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Task-oriented versus emotion-oriented coping strategies: The case of college students

College students coping strategies
Kariv, D. & Heiman, T (2005). Task-oriented versus emotion-oriented coping strategies:
The case of college students, College Students Journal, 39 (1), 72-89.
Task-Oriented Versus Emotion-Oriented Coping Strategies: The Case of
College Students
Dafna Kariv and Tali Heiman
Dafna Kariv, Ph.D.
School of Business Administration
The College of Management
Address: Yizhak Rabin Boulevard, Rishon LeZion, Israel
Tel: 972-3-9634281, 972-3-5498016
Tali Heiman, Ph.D.
Department of Education and Psychology
The Open University of Israel
Address: 16 Klausner St., Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 61392, Israel.
Tel.: 972 - 3 - 6460705, Fax: 972 - 3 6465468
College students coping strategies
The study examined the relationships between stress and coping strategies among 283
college students. Participants completed questionnaires relating to their stress perceptions,
actual academic loads and their coping strategies. The main objective was to explore the
effect of stress perceptions on coping behavior while accounting for objective loads and
demographic parameters. Multilevel analyses revealed several indications: first, students’
coping behavior could be predicted from their reported stress perceptions and their appraisals
of their academic-related stress levels; second, students employed mainly task- and emotion-
oriented coping strategies; and finally, students’ age was a significant factor in determining
their coping behavior. Our findings suggest that, in stressful environments, each of the
coping strategies functions independently, with the type of strategy adopted depending
largely on the specific profile of each student’s stress perceptions and demographic
College students coping strategies
Task-Task-Oriented Versus Emotion-Oriented Coping Strategies: The Case of
College Students
This study examined the relationships between stress and coping strategies among
college students. Participants completed questionnaires relating to their stress perceptions,
actual academic loads and their coping strategies. The main objective was to explore the
effect of stress perceptions on coping behavior, while also accounting for objective loads and
demographic parameters.
Sources of Academic Stress and its Likely Impact on Students
College students perceive academic life as stressful and demanding (Wan, 1992; Hammer,
Grigsby & Woods, 1998) and report experiencing emotional and cognitive reactions to this
stress, especially due to external pressures and self-imposed expectations (Misra &
McKean, 2000). They report on numerous stressors during term-time, including academic
demands and social adjustment.
Stress-inducing academic demands include grade competition; lack of time and issues
relating to time or task management (Macan, Shahani, Dipboye & Phillips, 1990; Trueman.,
& Hartley, 1996); the need to adapt to new learning environments (van-Rooijens, 1986) in
terms of the increased complexity of the material to be learned and the greater time and
effort required to do so; and the need to constantly self-regulate and to develop better
thinking skills, including learning to use specific learning techniques (Fram & Bonvillian,
2001). Emotional stress, such as anxiety, students’ appraisal of the stressfulness of the role’s
demands and of their ability to cope with those demands (Wan, 1992), are also connected to
academic stress.
Another category that evokes stress is social adjustment, particularly adjusting to
university life (Saracoglu, Minden, & Wilchesky, 1989; Abouserie, 1994) and separating
from family and friends. Finally, other constraints include financial pressure (Miech &
Shanahan, 2000) and other technical difficulties.
Thus, academic stressors cover the whole area of learning and achieving in and
adjusting to a new environment in which a great deal of content must be assimilated in a
seemingly inadequate period of time. Since students endeavor to adapt themselves to
College students coping strategies
academic life, positive adaptation and well-being factors are associated with fewer
experienced stress symptoms (Van-Rooijen, 1986; Tobin & Carson, 1994).
Coping Strategies
Coping strategies are assumed to have two primary functions: managing the problem
causing stress and governing emotions relating to those stressors (Folkman & Lazarus,
1980, 1986; Lazarus & Folkman 1984). Interpreting their results in terms of this
assumption, most studies confirm two major related findings. The first is that a situation is
evaluated as stressful, in part, whenever the individual perceives a lower ability to cope with
it. The second finding is that stressors perceived as controllable elicit more proactive coping
mechanisms (Karasek & Theorell, 1990), while those perceived as uncontrollable elicit
more avoidance strategies (Anshel & Kaissidis, 1997; Compas, Malcarne & Fondacaro.,
1988; Lazarus, 1981; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Roecker, Dubow & Donaldson, 1996).
