ChapterPDF Available

The Role of Birds within the Religious Landscape of Ancient Egypt

A pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) among the papyrus marshes. Wall painting from the northern palace of Akhenaten, Amarna
(Davies 1936, vol. 2, pl. 76)
edited by
with new photography by
Library of Congress Control Number: 2012946464
ISBN-10: 1-885923-92-9
ISBN-13: 978-1-885923-92-9
© 2012 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.
Published 2012. Printed in the United States of America.
The Oriental Institute, Chicago
This volume has been published in conjunction with the exhibition
Between Heaven and Earth: Birds in Ancient Egypt
October 15, 2012–July 28, 2013.
Oriental Institute Museum Publications 35
Series Editors
Leslie Schramer
Thomas G. Urban
with the assistance of
Rebecca Cain
Lauren Lutz and Tate Paulette assisted with the production of this volume.
Published by The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago
1155 East 58th Street
Chicago, Illinois, 60637 USA
Illustration Credits
Front cover: “Birds in an Acacia Tree.” Tempera on paper by Nina de Garis Davies, 1932. Catalog No. 11.
Back cover: Head of an owl. Limestone and pigment. Late Period to early Ptolemaic period, 664–150 bc Catalog No. 22
Catalog Nos. 1–2, 5–15, 17–18, 20–27, 29–40: Photos by Anna R. Ressman; Catalog Nos. 3, 16, 19: Copyright the Art Institute of
Chicago; Catalog No. 4: A114917d_12A, photo by John Weinstein. Reproduced with the permission of The Field Museum of Natural
History, Chicago, all rights reserved; Catalog No. 28: Copyright the Brooklyn Museum, New York
Printed by Four Colour Print Group, Loves Park, Illinois
The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Service —
Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.
Foreword. Gil J. Stein ............................................................................................................................................. 7
Preface. Jack Green ................................................................................................................................................ 9
List of Contributors ............................................................................................................................................. 11
Introduction. Rozenn Bailleul-LeSuer ................................................................................................................................. 15
Time Line of Egyptian History ............................................................................................................................................ 19
Map of Principal Areas and Sites Mentioned in the Text ................................................................................... 20
1. From Kitchen to Temple: The Practical Role of Birds in Ancient Egypt. Rozenn Bailleul-LeSuer ..................... 23
2. The Role of Birds within the Religious Landscape of Ancient Egypt. Foy Scalf ................................................ 33
3. An Eternal Aviary: Bird Mummies from Ancient Egypt. Salima Ikram .............................................................. 41
4. Sheltering Wings: Birds as Symbols of Protection in Ancient Egypt. Randy Shonkwiler ................................. 49
5. Pharaoh Was a Good Egg, but Whose Egg Was He? Arielle P. Kozloff .................................................................. 59
6. Birds in the Ancient Egyptian and Coptic Alphabets. François Gaudard ........................................................... 65
7. Birds and Bird Imagery in the Book of Thoth. Richard Jasnow ........................................................................... 71
8. Birds in Late Antique Egypt. Susan H. Auth ......................................................................................................... 77
9. Bird Identification from Art, Artifacts, and Hieroglyphs: An Ornithologist’s
Viewpoint. John Wyatt ........................................................................................................................................... 83
10. Bird Behavior in Ancient Egyptian Art. Linda Evans .......................................................................................... 91
11. Studying Avian Mummies at the KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology: Past, Present,
and Future Work. Lidija M. McKnight .................................................................................................................... 99
12. Medical CT Scanning of Ancient Bird Mummies. Bin Jiang, MD, and Michael Vannier, MD ................................ 107
13. Challenges in CT Scanning of Avian Mummies. Charles A. Pelizzari, Chad R. Haney,
Rozenn Bailleul-LeSuer, J. P. Brown, and Christian Wietholt ....................................................................................... 109
14. Terahertz Pulse Imaging of an Egyptian Bird Mummy. J. Bianca Jackson, Gérard Mourou,
Julien Labaune, and Michel Menu ......................................................................................................................... 119
15. The Avifauna of the Egyptian Nile Valley: Changing Times. Sherif Baha el Din ................................................ 125
Birds in Creation Myths ................................................................................................................................ 131
Pharaoh the Living Horus and His Avian Subjects ....................................................................................... 135
Birds as Protection in Life ............................................................................................................................ 143
Fowling in the Marshes and Aviculture ........................................................................................................ 147
Nina de Garis Davies’s Facsimiles from the Painted Tomb-Chapel of Nebamun ............................................... 152
Bird Motifs in Ancient Egyptian Arts and Crafts ......................................................................................... 157
Birds in the Writing System ......................................................................................................................... 167
Birds in the Religious Life of Ancient Egyptians .......................................................................................... 177
Falcon Cults ............................................................................................................................................. 178
Ibis Cults ................................................................................................................................................. 189
Birds in Death and the Afterlife ................................................................................................................... 201
Appendix: Bird Anatomy ...................................................................................................................................... 214
Concordance of Museum Registration Numbers ................................................................................................ 215
Checklist of the Exhibit ....................................................................................................................................... 216
List of Birds .......................................................................................................................................................... 217
Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................ 218
avian elements in the divine
iconography of ancient egypt
The proliferative variety of animal imagery
within ancient Egyptian religion continues to
remain a source of astonishment and bewil-
derment to many viewers (Pearce 2007, pp. 242–64).
Crowned beasts, human bodies with animal heads,
and fantastic deities depicted with the commingled
limbs of numerous creatures — what Virgil called
“monstrous shapes of every species and Anubis the
barker” — are commonly found in the Egyptian artis-
tic repertoire (Smelik and Hemelrijk 1984, p. 1854).
What, however, did such representations mean? For
some Greco-Roman authors seeing and hearing of
Egyptian practices, animal veneration was a source
of ridicule, hypocritically invoked as Greeks and
Romans had their own forms of animal worship, some
of which were imported from Egypt.1 Others, such as
Plutarch, Diodorus, and Horapollo, while often not
approving of the practice, had at least a partial un-
derstanding of the complex symbolic web woven by
Egyptian philosophers. Despite the potential confu-
sion a glance at an Egyptian religious work of art can
cause, the visual metaphors employed actually have
an internal consistency and logic. If it were not the
case, what power would the images have either to
influence people or explain their ideologies.
A primary impediment to understanding a figure
such as the bimorphic Horus, shown with a human
body and a falcon’s head, is adopting a literal inter-
pretation of the scene (fig. 2.1). The iconography of
divine beings was a human invention, an intellectual
construct developed to provide a means to express,
discuss, manipulate, and understand the various
physical forces within the cosmos inhabited by the
people of ancient Egypt. It should be remembered
that the ancient Egyptians still had intimate contact
with and reliance upon the natural forces of their en-
vironment. Such forces had an assortment of traits
that could be used metaphorically to embody abstract
concepts or provide iconic vessels for the physical
manifestation of cosmic and social characteristics.
Features of flora and fauna derived from the natural
world were chosen in order to communicate concepts
such as ferocity, protection, or motherhood. In this
view, literal readings must be abandoned. Like any ar-
tistic expression, “these are communicative devices,
metaphors, in a system of formal art that aims not
at realist reproduction but at the essence of being”
(Quirke 2008, p. 74).
Diodorus Siculus, a historian from first-century
bc Sicily, had already grasped the basic metaphorical
concept. Concerning the symbolism of the falcon, he
Now the falcon signifies to them everything which
happens swiftly, hence this animal is practically
the swiftest of winged creatures. And the concept
portrayed is then transferred, by the appropriate
metaphorical transfer, to all swift things and to
everything to which swiftness is appropriate, very
much as if they had been named.2
It is this metaphorical transfer which underpins
the “imagistic” system of ancient Egypt.3 Horus, a
god whose name literally means “the one who is far
figure 2.1. Bimorphic depiction of Thoth, with the head of an ibis, and
Horus, with the head of a falcon, shown anointing the pharaoh Ptolemy VIII
Euergetes II (170–163 bc). From the temple of Kom Ombo (photo by Foy
away,” is depicted as a falcon, which can soar high
into the sky, but the falcon is not limited to Horus.
Montu, a god associated with valor and combat, can
also be depicted as a falcon due to the bird of prey’s
ferocious killing abilities. Likewise, the falcon is a
common form of the solar deity Re because the flight
of the falcon alludes to the flight of the sun across the
sky. The complexity of the natural world and the am-
bivalence of its flora and fauna led to a vast amount
of overlap in the iconographic canon (table 2.1).
Egyptian divine images should be understood in
their multiplicity and diversity, not as monolithic en-
tities without nuance. We should not interpret figures
such as a human body with a falcon head as repre-
senting some actual entity in the universe, whose
particular likeness distinguished it exclusively from
every other divine being. Rather, this is one way to
express a particular quality about a force in the uni-
verse which the ancient Egyptians were attempting
to explain and these “hybrid representations” should
be considered “a form of iconographic signs and can
be compared to hieroglyphics.4
avian elements among the
“transformation” spells of
egyptian funerary texts
Because of the close association between departed
humans and the divine world, the metaphors evoked
by avian imagery have further significance for under-
standing the Egyptians’ conception of the afterlife.
In the Egyptian collection of mythological episodes
scholars now call the Book of the Heavenly Cow, it
is said that man comes into being from the tears of
the sun god. The creator of this etiological myth
employed a playful pun, connecting the Egyptian
word for “man” (rmṯ) with the word for “tear” (rmy.t)
because they contain similar consonantal roots.
However, the further implication contained in this
myth is that man is “consubstantial” with the gods;
man is made from divine material (Ritner 2011). For
the ancient Egyptian, the ultimate desire for the af-
terlife was to join in the company of the gods and
partake in the role of the sun during the day and
Osiris throughout the night. The deceased actually
sought to become gods and to possess the powers of
the gods, including the ability to manifest in repre-
sentative animal forms and attain the qualities of the
cosmic forces the images conveyed.
Just as substantial avian imagery appears within
Egyptian religious art, funerary literature reserves a
prominent place for birds within the so-called trans-
formation spells. The designation “transformation”
derives from the recurrence of the Egyptian verb
“to become” ( ḫpr) in the introduction to such
spells (fig. 2.2). Within the traditional funerary com-
pilations of the Pyramid Texts (PT), Coffin Texts (CT),
and Book of the Dead (BD), the idea of “becoming”
a particular being, including the gods themselves in
addition to a variety of plant and animal forms, occu-
pied the focus of many passages. In the Greco-Roman
period, descendants of the transformation spells were
used independently on papyri to form their own com-
position referred to as the Book of Transformations.5
It was believed that those who employed these texts
could transform into animal forms of their choosing
and Book of the Dead spells were dedicated to becom-
ing a “falcon of gold” (BD 77), “divine falcon” (BD
78), “phoenix” (BD 83), “heron” (BD 84), “ba-bird” (BD
table 2.1. Prominent deities associated with avian iconography
Name Avian Features
Benu Heron
Horakhty Falcon,
Winged Sun Disk
Horus Falcon,
Winged Sun Disk
Isis Falcon, Kite,
Kestrel, Swallow
Khonsu Falcon
Montu Falcon
Nekhbet Vulture
Nephthys Falcon, Kite,
Kestrel, Swallow
Qebehsenuef Falcon Head
Re Falcon,
Winged Sun Disk
Sokar Falcon
Thoth Ibis
85), and a “swallow” (BD 86). These animal appear-
ances represented the gods and the powers associated
therewith (fig. 2.3).
In the “spell for becoming a divine falcon” (CT
312/BD 78), Horus announces to Osiris that he will
send the deceased as a messenger in his own falcon
form: “I made my form as his form when he comes
and goes to Busiris, for my appearance is his appear-
ance.” Later in the text, the messenger replies: “I have
performed what was ordered because Horus endowed
me with his ba.” The ba, although often translated
as “soul,” represents the physical manifestation and
power of the god. Thus, the bas of the sun god were
the many forms he could take, one of which was the
phoenix, which is called the “ba of Re” and into which
the deceased wished to transform by means of BD
spell 83 (see Catalog No. 2 and fig. 2.3). The phoenix,
called the benu-bird in Egyptian (table 2.1), was the
manifestation of the sun god as creator, who was born
of an egg laid upon the primeval mound that first
rose from the cosmic waters.
For the deceased individual, the ba often mani-
fested in iconography as a human-headed bird (see
Catalog No. 34). The bird body represented the free-
dom of movement of the deceased and specifically
the ability to fly into the sky so that he might “share
in the cosmic existence of the sun god.6 However, as
the transformation spells suggest, individuals could
take innumerable forms in the afterlife. In addition
to the human-headed bird, the deceased could be de-
picted as a falcon-headed human, attested by anthro-
poid coffins with falcon heads, mummies fitted with
cartonnage falcon heads, and scenes on stelae show-
ing the deceased’s falcon-headed corpse lying upon
a funerary bier (compare the writing of Qebehsenuef
in table 2.1).7
figure 2.3. Inherkhau shown standing before the phoenix in his tomb (TT
359). The image is a supersized version of the vignette from Book of the
Dead spell 83, whose introductory passage is above Inherkhau’s head: “Spell
for becoming the phoenix, entering and going forth by Osiris, overseer of
the crew in the place of truth, Inherkhau, justified” (photo by Charles Nims)
figure 2.2. Spells 77–86 from Papyrus Milbank (OIM E10486), a Ptolemaic
Book of the Dead papyrus belonging to Irtyuru. The vignettes show the
various forms in which the deceased wished to transform himself by means
of the accompanying spells (D. 17930; photo by Anna Ressman)
“one bird, one pot”: the sacred animal
cults of ancient egypt
Avian elements were prominent in divine iconogra-
phy and funerary literature, but most infamous has
been the direct worship of animals within the sacred
animal cults of ancient Egypt (see fig. 3.4). The vener-
ation of selected sacred animals has a long history in
Egypt extending back at least to the predynastic peri-
od as revealed by the recent excavations of the elabo-
rate burials of fauna at Hierakonpolis.8 The exact na-
ture of these earliest animal cults remain an enigma
because of extremely fragmentary evidence and a
lack of written documents from the period to provide
the indigenous perspective on these practices. Based
on evidence from later historical epochs, animal cults
primarily took one of two forms. In one form, an ani-
mal was considered the physical living incarnation
of a particular deity on earth (Dodson 2009). There
were many sacred animals associated with different
gods and various cities, such as the Apis bull, a liv-
ing manifestation of the god Ptah worshipped in the
city of Memphis; the living crocodile, an earthly form
of the god Sobek venerated throughout the Fayum;
and the living falcon of Edfu, an incarnation of the
god Horus. These animals, and others like them, were
selected to be the representative of gods on earth,
a breathing receptacle for the god’s ba or manifest
physical power, and they were well cared for, paraded
during public festivals, and ornately buried. Cults of
this type continued to be practiced into the Roman
period and elements borrowed from Egyptian cus-
toms continued in use into the Byzantine era across
the Mediterranean world (Smelik and Hemelrijk 1984,
p. 1999).
The other form of animal veneration consisted of
the capturing and rearing of animal species sacred to
a particular deity and the mummification and burial
of these species in special purpose-built necropoleis
(fig. 2.4). Rather than a single chosen member, all
members of these species were considered sacred to
their tutelary divinity and were buried by the mil-
lions (fig. 2.5). An astonishing menagerie of fauna
were treated in this manner including fish, beetles,
lizards, snakes, shrews, moles, mice, ibises, hawks,
falcons, dogs, and jackals. These categories of worship
figure 2.4. The subterranean animal necropolis at Tuna el-Gebel. Pre-Ptolemaic parts of the galleries shown in green
(courtesy of Dieter Kessler)
were not mutually exclusive; the Egyptians could pre-
pare for burial millions of falcons while still sepa-
rately rearing a particular falcon which functioned as
