Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Using a mobile phone to answer the phone or make a call while riding EB increased the risk of ERTI by approximately 10 times, which was similar to the results of previous studies [27,32,33]. It can cause visual, behavioral, and cognitive distractions, neglecting to observe the surrounding environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Electric Bike (EB) has become an ideal mode of transportation because of its simple operation, convenience, and because it is time saving, economical and environmentally friendly. However, electric bicycle road-traffic injuries (ERTIs) have become a road-traffic safety problem that needs to be solved urgently, bringing a huge burden to public health. In order to provide basic data and a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of ERTIs in Shantou, mixed research combining a case-control study and a case-crossover study was carried out to investigate the cycling behavior characteristics and injury status of EB riders in Shantou city, and to explore the influencing factors of ERTI. The case-control study selected the orthopedic inpatient departments of three general hospitals in Shantou. The case-crossover study was designed to assess the effect of brief exposure on the occurrence of ERTIs, in which each orthopedic inpatient serves as his or her own control. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associated factors of ERTIs. In the case-control study, multivariable analysis showed that chasing or playing when cycling, finding the vehicle breakdown but continuing cycling, not wearing the helmet, and retrograde cycling were risk factors of ERTIs. Compared with urban road sections, suburb and township road sections were more likely to result in ERTIs. Astigmatism was the protective factor of ERTI. The case-crossover study showed that answering the phone or making a call and not wearing a helmet while cycling increased the risk of ERTIs. Cycling in the motor-vehicle lane and cycling on the sidewalk were both protective factors. Therefore, the traffic management department should effectively implement the policy about wearing a helmet while cycling, increasing the helmet-wearing rate of EB cyclists, and resolutely eliminate illegal behaviors such as violating traffic lights and using mobile phones while cycling. Mixed lanes were high-incidence road sections of ERTIs. It was suggested that adding people-non-motor-vehicles/motor vehicles diversion and isolation facilities in the future to ensure smooth roads and safety would maximize the social economic and public health benefits of EB.
... However, 72% of them admit scanning the environment for the police while using the phone and 77% of them hold the phone lower, avoid the police. Ige, Banstola & Pilkington (2016) consider the use of mobile phone while driving as one of the most serious forms of distraction because of the wide scale of demands on the driver's attention. Lamble, Rajalin & Summala (2002) showed that more than half of the drivers use a mobile phone while driving, and up to 50% of them have ever experienced a dangerous road situation due to mobile phone use while driving. ...
Article
Full-text available
The consequences of using and manipulating with a mobile phone while driving has a large negative effect on attention. Driver inattention is the major problem in road safety and generally belongs to the main causes of traffic accidents with a higher representation of rear impact and has been considered as a societal safety issue. Nowadays, distraction during driving has been very often connected with using a mobile phone. The aim of this study has been the analysis of using a mobile phone by accident participants during normal driving. For the purpose of this study, unique data about accident participants collected by Czech In-depth accident study has been used. The results have shown an increasing tendency of mobile phone use with an increase in annual mileage. There is also a greater risk of mobile phone use while driving among young drivers for up to 24 years. The analysis has also shown, that the drivers, who were assessed during the interview as a risky or aggressive, report more often handling of a mobile phone while driving, which contains all activities where is mobile phone actively used, without involving fine motor skills.
... Saifuzzaman et al. [123] stated that the concurrent use of a mobile phone and operating a motor vehicle is a significant distraction that impairs driving performance and is becoming a leading cause of motor vehicle crashes. Ige et al. [124] indicated that the use of mobile phones while driving is one of the leading contributors to road traffic collisions (RTCs). Hence, this study indicates effective precautionary measures for avoiding road traffic accidents. ...
... Another study showed that using the cell phone while driving increases the reaction time for drivers, especially among female and older drivers . This distraction leads to a higher probability of driver error, which increases the likelihood of a crash (Wilson et al., 2015;Ige et al., 2016). According to a National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA) report, cell phone use was the cause of 445 fatalities in one year in the United States (NHTSA, 2015). ...