Differences in the conceptualization of coping have led to a number of ways of
classifying coping strategies. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) offered a widely used definition
of coping, namely: constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific
external or internal demands. Subsequently, Higgins and Endler (1995) grouped coping
strategies into three main classes: task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented.
The task-oriented strategy is problem-focused. It involves taking direct action to alter
the situation itself to reduce the amount of stress it evokes. In the emotion-oriented strategy,
efforts are directed at altering emotional responses to stressors. It also includes attempts to
reframe the problem in such a way that it no longer evokes a negative emotional response
and elicits less stress (Mattlin, 1990). Finally, avoidance-oriented coping includes strategies
such as avoiding the situation, denying its existence, or losing hope (Lazarus & Folkman,
1984). It also includes the use of indirect efforts to adjust to stressors by distancing oneself,
evading the problem, or engaging in unrelated activities for the purpose of reducing feelings
of stress (Roth & Cohen, 1986).
The first two coping strategies involve pro-active efforts to alter the stressfulness of the
situation, with the use of emotion-oriented strategies being favored by people whose
personality disposition enables them to easily enter into and sustain a state of emotional
arousal in response to, or in anticipation of, emotionally-laden events (Melamed, 1994). By
contrast, avoidance strategies are characterized by the absence of attempts to alter the
situation. The two proactive strategies, namely the task-oriented and emotion-oriented
College students coping strategies
approaches, are associated with better adjustment, as reflected in higher self-rated coping
effectiveness and less depression (Causey & Dubow, 1993; Compas et al., 1988; Moos,
1990; Reid, Dubow & Carey, 1995; Strutton & Lumpkin, 1993). Although avoidance-
oriented coping may initially be an appropriate reaction to stress, Billings and Moos (1981)
have shown that it is associated with poorer adjustment, and Endler and Parker (1999) have
suggested that, in the long run, task-oriented coping is the most efficacious strategy.
Effects of Academic Stress and Demographics on Coping
Although a large body of literature has gauged the effects of academic stressors on coping
strategies, little research has examined the importance of developing an integrative model,
incorporating the effects of the perceived and actual stressor parameters on coping
With respect to the effect of academic stress on coping, the higher education literature
shows that students’ coping methods are diverse, reflecting personal influences on their
coping styles. Students generally report using proactive behavioral methods, such as
managing their time, solving specific problems and seeking information and help (Misra &
McKean, 2000; Britton, 1991; Lopez, Mauricio, Gormley, Simko & Berger, 2001; Collins,
Mowbray & Bybee, 1999). Mattlin et al, (1990) found that students also use cognitive
emotion-related behavior, such as positive reconceptualization of the stress-inducing events,
to cope with stress.
Permeating these results we find demographic differences in coping styles.styles.
Researchers have found that ethnic, cultural (Kim, Won, Liu, Liu, &,, Kitanishi, 1997) and
even socioeconomic (Cairns, 1989) characteristics influenced coping behaviors. As for
gender, Haarr and Morash (1999) found that significant differences come into play with
respect to avoidance-based strategies, with women reporting a significantly higher level of
use of avoidance than men. Other researchers found that males favor the use of task oriented
methods and physical coping resources, and are more likely to endeavor to solve problems,
while females are inclined to make more use of emotional and social coping resources
(Rawson, Palmer & Henderson, 1999). Undergraduate male students who use task-oriented
coping techniques report experiencing less distress (Higgins & Endler, 1995), while the use
of emotion-oriented coping strategies was a significantly positive predictor of distress in
both men and women.
College students coping strategies
Age has also been found as a factor that mediates stress levels. Studies that focused on
perceived stress found that it decreases with age (Cohen & Williamson, 1988; Hamarat,
Thompson, Zabrucky, Steele, & Matheny, 2001).
To summarize, studies of stress and coping offer only a partial demonstration of the
coping strategies employed. In particular, the literature has viewed coping behaviors in
relation to either ‘actual’ stress or perceived stress, without endeavoring to determine from
which aspect the coping behaviors derive. To investigate this issue, an integrated model is
Conceptual Model of Coping Strategies
The proposed multilevel structural model (Figure 1) simultaneously defines
multidimensional constructs of objective variables (academic load), subjective variables
(stress perceptions) and relevant demographics, and tests their direct and indirect effects on
coping strategies.