the living incarnation of the god on earth, public dis-
plays of which are known to have taken place at the
temples of Edfu, Dendera, and Philae (Dijkstra 2002).
Among these cults, reverence of the ibis, sacred
to the god Thoth, and the falcon, sacred to the god
Horus, held special places of honor and the cults of
these two birds were often administered together,
as we know from the records of the personnel left
behind at Saqqara, Tuna el-Gebel, Dra Abu el-Naga
(Thebes), and Kom Ombo. The reverence for these
birds was surely old, but our earliest indication for
their mummification and burial derives from patchy
evidence dated to the New Kingdom, such as a ce-
ramic vessel with a hieratic inscription mentioning
the discovery and subsequent burial of an ibis found
in “the canal of Ramses I.9 Sites dedicated to the
purposes of the cult flourished throughout the land
of Egypt, exploding in popularity soon after 700 bc.
The exponential increase in the popularity of these
animal cults followed first the Assyrian and later
Persian conquests of Egypt and some scholars have
interpreted the renewed vigorous participation as a
nationalist response to foreign domination (Smelik
and Hemelrijk 1984, pp. 1863–64). However, expansion
of the sacred animal necropolis of Tuna el-Gebel con-
tinued under the Persian rulers, historical memory
of whom suffered, as indicated by the tale recounted
by Herodotus about how Cambyses stabbed and killed
the Apis bull.
The last native kings of the Thirtieth Dynasty
from Sebennytos in the Delta, who supported
Egyptian religious practices through substantial
building campaigns and royal sponsorship during
their brief dynasty, seem to have placed particular
emphasis on the animal cults. Pharaoh Nectanebo II
had a royal cult dedicated to “Nectanebo-the-falcon”
including priests who served statues showing the
king standing beneath the breast of the Horus fal-
con.10 The Macedonian rulers of the Ptolemaic dynas-
ty (305–30 bc) sought continued employment of such
traditional Egyptian symbols, including maintaining
the cult of Nectanebo-the-falcon, fitting with the por-
trayal of Nectanebo as an ancestor of Alexander the
Great in the Alexander Romance.11 Maintenance of
the sacred animal cults was important enough that
the Ptolemaic sacerdotal decrees make prominent
mention of royal patronage for their support. The
decree preserved on the Rosetta Stone for Ptolemy V
Epiphanes states that “He did many great deeds for
Apis, Mnevis, and the other sacred animals of Egypt
in excess of what those who came before him did.
His thought concerned their condition at all times
and he gave great and splendid (offerings) for their
burials.12 The language of the decrees shows how the
Ptolemaic kings negotiated with the powerful priestly
class in addition to presenting themselves as tradi-
tional pharaohs maintaining the cosmic order of maat
through their religious piety.
Birds for the cult were both raised in captivity as
well as captured wild. A recently published Demotic
inscription on a coffin from the hawk galleries at
Saqqara refers to the discovery of a dead hawk which
was collected for burial (Ray 2011, pp. 271–73). Royal
subsidies in the form of fields controlled by the cultic
administration as part of their priestly stipend al-
lowed them to provide feed for the birds as well as
raise liquid capital by leasing the land for cultiva-
tion or selling the produce at harvest. Several mem-
bers of these cultic administrations are known from
objects in the Oriental Institute Museum collection.
Provisioning for the living falcons in the town of
figure 2.5. A vulture lays before the innumerable ceramic vessels
containing bird bundles stacked at the entrance to Gallery 6/5 in the Falcon
Catacomb excavated at Saqqara (Davies and Smith 2005, pl. 23d)
figure 2.7. The title of Nesshutefnut, h
.m ntr n n’k.w nh
˘.w m h
˘tf “priest of the living falcons in his tree,” from his Book of the Dead papyrus in the
Oriental Institute Museum (OIM E9787)
Athribis during the Ptolemaic period was the respon-
sibility of a man named Djedhor, whose statue-base
inscription details how he “prepared the food of the
living falcons who are in this land” (fig. 2.6). Near the
town of Esna, a man named Nesshutefnut, whose Book
of the Dead papyrus is now in the Oriental Institute
Museum (OIM E9787), carried the title “priest of the
living falcons in his tree” (fig. 2.7). Such priests had
direct control over the subsidized fields and they
often treated it as private property which could be
bought and sold. A series of Greek receipts included
not only the transfer of ownership concerning the
fields, but also management of the ibiotapheion, the
catacomb where ibis mummies were interred.
After death, either natural or induced, the birds
were taken to the wʿb.t “purification (room),” where
they were embalmed, mummified, wrapped in linen,
and many placed within ceramic jars prior to depo-
sition in the ʿ.wy ḥtp “house of rest.” The Egyptians
held the entire animal as sacred and elaborate wrap-
pings suggestive of an entire bird can sometimes hold
only a few feathers or bones (Catalog No. 32). From
the archive of Hor, a member of the administration
for the cult of the ibis and falcon at Saqqara in the
Ptolemaic period, we know that reforms in the treat-
ment of ibis mummies stipulated one bird for each
vessel, but often multiple birds were deposited in
a single container (Ray 1976). Short votive prayers,
such as those preserved on jar fragments in the
Oriental Institute Museum collection (fig. 2.8), were
sometimes written on the exterior of these vessels on
behalf of a patron (Scalf, forthcoming). Most inscrip-
tions do not identify the patron by title, but in sev-
eral cases we know that these donors were personnel
working within the association tasked with caring for
the sacred animals. The technicalities of sponsoring a
burial are unknown, but a Demotic letter now in the
British Museum preserves a son’s promise to pay for
the “burial of the ibis” if his father is relieved from
illness (Migahid 1986, pp. 122–129). Unfortunately,
some ambiguity persists about how participants out-
side of the priestly personnel contributed to the sa-
cred animal festivities. It is unclear if royal patronage
was sufficient to account for the exceptionally large
cultic expenses associated with the administrative
apparatus necessary for the annual processing of
10,000 birds at some sites.
The reasons why the Egyptians made such inor-
dinate investments in their animal mummies have
recently come under debate. For many years, it was
common for scholars to explain that the mummies
figure 2.6. Base of the magical healing statue of Djedhor from
Athribis, in which he references his job caring for the “living falcons
who are in this land” (column 5 from the left). OIM E10589 (photo by
Jean Grant)
Tuna el-Gebel material, has argued that the practices
were actually part of the royal cult itself, important
in the yearly ritual renewal of the king. Likewise, he
believes that only those with the appropriate author-
ity would have had permission to handle the animal
mummies, which were literally called “god” (nṯr), and
enter the sacred space of the subterranean necropolis
at Tuna el-Gebel.13 Kessler’s theories await further
confirmation, but based on the incomplete nature
of the data, it is likely that the royal house profited
ideologically from their patronage of the animal cults
and that the populace participated through priestly
Avian imagery found within the religious land-
scape of ancient Egypt across the millennia is an
important element in the iconographic canon of di-
vinities, as symbols of the postmortem powers of the
deceased, and as living, breathing repositories evok-
ing the divine presence on earth. Despite offending
the tastes of certain foreigners visiting the country,
the complex metaphorical associations created by
Egyptian philosophers through the use of animal rep-
resentation had an internal logic based on the empiri-
cal observation of the natural environment and the
rationalizations created to explain the world around
them. Just as the Egyptian hieroglyph for “god” was
a flag ( ), whose waving denoted the invisible pres-
ence of deity, birds and their unique characteristics,
provided a fertile source of imaginative religious as-
sociations that continued to be employed throughout
Egyptian history.
1 Burkert 1985, pp. 64–66; Gilhus 2006, p. 102.
2 Greek text and English translation in Oldfather 1967, pp. 96–97.
Unfortunately, this concept was the only one applied in the at-
tempts to decipher the Egyptian hieroglyphic script from the
fifth-century explanations of Horapollo to the seventeenth-cen-
tury writings of Athanasius Kircher.
3 “Imagistic” used here in the sense of Ritner 1993, pp. 247–49.
4 Smelik and Hemelrijk 1984, p. 1861. See also Quirke 2008, pp.
73–74; Hornung 1996, pp. 100–42.
5 M. Smith 2009, pp. 610–49; M. Smith 1979; Legrain 1890. To this
can be added the so-called Book of the Ba, published in Beinlich
6 Assmann 2005, p. 92; M. Smith 2009, pp. 610–17.
7 Spiegelberg 1927, pp. 28–29; Broekman 2009.
8 Van Neer et al. 2004, p. 106; Linseele et al. 2009, pp. 119–20;
R.Friedman 2011, pp. 39–40.
9 Ray 2011, p. 221; Spiegelberg 1928, pp. 14–17.
figure 2.8. A fragmentary ceramic vessel that had probably been used
as a container for an ibis mummy, with a Demotic votive inscription that
mentions “the gods of the house of rest.” OIM E19051 (D. 17991; photo by
Anna Ressman; profile drawing by Natasha Ayers)
were produced for a vibrant pilgrimage industry.
According to this view, travelers visiting sacred sites
on festival days throughout Egypt would buy a votive
offering such as a mummy and/or bronze figure and
dedicate it to the sanctuary of the god. There is some
evidence for outside participation but it is somewhat
vague about the exact nature of the interaction. What
is known primarily concerns the actions of the re-
ligious associations, groups of personnel including
priests, craftsmen, and other workers who supported
the cult via their trade. At sites such as Saqqara and
Tuna el-Gebel, where millions of hawk and ibis mum-
mies have been found, administering the cult was a
monumental investment that involved caring for the
birds, an enormous pottery industry to produce the
ceramic jars, stone-cutting crews to excavate the
labyrinth of burial galleries, scribes for account-
ing, and priests to perform the appropriate religious
rites. Massive crown subsidies suggest that the royal
house took a particular interest in the sacred ani-
mals. Dieter Kessler, who has worked closely with the
10 See Yoyotte 1959; de Meulenaere 1960; Holm-Rasmussen 1979;
Ray 2002, pp. 121–22; Gorre 2009; Ladynin 2009, pp. 7–9. For stat-
ues showing Nectanebo II between the legs of the Horus falcon,
see Metropolitan Museum of Art 34.2.1 published in Arnold 1995,
pp. 44–45 (no. 50), and Musée du Louvre, Paris, E 11152. These
statues can be compared to images known already in the Old
Kingdom such as the statue of Khafre (Egyptian Museum, Cairo,
CG 14) with Horus stretching his wings around the head of the
king (see fig. 4.4 in this volume) and the alabaster statue of an
enthroned Pepy (Brooklyn Museum 39.120) whose back pillar
doubles as a serekh with Horus perched atop.
11 The Alexander Romance refers to a collection of stories about
Alexander the Great that circulated in antiquity, some of which
show Egyptian connections (Jasnow 1997).
12 Apis and Mnevis were sacred bulls deemed to be the earthly in-
carnations of Ptah and Re respectively (Dodson 2005, pp. 72–95).
13 Kessler 1989, pp. 299–303; Kessler 2010, pp. 269–70.
Few of the surviving texts and images that relate
the creation myths of the ancient Egyptians were
composed for the sole purpose of describing how the
world came into existence. In order to discover what
Egyptians believed about creation, it is necessary to
examine a wide variety of texts and images. What we
call the “creation myths” of ancient Egypt consist of
short episodes woven into larger contextual frame-
works such as narrative literature, magical spells, fu-
nerary compositions, or temple scenes.
The Egyptian view of the cosmos begins with the
god Nun, a personification of the primeval waters in
which all the elements of creation were dissolved.
From this primordial soup, the so-called creator god
appeared, whom the Egyptians referred to as “the
one who came into being himself.” No explanation
is offered for the mechanism behind his appearance.
In fact, in Coffin Texts spell 75, this god explicitly
states “Do not ask how I came into being from Nun.
Depending on the source, this appearance occurs
either independently, upon a mound, in a rising lo-
tus, or from an egg. Through the act of masturba-
tion, spitting, sneezing, thinking, or speaking, this
god created the elements of the cosmos, which the
Egyptians presented as divine personifications of
water (Tefnut), air (Shu), earth (Geb), and sky (Nut).
With the earth and sky separated by the air, the cre-
ator god could travel by day in the form of the sun
disk, thereby laying the physical foundations for the
world as the Egyptians knew it.
Within the framework of the Egyptian creation
myths, birds appear on several occasions. In one tell-
ing, a goose lays an egg (see Catalog No. 1) on the
mound which has risen from the primeval waters.
From this egg, the sun god hatches in the form of a
heron (see Catalog No. 2). This story, already present
in the Pyramid Texts of the late third millennium 󰃞󰃱,
would have an important influence on the classical
Organic remains
A-Group, ca. 3100 bc
Qustul, Cemetery S, deposit 4
Excavated by the Oriental Institute,
15.4 x 12.7 cm
OIM E21384
Oriental Institute digital images
D. 17994–95
This undecorated ostrich egg was
excavated by the Oriental Institute
Nubian Expedition from a deposit
within Cemetery S at the Nubian
site of Qustul, which lies just north
of the border with Sudan.1 Several
important cemeteries from the
A-Group period were excavated at
Qustul, with Cemetery S containing
the largest tombs equal in size
and wealth to the famous Early
Dynastic tombs at Abydos.2 The
egg is nearly complete with a small hole in one
end through which it had been drained.3 Similar
ostrich eggshells have been discovered at other
sites throughout Egypt and Nubia (and throughout
the Mediterranean), some dating back into the
Holocene and continuing into the pharaonic
period.4 A number of examples are decorated with
desert animals and hunting scenes, paralleled in the
contemporary artistic repertoire as represented on
a wide diversity of media including rock art, tomb
paintings, pottery decoration, and palette designs,
among many others.5 The form of the ostrich egg
was so valued that craftsmen produced imitation
vessels made from stone or ceramics.
The definitive meaning of such ostrich eggs
has been debated. Although ostrich eggs would
have filled different functions within Egyptian and
Nubian life, including utilitarian roles as potential
food source, beads, or containers for liquids, the
deposition of such items within the sacred space of
cult sites, tombs, and “royal” cemeteries implies a
symbolic function tied to prestige, power, and ritual
practices.6 Religious correlations are demonstrated
by several spectacular archaeological discoveries.
Recent excavations of predynastic Cemetery HK6 at
Hierakonpolis uncovered a large deposit of twenty-
two ostrich eggshells.7 An ostrich eggshell was
discovered buried inside a jar at the Nile Delta site
of Tell el-Farkha as a potential foundation deposit.8
In a Neolithic tomb at Naqada, W. M. Flinders Petrie
unearthed the remains of an individual whose
missing head was replaced by a decorated ostrich
Support for the spiritual significance of the
egg motif has been found by turning to religious
literature from later periods of pharaonic history.
In Book of the Dead spell 77 for “turning into
a falcon of gold,” the deceased
recites: “I have risen as the great
falcon which has gone forth from
his egg.10 The passage refers to
one of the mythological accounts
of the creation in which a goose,
referred to as the “Great Cackler”
(Ngg wr), lays the cosmic egg from
which the sun god hatches and rises
up to create the visible world.11
Through means of this text, the
deceased associated himself with the
sun god in the hopes of joining the solar-Osirian
cycle, thereby ensuring his eternal existence in
the entourage of the gods.12 The egg, therefore,
came to symbolize both birth and rebirth, an
associated quality maintained into Egypt’s Coptic
period, when it was connected with Christ’s birth
and resurrection.13 Despite the difficulties of
forming an understanding based on data from
millennia later, most interpreters have assumed
that similar intentions motivated the utilization
of these ostrich eggs within sacred landscapes
during the very foundation of Egyptian and Nubian
published (selected)
B. Williams 1989, p. 103
1 B. Williams 1989, p. 103.
2 B. Williams 2011, p. 87.
3 Kantor 1948, p. 46; Teeter 2011b, cat. no. 5.
4 Muir and Friedman 2011, pp. 582–88; Phillips 2009, pp. 1–2;
Cherpion 2001, pp. 286–87.
5 Kantor 1948; Hendrickx 2000; Teeter 2011b, cat. no. 5.
6 B. Williams 1989, p. 10; Cherpion 2001, pp. 288–91; Muir and
Friedman 2011, pp. 588–90.
7 Muir and Friedman 2011.
9 Petrie and Quibell 1896, p. 28; Cherpion 2001, p. 288.
10 For text, see Lepsius 1842, pl. 28, BD 77, line 1. For translation,
11 For references to the “Great Cackler” (Ngg wr), see Leitz 2002,
vol. 4, p. 367.
12 Such is specified in more detail in BD 149, where the sun god
is addressed directly: “Hail to you, this noble god in his egg, I
have come before you so that I be in your following.
13 Phillips 2009, p. 2.
14 Muir and Friedman 2011, p. 588; Dreyer 1986, p. 97 n. 389.
1, bottom
1292–1225 B.C.”
Nina de Garis Davies, ca. 1936
Tempera on paper
42.54 x 59.69 cm
Collection of the Oriental Institute
Oriental Institute digital image D. 17885
This tempera by Nina de Garis Davies depicts a
scene found on the west wall in the antechamber
in the Valley of the Queens (QV 66). Her tomb is
justly famous for the remarkable preservation
and vivid colors of the painted scenes decorating
its walls. Due to the delicate nature of the plaster
and potential harm caused by salt, water, and
temperature fluctuations, visiting the tomb is often
restricted and conservators have worked diligently
in an attempt to slow the rate of deterioration
which has continued to plague the tomb over the
last century.1 Therefore, Davies’s paintings are
valuable not only for their artistic beauty, but in
some cases they preserve a record of monuments
now damaged or lost.
From right to left, the figures depicted are the
goddess Nephthys in the form of a common kestrel,
the benu-bird in the form of a grey heron, and the
lion of yesterday.2 The scene is well known as a
portion of the vignette from Book of the Dead (BD)
spell 17, which adorns the interior of Nefertari’s
tomb along with texts and scenes from various Book
of the Dead spells and other funerary literature.
BD 17 is one of the most frequently attested spells
in the Book of the Dead corpus and this long
vignette highlights a number of important passages,
characters, and themes mentioned in the text.3
The text itself is a complex and not completely
understood compilation of interwoven narratives,
glosses, and commentaries through which the tomb
owners demonstrated their religious knowledge
while identifying themselves as the creator god.4
Nephthys is shown here in the form of a kestrel
with her name Nb.t-ḥw.t “Lady of the enclosure”