Article
There is no doubt that cell phone use while driving can lead to a higher probability of driver error, which increases the likelihood of more crashes. In Qatar, the high rate of cell phone use while driving among young drivers is a major traffic safety concern. The objectives of this study are to identify the factors affecting this hazardous behavior and to suggest practical solutions to deter this specific category of drivers from driving while distracted. The study combined stated and revealed preference questions to design a detailed survey questionnaire. Data were collected from a sample of 403 young drivers. The structural equation modeling results showed that, for the revealed preference, conducting public campaigns may provide a suitable solution to reduce cell phone usage while driving. On the other hand, increasing enforcement did not seem to have a significant effect on reducing this type of behavior. For the stated preference, young drivers who had a crash history resulting from cell phone usage tend to use their cell phones less than those who did not have a cell phone related crash. Furthermore, the driving experience and safe duration of distraction had a significant effect on the cell phone usage. Based on the results, it is recommended to provide road safety campaigns to educate young drivers on the risk associated with such behavior. This information is valuable to legislators and traffic safety experts dealing with this problem in Qatar and other countries in the region.
... Adolescents appear to be particularly vulnerable to distraction-related crashes and growing research suggests that cell phone use while driving--which increases a driver's crash risk four-fold--is only becoming more prevalent [1,2]. With mounting public concern, texting while driving (TWD) has been targeted as a public health risk, yet educational campaigns and prohibitive legislation have had minimal success [3]. ...
Article
Texting while driving is becoming more prevalent among young novice drivers, and has been specifically targeted as a risk factor for teen motor vehicle crashes. However, educational campaigns and prohibitive legislation for texting while driving have had minimal success. This may be because drivers who text while driving also take other risks that contribute to crashes (e.g. ignore speed limits). To assess this possibility in a community sample of young drivers, we used a modified version of the commonly used Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and included two items to identify cell phone use while driving (calling and texting). Cell phone use correlated with prior citations and crashes, and loaded highly with other intentional violations (showing good construct validity) in an exploratory factor analysis. This suggests a pattern of risky driving behavior, of which texting is only one manifestation. Future research should examine the unique contribution of cell phone use as a risk for crashes in young drivers.
... Even more important, new strategies for our children and also ourselves are needed to establish a responsible handling of smartphones facing the upcoming problems of the Industrial Revolution 4.0 as a novel mechanism of injury. 30,31 Based on the evidence that virtually all children from the age of 12 years have their own smartphone, the true number of smartphone-related accidents in children may be much higher than reported so far. 18 Many children who suffer smartphonerelated injuries may not consult a doctor or even report the smartphone as the cause of injury. ...
Article
Objectives: Smartphones have become an integral part of daily life, often grabbing full attention of its user. We hypothesized that smartphone-associated trauma in children and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The objective of this study was to analyze smartphone-related injuries in children at two German centers for pediatric emergency care. Methods: Smartphone-related injuries were recorded between January 2008 and March 2018 at two centers of pediatric surgery in Germany. Data were assessed for patient demography, cause of accident, type of injury, treatment, and outcome. Results: Ten children (8 girls, 2 boys; mean ± SD age, 10.6 ± 6.0 years; range, 10 weeks to 17 years) were included. Two patients were injured in 2008 to 2015, eight in 2016 to 2018, of which three required hospital admissions. Six accidents happened in public spaces, and four within domestic environments. Eight children (mean ± SD age, 13.3 ± 2.4 years; 7 girls) were injured while using their smartphone, therefore being distracted. Two children (mean ± SD age, 6.5 ± 6.4 months) were involuntarily hurt by the smartphone of their caregivers. The causes of accident and related injuries were highly variable and ranged from minor trauma (mild head injury [n = 3], abrasions [n = 2], bruises of fingers [n = 2]/hand [n = 1]/ankle [n = 2]) to major injuries requiring intensive care treatment (pelvic [n = 1] or vertebral body fractures [n = 1]). Conclusions: Smartphone-associated injuries mainly caused by distraction gain increasing importance in pediatric traumatology. The frequency is higher in females compared with their male counterparts. The prevention of these accidents should become part of educational programs for children and adolescents.