College students coping strategies
Figure 1
Multidimensional model of objective Academic Loads, Stress Perceptions,
Demographic Characteristics and Coping Strategies
Stress Perceptions
Academic Stress
Academic Load
Class hours (average weekly)
Study hours during semesters (average
weekly; in library, laboratory, at home
Study hours during exam periods
(average weekly; in library, laboratory,
at home etc.)
Coping strategies
College students coping strategies
In this formulation, perceived and objective stress parameters are proposed to explain coping
strategies. Accordingly, we formulated the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: Academic stress perceptions are predicted by objective academic
load variables.
Hypothesis 2: Perceived academic stress, objective academic loads and demographic
characteristics are correlated with the types of coping strategies
adopted by students.
Hypothesis 3: Academic loads predict the use of task-oriented coping strategies,
academic stress perceptions predict the use of emotion-oriented coping
strategies and demographic characteristics predict the use of avoidance
coping strategies.
The target population was students studying in Israeli academic institutions.
Questionnaires were distributed to students during the 2002 academic semesters. Except for
two negligible refusals, all students completed the questionnaires. Of the respondents, 153
(51.4 %) were female, 119 (43.8 %) were male and 11 (4%) did not identify their gender,
comparable to the Israeli student distribution 2000/1 (56.5% women and 43.5% male, Central
Bureau of Statistics 2002, No. 53, Table 8.33
). In terms of their marital status, 179 (63.3%)
respondents were single, 98 (34.6%) were married and 5 (1.8%) were divorced. Almost a
quarter of respondents (68, being 24.1%) had children: 26 (9.2%) had one child, 22 (7.8%)
had two children and 20 (7.1%) had three or more children. Most respondents (173, being
61.1% of the sample) were childless while 42 (14.8%) did not answer the question.
Distribution by academic degree sought indicated that 156 (55.2 %) of the students were
studying for their first degree and 127 (44.8%) were studying for their second degree. The
average age of the respondents was 30.13 years (SD = 6.78), with a range of 41 years (from
20 to 61 years).
Title: Students in Universities, by Degree, Field of Study and Institutions.
College students coping strategies
We distributed the questionnaire to stratified samples of 283 students studying in
national universities and colleges in Israel, who participated in the study voluntarily. Class
lecturers and assistants distributed all questionnaires during class time. Academic institutions
were therefore selected by non-random convenience sampling. T-tests were performed for
gender and age distribution in the institutions. Results show no significant differences in
terms of gender (t = -0.55, f = 1.19, p > 0.05) or age (t = -3.26, f = 0.67 , p > 0.05). Therefore
we treated the students as one group.
This study comprised three parts: (1) the students’ subjective assessment of the stress
they experience i.e., perceived stress; (2) an investigation of the task- emotion- and
avoidance-related coping strategies they adopt; (3) an objective assessment of their actual
academic loads.
1. Perceived Stress
In accordance with Lazarus’s (1990) definition, perceived stress was defined as a condition
subjectively experienced by respondents who identify an imbalance between demands
addressed to them and the resources available to them to encounter these demands. It was
assessed in terms of the students’ subjective experiences of their academic stress. The
question was: "Would you please share with us your feelings of stress regarding your
academic loads: How much stress do you feel due to your academic studies?” Students
answered on a four-point Likert scale from not stressed at all (1) through very much stressed
2. Task- Emotion and Avoidance-Oriented Coping strategies
Coping strategies were measured using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler
& Parker, 1999). This is a 53 - item measure of coping style composed of three factors. (a)
Task-oriented coping its subscales tap active and offensive coping styles, stressing
proactive responses to the stressors (e.g., “I focus on the problem and see how I can solve
it”). (b) Emotion-oriented coping this scale represents coping styles directed at altering
negative emotional responses to stressors, such as negative thinking (e.g., “My efforts will
surely fail), lowered self confidence (e.g., “I cannot handle this problem”) or poor self image
(e.g., “I am useless”). (c) Avoidance this represents withdrawal behaviors and the
College students coping strategies
redirection of personal resources towards different paths, such as sports, leisure time, etc.
(e.g., “I buy something”). The scales for these three coping strategies range from 1 (seldom
used) to 5 (always used). Higher scores represent a higher usage frequency for the specific
coping strategy. Cronbach alpha coefficients obtained for the entire scale of coping strategies
were: for task orientation, α = 0.89; emotional orientation, α = 0.87; avoidance, α = 0.83,
indicating that the coping strategies questionnaire is a reliable measure of adult coping
orientations for a college population.