original scene she stands at the head end of a
funerary bed holding the mummy of Nefertari with
the collection of Osirian myths, thus by extension
for the deceased, and the piercing shrieks of
birds of prey were thought to represent their
wailing cries. The two goddesses are referred to as
“screechers” (ḥꜢ.t) in Pyramid Text spell 535: “As the
and Nephthys are commonly depicted as women
with outstretched bird wings on the corners of
New Kingdom royal sarcophagi.6
from the end of the fourth century 󰃞󰃱 called the
“Stanzas of the Festival of the Two Kites,” two
women who have undergone the ritual preparation
and Nephthys written on their arms, don wigs, and
carry tambourines while reciting the stanzas before
For the Egyptians and in the context of BD 17,
the benu-bird ( bnw) is a symbol of the
rejuvenation of the deceased, shown standing next
and Nephthys. The stories of the Egyptian benu-
bird formed the inspiration for the classical story
of the phoenix, a bird whose mythological life
cycle ends in a fiery conflagration that resulted
in the renaissance of the new phoenix rising from
the ashes of the old.8 Tales involving the phoenix
traveled far and wide throughout the ancient
Mediterranean world. Known as the “soul (bꜢ) of
Re” or the “heart (ἰb) of Re,” the benu-bird had a
close association with the sun god and appeared on
scarab-shaped amulets placed near the heart of the
benu-bird, the soul of Re, who guides the
gods to the netherworld from which they go forth.
Through the spell of BD 83, a “spell for turning into
the benu-bird,” the deceased sought transformation
into the phoenix for the purpose of rejuvenation
and affiliation with the gods.
benu-bird figured in certain Egyptian cosmogonic
benu-bird is
said to appear as the creator god Atum-Khepri at
the beginning of time upon the primeval mound
rising from the cosmic waters (Nun), probably
inspired by herons wading in the marshes and pools
of the Nile. This mythic episode was memorialized
in the temple of the benu-bird in Heliopolis,
where the primeval mound was symbolized by
the pyramidal benben-stone and where the corpse
of the sun god is said to reside.11 The benu-bird
thus represented the power (bꜢ) of the sun god as
creator and the avian imagery further reinforced
the metaphor of the sun’s daily “flight” across the
published (selected)
For the benu-bird identified as the “heart of Re,” see BM
Religion penetrated every facet of ancient Egyptian
life, from international politics to the family
household. So thoroughly were religious beliefs as-
sumed that the Egyptian language even lacked a word
for “religion.” The ancient Egyptian religious system
focused on a plethora of gods and goddesses, which at
their core represented the cosmic and social forces in
the universe. Worship of these deities involved a va-
riety of rituals, many of which would have structured
the patterns of everyday life. In death, Egyptians
sought the company of the gods, thereby becoming
powerful spirits to whom the living could appeal for
redress of earthly grievances. Egyptian culture was
entirely infused with this religiosity, offering ample
opportunity for intimate contact with divinity in
many ways.
Birds formed a regular feature in the Egyptian
natural environment and were therefore embedded
into standard religious iconography. Statues (Catalog
Nos. 3, 23, and 25), temple reliefs, and amulets
(Catalog Nos. 7–9) often depict divinities with avian
features or in complete avian form. These features
evoked for the viewer the identity of the deities and
alluded to their characteristic power, such as flight or
ferocity. The average Egyptian experienced his daily
religion through household shrines, amulets, ste-
lae, and the local priesthood. Although inner temple
shrines and divine statues would have been restricted
from the average person’s gaze on a daily basis, fes-
tivals and processions gave them opportunities to
witness and participate in important public rituals.
In addition to adapting avian characteristics into
iconography, priests dedicated themselves to the
cults of living birds which served as animate ves-
sels for divinity. Selected birds, such as the falcon of
Horus at Edfu, would have been raised as the earthly
incarnation of the god. Few birds were chosen for this
service, but those that were had well-maintained lives
filled with public appearances and elaborate burials
at death (see Catalog No. 28). However, the majority
of mummified bird remains derive from mass burials
related to the cults of sacred animals (Catalog Nos.
30–32). Many animals were revered because of their
association with a particular deity, such as the ibis
with Thoth and the falcon with Horus. Millions of
such birds were captured wild or domestically raised,
mummified, and interred as an offering to their tute-
lary god in subterranean necropoleis. fs
figure c26. A Ptolemaic king makes an offering before Horus and an enshrined falcon referred to in the 
text as the “living falcon upon the serekh,” from the temple of Horus at Edfu (photo by Stefano Vicini)
29, recto
Papyrus, ink
Late Period, Dynasty 27, reign of Darius I,
between June 25, 502 bc, and July 24, 502 bc
Probably Hermopolis, Tuna el-Gebel
Purchased in Cairo, 1950; donated to the Oriental
Institute by Alan Gardiner via George Hughes, 1956
27.0 x 11.5 cm
OIM E19422
Oriental Institute digital images D. 17992–93
In ancient Egypt, people commonly sought out
powerful individuals for the redress of legal,
social, or personal grievances. Such individuals
could be human or divine, alive or dead. Imploring
departed relatives as intermediaries for real-
world difficulties (an art which has been termed
“necromancy”) has a long history in Egypt with
direct evidence stretching back into the Old
Kingdom.1 Letters written to gods, such as this
papyrus addressed to “the ibis, Thoth,” are direct
descendants of similar texts previously presented
to the powerful spirits (Ꜣḫ) of deceased individuals.2
In fact, petitions of this kind from the Greco-Roman
period were sometimes addressed to Imhotep,
the famous architect of the Third Dynasty king
Djoser who became deified after his death and who
was honored in a shrine carved into the cliffs of
Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari.
The letter preserved on papyrus OIM E19422
was written in the Demotic script in eight lines
on the recto and one line on the verso. It was
composed in the reign of Darius I (522–486 󰃞󰃱)
during the first period of Persian rule following
the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses in 525 󰃞󰃱. It
was written by a man named Efou (Ἰwf-ʿw), son of
Hornufechebe (Ḥr-nfr-ḫby), who worked as part of
the administration of a cult of the ibis, bird sacred
to the god of writing and wisdom Thoth. The letter
was presumably rolled up and placed somewhere
in the galleries of ibis burials within the necropolis
of Tuna el-Gebel as the papyrus’s excellent state of
preservation suggests.
The single line of text on the verso of this
appeal preserves an address identifying it as “a plea
of the servant Efou, son of Hornufechebe, before
the ibis, Thoth, twice great, lord of Hermopolis,
the great god.” The addressee is none other than
a god of national importance, for Hermopolis
was the most sacred city of Thoth in Egypt. Ibises
from surrounding cities were sent for burial in the
underground galleries of the animal necropolis and
pilgrims traveled to pay their respects before this
eminent deity. It is no accident that Efou writes
to Thoth. As he tells us, he left his former work
to perform services within the cult of the ibis.
Efou probably rendered his duties to a smaller ibis
29, verso
cult outside of Hermopolis because he mentions
that he has no supervisor before whom he could
bring his appeal. Whether or not this statement is
hyperbole can no longer be known. He then lists a
series of injustices committed against him as well
as the ibis cult, alleging that one Psentehe, son of
Montuhotep, has stolen from him and the ibis cult,
had his assistants harmed, and appropriated his
stipend. As the source of his livelihood, Efou would
have taken the theft of his income quite seriously.
What truth may have been in these claims, we do
not know, but the mention of crimes perpetrated
against the very cult of the god addressed could not
have hurt Efou’s case. Efou does not seek for the
god to harm Psentehe, but only asks to be protected
A plea of the servant Efou, son of Hornufechebe,
before Thoth, twice great, lord of Hermopolis:
My great lord, O may he pass the lifetime of Pre.
From the month of Mecheir of regnal year 11 up
to today, I perform the service of the ibis. I aban-
doned my (former) work. More than it, I prefer the
work which pertains to the ibis. I have no super-
visory personnel. If the heart is stout, then they
will be protected before Thoth, twice great, lord
of Hermopolis. I pray on account of Psentehe, son
of Montuhotep. He does not perform the service
of the ibis except for eating its food. And he does
not allow a guard over it either. He steals from me
by force. Since year 17, he stole my money and my
wheat. He had my servants harmed. He stole from
me all that I have. About the burnt offerings, his
heart is obstinate. If the heart is stout, then they
will be protected before Thoth, twice great, lord of
Hermopolis. As for Psentehe, son of Montuhotep,
he has stolen from my life. He has cast me out of
my portion. As the law, he acts for himself. Many
things depart through his hand, which pertain to
the ibis. Let me be protected from Psentehe, son
of Montuhotep. Written by the servant Efou, son
of Hornufechebe, in the month of Phamenoth of
regnal year 20.
A plea of the servant Efou, son of Hornufechebe,
be[fore the ib]is, Thoth, twice great, lord of
Hermopolis, the great god.
published (selected)
Hughes 1958; Migahid 1986, pp. 38–44; Endreffy 2009, p. 244
1 Ritner 2002; idem 2008, p. 184; Gardiner and Sethe 1928.
2 For example, the letter from a man to his deceased relative,
who is referred to as a “powerful spirit” (Ꜣḫ), preserved on OIM
E13945, published in Woods 2010, cat. no. 81.
Just as birds were part of daily life in Egypt they
also had important roles in the afterlife. In many
respects they played the same roles as they did in
the world of the living. They provided food, and bird
deities provided protection.
The bird deities usually involved in the protec-
tion of the dead are vulture goddesses (Nut, Nekhbet,
Wadjet) and falcon gods (Horus, Sokar, Re). Falcon
gods were especially important, because there was
often a certain level of identification of the deceased
with these gods. The king was protected by and iden-
tified with Horus in both life and death (Catalog No.
37) and he also became one with the sun god (Re, Re-
Horakhty) and funerary gods such as Sokar (Catalog
No. 35) in the afterlife. The protection of these dei-
ties was also extended to non-royalty. The sons of
Horus, one of which took the form of a falcon, pro-
tected the internal organs (Catalog No. 36). Like many
other cultures, Egyptians conceived of some of their
spiritual forms to be bird-like. One of these was the
ba, which is most often depicted as a human-headed
bird (Catalog No. 34). The body of the ba usually takes
the form of a falcon.
Egyptians depended on the living to provide for
them after death through funerary cults but they also
took measures should the cult fail. They provided for
their needs by the magic of images, such as tomb
paintings and models. As fowl was a favorite dish,
there were scenes of the capture of wild birds and
the care of domestic stock. Models of the butchering
(Catalog No. 38) and cooking of birds would magical-
ly allow the same processes to occur in the afterlife.
The use of victual mummies (Catalog No. 40) created
a continuous source of food. But these images and
models often had a double purpose as the capture
and killing of fowl acted magically to control chaos
and to destroy evil forces (Catalog No. 38; see also
Wood, pigment
Late Period, Dynasties 25–30, ca.
750–350 bc
Gift of the Egypt Exploration Fund,
6.9 x 7.1 x 2.8 cm
OIM E4461
Oriental Institute digital images
D. 17908–09
Small statuettes in the form
of a bird with human head
representing the ba (bꜢ) of the
individual developed over the
course of the New Kingdom,
became increasingly common in
the Late Period, and continued
to be used in a modified form
into the Meroitic period in Nubia
(fourth century 󰃞󰃱–fourth century
󰀱󰄂).1 They were often made of
wood and brightly painted. The
Oriental Institute example is somewhat exceptional
for its well-preserved paint, as the color decoration
on many similar figures has faded away, and also for
its unusual wig style.2 The face is painted gold, the
wings are given elaborate patterns of blue and dark
blue, and the underside of the tail is red. A beautiful
example from the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty burial
of Yuya (KV 46) portrays the deceased with a black
wig, red face and feet, yellow underbelly, white legs,
green wings, and blue tail.3
The original placement of this figurine is
unknown, but depictions of the ba are known from
other elements in the funerary assemblage. A
wooden statuette found in the tomb of Tutankamun
(KV 62) depicts the king lying on a funerary
bed with a figure of his ba crossing wings with
a falcon figure over his torso.4 A similar model
made of black stone showing the ba-bird sitting
next to the mummy was manufactured for a non-
royal individual named Re from the Eighteenth
Dynasty.5 These objects suggest that ba-statuettes
were placed near the corpse, perhaps over the
chest, as accoutrements applied to the coffin or
sarcophagus,6 following the instructions in the
rubric for Book of the Dead spell 89, the “spell for
causing the ba to join to his corpse,” which states:
“Recitation over a ba of gold filled with precious
stones, which a man placed (on) his chest.7 In
fact, actual gold amulets representing the ba
have been discovered in both royal and private
burials.8 Alternatively, the ba-statuettes could have
been simply left freestanding within the tomb or
attached to a stela by a wooden dowel, a hole for
which is preserved in the base of this example.9
Within ancient Egyptian philosophical
tradition, human beings had several aspects to their
existence including ba ( bꜢ), ka ( kꜢ), corpse
( ẖꜢ.t), name ( rn), and shadow ( šw.t).10
Each of these elements symbolized the various
relationships and abilities of the individual, both
within this world and in the hereafter. The ba, most
often represented as a bird with human head, was
of paramount importance for it represented the
individual’s power of mobility.11 In particular, the
power of flight, symbolized through the metaphor
of the bird body, allowed for the deceased to
travel in the company of the sun god during the
daily solar cycle. Corresponding to the ba’s airy
existence is the corpse, which was destined for
the netherworld, thereby complementing the
solar-Osirian cycle with which everyone hoped
to associate. Upon death, recitations during the
funerary rituals sought to ensure that the ba
rise in the sky and the corpse descend into the
netherworld.12 Separation of the ba and corpse was
not permanent for the ba would reunite nightly
with the corpse (as specified in Book of the Dead
spell 89). The alighting of the ba onto the corpse
is depicted in a miniature limestone sarcophagus
model from the late New Kingdom which shows
the ba seated upon the torso of the mummy with
outstretched wings.13 Regeneration occurred
through this reunion, just as the sun god Re’s
reunion in the netherworld with Osiris provided the
necessary conditions for his daily renewal, setting
the divine precedent for Egyptian conceptions of
1 Earlier pair and trio statues from the Old Kingdom have been
assumed to fulfill a similar role, but this is far from certain. See
Meroitic ba-statues can be found in Török 2009, pp. 422–24, and
Silverman 1997, pp. 306–07.
2 See Lacovara and Trope 2001, cat. no. 7; von Droste et al. 1991,
cat. nos. 111–14. A similar wig is depicted on a ba-statuette in
the decoration of Theban Tomb 78 (Brack 1980, pl. 17).
3 Egyptian Museum, Cairo, CG 51176 (JE 95312), Quibbel 1908, p.
63; Bongioanni et al. 2001, p. 495.
4 Bongioanni et al. 2001, pp. 284–85; Wiese and Brodbeck 2004,
pp. 120 and 194–95.
5 Egyptian Museum, Cairo, CG 48483, Newberry 1937, pp.
372–73, pl. 30; Hornung and Bryan 2002, p. 204.
6 A falcon statuette of similar shape and manufacture occu-
pies this position on the famous Roman-period coffin of Soter
(British Museum, London, EA 6705), as pictured in Riggs 2005,
figs. 87–88.
7 This rubric is found in the famous papyrus of Ani, now in the
British Museum (British Museum, London, EA 10470.17). For
photos, see Faulkner 1998b, pl. 17.
8 Bleiberg 2008, p. 115; Andrews 1994, p. 68; Fazzini 1975, p. 126.
Bronze statuettes are also attested; Roeder 1956, p. 399 and pl.
9 Bács et al. 2009, p. 137; Riggs 2003, p. 193. Stela 54343 in the
British Museum preserves a ba-statuette attached to the top
(Munro 1973, pl. 20).
10 Zandee 1960, pp. 19–20; Assmann 2005, pp. 89–90.
12 Assmann 2005, pp. 90–96.
13 Egyptian Museum, Cairo, CG 48501, Newberry 1937, p. 380, pl.
30. Cf. also CG 51107 from KV 46, Quibbel 1908, p. 49. pl. 27.
Adler, Wolfgang
 -
geln.” In Kāmid el-Lōz, ‘Schatzhaus’-Studien, edited
by Rolf Hachmann, pp. 27–119. Saarbrücker Beiträge zur
Altertumskunde 59. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt.
1990 Angers, Musée Pincé: collections égyptiennes. Paris Inventaire
des collections publiques françaises 35. Paris: Éditions de la
Aldred, Cyril
1971 Jewels of the Pharaohs: Egyptian Jewelry of the Dynastic Period.
New York: Praeger.
Allen, James P.
2005 The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Writings from the An-
cient World 23. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
Allen, Marti Lu
1895 The Terracotta Figurines from Karanis: A Study of Tech-
nique, Style, and Chronology in Fayoumic Coroplastics. PhD
dissertation, University of Michigan.
Allen, Thomas George
1923 A Handbook of the Egyptian Collection of the Art Institute of
Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1936 Egyptian Stelae in the Field Museum. Anthropological Series
24/1. Chicago: The Field Museum.
1960 The Egyptian Book of the Dead: Documents in the Collection of the
Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. Oriental
Institute Publications 82. Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
Reprinted in 2010.
1974 The Book of the Dead, or Going Forth by Day: Ideas of the Ancient
Egyptian Concerning the Hereafter as Expressed in Their Own
Terms. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 37. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Altenmüller, Hartwig
 -
sertation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität zu München,
1974 “Bemerkungen zur Kreiselscheibe Nr. 310 aus dem Grab des
Hemaka in Saqqara.Göttinger Miszellen 9: 13–18.
2010 Einführung in die Hieroglyphenschrift. 2nd edition. Hamburg:
Helmut Buske.
Altenmüller, Hartwig, and Dieter Johannes
1998 Die Wanddarstellungen im Grab des Mehu in Saqqara. Archäolo-
Andrews, Carol
1984 Egyptian Mummies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
1994 Amulets of Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press.
Arnold, Dorothea
1995 An Egyptian Bestiary.The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bul-
letin 52/4: 3–64.
2010 Falken, Katzen, Krokodile: Tiere im alten Ägypten aus den
Sammlungen des Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, und des
Ägyptischen Museums, Kairo. Zürich: Museum Rietberg.
Assmann, Jan
 
