E. of Roto, 9.iii.1962, M.J.D. White & J.S. Turner, , South Austra-
lia, Lowan Stn., 4 ml. S. of Sherlock, 22.v.1953, L.J. Chinnick, , Western Australia, Kojonup, iv.1965, A.L.
Rogers, , Western Australia, Coonaana Hill, Nr. Coonana, 28.i.1974, M.J.D. White (all ANIC), , Western
Australia, 10 km. NE of Menzies, 14.i.1989, M.S. & B.J. Moulds, K195626, , Western Australia, Lake Dou-
glas, 12 km. SW of Kalgoorlie, 20.ii.1991, M.S. & B.J. Moulds, K195627 (both AMSA), , , South Austra-
lia, Purnong, N. Murray R., 28.iii.[19]12, S.W. Fulton, , Victoria, iii.1962, 4 , 35°25 S; 141°09 E, Victoria,
16.8 km. SSW. Of Murrayville, 17.iii.1987, G. Milledge (all MVMA), 3 , [South Australia], Murray R., H.S.
Cope, 4 , , [South Australia], Mindarie, , [South Australia], Rocky Pines (all SAMA)
Distribution
Although only known from several localities (see type series above), this species appears to be fairly
widespread in New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia.
Notes
Easily distinguished by the dark males and broader, short-winged females, both with a black longitudinal
stripe from head to end of abdomen. In ANIC, listed as Sipyloidea sp. 3.
Derivation of name
Named after the late Michael J.D. White, who collected part of the type series and studied population
cytogenetics of Australian Sipyloidea species, albeit never completed this work (John et al, 1987).
TABLE 11. Measurements of S. whitei
Male (holotype) Male (paratypes) Female (paratypes)
Body length 56 mm 44–64 mm 61–68 mm*
Head 2 mm 1.7 mm 2.5 mm
Antennae 47 mm 41 mm 44 mm
Pronotum 2.5 mm 2 mm 3 mm
Mesonotum 10 mm 9 mm 13 mm
Metanotum 3 mm 3 mm 4.5 mm
Median Segment 3 mm 3 mm 4.5 mm
Fore Wing 3 mm 3 mm 4.5 mm
Hind Wing 30 mm 30–31 mm 25 mm
Fore Femora 17 mm 14 mm 12 mm
Mid Femora 9 mm 9 mm 7 mm
Hind Femora 17 mm 11 mm 16 mm
Fore Tibiae 17 mm 14 mm 15 mm
Mid Tibiae 11 mm 9.5 mm 10 mm
Hind Tibiae 16 mm 14 mm 15 mm
Cerci 0.8 mm 0.7 mm 0.8 mm
*Full measurements only available for 68 mm female
... Facultative parthenogenesis has evolved multiple times in this group (Bradler & Buckley, 2018), and sexual reproduction has been lost and regained on numerous occasions Schwander et al., 2010). Here, we ask how females' reproductive origin affects their morphology and reproductive performance following mating versus no mating in the facultatively parthenogenetic spiny leaf stick insect, Extatosoma tiaratum, a sexually dimorphic phasmid endemic to tropical rainforests in north-eastern Australia (Brock & Hasenpusch, 2007). Whereas females of this species have reduced wings and are incapable of flight, males have functional wings and readily fly in search of mates (Brock, 2001). ...