3. Objective Stress Variables: Academic Loads
Academic loads were objectively assessed on an average weekly basis in terms of: (1) class
hours; (2) study hours during semesters and (3) study hours during exam periodsperiods..
Study hours included time spent in the library, in laboratories and at home, to meet academic
Demographic variables
Data were collected with respect to each student’s age, gender and familial status. Since
most of the students in our sample were not parents, familial status was not subsequently
included in the model. This decision was supported by correlation calculations, which
showed that the degree of correlation between familial status, academic stress perceptions
and coping strategies was negligible.
To investigate the first hypothesis, a regression analysis was performed on perceived
academic stress, in order to evaluate the effects of objective stress parameters on stress
perceptions. An ENTER method was used in each equation, with academic stress perceptions
entered as the dependent variable and variables relating to academic loads entered as
independent variables. The results showed that objective parameters related to academic
stress significantly affect academic stress perceptions (R2 = 0.075, F (3,283) = 5.97, p <
0.001). Specifically, class hours (B = 7.30, β = 0.14, t = 2.10, p < 0.04) and study hours
during semesters (B = 0.11, β = 0.20, t = 3.12, p < 0.00) positively affected academic stress
perceptions. The results supported the first hypothesis by showing that academic stress
perceptions can be predicted from objective academic loads.
College students coping strategies
To investigate the second hypothesis a Pearson correlation analysis was performed. As
shown certain coping behaviors were significantly correlated with perceived academic stress,
so supporting our hypothesis. Specifically, the correlation of perceived academic stress with
task-oriented behaviors was significantly negatively (r = -0.16, p < 0.05), while with
emotion-oriented behaviors it was significantly positively (r = 0.20, p < 0.01).0.01).
Avoidance was also positively correlated with academic stress, however the correlation was
not significant. These results indicate that students experiencing academic stress utilize
emotion-oriented coping strategies while disfavoring task-oriented approaches.
These findings urged investigation of the third hypothesis, for which purpose
hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Separate analyses were conducted using
each of the three coping strategies as dependent variables and the three other factors (namely,
academic loads, stress perceptions and demographic characteristics) as independent
variables. We were interested in investigating whether academic loads predict the use of task
oriented coping strategies, academic stress perceptions predict the use of emotion oriented
coping strategies and demographic characteristics predict the use of avoidance coping
strategies. For this purpose, the independent variables were entered in three steps in an
ENTER procedure, in the following order: (1) demographic characteristics (2) academic load
variables and (3) academic stress perceptions. )
The results for all equations were significant, indicating that each of the coping
strategies was significantly predicted by the independent variables. It is notable that for both
task and emotion oriented strategies, academic stress perceptions significantly contributed
towards predicting coping behavior, notwithstanding that this variable was entered last. As
hypothesized, academic stress perceptions affected these two coping behaviors in opposing
ways. Thus, while academic stress perceptions significantly and positively predicted the use
of emotion-oriented strategies (B = 0.25, p < 0.00), theythey significantly and negatively
predicted the use of task-oriented coping strategies (B = -0.21, p < 0.00.
A deeper examination of the regression equations for the emotion-oriented strategy
reveals that the transition from step two (inclusion of academic loads, B = 7.47) to step
three (inclusion of academic stress perceptions, B = 0.25) is relatively sharp and positive,
indicating that stress perceptions make an important positive contribution to the prediction of
emotion-oriented strategies. This contribution is statistically significant (second step: R =
College students coping strategies
0.32, R2 = 0.10; third step: R = 0.36, R2 = 0.13= 0.13). Furthermore, these results suggest that
the greater the level of academic stress experienced, the more students tend to manage it
through emotion-oriented coping strategies. A similar examination of the regression
equations with respect to the task oriented coping strategy shows the opposite result, in that
the sharp transition from step 2 to step 3 is negative. Thus, while objective load variables
shift students towards the adoption of task-related coping behaviors (B = 7.28; p = 0.05), the
subsequent inclusion of academic stress into the equations reverses the results (B = -0.21; p =
0.00). These findings suggest that, initially, students tend to use task-oriented strategies to
manage their objective academic loads. Having done so, they subsequently refrain from using
these strategies and focus on managing any remaining academic stress perceptions.