der Ramessidenzeit.Revue d’Égyptologie 30: 22–50.
1995 Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom: Re, Amun and the
Crisis of Polytheism. London, New York: Kegan Paul Interna-
2005 Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca: Cornell Univer-
sity Press.
Atherton, Stephanie D.; Lidija M. McKnight; Don R. Brothwell; and Rosalie
2012 A Healed Femoral Fracture of Threskiornis aethiopicus
(Sacred Ibis) from the Animal Cemetery at Abydos, Egypt.
International Journal of Palaeopathology, May 16, 2012. Avail-
able online at:
Aufderheide, Arthur C.
2003 The Scientific Study of Mummies. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press.
 
manent: Recueil d’études dédiées à Dimitri Meeks par ses collègues
et amis
2009 Hungarian Excavations in the Theban Necropolis: A Celebration
of 102 Years of Fieldwork in Egypt. Budapest: Department of
Badawy, Alexander
1978 Coptic Art and Archaeology: The Art of the Christian Egyptians
from the Late Antique to the Middle Ages. Cambridge: MIT
Baha El Din, Sherif M.
1992 “Notes on Recent Changes in the Status of Breeding Herons
Bulletin of the Ornitho-
logical Society of the Middle East 29: 12–15.
1999 Directory of Important Bird Areas in Egypt. Cairo: BirdLife
International and the Palm Press.
Bailey, Donald M.
2008 Ptolemaic and Roman Terracottas from Egypt. Catalogue of
the Terracottas in the British Museum 4. London: British
Museum Press.
Baines, John
 
temps archaïques.Bulletin de la Société Française d’Égyptolo-
gie 118: 5 –37.
1995 “Origins of Egyptian Kingship.” In Ancient Egyptian King-
ship, edited by David P. Silverman and David O’Connor, pp.
95–156. Probleme der Ägyptologie 9. Leiden: Brill.
Baker, Hollis S.
1966 Furniture in the Ancient World: Origins and Evolution, 3100–475
BC. New York: Macmillan.
Barbotin, Christophe, and Didier Devauchelle
2005 La voix des hiéroglyphes: promenade au Département des antiqui-
tés égyptiennes du Musée du Louvre
Beaux, Nathalie
1990 Le cabinet de curiosités de Thoutmosis III: plantes et animaux du
“Jardin Botanique” de Karnak. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta
36. Leuven: Peeters.
Beinlich, Horst
1991 Das Buch vom Fayum. Ägyptologische Abhandlungen 51.
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
2000 Das Buch vom Ba. Studien zum altägyptischen Totenbuch 4.
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Bell, Lanny
1997 “The New Kingdom ‘Divine’ Temple: The Example of Luxor.
In Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, pp.
127–84. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Benazeth, Dominique
1992 L’art du métal au début de l’ère chrétienne. Paris: Éditions de la
Binder, Susan
2000 “The Tomb Owner Fishing and Fowling.” In Egyptian Art:
Principles and Themes in Wall Scenes, edited by Kim Mc-
Corquodale and Leonie Donovan, pp. 111–28. Prism Ar-
chaeological Studies 6. Giza: Prism Publications.
Bleiberg, Edward
2008 To Live Forever: Egyptian Treasures from the Brooklyn Museum.
Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum.
Boessneck, Joachim
1960 “Zur Gänsehaltung im alten Ägypten.” In Festschrift der
Wiener tierärztlichen Monatsschrift Herrn Professor Dr. Josef
Schreiber zum 70. Geburtstag gewidmet, edited by Erwin Gratzl,
1988 Die Tierwelt des alten Ägypten. Munich: C. H. Beck.
Bongioanni, Alessandro; Maria Sole Croce; and Laura Accomazzo, editors
2001 The Illustrated Guide to the Egyptian Museum. Photographs by
Araldo De Luca. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
Bonnet, Hans
1952 Reallexikon der ägyptischen Religionsgeschichte. Berlin: Walter
de Gruyter.
Borchardt, Ludwig
1913 Das Grabdenkmal des Königs SahurāDie Wandbilder.
Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Abusir
1902–1908. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs.
Bothmer, Bernard
 Bulletin of the Mu-
seum of Fine Arts 51.286: 79–84.
1967/68 “The Nodding Falcon of the Guennol Collection at the
Brooklyn Museum.The Brooklyn Museum Annual 9: 75–76.
Bourriau, Janine D.
 Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by Wolfgang
Helck and Wolfhart Westendorf, vol. 5, cols. 362–66. Wies-
baden: Harrassowitz.
Bowman, Alan K.
1986 Egypt after the Pharaohs, 332 BC–AD 642: From Alexander to the
Arab Conquest. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Boylan, Patrick
1979 Thoth, the Hermes of Egypt: A Study of Some Aspects of Theologi-
cal Thought in Ancient Egypt. Chicago: Ares Reprints. Reprint
of 1922 version.
Brack, Annelies, and Arthur Brack
1980 Das Grab des Haremheb: Theben Nr. 78-
fentlichungen 35. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.
Breasted, James Henry
1930 The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. 2 volumes. Oriental Insti-
tute Publications 3 (text) and 4 (plates). Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
Breasted, James Henry, Jr.
1948 Egyptian Servant Statues. New York: Pantheon Books.
Brewer, Douglas
2001 Animal Husbandry.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by Donald B. Redford, vol. 1, pp. 89–94. New
York: Oxford University Press.
2002 “Hunting, Animal Husbandry and Diet in Ancient Egypt.” In
A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, edited
by Billie Jean Collins, pp. 427–56. Handbuch der Orienta-
listik, Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten 64.
Leiden: Brill.
Broekman, Gerard P. F.
2009 “Falcon-headed Coffins and Cartonnages.Journal of Egyptian
Archaeology 95: 67–81.
Brunner-Traut, Emma
1965 “Spitzmaus und Ichneumon als Tiere des Sonnengottes.
Nachrichten von der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen 7:
 Zeit-
schrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 97: 18–30.
1984 “Spitzmause.” In Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by Wolfgang
Helck and Wolfhart Westendorf, vol. 5, cols. 1160–61. Wies-
baden: Harrassowitz.
1937 Fouilles franco-polonaises, Rapports 1: Tell Edfou 1937. Cairo:
Buchberger, Hannes
 Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by Wolfgang Helck
and Wolfhart Westendorf, vol. 6, cols. 1046–51. Wiesbaden:
Buckley, Stephen A.; Katherine A. Clark; and Richard P. Evershed
2004 “Complex Organic Chemical Balms of Pharaonic Animal
Mummies.Nature 431 (September 16): 294–99.
Burkert, Walter
1985 Greek Religion. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Burn, Lucilla
1991 The British Museum Book of Greek and Roman Art. London: Brit-
ish Museum Press.
Burton, Robert
1985 Bird Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Butzer, Karl W.
1976 Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology.
Prehistoric Archeology and Ecology. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
2011 “Curious Names of Some Old Kingdom Royal Women.Jour-
nal of Egyptian Archaeology 97: 127–42.
Calverley, Amice M.
1933 The Temple of King Sethos I at AbydosThe Chapels
of Osiris, Isis and Horus, edited by Alan H. Gardiner. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Caminos, Ricardo A.
1956 Literary Fragments in the Hieratic Script. Oxford: Griffith Insti-
Capel, Anne K., and Glenn E. Markoe
1996 Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven: Women in Ancient
Egypt. New York: Hudson Hills Press in association with
Cincinnati Art Museum.
Carswell, John
1978 Artists in Egypt: An Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by
Artists Employed by the Oriental Institute in Egypt, 1920–1935.
Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
Carter, Howard
1927–33 The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen, Discovered by the Late Earl of
Carnarvon and Howard Carter. 3 volumes. London: Cassell.
Castel, Georges; Laure Pantalacci; and Nadine Cherpion
2001 Le mastaba de Khentika: tombeau d’un gouverneur de l’oasis à la
fin de l’ancien empire. Balat 5. Fouilles de l’Institut français
gie orientale.
 Bulle-
tin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 72: 49–69.
Chamberlain, J. Martyn
2004 “Where Optics Meets Electronics: Recent Progress in
Decreasing the Terahertz Gap.Philosophical Transactions.
Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 362:
Champollion, Jean-François
1835–45 Monuments de l’Égypte et de la Nubie. 4 volumes. Paris: Firmin
Chan, W. L.; J. Deibel; and D. M. Mittleman
2007 “Imaging with Terahertz Radiation.Reports on Progress in
Physics 70: 1325–79.
Charron, Alain
 Revue d’Égyptolo-
gie 41: 209–13.
Chauveau, Michel
 Revue d’Égyptologie
37: 31–43.
Cherpion, Nadine
2001 “L’oeuf d’autruche du mastaba III.” In Balat le mastaba de
Khentika; tombeau d’un gouverneur de l’oasis à la fin de l’ancien
empire, edited by Georges Castel, Laure Pantalacci, and
Nadine Cherpion, pp. 279–94. Fouilles de l’Institut français
Churcher, C. S. Rufus; M. R. Kleindienst; and H. P. Schwarcz
1999 “Faunal Remains from a Middle Pleistocene Lacustrine Marl
in Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruc-
tions.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 154:
2008 “Gazelles and Ostriches from Tell El-Farkha.” Studies in
Ancient Art and Civilization 12: 21–34.
2011 “The Early Dynastic Administrative-Cultic Centre at Tell
El-Farkha.” In Egypt at Its Origins 3, edited by Peter N. Fiske
Analecta 205. Leuven: Peeters.
Clement, Paul A., and Herbert B. Hoffleit
1969 Plutarch’s Moralia612 B–697 C. Loeb Classical
Library 424. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Clifford, William, and Matthew Wetherbee
2004 “Piecing Together the Secrets of Mummification.KMT, A
Modern Journal of Egyptology 15/2: 64–65.
Coltherd, J. B.
1966 “The Domestic Fowl in Ancient Egypt.Ibis 108/2: 217–23.
Cooney, John
1941 Pagan and Christian Egypt: Egyptian Art from the First to the
Tenth Century AD. Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum.
Corcoran, Lorelei H.
1995 Portrait Mummies from Roman Egypt (I–IV Centuries AD) with
a Catalog of Portrait Mummies in Egyptian Museums. Studies
in Ancient Oriental Civilization 56. Chicago: The Oriental
Corcoran, Lorelei H., and Marie Svoboda
2010 Herakleides: A Portrait Mummy from Roman Egypt. Los Angeles:
J. Paul Getty Museum.
Corzo, Miguel Angel, and Mahasti Z. Afshar, editors
1993 Art and Eternity: The Nefertari Wall Paintings Conservation Proj-
ect, 1986–1992. Santa Monica: Getty Conservation Institute.
Cramer, Maria
 
Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek zu Wien. Ihre inhaltli-
che und paläographische Wertung.Études de Papyrologie 8:
1964a Koptische Buchmalerei: Illuminationen in Manuskripten des
christlich-koptischen Ägypten vom 4. bis 19. Jahrhundert. Reck-
1964b Koptische Paläographie. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Cramp, Stanley; C. M. Perrins; Duncan J. Brooks
1977–96 Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North
Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic. 9 volumes. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Crosby, Margaret
1943 A Silver Ladle and Strainer.American Journal of Archaeology
47/2: 209–16.
Darby, William J.; Paul Ghalioungui; and Louis Grivetti
1977 Food: The Gift of Osiris. 2 volumes. London: Academic Press.
D’Auria, Sue; Peter Lacovara; and Catharine H. Roehrig
1988 Mummies and Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt. Bos-
ton: Museum of Fine Arts.
Daumas, François
1958 Les mammisis des temples égyptiens
1959 Les mammisis de Dendara-
gie orientale.
1988 Valeurs phonétiques des signes hiéroglyphiques d’époque gréco-
(Montpellier 3).
David, Arlette
2000 De l’infériorité à la perturbation: l’oiseau du “mal” et la catégo-
risation en Égypte ancienne.
Reihe, Ägypten 38:1. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
David, A. Rosalie
2008 “The International Ancient Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank.
In Egyptian Mummies and Modern Science, edited by Rosalie A.
David, pp. 237–46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davies, Nina de Garis
1936 Ancient Egyptian Paintings. 3 volumes. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Davies, Nina de Garis, and Alan H. Gardiner
1926 The Tomb of Ḥuy, Viceroy of Nubia in the Reign of Tut‘Ankhamūn.
Theban Tomb Series 4. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
Davies, Norman de Garis
1901 The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqareh, Part 2:
The Mastaba. The Sculptures of Akhethetep. London: Egypt
Exploration Fund.
1930 The Tomb of Ḳen-Amūn at Thebes. The Metropolitan Museum
of Art Egyptian Expedition 5. New York: Arno Press.
1933 “The Work of the Graphic Branch of the Expedition.Metro-
politan Museum of Art Bulletin 28/4: 1, 23–29.
1935 Paintings from the Tomb of Rekh-Mi-Re’ at Thebes. Edited by
the Egyptian Expedition. Publications of the Metropolitan
Museum of Art 10. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Davies, Sue, and Harry S. Smith
2005 The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara: The Falcon Com-
plex and Catacomb, Archaeological Report. Excavation Memoirs
73. London: The Egypt Exploration Society.
de Buck, Adriaan
  Texts of Spells 76–163.
Edited by Adriaan de Buck and Alan H. Gardiner. Oriental
Institute Publications 49. Chicago: University of Chicago
de Meulenaere, Herman
 Chronique
d’Égypte 35/69–70: 92–107.
2008 3500 Years of Textile Art: The Collection in HeadquARTers. Tielt:
Lannoo; Woodbridge: ACC Distribution.
de Rochemonteix, Maxence, and Émile Chassinat
1984 Le temple d’Edfou
Decker, Wolfgang, and Michael Herb
1994 Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten: Corpus der bildlichen Quel-
len zu Leibesübungen, Speil, Jagd, Tanz und verwandten Themen.
2 volumes. Leiden: Brill.
Delemen, Inci
2006 An Unplundered Chamber Tomb on Ganos Mountain in
Southeastern Thrace.American Journal of Archaeology 110/2:
Derchain, Philippe
1975 “La perruque et le cristal.Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur
2: 55–74.
Dijkstra, Jitse H. F.
2002 “Horus on His Throne: The Holy Falcon of Philae in His
Demonic Cage.Göttinger Miszellen 189: 7–10.
Dodson, Aidan
2001a “Canopic Jars and Chests.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by Donald B. Redford, vol. 1, pp. 231–35. Ox-
ford: Oxford University Press.
2001b “Four Sons of Horus.The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by Donald B. Redford, vol. 1, pp. 561–63. Ox-
ford: Oxford University Press.
2005 “Bull Cults.” In Divine Creatures: Animal Mummies in Ancient
Egypt, edited by Salima Ikram, pp. 72–105. Cairo: American
University in Cairo Press.
2009 “Rituals Related to Animal Cults.” In UCLA Encyclopedia of
Egyptology, edited by Jacco Dieleman and Willeke Wendrich,
pp. 1–8. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles.
Available online at:
Dragoman, D., and M. Dragoman
2004 “Terahertz Fields and Applications.Progress in Quantum
Electronics 28/1: 1–66.
Drenkhahn, Rosemarie
1980 “Kebehsenuef.” In Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by
Wolfgang Helck and Wolfhart Westendorf, vol. 3, col. 379.
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Dreyer, Günter
1986 Elephantine 8: Der Tempel der Satet-
lichungen 39. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.
 Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh, edited
by Catharine H. Roehrig, pp. 242–45. New York: The Metro-
politan Museum of Art; New Haven: Yale University Press.
Du Bourguet, Pierre
2002 Le temple de Deir al-Médîna
Eder, Walter, and Johannes Renger
2007 Chronologies of the Ancient World: Names, Dates, and Dynasties.
Brill’s New Pauly Supplements. Leiden: Brill.
Emberling, Geoff, and Emily Teeter
2010 “The First Expedition of the Oriental Institute, 1919–1920.
In Pioneers to the Past: American Archaeologists in the Middle
East, 1919–1920, edited by Geoff Emberling, pp. 31–84. Orien-
tal Institute Museum Publications 30. Chicago: The Oriental
Emery, Walter B.
1965 “Preliminary Report on the Excavations at North Saqqâra
1964–5.Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 51: 3–8.
Emmons, Deirdre
2010 L’Égypte au Musée des confluences: de la palette à fard au sarco-
Endreffy, Kata
2009 “Reason for Despair: Notes on Some Demotic Letters to
Thoth.Studies in Egyptology in Honour of M.A. Nur El Din,
edited by Basem Samir el-Sharkawy, vol. 3, pp. 241–52.
Cairo: Dar al Kuttub.
Epigraphic Survey
1930 Medinet Habu 1. Earlier Historical Records of Ramses III. Orien-
tal Institute Publications 8. Chicago: University of Chicago
1932 Medinet Habu 2. Later Historical Records of Ramses III. Oriental
Institute Publications 9. Chicago: University of Chicago
1934 Medinet Habu 3. The Calendar, the “Slaughterhouse,” and Minor
Records of Ramses III. Oriental Institute Publications 23.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1963 Medinet Habu 6. The Temple Proper, Part 2: The Re Chapel, the
Royal Mortuary Complex, and Adjacent Rooms, with Miscel-
laneous Material from the Pylons, the Forecourts, and the First
Hypostyle Hall. Oriental Institute Publications 84. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
1979 The Temple of Khonsu 1. Scenes of King Herihor in the Court
with Translations of Texts. Oriental Institute Publications 100.
Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
1981 The Temple of Khonsu 2. Scenes and Inscriptions in the Court
and the First Hypostyle Hall. Oriental Institute Publications
103. Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
2009 Medinet Habu 9. The Eighteenth Dynasty Temple, Part 1: The
Inner Sanctuaries. Oriental Institute Publications 136. Chi-
cago: The Oriental Institute.
Épron, Lucienne; François Daumas; and Georges Goyon
1939 Le tombeau de Ti-
logie orientale.
Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow
1926–82 Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache. 7 volumes. Leipzig: J. C.
1935–53 Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache: Die Belegstellen. 5 vol-
Evans, Linda
2007 “Fighting Kites: Behaviour as a Key to Species Identity in
Wall Scenes.Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 93: 245–47.
2010 Animal Behaviour in Egyptian Art: Representations of the Natural
World in Memphite Tomb Scenes. Australian Centre for Egyp-
tology: Studies 9. Oxford: Aris & Phillips.
2011 “Userkaf’s Birds Unmasked.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
97: 246–50.
Faulkner, Raymond O.
1936 “The Bremner-Rhind Papyrus—I. A: The Songs of Isis and
Nephthys.Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 22/2: 121–40.
1998a The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Reprint of the 1969 edition.
1998b The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day.
2nd revised edition. Edited by Eva von Dassow. San Fran-
cisco: Chronicle Books.
Fay, Biri
1998 “Egyptian Duck Flasks of Blue Anhydrite.Metropolitan
Museum Journal 33: 23–48.
Fazzini, Richard A.
1975 Images for Eternity: Egyptian Art from Berkeley and Brooklyn.
Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum.
1988 Egypt Dynasty XXII–XXV. Iconography of Religions 16.
Leiden: Brill.
1989 Ancient Egyptian Art in the Brooklyn Museum. New York:
Thames & Hudson.
Fazzini, Richard A.; James F. Romano; and Madeleine E. Cody
1999 Art for Eternity: Masterworks from Ancient Egypt. Brooklyn:
Brooklyn Museum of Art in association with Scala Publish-
Forbes, Neil A.
 -
tice.Parrots 10: 34–35.
Frankfort, Henri
1929 The Mural Painting of El-’Amarneh. London: Egypt Exploration
1933 The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos. Egyptian Exploration Society
Memoir 39. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
Frankfurter, David
1998 Religion in Roman Egypt. Princeton: Princeton University
Freed, Rita E., and Denise M. Doxey
2009 “The Djehutynakhts’ Models.” In The Secrets of Tomb 10A:
Egypt 2000 BC, edited by Rita E. Freed, pp. 151–77. Boston:
Museum of Fine Arts.
Friedman, Florence Dunn
1995 “The Underground Relief Panels of King Djoser at the Step
Pyramid Complex.Journal of the American Research Center in
Egypt 32: 1–42.
1998 Gifts of the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Faience. New York: Thames &
2011 “Hierakonpolis.” In Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian
Civilization, edited by Emily Teeter, pp. 33–44. Oriental
Institute Museum Publications 33. Chicago: The Oriental
Edward D. Johnson
1999 “Report on Field Work at Hierakonpolis: 1996–1998.Journal
of the American Research Center in Egypt 36: 1–35.
Fukunaga, Kaori; Emilia Cortes; Antonino Cosentino; Isabel Stünkel; Marco
Leona; Irl N. Duling; and David T. Mininberg
2011 “Investigating the Use of Terahertz Pulsed Time Domain
Reflection Imaging for the Study of Fabric Layers of an
Egyptian Mummy.Journal of the European Optical Society —
Rapid Publications 6/11040: 1–4.
Gabra, Sami
1971 Chez les derniers adorateurs du Trismégiste
Gaillard, Claude, and Georges Daressy
1905 La faune momifiée de l’antique Égypte
29711, ET 29751–29834. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut
Gardiner, Alan H.
 Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 30:
1957 Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hiero-
glyphs. 3rd edition. London: Griffith Institute.
Gardiner, Alan H., and Kurt Sethe
1928 Egyptian Letters to the Dead, Mainly from the Old and Middle
Kingdoms. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
Gaudard, François
2009 “Le P. Berlin 8278 et ses fragments. Un ‘nouveau’ texte
manent: recueil d’études dédiées à Dimitri Meeks par ses collègues
et amis
Gautier, Achilles
1980 “Contribution to the Archaeozoology of Egypt.” In Prehistory
of the Eastern Sahara, edited by Fred Wendorf and Romuald
Schild, pp. 317–43. Studies in Archaeology. New York: Aca-
demic Press.
1987 “Fishing, Fowling, Hunting in Late Paleolithic Times in
Palaeoecology of Africa 18:
 