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In facultatively parthenogenetic populations, the prevalence of sexual reproduction depends on whether females mate and therefore produce sons and daughters or avoid mating and produce daughters only. The relative advantage of mating in such species may depend on a female’s own reproductive origin (i.e., development from a fertilised or unfertilised egg) if parthenogenesis reduces heterozygosity similarly to sexual inbreeding, or if it inhibits mating, sperm storage or fertilisation. But effects of reproductive origin on development and performance are poorly understood. Using the facultatively parthenogenetic stick insect, Extatosoma tiaratum, we quantified morphology, mating probability, and reproductive success in mated versus unmated females of sexual versus automictic (parthenogenetic) origin. We found strong evidence that increased homozygosity negatively impacted some traits in parthenogenetically produced females: compared to sexually produced females, parthenogenetically produced females were smaller and more prone to deformities in vestigial wings, but not more prone to fluctuating asymmetry in their legs. Parthenogenetically produced females received fewer mating attempts and avoided mating more often than sexually produced females. Yet, contrary to the expectation that sex should rescue parthenogenetic lineages from the detrimental effects of increased homozygosity, parthenogenetically produced females gained no net reproductive benefit from mating, suggesting that physiological constraints limit fitness returns of sexual reproduction for these females. Our findings indicate that advantages of mating in this species depend on female reproductive origin. These results could help to explain spatial distributions of sex in facultatively parthenogenetic animals and evolutionary transitions to obligate asexuality.
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Stick and leaf insects (order Phasmatodea) are a mesodiverse lineage of large terrestrial herbivores with predominantly tropical distribution and few species inhabiting more temperate regions. The phylogenetic position of the Phasmatodea among the lower neopteran insects has been debated for many years, with basically every orthopteroid insect order proposed as the potential sister taxon. The stick and leaf insects exhibit a remarkably poor fossil record. The fascinating and variable biology of stick insects has made them excellent model systems for investigating a number of evolutionary phenomena, including speciation and reproductive isolation, evolution of parthenogenesis and alternative reproductive strategies, and more recently the evolution of cold tolerance. Evidence for monophyletic Phasmatodea is undisputed and has grown stronger in recent years, with evidence coming from various sources. The chapter lists and discusses the currently recognized, non‐encaptic monophyletic groups. The contributions of amateur taxonomists play a crucial role in describing the phasmatodean diversity.
... Two stick insect species found in Brazil, Candovia evoneobertii (Zompro & Adis, 2001) and Echetlus fulgens Zompro, 2004, were recently described by Zompro & Adis (2001) and Zompro (2004b), both in the genus Echetlus Stål, 1875. Although Zompro (2004b) estimated a close relationship between E. fulgens and Echetlus evoneobertii, only E. evoneobertii was transferred to Candovia Stål, 1875 by Brock & Hasenpusch (2007) with no mention of E. fulgens. Due to their peculiarities and overall resemblance to Australian lineages, both species were considered to be native to or originating from Australia (as stated by Zompro 2004b) where other Echetlus, Candovia and related groups occur (Stål 1875;Brock et al. 2022). ...
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https://www.quae.com/produit/1672/9782759232734/les-insectes-du-monde https://www.museo-editions.com/les-insectes-du-monde Résumé – L’auteur fait le point sur l’ordre des Phasmatodea (phasmes) tel qu’il est connu à ce jour. Le chapitre aborde notamment les points suivants : fossiles, phylogénie, biologie (cycle vital mœurs, régime alimentaire, prédation, liens phasmes-fourmis, parasitisme, moyens de défense), les phasmes et l’homme (médecine, croyances, les phasmes comme outils, importance économique), les espèces éteintes et en danger, la morphologie des insectes et des œufs, l’adaptation au milieu. L’auteur propose enfin une classification provisoire fondée sur les travaux les plus récents et une clé de détermination jusqu’au niveau famille. Le chapitre comporte plus de 150 références et est illustré par 65 figures. Abstract – A review of the order Phasmatodea (stick and leaf insects) as it is known today is proposed. The chapter covers the following points in particular: fossils, phylogeny, biology (life cycle, habits, diet, predation, links between stick insects and ants, parasitism, means of defence), stick insect and man (medicine, beliefs, phasmids as tools, economic importance), extinct and endangered species, morphology of insects and eggs, adaptation to the environment. Finally, a provisional classification based on the most recent works is proposed as well as a determination key up to family level. The chapter includes more than 150 references and is illustrated by 65 figures.
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