Other findings of interest discerned from the analyses relate to the demographic
characteristics. Age has been found to be a substantial variable appearing as a significant
predictor for most of the coping behaviors. The scores show that older students employ task-
oriented techniques in preference to any other coping strategy, while younger students also
employed emotion-oriented and avoidance strategies. We found gender to be a significant
variable only with respect to the avoidance coping strategy, with males adopting this coping
strategy more than females.
We surveyed a varied sample of university and college students to examine three
hypotheses concerning the coping strategies employed by students in response to different
types of stress. We were particularly interested in elucidating the role of academic perceived
stress versus academic objective loads in shaping the coping strategy used.
As we hypothesized, both academic stress perceptions and academic loads had
significant and unique effects on students’ coping strategies. The experience of academic
stress was mainly associated with the use of emotion-oriented behaviors, while being
significantly negatively related to adoption of task-oriented strategies. This indicates that the
nature of the stress perception can also be significant in restraining the use of certain coping
behaviors. Moreover, objective and subjective stress experiences fulfilled opposite roles in
the prediction of coping behavior. In particular, the subjective perception of academic stress
acted as a restraining factor in students’ employment of task-orientated coping behaviors,
while objective academic loads supported the use of this coping strategy.
College students coping strategies
The statistical coefficient scores suggest that most academic stress perceptions derive
from actual academic loads. We further find that both of these factors are addressed by
working students through proactive means. Academic load is addressed principally through a
task orientation and academic stress primarily through an emotion-oriented strategy. The
literature shows that proactive strategies are preferred in situations that are, or are perceived
to be, controllable (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) and that students generally utilize proactive
behavioral methods to manage academic stress (Misra & McKean, 2000; Britton & Tesser,
1991; Lopez et al, 2001; Collins et al, 1999). Interpreted in this light, our data suggest that
students perceive the academic component of their stress to be at least partly controllable.
Therefore, they initially address academic stress through task-oriented behaviors. As actual
academic loads reduce, but the perception of stress remains, task-oriented coping techniques
lose their relevance, and emotion-oriented behaviors predominate. This interpretation is also
partially supported by the work of Mandler (1993), who suggests that individuals’ reaction to
stress takes two forms. First, individuals ruminate about the stressful situation, their actions
proceeding automatically from the way they interpret it, in accordance with their customary,
learned behavioral patterns. Then, if this does not yield a solution to the problem (i.e., the
perception of stress remains), emotional and affective reactions arise. .
In agreement with Mattlin et al (1990), we find the utilization of emotion-oriented
strategies to be affected by academic loads. This may be explained by the adaptive functions
of emotions in managing stressful situations, [such as are generated by heavy academic
loads,] by preparing the individual for more effective thought and action, for example
(Mandler, 1993).
The data also show that women and men employ a wide array of similar strategies to
deal with stress. Gender effects did not appear even in examinations of the interactions
between stress perceptions, coping strategies and gender. Significant gender differences
come into play only with respect to the avoidance coping strategy, with men reporting a
significantly higher usage of avoidance as a coping tool. This finding is inconsistent with
much of the stress and coping literature, in which distinct gender-based coping behaviors are
well established for all coping strategies, and with women reporting a significantly higher
level of use of avoidance than men (Haarr & Morash, 1999).
Consistently with the literature (Cohen & Williamson, 1988; Hamarat et al, 2001),
older working students’ coping appears task-oriented and they do not utilize indirect coping
College students coping strategies
techniques. By contrast, younger students generally choose to manage stress by either
emotion-oriented strategies or avoidance.
Overall, and in agreement with our hypotheses, we find that students’ academic stress
perceptions can be predicted from their objective academic load variables. Furthermore,
perceived academic stress, objective academic loads and demographic characteristics are
correlated with the types of coping strategy adopted by students, with academic loads
predicting the use of task oriented coping strategies, academic stress predicting the use of
emotion-oriented coping strategies, and age and gender (demographic characteristics)
predicting avoidance reactions. Thus, the data support our proposed model. The main
implication of the results is that students who face stressful situations choose to deal with
them through a “step-by-step” coping strategy. As such, they initially adopt a task-focused
approach to manage their actual loads to reduce stress associated with phenomena that they
consider controllable. They then utilize indirect emotion-oriented techniques to address
residual perceived stress.
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Association, San Francisco, CA.