1990 La domestication: et l’homme créa ses animaux. Paris: Éditions
Genz, Hermann
2007 “Stunning Bolts: Late Bronze Age Hunting Weapons in the
Ancient Near East.Levant 39: 47–69.
Germond, Philippe
1981 Sekhmet et la protection du monde. Ægyptiaca Helvetica 9.
Geneva: Éditions de Belles-Lettres.
2001 An Egyptian Bestiary: Animals in Life and Religion in the Land of
the Pharaohs. London: Thames & Hudson.
Ghaleb, Barbara
unpub. Report on the Zooarchaeological Remains from the Sacred
Animal Necropolis at Saqqara.
Gilhus, Ingvild
2006 Animal, Gods, and Humans: Changing Attitudes to Animals in
Greek, Roman and Early Christian Ideas. New York: Routledge.
Giza-Podgórski, Tomasz
 Mitteilungen des Deut-
schen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 40: 103–21.
Glubok, Shirley
1962 The Art of Ancient Egypt. New York: Atheneum.
Goelet, O.
1983 “The Migratory Geese of Meidum and Some Egyptian Words
for ‘Migratory Bird.’” Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar 5:
Goldwasser, Orly
1995 From Icon to Metaphor: Studies in the Semiotics of the Hiero-
hoeck & Ruprecht.
Goodman, Steve M.
 
17th or Early 18th Dyn. Tomb.Journal of the Society for the
Study of Egyptian Antiquities 17: 67–77.
Goodman, Steve M., and Peter L. Meininger, editors
1989 The Birds of Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gorre, Gilles
 Ancient Society
39: 55–69.
1995 “X-Raying Ancient Bone: A Destructive Method in Connec-
tion with DNA Analysis.Laborativ Arkeologi 8: 26–28.
Graff, Gwenola
2009 Les peintures sur vases de Nagada I–Nagada II: nouvelles ap-
proches semiologiques de l’iconographie prédynastique. Leuven:
Leuven University Press.
Graindorge, Catherine
2001 “Sokar.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited
by Donald B. Redford, vol. 3, pp. 305–07. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Grandet, Pierre
1994–99 Papyrus Harris I, BM 9999
du Caire.
Grapow, Hermann
1924 Die bildlichen Ausdrücke des Ägyptischen von Denken und Dich-
ten einer altorientalischen Sprache. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs.
Green, Jack; Emily Teeter; and John A. Larson
2012 Picturing the Past: Imaging and Imagining the Ancient Middle
East. Oriental Institute Museum Publications 34. Chicago:
The Oriental Institute.
Greishaber, Britta M.; Daniel L. Osborne; Alison F. Doubleday; and Frederika
A. Kaestle
2008 A Pilot Study into the Effects of X-Ray and Computed
Tomography Exposure on the Amplification of DNA from
Bone. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 681–87.
Griffin, Kenneth
2007 A Reinterpretation of the Use and Function of the Rekhyt
Rebus in New Kingdom Temples.” In Current Research in
Egyptology 2006, edited by Maria Cannata, pp. 66–84. Oxford:
Oxbow Books.
Forthcoming “Links between the Rekhyt and Doorways in Ancient Egypt.
Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Egyptolo-
gists, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, 22–29 May 2008, edited
by Panagiotis Kousoulis and Nikolaos Lazaridis. Leuven:
Griffith, F. L., editor
1900 Beni HasanZoological and Other Details. Archaeologi-
cal Survey of Egypt 7. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
Griffiths, John Gwyn
1970 Plutarch’s de Iside et Osiride. Cardiff: University of Wales
Grossman, Mary Louise, and John N. Hamlet
1964 Birds of Prey of the World. New York: C. N. Potter.
Guglielmi, Waltraud
1973 Reden, Rufe und Leider auf altägyptischen Darstellungen der
Landwirtschaft, Viehzucht, des Fisch- und Vogelfangs vom Mitt-
leren Reich bis zur Spätzeit. Tübinger ägyptologische Beiträge
1. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt.
Gumpenberger, Michaela, and Wolfgang Henninger
2001 “The Use of Computed Tomography in Avian and Reptile
Medicine.Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 4: 174–80.
Gustave-Lübcke Museum, Hamm
1996 Ägypten, Schätze aus dem Wüstensand: Kunst und Kultur der
Christen am Nil
Hall, Emma Swan
1986 The Pharaoh Smites His Enemies: A Comparative Study. Münch-
ner ägyptologische Studien 44. Munich: Deutscher Kunst-
Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila
1997 “The Domestic Fowl and Other Birds from the Roman Site of
Mons Claudianus, Egypt.International Journal of Osteoarchae-
ology 7: 326–29.
Harcum, Cornelia G.
1921 “Roman Cooking Utensils in the Royal Ontario Museum of
Archaeology.” American Journal of Archaeology 25/1: 37–54.
Harpur, Yvonne, and Paolo J. Scremin
2006 The Chapel of Kagemni: Scene Details. Egypt in Miniature 1.
Reading: Oxford Expedition to Egypt.
Harris, J. R.
1961 Lexicographical Studies in Ancient Egyptian Minerals. Berlin:
Hartwig, Melinda K.
2004 Tomb Painting and Identity in Ancient Thebes, 1419–1372 BCE.
gique Reine Élisabeth; Turnhout: Brepols.
Hayes, William
1935 Royal Sarcophagi of the XVIII Dynasty. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
1959 The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian
Antiquities in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Part 2: The
Hyksos Period and the New Kingdom (1675–1080 BC). Cambridge:
Harvard University Press.
Helbig, A. J.; I. Seibold; W. Bednarek; P. Gaucher; D. Ristow; W. Scharlau; D.
Schmidl; and M. Wink
1994 “Phylogenetic Relationships among Falcon Species (Genus
chrome b Gene.” In Raptor Conservation Today: Proceedings of
the IV World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, edited by R.
D. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg, pp. 593–99. Berlin, Lon-
don, Paris: World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls.
Helck, Wolfgang, and Eberhard Otto
1972–92 Lexikon der Ägyptologie. 6 volumes. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Hendrickx, Stan
 
Decorated.” Cahiers
Caribéens d’Égyptologie 1: 21–52.
 -
nastique.Archeo-Nil 20: 106–33.
2009 “Late Predynastic/Early Dynastic Rock Art Scenes of
Barbary Sheep Hunting from Egypt’s Western Desert:
From Capturing Wild Animals to the Women of the ‘Acacia
House.’” In Desert Animals in the Eastern Sahara: Status,
Economic Significance and Cultural Reflection in Antiquity
(Proceedings of an interdisciplinary ACACIA workshop held
at the University of Cologne, December 14–15, 2007), edited
Henein, Nessim Henry
 
Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie
orientale 102: 259–66.
2010 Pêche et chasse au lac Manzala
Hermann, Alfred
1932 “Das Motiv der Ente mit zurückgewendetem Kopfe im ägyp-
tischen Kunstgewerbe.Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und
Altertumskunde 68: 86–105.
Hill, Marsha
 
of the Late and Ptolemaic Periods.” In Sitting Beside Lepsius:
Studies in Honour of Jaromir Malek at the Griffith Institute, ed-
ited by Diana Magee, Janine Bourriau, and Stephen Quirke,
pp. 237–56. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 185. Leuven:
Hoffmann, Friedhelm
1989 “Zu den ‘Pirolen’ auf dem Relief Kairo, Temporary Number
6/9/32/1.Göttinger Miszellen 107: 77–80.
Holm-Rasmussen, Torben
1979 “On the Statue Cult of Nektanebos II.Acta Orientalia 40:
 The Mortuary Temple of
Ramses III, Part 2. Oriental Institute Publications 55. Chi-
cago: University of Chicago Press.
Hornung, Erik
1996 Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Hornung, Erik, and Betsy M. Bryan, editors
2002 The Quest for Immortality: Treasures of Ancient Egypt. New
York: National Gallery of Art.
Hornung, Erik; Rolf Krauss; and David A. Warburton
2006 Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Handbook of Oriental Studies
83. Leiden: Brill.
Hornung, Erik, and Elisabeth Staehelin
1976 Skarabäen und andere Siegelamulette aus Basler Sammlungen.
Ägyptische Denkmäler in der Schweiz 1. Mainz: Philipp von
Houlihan, Patrick F.
1986 The Birds of Ancient Egypt. The Natural History of Egypt 1.
Warminster: Aris & Phillips. Reprinted in 1988.
1996 The Animal World of the Pharaohs. London: Thames & Hudson.
2001 “Poultry.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited
by Donald B. Redford, vol. 3, pp. 59–61. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Hughes, George R.
1958 A Demotic Letter to Thoth.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies
17: 1–12.
Hughes, George R., and Richard Jasnow
1997 Oriental Institute Hawara Papyri: Demotic and Greek Texts
from an Egyptian Family Archive in the Fayum (Fourth to Third
Century BC), edited by George R. Hughes and Richard Jasnow,
pp. 95–103. Oriental Institute Publications 113. Chicago: The
Oriental Institute.
Hunt, C. H.; C. P. Wood; F. E. Diehn; L. J. Eckel; K. M. Schwartz; and B. J. Erickson
 
Examinations Submitted for Secondary Interpretation.
American Journal of Roentgenology 198/4: 764–68.
Husselman, Elinor M.
1953 “The Dovecotes of Karanis.Transactions of the American
Philological Association 84: 81–91.
Huyge, Dirk
2009 “Late Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic Rock Art in Egypt:
Qurta and El-Hosh.Archeo-Nil 19: 109–20.
Huyge, Dirk, and Salima Ikram
2009 Animal Representation in the Late Palaeolithic Rock Art of
Qurta (Upper Egypt).” In Desert Animals in the Eastern Sahara:
Status, Economic Significance and Cultural Reflection in Antiquity
(Proceedings of an interdisciplinary ACACIA workshop held
at the University of Cologne, December 14–15, 2007), edited
Ikram, Salima
1995 Choice Cuts: Meat Production in Ancient Egypt. Orientalia
Lovaniensia Analecta 69. Leuven: Peeters.
 