... Menurut Heiman & Kariv (2005) stress atau tekanan pikiran ialah suatu ketidakseimbangan antara permintaan yang berbentuk raga maupun psikologis dengan keahlian reaksi dikala terbentuknya kegagalan untuk memenuhi permintaan yang timbul (Haiman & Kariv, 2005). Dalam satu tahun terakhir, jumlah stress semakin meningkat (American Psychological Association, 2013). ...
This study aimed to determine the relationship between mindfulness and stress among final year students of the Faculty of Law at Haluoleo Kendari University. This research uses correlational quantitative method. The population of this study were final students of the Haluoleo Faculty of Law with a sample of 265 students. The sampling method using cluster sampling technique. The measuring instrument used in this study consisted of 2 research scales. The first scale is the MAAS (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale) with a scale reliability value of 0.895. The second scale is the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) scale with a scale reliability value of 0.773.The results of the Pearson product moment correlation analysis showed that there was a significant negative relationship between mindfulness and stress, with a correlation level of -0.408. The effective contribution given by the variable in this study was 16.6%. Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara mindfulness dengan stress pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Hukum di Universitas Haluoleo Kendari. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif korelasional. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa akhir Fakultas Hukum Haluoleo dengan sampel sebanyak 265 mahasiswa. Metode pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik cluster sampling. Alat ukur yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri atas 2 skala penelitian. Skala pertama merupakan skala MAAS (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale) dengan nilai reliabilitas skala sebesar 0,895. Skala kedua adalah skala PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) dengan nilai reliabilitas skala sebesar 0,773. Hasil analisis korelasi product moment Pearson menunjukan bahwa ada hubungan negatif yang signifikan antara mindfulness dengan stress, dengan taraf korelasi yaitu sebesar -0,408. Sumbangan efektif yang diberikan oleh variable pada penelitian ini sebesar 16,6%.
... The example of individual factors are physical condition, motivation, and personality type of the students themselves. In addition, environmental factors cover several aspects such as family, work, facilities, environment, lecturers, and others [2]. ...
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Background This systematic review aims to review research manuscripts during the COVID-19 pandemic that focus on the relationship between self-efficacy, adversity quotient, COVID-19-related stress and academic performance on a range of undergraduate student. Methods The authors will perform comprehensive searches of published studies in electronic databases such as PMC, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science by using the following search terms: ‘self-efficacy’ AND ‘adversity quotient’ AND ‘stress’ AND ‘academic performance’ AND ‘student’ AND ‘COVID-19 pandemic’. Only full-text articles in English language are included. Two reviewers will independently conduct the article selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. Any possible disagreement will be resolved by discussion, and one arbitrator (NA) will adjudicate unresolved disagreements. Results This review will provide an updated overview of investigating the relationship between self-efficacy, adversity quotient, COVID-19-related stress and academic performance on a range of undergraduate student during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, based on this systematic review, we will recommend the direction for future research. Conclusion The result of the study may help the researchers to find an updated overview of various studies in related topic. Ethics and dissemination Data from published studies will be used. Therefore, ethical approval is not required prior to this systematic review. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.
... Stres yang terjadi pada mahasiswa disebabkan oleh faktor akademik seperti: tuntutan untuk lulus pada mata kuliah yang diambil, kewajiban untuk menyelesaikan banyak tugas, kecemasan menghadapi ujian, tuntutan untuk mendapatkan nilai ujian yang tinggi, dan tuntutan untuk dapat mengatur waktu belajar (Rahmawati, 2016) serta non-akademik yang meliputi: faktor sosiokultural, lingkungan, dan atribut psikologis individu itu sendiri (Brand & Schoonheim-Klein, 2009). Jenis stres yang disebabkan oleh stresor akademik disebut dengan stres akademik (Kariv & Heiman, 2005). Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Ramadhani & Mahmudiono (2021) pada siswa SMA di Surabaya menemukan 47,4% dari 133 Buletin Riset Psikologi dan Kesehatan Mental (BRPKM) 2022, Vol. ...