Assemblage of Isitemkheb.Studi di Egittologia e di Papirologia
1: 87–92.
2005a Divine Creatures: Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt. Cairo:
American University in Cairo Press.
2005b A Monument in Miniature: The Eternal Resting Place of
a Shrew.” In Structure and Significance: Thoughts on Ancient
Egyptian Architecture, edited by Peter Jánosi, pp. 335–40.
der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
2007 Animals in the Ritual Landscape at Abydos: A Synopsis.”
In The Archaeology and Art of Ancient Egypt: Essays in Honor of
David B. O’Connor, edited by Zahi A. Hawass and Janet Rich-
In prep “A Re-analysis of Part of Prince Amenemhat Q’s Eternal
Ikram, Salima, and Aidan Dodson
1998 The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity.
London: Thames & Hudson.
Ikram, Salima, and Nasry Iskander
2002 Catalogue Général of the Egyptian Museum: Non-Human Mum-
mies. Cairo: Supreme Council of Antiquities Press.
Iversen, Erik
1958 Papyrus Carlsberg Nr. VII: Fragments of a Hieroglyphic Dictionary.
Filologiske Skrifter 3:2. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard.
Menu; and Kaori Fukunaga
2011 A Survey of Terahertz Application in Cultural Heritage
Conservation Science.IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science
and Technology 1: 220–31.
James, T. G. H.
2000 Tutankhamun
Janák, Jiri
2007 “Migratory Spirits: Remarks on the akh Sign.” In Current Re-
search in Egyptology 2006 (proceedings of the seventh annual
symposium, University of Oxford, April 2006), edited by
Maria Cannata, pp. 116–19. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
2010 “Spotting the Akh: The Presence of the Northern Bald Ibis
in Ancient Egypt and Its Early Decline.Journal of the Ameri-
can Research Center in Egypt 46: 17–31.
Janssen, Jac. J.
1979 “The Role of the Temple in the Egyptian Economy During
the New Kingdom.” In State and Temple Economy in the Ancient
Near East
Leuven: Department Orientalistiek.
Jasnow, Richard
1997 “The Greek Alexander Romance and Demotic Egyptian
Literature. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 56/2: 95–103.
Forthcoming “‘Caught in the Web of Words.’ Remarks on the Imagery of
Writing and Hieroglyphs in the Book of Thoth.Journal of
the American Research Center in Egypt.
Jasnow, Richard, and Karl-Theodor Zauzich
2005 The Ancient Egyptian Book of Thoth. 2 volumes. Wiesbaden:
Forthcoming The Book of Thoth: A New Translation.
Jelinková-Reymond, Eva
1956 Les inscriptions de la statue guérisseuse de Djed-Ḥer-le-Sauveur.
gie orientale.
Kahl, Jochem
 h bis . Indizien für eine ‘alphabetische’ Reihenfolge
einkonsonantiger Lautwerte in spätzeitlichen Papyri.
Göttinger Miszellen 122: 33–47.
Kákosy, László
1981 “Problems of the Thoth-Cult in Roman Egypt.Selected
Papers (1956–73), pp. 41–46. Studia Aegyptiaca 7. Budapest:
Kammerzell, Frank
2001 “Die Entstehung der Alphabetreihe: Zum ägyptischen
Ursprung der semitischen und westlichen Schriften.” In
Hieroglyphen-Alphabete-Schriftreformen: Studien zu Multilitera-
lismus, Schriftwechsel und Orthographieneuregelungen, edited
tingen: Seminar für Ägyptologie und Koptologie.
Kanawati, Naguib
2001 Tombs at GizaKaiemankh (G4561) and Seshemnefer
I (G4940). Australian Centre for Egyptology, Reports 16.
Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
Kanawati, Naguib, and Mahmoud Abder-Raziq
1998 The Teti Cemetery at SaqqaraThe Tombs of Neferse-
shemre and Seankhuiptah. Australian Centre for Egyptology,
Reports 11. Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
1999 The Teti Cemetery at SaqqaraThe Tomb of Hesi.
Australian Centre for Egyptology, Reports 13. Warminster:
Aris & Phillips.
2000 The Teti Cemetery at SaqqaraThe Tomb of Nikauisesi.
Australian Centre for Egyptology, Reports 14. Warminster:
Aris & Phillips.
Kanawati, Naguib, and A. Hassan
1997 The Teti Cemetery at SaqqaraThe Tomb of
Ankhmahor. Australian Centre for Egyptology, Reports 9.
Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
Kanawati, Naguib, and Alexandra Woods
2010 Beni Hassan: Art and Daily Life in an Egyptian Province. Cairo:
Supreme Council of Antiquities Press.
Kanawati, Naguib; Alexandra Woods; Sameh Shafik; and Effy Alexakis
2010 Mereruka and His Family, Part 3.1: The Tomb of Mereruka.
Australian Centre for Egyptology, Reports 29. Oxford: Aris &
Kantor, Helene J.
1948 A Predynastic Ostrich Egg with Incised Decoration.Journal
of Near Eastern Studies 7/1: 46–51.
Kaplony, Peter
1972 “Die Prinzipien der Hieroglyphenschrift.” In Textes et
langages de l’Égypte pharaonique: Cent cinquante années de
recherches, 1822–1972; hommage à Jean-François Champollion,
1976 Studien zum Grab des Methethi. Riggisberg: Abegg-Stiftung
Kees, Hermann
1961 Ancient Egypt: A Cultural Topography. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Keimer, Louis
1951 “Les hiboux constituant des prototypes de la lettre ‘M’ de
Hawliyat Kulliyat al-Adab 1: 73–83.
Kemp, Barry J.
2006 Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition. London:
Kessler, Dieter
1989 Die heiligen Tiere und der KönigBeiträge zu Orga-
nisation, Kult und Theologie der spätzeitlichen Tierfriedhöfe.
Ägypten und Altes Testament 16. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
 -
kels.” In Honi soit qui mal y pense: Studien zum pharaonischen,
griechisch-römischen und spätantiken Ägypten zu Ehren von
Heinz-Josef Thissen, edited by H. Knuf, C. Leitz, and D. von
Recklinghausen, pp. 261–72. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analec-
ta 194. Leuven: Peeters.
Kessler, Dieter, and Abdel el Halim Nur el-Din
2005 “Tuna El-Gebel: Millions of Ibises and Other Animals.” In
Divine Creatures: Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt, edited by
Salima Ikram, pp. 120–63. Cairo: American University in
Cairo Press.
Killen, Geoffrey
1980 Ancient Egyptian Furniture4000–1300 BC. Warmin-
ster: Aris & Phillips.
Kircher, Athanasius
1636 Prodromus coptus sive aegyptiacus. Rome: Typio S. Cong.
Kitchen, Kenneth A.
1975 Ramesside Inscriptions: Historical and Biographical
Oxford: B. H. Blackwell.
1979 Ramesside Inscriptions: Historical and Biographical
Oxford: B. H. Blackwell.
1982 Ramesside Inscriptions: Historical and Biographical
Oxford: B. H. Blackwell.
1983 Ramesside Inscriptions: Historical and Biographical
Oxford: B. H. Blackwell.
Koefoed-Petersen, Otto
1951 Catalogue des sarcophages et cercueils égyptiens. Ny Carlsberg
Glyptotek Publications 4. Copenhagen: Fondation Ny Carls-
Kozloff, Arielle P.; Betsy M. Bryan; and Lawrence M. Berman
1992 Egypt’s Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep III and His World. Cleveland:
The Cleveland Museum of Art in cooperation with Indiana
University Press.
Kristensen, T. L. T.; Withawat Withayachumnankul; P. U. Jepsen; and D.
2010 “Modeling Terahertz Heating Effects on Water.Optics
Express 18: 4727–39.
Kuhlmann, Klaus Peter
2002 “The ‘Oasis Bypath’ or the Issue of Desert Trade in Phara-
onic Times.” In Tides of the Desert – Gezeiten der Wüste: Contri-
bution to the Archaeology and Environmental History of Africa
in Honour of Rudolph Kuper, edited by Tilman Lenssen-Erz,
Praehistorica 14. Cologne: Heinrich-Barth-Institut.
Kurth, Dieter
1998 Edfou -
den: Harrassowitz.
Lacau, Pierre
1914 “Suppressions et modifications de signes dans les textes
Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertums-
kunde 51: 1–64.
Lacovara, Peter, and Betsy Teasley Trope, editors
2001 The Realm of Osiris: Mummies, Coffins, and Ancient Egyptian
Funerary Art in the Michael C. Carlos Museum. Atlanta: Emory
Ladynin, Ivan
2009 “‘Nectanebos-the-Falcons’: Sculpture Images of Nectanebo
II before the God Horus and Their Concept.Vestnik drevney
istorii 4: 1–26.
Lambert-Zazulak, Patricia
2000 “The International Ancient Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank
at the Manchester Museum.Antiquity 74: 44–48.
Lambert-Zazulak, P.; P. Rutherford; and A. R. David
2003 “The International Ancient Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank
at the Manchester Museum as a Resource for the Palaeoepi-
demiological Study of Schistosomiasis.World Archaeology
35/2: 223–40.
Lansing, A.
1920 “The Egyptian Expedition 1918–1920. Excavations at Thebes
1918–19.The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 15/12: 4–12.
Lapp, Günther
2006 Totenbuch Spruch 17. Totenbuchtexte 1. Basel: Orientverlag.
Leclant, Jean
1961 “Sur un contrepoids de Menat au nom de Taharqa: allai-
tement et ‘apparition’ royale.” In Mélanges Mariette, pp.
Legrain, Georges
1890 Livre des transformations (Papyrus Démotique 3.452 du Louvre).
Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Leitz, Christian, editor
2002 Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen. 8
volumes. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 110–116, 129.
Leuven: Peeters.
Lentacker, An, and Wim van Neer
1996 “Bird Remains from Two Sites on the Red Sea Coast and
Some Observations on Medullary Bones.International Jour-
nal of Osteoarchaeology 6: 488–96.
Lepsius, C. Richard
1842 Das Todtenbuch der Ägypter nach dem hieroglyphischen Papyrus
in Turin. Leipzig: Georg Wigand.
1849–59 Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien. 12 volumes. Berlin:
Nicolaische Buchhandlung. Reprinted Geneva: Éditions de
Belles-lettres, 1972–73. Available online at:
Leroy, Jules
1974 Les manuscrits coptes et coptes-arabes illustrés. Institut français
historique 96. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
Lewis, Thomas Hayter
1882 “Tel-El-Yahoudeh (the Mound of the Jew).” Transactions of
the Society of Biblical Archaeology 7: 177–92.
Lichtheim, Miriam
1957 Demotic Ostraca from Medinet Habu. Oriental Institute Publi-
cations 80. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1980 Ancient Egyptian LiteratureThe New Kingdom.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lilyquist, Christine
1998 “The Use of Ivories as Interpreters of Political History.Bul-
letin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 310: 25–33.
Lilyquist, Christine, editor
2003 The Tomb of Three Foreign Wives of Tuthmosis III. New York:
The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
2009 “Special Animals from a Special Place? The Fauna from
HK29A at Predynastic Hierakonpolis.Journal of the American
Research Center in Egypt 45: 105–36.
Loat, L. S.
1914 “The Ibis Cemetery at Abydos.Journal of Egyptian Archaeol-
ogy 1/1: 40.
Loeben, Christian E.
1987 A Throwstick of Princess Nfr-Nfrw-Rʿ, with Additional Notes
on Throwsticks of Faience. Annales du Service des Antiquités
de l’Égypte 71: 143–49.
Lortet, Louis C. É., and Claude Gaillard
1901 Les oiseaux momifiés de l’ancienne Égypte. Paris: n.p.
1903 La faune momifiée de l’ancienne Égypte
1905–09 La faune momifiée de l’ancienne Égypte. 5 volumes. Lyon: Henri
Lucchesi-Palli, Elisabetta
1991 “Symbols in Coptic Art: Eagle.” In The Coptic Encyclopedia,
edited by Aziz Suryal Atiya, vol. 7, pp. 2167–70. New York:
Lüscher, Barbara
1990 Untersuchungen zu ägyptischen Kanopenkästen: Vom Alten Reich
bis zum Ende der Zweiten Zwischenzeit. Hildesheimer ägypto-
MacDonald, Kevin C., and David N. Edwards
1993 “Chickens in Africa: The Importance of Qasr Ibrim.Antiq-
uity 67/256: 584–90.
Maguire, Eunice Dauterman; Henry P. Maguire; and Maggie J. Duncan-Flowers
1989 Art and Holy Powers in the Early Christian House. Illinois Byzan-
tine Studies 2. Urbana: Krannert Art Museum, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Mahmoud, Osama
1991 Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Vögel im Alten Reich. Euro-
päische Hochschulschriften 35. Frankfurt am Main: Peter
Malaise, Michel
 
de Deir el-Medineh au Nouvel Empire.Anthropozoologica
Manniche, Lise
1988 Lost Tombs: A Study of Certain Eighteenth Dynasty Monuments in
the Theban Necropolis. Studies in Egyptology. London: Kegan
Paul International.
Marcus, Gary F.
2006 “Startling Starlings.Nature 440 (April 27): 1117–18.
Marfoe, Leon
1982 A Guide to the Oriental Institute Museum. Chicago: The Oriental
Markowitz, Yvonne J., and Peter Lacovara
1999 “Crafts and Industries at Amarna.” In Pharaohs of the Sun:
Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, edited by Rita E. Freed,
Yvonne J. Markowitz and Sue H. D’Auria, pp. 131–43. Bos-
ton: Museum of Fine Arts.
1997 Les antiquités égyptiennes et assyriennes du Musée Auguste
Grasset de Varzy. Études et Documents 1. Nevers: Atelier
McDowell, A. G.
1990 Jurisdiction in the Workmen’s Community of Deir el-Medîna.
Egyptologische Uitgaven 5. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut
voor het Nabije Oosten.
McKnight, Lidija M.
2010 Imaging Applied to Animal Mummification in Ancient Egypt.
British Archaeology Reports, International Series 2175.
Cambridge: Archaeopress.
McKnight, Lidija M.; Stephanie D. Atherton; and A. Rosalie David
2011 “Introducing the Ancient Egyptian Animal Bio Bank at the
KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology, University of Man-
chester.Antiquity 85/329.
McLeod, W.
1982 Self Bows and Other Archery Tackle from the Tomb of Tutankh-
amun. Tutankhamun Tomb Series 4. Oxford: Griffith Insti-
McMillan, M. C.
1994 “Imaging Techniques.” In Avian Medicine: Principles and Appli-
cations, edited by Branson W. Ritchie, Greg J. Harrison, and
Linda R. Harrison, pp. 246–326. 2nd edition. Lake Worth:
Meinertzhagen, R.
1930 Nicoll’s Birds of Egypt. London: Hugh Rees.
Meininger, Peter L., and G. Atta
1994 Ornithological Studies in Egyptian Wetlands 1989/90. Founda-
tion for Ornithological Research in Egypt, Report No. 94–01.
Zeist: Netherlands.
1981 The Significance of Egyptian Wetlands for Wintering Waterbirds.
New York: Holy Land Conservation Fund.
Mekkawy, Fawzy, and Sabry Khater
1990 A Granite Statue of Horus as a Hawk from Buto.Cahier de
Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et d’Égyptologie de Lille
12: 87–88.
Mellado, Esther Pons
1995 Terracotas egipcias de época Greco-Romana del Museo del Oriente
Bíblico del Monasterio de Montserrat. Aula Orientalis Supple-
menta 9. Barcelona: Editorial AUSA.
Menu, Bernadette M.
2001 “Economy: Private Sector.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of An-
cient Egypt, edited by Donald B. Redford, vol. 1, pp. 430–33.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Migahid, Abd-el-Gawad
 -
zeit. PhD dissertation, University of Würzburg.
Milde, H.
1991 The Vignettes in the Book of the Dead of Neferrenpet. Egyptolo-
gische Uitgaven 7. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het
Nabije Oosten.
Minar, Edwin L. Jr.; F. H. Sandbach; and W. C. Helmbold
1969 Plutarch’s Moralia697 C–771 E. Loeb Classical
Library 425. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Montet, Pierre
1925 Scènes de la vie privée dans les tombeaux égyptiens de l’Ancien
Empire. Strasbourg: Librairie Istra.
1928 Byblos et l’Égypte: quatre campagnes de fouilles à Gebeil, 1921-
2 volumes. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
1951 Les constructions et le tombeau de Psousennès à Tanis. La
recherche scientifique.
Moodie, Roy Lee
1931 Roentgenologic Studies of Egyptian and Peruvian Mummies.
Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
Moran, William L., editor
1992 The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Moret, Alexandre
 