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Penelitian ini berangkat dari fenomena perilaku makan beresiko yang ada di kalangan mahasiswa di Indonesia. Perilaku makan beresiko yang tidak sesuai denga0n kebutuhan tubuh salah satunya adalah emotional eating, yang dipicu oleh emosi negatif seperti stres. Pada mahasiswa, stress akademik sering menjadi penyebab. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi hubungan antara stres akademik dan emotional eating pada mahasiswa. Terdapat 146 mahasiswa berusia 18-22 tahun yang menjadi partisipan pada penelitian ini. Stres akademik diukur menggunakan skala Perceived Sources of Academic Stress sedangkan emotional eating diukur menggunakan sub-skala emotional eating dari Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan metode Spearman’s rho dengan bantuan software Jamovi 2.2.5. Hasil analisis menemukan korelasi yang signifikan antara stres akademik dan emotional eating (r = 0,276; p < 0.001). Korelasi bersifat positif yang mengindikasikan bahwa semakin tinggi tingkat stres akademik, semakin tinggi pula tingkat emotional eating.
The background of this study is non-pharmacological management to reduce stress one of which is brain gymnastics. Brain gymnastic movements can activate the neocortex and sympathetic nerves to reduce the increased production of adrenaline hormones in the body that can relieve psychological tension as well as physical tension. The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of brain gymnastics on the decrease in stress levels in students of the final level of the DIII Health Analyst Stikes Panrita Husada Bulukumba in 2019. The method used in this research using a pre-experiment research design with the one-group pre-post test design method. Sampling by means of Nonprobability sampling: Consecutive sampling with a total of 28 respondents. Measurement of stress levels using a watershed questionnaire (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) with statistical tests used is a paired t-test. The results of this study showed that there was an effect of brain gymnastics exercise on the decrease in stress levels in students of the final level of the DIII Health Analyst Stikes Panrita Husada Bulukumba with a mean Pretest score of 22.61 while the mean Postest 12.75 so that the average value of changes in pretest and posttest stress levels with a mean value of 9,857 with an std. deviation of 3,354. In conclusion, there is a meaningful influence on brain gymnastics training on the decrease in stress levels in students of the final level of the DIII Health Analyst Stikes Panrita Husada Bulukumba 2019.
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We all have certain styles of behavior and ways of relating to other people. Some of us are ordinary types, others are careless. The purpose of this study is to analyze the personality constructs according to Carl Gustav Jung, namely Persona and Shadow, the problem formulation is seen based on the personality of white Muslim teenagers who wear hijab, whether as an identity or just a trend. Some of us prefer to do our own work, others are more social. The method in this research is literature study sourced from journals, books, and other sources. Some of us are followers, others are leaders. Some of us appear immune to the attacks of others, while others avoid social initiatives for fear of disappointment. When a pattern of behavior becomes so inflexible or maladaptive that it causes significant personal impairment or interferes with social and occupational functioning, it may be diagnosed as a personality disorder.
Credit hours traditionally quantify expected instructional time per week in a course, informing student course selection decisions and contributing to degree requirement satisfaction. In this study, we investigate determinants of course load beyond this metric, including from course assignment structure and LMS interactions. Collecting 596 course load ratings on time load, mental effort, and psychological stress, we investigate to what extent course design decisions gleaned from LMS data explain students’ perception of course load. We find that credit hours alone explain little variance compared to LMS features, specifically number of assignments and course drop ratios late in the semester. Student-level features (e.g., satisfied prerequisites, course GPA) exhibited stronger associations with course load than number of credit hours; however, they added only little explained variance when combined with LMS features. We analyze students’ perceived importance and manageability of course load and argue in favor of a more holistic construct of course load.
This research aims to determine the relationship between academic stress and sleep quality in college students. The hypothesis in this study is that there is a negative relationship between stress and sleep quality. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. This study used 96 respondents who filled out the DASS questionnaire to determine the level of stress and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to determine sleep quality. The data obtained were then analyzed using Kendall's Tau bivariate non-parametric correlation, which resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.209 with a significance of 0.004. The results of this study are in accordance with the hypothesis that there is a relationship between Academic Stress and Sleep Quality in undergraduate students of UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya. Keyword: academic stress, sleep quality ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara stres akademik dengan dengan kualitas tidur pada mahasiswa. Hipotesis dalam penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan negatif antara stres dengan kualitas tidur. Tehnik sampling yang digunakan adalah
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara komunikasi interpersonal dan strategi coping dengan stres pada mahasiswa psikologi yang sedang menyusun skripsi. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 68 mahasiswa. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan tiga skala yaitu skala DASS, skala komunikasi interpersonal, dan skala strategi coping dengan model skala Likert. Pengambilan sampel penelitian dengan menggunakan simple random sampling. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan uji regresi model bertahap dan model penuh dengan bantuan program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0 for Windows. Hasil analisis pertama menunjukkan ada hubungan antara komunikasi interpersonal dengan stres pada mahasiswa psikologi yang sedang menyusun skripsi, nilai yang diperoleh adalah Thitung > Ttabel (Thitung = -6,221) dengan p < 0.05 (p = 0,000). Hasil analisis kedua menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan antara strategi coping dengan stres pada mahasiswa psikologi yang sedang menyusun skripsi, nilai yang diperoleh adalah Thitung < Ttabel (Thitung = - 0,213) dengan p > 0.05 (p = 0,832). Hasil analisis ketiga menunjukkan ada hubungan antara komunikasi interpersonal dan strategi coping dengan stres pada mahasiswa psikologi yang sedang menyusun skripsi, nilai yang diperoleh adalah Fhitung > Ftabel (Fhitung = 19,357) dengan Adjusted R Square = 0,373 dan p < 0.05 (p = 0,000.
Numerous studies document lower levels of depression among adults with higher education, but little is known about the way in which the association varies over the life course. Do depression levels diverge or converge across educational strata with age? This study investigates how the association between education and depression changes with age and tests the extent to which these changes are accounted for by physical health problems, widowed status, employment status, coping resources, household income, and financial strain. Data for this investigation come from the Work, Family, and Well-Being Study, 1990, a nationally representative sample of 2,031 adults aged 18 to 90 interviewed by telephone. Findings indicate that the association between depression and education strengthens with increasing age. Physical health problems among adults with lower education account for most of the diverging gap in depression. These results show that an integration of insights from the stress paradigm and the life course perspective can lead to a fuller understanding of socioeconomic inequality and its influence on psychological functioning.
In this study, the authors examined relations among adult attachment orientations, maladaptive problem coping styles, and a composite measure of current distress within a sample of 55 undergraduates (17 men, 38 women). Results indicated that each adult attachment orientation and each problem coping style measure was related in expected directions to students' distress. In addition, problem coping styles largely mediated the impact of insecure adult attachment orientations on distress. Implications of our findings to advancing an attachment theory‐informed perspective on college student coping, distress, and intervention are discussed.
Despite an awareness of the inverse relationship between stress levels and job performance, researchers have not addressed the specific coping strategies used by salespeople in their efforts to cope with sales-related stress. A framework is developed that suggests dispositionally optimistic salespeople may employ different coping strategies than do pessimistic salespeople. Support for hypotheses that have been grounded in this broad proposition was developed in a study that employed a multi-firm sales sample. Optimists were found to employ more problem-focused coping tactics, while pessimists used more emotion-focused coping. Issues relating to why problem-focused coping tactics are preferable as well as how greater use of problem-focused coping may be promoted within a sales organization are discussed.
In this paper we identify a number of strategies that police officers use to cope with stress caused by problems in the workplace. We also compare coping strategies for gender and racial groups, and link differences to level of stress. Extensive observational data and a survey of 1,087 police officers in 24 departments were used to address the research questions. We found that African-Americans rely more strongly than Caucasians on bonds with other minorities, and that Caucasian officers more often use expression of feelings, trying to get others to like them, and camaraderie with coworkers. Women cope with stress by using escape and by keeping written records more often than men. The data also suggest that an officer's stress-level group depends on the coping strategies he or she uses. Implications for future research are discussed, as are programs to help police develop effective strategies for coping with workplace problems.
The effects of perceived effectiveness of university support services and general satisfaction with the educational experience on conflicting demands of work, family, and school were investigated in a study of 375 undergraduate and graduate students at an urban university. Results demonstrated a negative relationship between perceived effectiveness of support services and the degree of work-school role conflict experienced by participants. Furthermore, satisfaction with educational experience was negatively related to work-school conflict. No other significant effects were found.
Investigated cross-situational patterns in children's coping with observed interpersonal conflict. Children in Grades 4, 5, 7, and 8 (N = 417) reported on their use of five coping responses when exposed to conflict they observed between the adults in their homes and between their peers. Although children reported using the same relative pattern of coping responses across situations (i.e, distancing/denial the most, support seeking the least), they used a much higher level of internalizing/worrying responses when exposed to the adult conflict situation than the peer conflict situation. Sex and development differences were not consistent across observed interpersonal conflict situations.