Osiris du Louvre.Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie
orientale 30: 725–50.
Morrow, Maggie; Peter Cherry; and Toby A. H. Wilkinson, editors
2010 Desert RATS: Rock Art Topographical Survey in Egypt’s Eastern
Desert. British Archaeological Reports, International Series
2166. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Moussa, Ahmed M., and Hartwig Altenmüller
1971 The Tomb of Nefer and Ka-hay. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von
1977 Das Grab des Nianchchnum und Chnumhotep. Mainz am Rhein:
Philipp von Zabern.
2011 Analysis of Predynastic Ostrich Eggshells from Hierakon-
polis and Beyond.” In Egypt at Its Origins 
Friedman and Peter N. Fiske, pp. 571–93. Orientalia Lovani-
ensia Analecta 205. Leuven: Peeters.
Munro, Peter
1973 Die spätägyptischen Totenstelen. 2 volumes. Ägyptologische
Forschungen 25. Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin.
Murray, Margaret Alice
1904 Saqqara Mastabas-
chaeology in Egypt.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
1982 Egypt’s Golden Age: The Art of Living in the New Kingdom,
1558–1085 BC. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts.
Nasr el-Dine, Hassan
2010 “Bronzes d’ibis provenant de Touna el-Gebel.Bulletin de
l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 110: 235–49.
Nelson, Harold H.
1949 “Certain Reliefs at Karnak and Medinet Habu and the Ritual
of Amenophis I – Concluded.Journal of Near Eastern Studies
8/4: 310–45.
1981 The Great Hypostyle Hall at KarnakThe Wall
Reliefs. Edited by William J. Murnane. Oriental Institute
Publications 106. Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
Newberry, Percy E.
1893 Beni Hasan, Part 1. Egypt Exploration Society, Archaeologi-
cal Survey of Egypt Memoir 1. London: Egypt Exploration
1895 El Bersheh, Part 1: The Tomb of Tehuti-Hetep. Archaeological
Survey of Egypt 3, edited by F. L. Griffith. London: Egypt
Exploration Fund.
1900 Beni Hasan, Part 4: Zoological and Other Details. Egypt Explora-
tion Society, Archaeological Survey of Egypt Memoir 7.
London: Egypt Exploration Society.
1937 Funerary Statuettes and Model Sarcophagi. 3 volumes. Cata-
1951 “The Owls in Ancient Egypt.Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
37: 72–74.
Nicholson, Paul T.
1995 “The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara.Journal of
Egyptian Archaeology 81: 6–9.
2000 “Egyptian Faience.” In Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technol-
ogy, edited by Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw, pp. 177–78.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2005 “The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara: The Cults
and Their Catacombs.” In Divine Creatures: Animal Mummies
in Ancient Egypt, edited by Salima Ikram, pp. 44–71. Cairo:
American University in Cairo Press.
Nicholson, Paul T., and Harry S. Smith
1996 “Fieldwork, 1995–6: The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North
Saqqara.Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 82: 8–11.
O’Connor, David
2009 Abydos: Egypt’s First Pharaohs and the Cult of Osiris. London:
Thames & Hudson.
2010 “Technical Note: Terahertz Imaging of Ancient Mummies
and Bone.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142/3:
Oldfather, C. H., translator
1967 Diodorus of Sicily in Twelve Volumes-
bridge: Harvard University Press.
Oliver, Andrew
1977 Silver for the Gods: 800 Years of Greek and Roman Silver. Toledo:
Toledo Museum of Art.
Osborn, Dale J., and J. Osbornova
1998 The Mammals of Ancient Egypt. Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
Owen, Lidija M.
2000 A Radiographic Study of Thirty-Nine Animal Mummies
from Ancient Egypt. BSc dissertation, University of York.
2001 A Radiographic Investigation of the Ancient Egyptian
Animal Mummies from the Manchester Museum. MSc dis-
sertation, University of Manchester.
Paget, R. F. E., and A. Pirie
1896 The Tomb of Ptah-hetep. London: Histories and Mysteries of
Papazian, Hratch
2009 “Slab Stelae of the Giza Necropolis.” Journal of Near Eastern
Studies 68/1: 59.
Parkinson, Richard B.
1991 Voices from Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Middle Kingdom
Writings. London: British Museum Press.
2008 The Painted Tomb-Chapel of Nebamun: Masterpieces of Ancient
Egyptian Art in the British Museum. London: British Museum
Parlasca, Klaus
1974 “Falkenstelen aus Edfu: Bemerkungen zu einer Gruppe
Festschrift zum
150 jährigen Bestehen des Berliner Ägyptischen Museums, pp.
483–88. Mitteilungen aus der ägyptischen Sammlung, Staat-
Paszthory, Emmerich
1992 Salben, Schminken und Parfüme im Altertum. Zaberns Bildban-
de zur Archäologie 4. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.
Patch, Diana Craig
2011 Dawn of Egyptian Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of
Pearce, Sarah
2007 The Land of the Body: Studies in Philo’s Representation of Egypt.
Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Peet, T. Eric
1914 “The Year’s Work at Abydos.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
1/1: 37–39.
Peet, T. Eric, and L. S. Loat
1913 The Cemeteries of Abydos, Part 3: 1912–1913. London: Egypt
Exploration Fund.
Perrins, Christopher
1979 Birds: Their Life, Their Ways, Their World. Pleasantville:
Reader’s Digest Association.
Peterson, Bengt
1987 “Egyptian Symbols of Love.Medelhavsmuseet Bulletin 22:
Petrie, William M. Flinders
1905 Ehnasya 1904. Excavation Memoir 26. London: Egypt Explora-
tion Fund.
1914 Amulets. London: Constable.
1927 Objects of Daily Use. Publications of the British School of Ar-
chaeology in Egypt 42. London: British School of Archaeol-
ogy in Egypt.
1953 Ceremonial Slate Palettes and Corpus of Proto-Dynastic Pottery.
Publications of the British School of Egyptian Archaeology
in Egypt 66. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.
Petrie, William M. Flinders, and Ernest Mackay
1915 Heliopolis, Kafr Ammar and Shurafa. Publications of the British
School of Archaeology in Egypt 24. London: British School
of Archaeology in Egypt.
Petrie, William M. Flinders, and James Edward Quibell
1896 Naqada and Ballas 1895. London: Bernard Quaritch.
Phillips, Jacke S.
2009 “Ostrich Eggshell.” In UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, edited
by Willeke Wendrich, pp. 1–4. Los Angeles: University of
California, Los Angeles. Available online at:
Picardo, Nicholas S.
2004 “Dealing with Decapitation Diachronically.Nekhen News 16:
Price, F. G. Hilton
1908 A Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in the Possession of F. G.
Hilton Price. London: Bernard Quaritch.
Prisse d’Avennes, Émile
1879 Histoire de l’art égyptien d’après les monuments. Paris: Arthus
Proctor, Noble S., and Patrick J. Lynch
1993 Manual of Ornithology: Avian Structure and Function. New
Haven: Yale University Press.
Quack, Joachim Friedrich
1993 “Ägyptisches und südarabisches Alphabet.Revue d’Égyptolo-
gie 44: 141–51.
1994 “Notwendige Korrekturen.Revue d’Égyptologie 45: 197.
2003 “Die spätägyptische Alphabetreihenfolge und das ‘südsemi-
tische’ Alphabet. Lingua Aegyptia 11: 163–84.
Quibell, James Edward
1898 The Ramesseum. Egyptian Research Account 1896. London:
Bernard Quaritch.
1908 Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu (Nos. 51001–51191)
Quibell, James Edward, and Frederick W. Green
1902 Hierakonpolis 2. Egypt Research Account 5. London: Bernard
Quirke, Stephen
2008 “Creation Stories in Ancient Egypt.” In Imagining Creation,
edited by Markham J. Geller and Mineke Shipper, pp. 61–86.
Institute of Jewish Studies, Studies in Judaica 5. Leiden:
Radwan, Ali
 
der Gottheit.Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Insti-
tuts, Abteilung Kairo 31: 99–108.
 
Ägypten, Dauer und Wandel, pp. 53–69. Deutsches
Archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo 18. Mainz am
Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.
Ranke, Hermann
1936 The Art of Ancient Egypt
Raven, Maarten, and Wybren K. Taconis
2005 Egyptian Mummies: Radiological Atlas of the Collections in the
National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden. Turnhout: Brepols.
Ray, John D.
1976 The Archive of Ḥor. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
2002 Reflections of Osiris: Lives from Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
2011 Texts from the Baboon and Falcon Galleries: Demotic, Hieroglyphic
and Greek Inscriptions from the Sacred Animal Necropolis, North
Saqqara. Texts from Excavations 15. London: Egypt Explora-
tion Society.
Redford, Donald B.
1995 “The Concept of Kingship during the Eighteenth Dynasty.”
In Ancient Egyptian Kingship, edited by David O’Connor and
David P. Silverman, pp. 157-84. Probleme der Ägyptologie 9.
Leiden: Brill.
Rice, E. E.
1983 The Grand Procession of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Riefstahl, Elizabeth
1949 A Sacred Ibis.Brooklyn Museum Bulletin 11/1: 5–9.
2008 “El Kharafish: A Sheikh Muftah Desert Camp Site between
the Oasis and the Nile.” In Egypt at Its Origins 2, edited by
Beatrix Midant-Reynes and Yann Tristant, pp. 585–608.
Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 172. Leuven: Peeters.
Riggs, Christina
2003 “The Egyptian Funerary Tradition at Thebes in the Roman
Period.” In The Theban Necropolis: Past, Present and Future,
edited by John H. Taylor and Nigel Strudwick, pp. 189–201.
London: British Museum Press.
2005 The Beautiful Burial in Roman Egypt. Oxford: Oxford Univer-
sity Press.
Ritner, Robert K.
1993 The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice. Studies
in Ancient Oriental Civilization 54. Chicago: The Oriental
Institute. Fourth printing 2008.
2002 “Necromancy in Ancient Egypt.” In Magic and Divination in
the Ancient World, edited by Jonathan Lee Seidel and Leda
Jean Ciraolo, pp. 89–96. Leiden: Brill.
2006 “‘And Each Staff Transformed into a Snake’: The Serpent
Wand in Ancient Egypt.” In Through a Glass Darkly: Magic,
Dreams and Prophecy in Ancient Egypt, edited by Kasia M.
Szpakowska, pp. 205–25. Swansea: Classical Press of Wales.
2008 “Household Religion in Ancient Egypt.” In Household and
Family Religion in Antiquity, edited by Saul M. Olyan and John
Bodel, pp. 171–96. Ancient World, Comparative Histories 6.
Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
2011 “Theogonies and Cosmogonies in Egyptian Ritual.” Paper
read at the conference Imagined Beginnings: The Poetics
and Politics of Cosmogony, Theogony and Anthropogony in
the Ancient World, Chicago, Illinois, April 9, 2011.
Robins, Gay
1990 “Problems in Interpreting Egyptian Art.Discussions in Egyp-
tology 17: 45–58.
1997 The Art of Ancient Egypt. Cambridge: Harvard University
Robinson, David M.
1941 Excavations at Olynthus, Part 10: Metal and Minor Miscellaneous
Finds, an Original Contribution to Greek Life. The Johns Hopkins
University Studies in Archaeology 31. Baltimore: The Johns
Hopkins University Press.
Roeder, Günther
1956 Ägyptische Bronzefiguren. Berlin: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.
Roehrig, Catharine H.
1988 “Female Offering Bearer.” In Mummies and Magic: The
Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt, edited by Sue D’Auria, Peter
Lacovara, and Catharine H. Roehrig, pp. 102–03. Boston:
Museum of Fine Arts.
Roehrig, Catharine H., editor
2005 Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh. New York: Metropolitan
Museum of Art.
Romano, James F.
2001 “Folding Headrest.” In Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient
Art from the British Museum, edited by Edna Russman, pp.
162–63. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rosellini, Ippolito
1834 I monumenti dell’Egitto e della NubiaMonumenti
civili. Pisa: Presso N. Capurro.
1979 Kapitel 17 des ägyptischen Totenbuches: Untersuchungen zur
Textgeschichte und Funktion eines Textes der altägyptischen
Roth, Ann Macy
1995 A Cemetery of Palace Attendants, Including G 2084–2099, G
2230+2231, and G 2240. Giza Mastabas 6. Boston: Museum of
Fine Arts.
Russman, Edna, editor
2001 Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British
Museum. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California
1990 Coptic Fabrics. Paris: Adam Biro.
Sakkara Expedition
1938 The Mastaba of Mereruka. Part 1: Chambers A 1–10; and Part
2: Chambers A 11–13, Doorjambs, and Inscriptions of Chambers A
1–21, Tomb Chamber, and Exterior. Oriental Institute Publica-
tions 31 (part 1) and 39 (part 2). Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Saleh, Mohamed
1984 Das Totenbuch in den thebanischen Beamtengräbern des Neuen
Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.
Scalf, Foy
 
Oriental Institute Museum of the University of Chicago.” To
be published in the festschrift for Ola el-Aguizy, forthcom-
Scharff, A.
 Zeit-
schrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 62: 86–107.
Schlichting, Robert
 
Entensymbolik in der ägyptischen Kunst.” In Quaerentes
Scientiam: Festgabe für Wolfhart Westendorf zu seinem 70.
Seminar für Ägyptologie und Koptologie.
Schmitz, Bettina, and Dina Faltings
1987 Vögel im alten Ägypten: Informationen zum Thema und Kurzfüh-
rer durch die Ausstellung. Informationen und Einführungen
für den Museumsbesucher 3. Hildesheim: Pelizaeus-Muse-
Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.
2004 “Exploring Dynamics in the Far-Infrared with Terahertz
Spectroscopy.” Chemistry Review 104: 1759–79.
Scholfield, A. F.
1958 Aelian. On the Characteristics of AnimalsBooks I–V.
University Press.
Schorsch, Deborah
 
Fine Arts — A Technical Report.Arts in Virginia 28: 48–59.
Schott, S.
 Nachrichten der
Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-Histori-
sche Klasse, aus dem Jahre 1956: 55–79.
Schwartze, Moritz Gotthilf
1843 Das alte Ägypten, oder Sprache, Geschichte, Religion und Ver-
fassung des alten Ägyptens nach den altägyptischen Original-
Schriften und den Mittheilungen der nicht-ägyptischen alten
Schriftsteller. Leipzig: J. A. Barth.
Seeber, Christine
1976 Untersuchungen zur Darstellung des Totengerichts im alten
Ägypten. Münchner ägyptologische Studien 35. Munich:
Deutscher Kunstverlag.
Sethe, Kurt
1906–09 Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. Urkunden des ägyptischen Alter-
tums 4. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs.
1908 Die altägyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrücken
und Photographien des Berliner Museums. Leipzig: J. C. Hin-
Shedid, Abdel Ghaffar
1994 Die Felsgräber von Beni Hassan in Mittelägypten. Zaberns Bild-
bände zur Archäologie 16. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.
Shelley, George Ernest
1872 A Handbook to the Birds of Egypt
Silverman, David P., editor
1997 Searching for Ancient Egypt: Art, Architecture, and Artifacts
from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and
Anthropology. Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art.
Simon, Catherine
2001 “Geb.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by
Donald B. Redford, vol. 2, p. 7. Oxford: Oxford University
Simpson, William Kelly
1978 The Mastabas of Kawab, Khafkhufu I and II (G7110–20, 7130–40
and 7150 and Subsidiary Mastabas of Street G 7100). Boston:
Museum of Fine Arts.
Smelik, Klaas A. D., and Emily Ann Hemelrijk
1984 “‘Who Knows Not What Monsters Demented Egypt Wor-
ships?’ Opinions on Egyptian Animal Worship in Antiquity
as Part of the Ancient Conception of Egypt.” In Aufstieg und
Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms
im Spiegel der neueren Forschung II.17.4, edited by Wolfgang
Haase, pp. 1852–2000. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Smith, Harry S.
1974 A Visit to Ancient Egypt: Life at Memphis and Saqqara (c. 500–30
BC). Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
 -
ters.” In Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Papy-
rologists, Oxford, 24–31 July 1974, pp. 257–59. Graeco-Roman
Memoirs 61. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
Smith, Harry S.; C. A. R. Andrews; and Sue Davies
2011 The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara: The Mother of
Apis Inscriptions 1–2. Texts from Excavations 14. London:
Egypt Exploration Society.
Smith, Harry S., and William John Tait
1983 Saqqâra Demotic Papyri I (P. Dem. Saq. I). Texts from Excava-
tions 7. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
Smith, Mark J.
1979 The Demotic Mortuary Papyrus Louvre E. 3452. PhD disser-
tation, University of Chicago.
2002 Aspects of the Preservation and Transmission of Indig-
enous Religious Tradition in Akhmim and Its Environs Dur-
ing the Graeco-Roman Period.” In Perspectives on Panopolis:
An Egyptian Town from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest,
pp. 233–47. Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 31. Boston: Brill.
2009 Traversing Eternity: Texts for the Afterlife from Ptolemaic and
Roman Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, William Stevenson
1978 A History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom.
London: Oxford University Press.
Smith, William Stevenson, and William Kelly Simpson
1998 Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. 3rd edition. New Haven:
Yale University Press.
Spiegelberg, Wilhelm
1914 Die sogenannte demotische Chronik des Pap. 215 der Bibliothèque
nationale zu Paris nebst den auf der Rückseite des Papyrus ste-
henden Texten. Demotische Studien 7. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs.
1918 “Demotische Kleinigkeiten.Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache
und Altertumskunde 54: 111–28.
 
Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 62:
1928 Neue Urkunden zum ägyptischen Tierkultus. Sitzungsberichte
der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Munich:
Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Spiegelman, M.; S. Ikram; J. Taylor; L. Berger; H. Donoghue; and D. Lambert
2008 “Preliminary Genetic and Radiological Studies of Ibis Mum-
mification in Egypt.” In Mummies and Science: World Mummies
Research, edited by P. Pena, C. Rodriquez Martin, and M.
Rodriguez, pp. 545–52. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Academia
Canaria de la Historia.
Staley, Preston S.; James L. Phillips; and John Desmond Clark
1974 “Interpretations of Prehistoric Technology from Ancient
Egyptian and Other Sources, Part 1: Ancient Egyptian Bows
and Arrows and Their Relevance for African Prehistory.
Paléorient 2/2: 323–88.
Stauffer, Annemarie; M. Hill; H. C. Evans; and D. Walker
1995 Textiles of Late Antiquity. New York: Metropolitan Museum of
Steindorff, Georg
1892 “Das altägyptische Alphabet und seine Umschreibung. Zeit-
schrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 46: 709–30.
Stevenson, Alice
2009 “Palettes.” In UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, edited by
Willeke Wendrich, pp. 1–9. Los Angeles: University of Cali-
fornia Los Angeles. Available online at:
1976 “Ḏnḏn ‘der Schwan’?” Göttinger Miszellen 19: 57–58.
Strudwick, Nigel
2006 Masterpieces of Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press.
Stupko, Anastazja
2010 “Cranes in the Chapel of Hatshepsut at Deir El-Bahari: Stud-
ies on Representations.Études et Travaux 23: 158–78.
Szpakowska, Kasia
2003 “Playing with Fire: Initial Observations on the Religious
Uses of Clay Cobras from Amarna.Journal of the American
Research Center in Egypt 40: 113–22.
Tarboton, W. R.; Peter Pickford; and Beverly Pickford
1990 African Birds of Prey. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Taylor, John H.
2001 Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt. London: Trustees of
the British Museum.
Taylor, John H., editor
2010 Journey through the Afterlife: Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Teeter, Emily
1994 “Egyptian Art.The Art Institute of Chicago: Museum Studies
20/1: 14–31.
2003 Ancient Egypt: Treasures from the Collection of the Oriental In-
stitute. Oriental Institute Museum Publications 23. Chicago:
The Oriental Institute.
2010a Baked Clay Figurines and Votive Beds from Medinet Habu.
Oriental Institute Publications 133. Chicago: The Oriental
2010b “Feathers.” In UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, edited by
Willeke Wendrich, pp. 1–6. Los Angeles: University of Cali-
fornia Los Angeles. Available online at:
2011a Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Teeter, Emily, editor
2011b Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. Orien-
tal Institute Museum Publications 33. Chicago: The Oriental
Teeter, Emily, and Janet H. Johnson, editors
2009 The Life of Meresamun: A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt. Orien-
tal Institute Museum Publications 29. Chicago: The Oriental
Thomas, Thelma
2000 Late Antique Egyptian Funerary Sculpture. Princeton: Prince-
ton University Press.
Thompson, Herbert
1924 The Gospel of St. John according to the Earliest Coptic Manuscript.
British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Re-
search Account 36. London: British School of Archaeology
in Egypt.
2001 “Creation Myths.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt,
edited by Donald B. Redford, vol. 2, pp. 469–72. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
2003a “The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant.” In The Literature of An-
cient Egypt, edited by William Kelly Simpson, pp. 25–44. 3rd
edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
2003b “Selections from the Pyramid Texts.” In The Literature of
Ancient Egypt, edited by William Kelly Simpson, pp. 247–62.
3rd edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Tomoun, Nadja Samir
2005 The Sculptors’ Models of the Late and Ptolemaic Periods: A
Study of the Type and Function of a Group of Ancient Egyptian
Artefacts. Translated by Brenda Siller. Cairo: National Center
for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the
Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypt.
Tooley, Angela M.
1995 Egyptian Models and Scenes. Shire Egyptology 22. Princes
Risborough: Shire Publications.
2001 “Models.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited
by Donald B. Redford, vol. 2, pp. 424–28. New York: Oxford
University Press.
2009 Between Two Worlds: The Frontier Region between Ancient Nubia
and Egypt 3700 BC–AD 500. Probleme der Ägyptologie 29.
Leiden: Brill.
Tropper, Josef
1996 “Ägyptisches, nordwestsemitisches und altsüdarabisches
Alphabet.Ugarit-Forschungen 28: 619–32.
Troy, Lana
1986 Patterns of Queenship in Ancient Egyptian Myth and History.
Boreas: Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near
Eastern Civilizations 14. Uppsala: Uppsala University.
1602 Hieroglyphica sev De sacris ægyptiorum, aliarumque gentium
literis commentarii. Lyon: Paul Frelon.
van den Broek, R.
1972 The Myth of the Phoenix According to Classical and Early Chris-
tian Traditions. Leiden: Brill.
van de Walle, Baudouin
1978 La chapelle funéraire de Neferirtenef
d’Art et d’Histoire.
van Dijk, Jacobus
1983 A Ramesside Naophorus Statue from the Teti Pyramid
Cemetery.Oudheidkundige Mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum
van Oudheden te Leiden 64: 49–60.
2004 Animal Burials and Food Offerings at the Elite Cemetery
HK6 at Hierakonpolis.” In Egypt at Its Origins: Studies in
Memory of Barbara Adams
pp. 67–130. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven:
2005 Iconography of Old Kingdom Elite Tombs: Analysis and Interpreta-
tion, Theoretical and Methodological Aspects
1958 Manuel d’archéologie égyptienne III: les grandes époques. La
statuaire. Paris: A. & J. Picard.
1969 Manuel d’archéologie égyptienneBas-reliefs et
peintures, scènes de la vie quotidienne. Paris: A. & J. Picard.
1982 “Geb.” In Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by Wolfhart West-
endorf and Wolfgang Helck, vol. 2, cols. 427–29. Wiesbaden:
1984 Grillen, Kochen, und Backen im Alltag und im Ritual Altägyptens:
Ein lexikographischer Beitrag. Rites Égyptiens 4. Brussels:
2005 Bestiaire des pharaons. Paris: Perrin.
1996 “Zum Gebrauch des kꜣ-Zeichens im Demotischen.” Studi di
egittologia e di antichità puniche 15: 1–12.
1998 “Tradition und Neuerung in der demotischen Literatur.”
Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 125:
von Beckerath, Jürgen
1982 “Menit.” In Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by Wolfgang Helck
and Wolfhart Westendorf, vol. 4, cols. 52–54. Wiesbaden:
von Bissing, Friedrich Wilhelm
1904 Steingefäße
Berteaux; and Joris Peters
2005 “Mummified, Deified, and Buried at Hermopolis Magna: The
Sacred Birds from Tuna el-Gebel, Middle Egypt. Ägypten
und Levante 15: 203–44.
1991 Ägyptische BildwerkeStatuetten, Gefässe und Geräte.
Melsungen: Gutenberg.
von Lieven, Alexandra
2007 The Carlsberg Papyri 8: Grundriss des Laufes der Sterne: Das so-
genannte Nutbuch. Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern
Studies, Publications 31. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum
1990 La vocalisation de la langue égyptienneLa pho-
Wade, Andrew D.; S. Ikram; G. J. Conlogue; R. Beckett; A. J. Nelson; R. Colten;
B. Lawson; and D. Tampieri
2012 “Foodstuff Placement in Ibis Mummies and the Role of
Journal of Archaeological Science 39/5:
Walker, G. C.; E. Berry; N. N. Zinov’ev; A. J. Fitzgerald; R. E. Miles; J. M.
Chamberlain; and M. A. Smith
2002 “Terahertz Imaging and International Safety Guidelines.
Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engi-
neers 4682: 683–90.
Wanscher, Ole
1980 Sella Curulis: The Folding Stool, an Ancient Symbol of Dignity.
Copenhagen: Rosenklide and Bagger.
Weaver, Peter
1981 The Birdwatcher’s Dictionary. London: A. & T. D. Poyser.
Wendorf, Fred; Romuald Schild; and Angela E. Close
1980 Loaves and Fishes: The Prehistory of Wadi Kubbaniya. Dallas: De-
partment of Anthropology, Institute for the Study of Earth
and Man, Southern Methodist University Press.
Wengrow, David
2006 The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations in
North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2650 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Wente, Edward F.
1990 Letters from Ancient Egypt. Society of Biblical Literature
Writings from the Ancient World 1. Edited by Edmund S.
Meltzer. Atlanta: Scholars Press.
2003 “Selections from the Coffin Texts.” In The Literature of An-
cient Egypt, edited by W. K. Simpson, pp. 263–66. 3rd edition.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Westendorf, Wolfhart
1975 Göttinger Totenbuchstudien: Beiträge zum Kapitel 17
Orientforschung 4.3. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Whittemore, Thomas
1914 “The Ibis Cemetery at Abydos: 1914.Journal of Egyptian
Archaeology 1: 248–49.
Whyte, Alison
2012 “Bird Mummy Conservation: A Delicate Balance.Oriental
Institute News & Notes 214: 28.
2004 Tutankhamun: The Golden Beyond; Tomb Treasures from the Val-
ley of the Kings. Bonn: Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung
Wild, Henri
1953 Le Tombeau de TiLa Chapelle, Part 1. Cairo: Insti-
Wilkinson, Toby A. H.
1999 Early Dynastic Egypt. London and New York: Routledge.
Williams, Bruce
1989 Excavations between Abu Simbel and the Sudan Frontier,
Parts 2, 3, and 4. Neolithic, A-Group, and Post-A-Group Remains
from Cemeteries W, V, S, Q, T, and a Cave East of Cemetery K. Ori-
ental Institute Nubian Expedition 4. Chicago: The Oriental
2011 “Relations between Egypt and Nubia in the Naqada Period.
In Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian Civilization, ed-
ited by Emily Teeter, pp. 83–92. Oriental Institute Museum
Publications 33. Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
Williams, J. G., and N. Arlott
1980 The Collins Field Guide to the Birds of East Africa. New York:
Stephen Greene.
Williams, Malayna Evans
2011 Signs of Creation: Sex, Gender, Categories, Religion and
the Body in Ancient Egypt. PhD dissertation, University of
Wilson, Karen, and Joan Barghusen
1989 The Oriental Institute Museum: Highlights from the Collection.
Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
Wilson, Penelope
1997 A Ptolemaic Lexikon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the
Temple of Edfu. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 78. Leuven:
Winkler, Hans A.
1938 Rock-drawings of Southern Upper Egypt I. Edited by the Egypt
Exploration Society. Archaeological Survey of Egypt, mem-
oir 26–27. London: Humphrey Milford.
Winlock, H. E.
1955 Models of Daily Life in Ancient Egypt from the Tomb of Meket-Re
at Thebes. Publications of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Egyptian Expedition 18. New York: The Metropolitan Mu-
seum of Art.
Woods, Christopher, editor
2010 Visible Language: Inventions of Writing in the Ancient Middle
East and Beyond. Oriental Institute Museum Publications 32.
Chicago: The Oriental Institute.
Wyatt, John H., and Jackie Garner
In prep “Birds in Ancient Egypt: A Guide to Identification.”
Young, Eric
 
Tradition.Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 22/7: 247–56.
Yoyotte, Jean
 Kêmi 15: 70–74.
1968 A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts. Studies
in Ancient Oriental Civilization 34. Chicago: The Oriental
Zandee, J.
1960 Death as an Enemy. Leiden: Brill.
Zauzich, Karl-Theodor
2000a “Die Namen der koptischen Zusatzbuchstaben und die erste
ägyptische Alphabetübung.Enchoria 26: 151–57.
2000b “Ein antikes demotisches Namenbuch.” In The Carlsberg
Papyri 3: A Miscellany of Demotic Texts and Studies, edited by P.
J. Frandsen and K. Ryholt, pp. 27–52. Carsten Niebuhr Insti-
tute of Near Eastern Studies, Publications 22. Copenhagen:
Museum Tusculanum Press.
Ziegler, Christiane
 
In Tanis: l’or des pharaons, pp. 85–101. Paris: Association
française d’action artistique.
1993 Le mastaba d’Akhethetep: une chapelle funéraire de l’Ancien
1997 “Sur quelques vases inscrits de l’Ancien Empire.” In Études
sur l’Ancien Empire et la nécropole de Saqqâra dédiées à Jean-
Philippe Lauer, edited by Bernard Mathieu and Catherine
(Montpellier III).
1999 “Jar Inscribed with the Name of King Unis.” In Egyptian Art
in the Age of the Pyramids, pp. 361–62. New York: Metropoli-
tan Museum of Art.
2007 Le mastaba d’Akhethetep. Paris: Peeters.
Ziegler, Christiane, and Jean-Luc Bovot
2001 L’Égypte ancienne
Zivie, Alain
1980 “Ibis.” In Lexikon der Ägyptologie, edited by Wolfhart West-
endorf and Wolfgang Helck, vol. 3, cols. 115–21. Wiesbaden:
... In addition, Horus is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs as hr.w (pronunciation *Hāru) meaning falcon (Meltzer 2002). Horus (literally the one who is far away) is also associated with a mythological transformation into a falcon with theological implications regarding the transfer ___________________ regarding the transfer between the earth and sky (Driesch et al. 2006, Scalf 2012. Since ancient Predynastic times, Horus depictions remained unchanged for two millennia and focused on symbolic and decorative qualities and not on associations with wild birds (Houlinan and Goodman 1986, Podgórski 2010, Porter 2011. ...
Full-text available
Resumo Um dos aspectos mais notáveis da mitologia egípcia é o enorme número de divindades com representações zoomorfas ou híbridas/ bimórficas (corpo humano com cabeça animal ou corpo animal com cabeça humana). Essas formas são produto de um compromisso criativo entre um pensamento antropomórfico e as aparências das forças naturais-animais. As aves não escaparam a esta apropriação mitológica e surgem associadas a divindades de primeiro plano do panteão: estão nesse caso os falcões, os abutres, as íbis e o ganso. Além desta faceta de presença das aves em plena associação com grandes divindades do panteão egípcio, é possível vê-las também usadas simbolicamente para exprimirem alguns aspectos da personalidade humana e conceitos maiores do pensamento religioso egípcio. Estão neste caso, sobretudo, a ave-ba e a íbis-akh. No antigo Egipto, as aves, tratadas teológica e iconograficamente, ajudaram, pois, a definir formas divinas, convicções e conceitos espirituais. Abstract One of the most remarkable aspects of the Egyptian mythology is the large number of deities with zoomorphic or hybrid/bimorphic representations (the latter corresponding to representations with animal heads over human bodies or human heads over animal bodies). These shapes are product of a creative compromise between the anthropomorphic form and the features of the natural-animal forces. Birds were also included in this mythological appropriation and are associated to "first-tier" deities of the Egyptian pantheon, namely hawks, vultures, ibises and geese. Besides this association of birds with the great deities, it is also possible to see their symbolic use as a means to express diverse aspects of human personality and bigger concepts of the Egyptian religious thought: mostly the ba-bird and the akh-ibis. In ancient Egypt, the theological and iconographic treatment of birds was essential to define divine forms, beliefs and spiritual concepts.
The application of non-invasive imaging techniques to wrapped mummified remains from ancient Egypt is well-attested, with mummified animals produced as votive offerings being no exception. In order to fully investigate their production and purpose, imaging data alone is insufficient, mainly due to the wide range of species mummified and the variations witnessed in bundle contents. This research note describes a large multi-disciplinary research project combining traditional macroscopic and radiographic analysis with 3D visualisation and replication techniques to allow for improved identification of bundle contents. Once bundle contents are established enabling validation of mummy types (true or pseudo) against perceived identifications as detailed in museum records, quantitative analysis will identify patterns in the dataset.
Full-text available
Depending on the different cultures and historical periods, vultures have been considered both impure or sacred. But, since they usually do not prey upon living animals, their symbolic dimension, associated to the idea of purification, is present in many myths, religions, burial praxis of ancient populations and remains in some religions today. In the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, they have been carved in some of the most ancient bas-reliefs of the history by stone age people; were sacred to Egyptians, who even took them as symbol of gods; in the classical times they were supposed to be all feminine and breed by parthenogenesis, and therefore appreciated by some early Christian authors, who came to comparing them even to the Virgin Mary; they have been studied and described by ancient scientists, naturalists, philosophers, playwrights; involved in many of the most enduring Greek and Roman myths and legends; many parts of their body were considered as a medicine or even a talisman for happiness; and they were so proverbial for Romans to become even one of the symbols of the founding of Rome itself. But they were also so fragile that perfumes, myrrh and pomegranates were supposed to be lethal for them ….
Full-text available
The Early Holocene in Near East was a pivotal transitional period that witnessed dramatic changes in climate and environment, human settlement, major changes in subsistence strategies focusing on a broad range of different plant and animal resources, and a radical restructuring of social relations. The remarkable corpus of avifauna from the Early Holocene site of Hallan Çemi in southeastern Turkey sheds new light on key issues about this dynamic period that has been termed the " Broad Spectrum Revolution ". The avifauna from this important site demonstrate how Hallan Çemi occupants took advantage of the site's strategic location at the junction of multiple environmental zones by extracting a diverse range of seasonally available resources from both nearby and more distant eco-zones to cobble together a stable subsistence economy capable of supporting this small community throughout the year. They give testimony to the impacts of resource utilization over time, especially on species unable to rebound from sustained human hunting. At the same time, they show how Hallan Çemi residents mitigated these impacts by replacing depleted resources with alternative, more resilient ones that could be more sustainably harvested. They open a window onto the growing investment in feasting and ritual activity that helped bind this community together. In so doing they provide a means of empirically evaluating the efficacy of contrasting explanatory frameworks for the Broad Spectrum Revolution that gave rise to the subsequent domestication of plant and animals in the Near East. Contrary to frameworks that cast these developments as responses to resource depression, lessons learned from the Hallan Çemi avifauna lend support to frameworks that emphasize the human capacity to strategically target, capitalize, and improve upon circumscribed resource rich environments in a way that permits more permanent occupation of these niches. And they underscore the degree to which social and ritual activities work together with ecological and economic facets of the lives of these people to both perpetuate and reshape these communities on the threshold of domestication and the emergence of agriculture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full-text available
To Kiki Birtacha Among the hunting scenes that the Aegean iconography of the second millennium BC offers us, representations related to bird hunting seem to be absent. Newer information has emerged, however, from the restoration of the frescoes from Xeste 3 in the Late Cycladic I / Late Minoan IA settlement of Akrotiri on Thera. On the first floor of Xeste 3, a community sanctuary whose function has been connected with initiation rites, the Great Goddess of Nature (the Potnia) was depicted appearing among young crocus gatherers, possibly during a religious festival related to the regeneration of nature. Two pairs of mature women with sumptuous dress and elaborate jewellery, carrying lilies, wild roses and crocuses as offerings to the Goddess, were rendered on the walls of a corridor that led into the room where the seated Potnia is located. Among the women in the corridor is one holding a sheaf of white lilies and bearing a net pattern with small blue birds on her upper arms. The net has been viewed as a bodice with embroidered miniature swallows. However, specific details of the net pattern indicate the depiction of a real net with captured small, possibly migratory, birds, to be offered to the Potnia. The subject of trapping birds with a net perhaps refers to a ritual act that would have taken place during an autumn or spring festival, given that the trapping of migratory birds takes place during these two transitional seasons. The particular importance and symbolic value of the subject, which enriches the Aegean sacred iconography, is also suggested by the representation of a net with a captured bird on a Late Minoan IB sealing from Agia Triada, which comes from the bezel of a signet ring, apparently made of gold, as well as the rendering of what is possibly a net on the back of a Late Minoan IIIA2 clay male figurine holding a bird, found on the bench in the Shrine of the Double Axes in Knossos.
This book presents the first extended study of the representation of Egypt in the writings of Philo of Alexandria. Philo is a crucial witness, not only to the experiences of the Jews of Alexandria, but to the world of early Roman Egypt in general. As historians of Roman Alexandria and Egypt are well aware, we have access to very few voices from inside the country in this era; Philo is the best we have. As a commentator on Jewish Scripture, Philo is also one of the most valuable sources for the interpretation of Egypt in the Pentateuch. He not only writes very extensively on this subject, but he does so in ways that are remarkable for their originality when compared with the surviving literature of ancient Judaism. In this book, Sarah Pearce tries to understand Philo in relation to the wider context in which he lived and worked. Key areas for investigation include: defining the 'Egyptian' in Philo's world; Philo's treatment of the Egypt of the Pentateuch as a symbol of 'the land of the body'; Philo's emphasis on Egyptian inhospitableness; and his treatment of Egyptian religion, focusing on Nile veneration and animal worship.