... Research has shown that crash risk can be attributable to drivers talking on cell phones while driving (McEvoy et al., 2005;Márquez et al., 2015;Sun and Jia, 2016). There are deficiencies on reporting on the use of mobile phones that result in road traffic accidents around the world even though there are legislative bans on mobile phone use while driving in those nations (Ige et al., 2016). ...
Article
In spite of research and awareness of the hazards associated with handheld mobile device use while driving, many motorists continue to engage in this risky behavior. The mobile device use while driving has a detrimental effect on the operation of the vehicle. It contributes significantly to distraction which is a leading cause of accidents. Especially, the use of text messaging and the dialing of a 10-digit number while driving can be attributable to crash risks. Phone use bans have a positive role in reducing mobile phone use for texting while operating vehicles. There are limited studies on whether drivers admit to the use of handheld devices while driving. The aim of this study was to identify the experiences, practices, and attitudes of handheld device use while driving. A total of 337 respondents nationwide replied to the survey on the attitudes and self-reported behaviors of handheld device use while driving. In the survey, the characteristics of handheld device users, use of handheld devices, and the differences in self-reported behaviors across states with and without device use restrictions were compared. The perceptions and experiences of device users are also examined. Based on the background of device users and their attitudes, a multivariate logistic regression is used to identify the characteristics of those who use handheld devices while driving. The model is relevant to this research because it allows the consideration and comparison of many variables to identify the attitudes of people towards distracted driving. The affirmative self-reporting of 59 percent of the respondents is a surprising result given that there are state bans on texting and the use of handheld mobile phones while driving. Older drivers are least likely to engage in these behaviors, compared to younger drivers and adult drivers. Based on the findings, targeted educational and enforcement campaigns to reduce device use during driving are suggested. Additional promising areas for further inquiry and research are also proposed.
... Research focused on the prevention of mobile phone use while driving has examined driver motivations (Walsh, White, Hyde, & Watson, 2008) and driver perceptions of mobile phone usage (White, Hyde, Walsh, & Watson, 2010). More recent research has focused on apprehending drivers whose mobile phone use may have contributed to the cause of road traffic collisions (Ige, Banstola, & Pilkington, 2016). Almost half of drivers surveyed in Queensland reported either looking at the screen for more than two seconds, answering a ringing mobile telephone, talking on a handheld mobile telephone or texting/browsing on a daily basis while driving (Oviedo-Trespalacios, King, Haque, and Washington, 2017). ...
Article
The requirement for transparency and accountability for public spending has seen a focus on quantitative cost-benefit analyses. In the context of traffic policing, the temptation is to emphasize the importance of automated systems of enforcement as these pose an arguably less expensive alternative to using uniformed police. In the context of speed enforcement, automated means of enforcement are a logical way to efficiently distribute resources. However, in other areas of traffic policing, like driver distraction, seatbelt use, random breath testing, the use of uniformed police is essential. Following an overview of empirical research examining traffic enforcement, this article explores theoretical explanations for compliance with the law, focusing on research that has examined the importance of procedural justice. It is suggested that an approach embracing both automated means of enforcement coupled with visible police presence is essential to encourage perceptions of procedural justice and police legitimacy. Further empirical research is needed to model the ideal allocation of funding across automated and non-automatic law enforcement in traffic to maximize public compliance with the law and ultimately reduce crashes.
... The growing number of motorised vehicles along with higher vehicle speeds, poor quality roads that lack pedestrian walkways, noncompliance of traffic rules and lack of road safety awareness among road users have been suggested as possible explanations for increasing road traffic deaths. 7 As noted by recent studies, distracted driving such as using mobile phones while driving 39 and driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol 40 may play an important role in the risk of transport injury, and one recent study on the effect of breathalyser checks found a decreased rate of road traffic crashes and case fatalities in Katmandu. 41 According to the Department of Transport Management, there were a total of 2 783 428 registered motorised vehicles (cumulative until 2016-2017) 42 and 2 297 141 registered licence holders (cumulative until 2016-2017 as calculated by the authors of this study). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Nepal is a low-income country undergoing rapid political, economic and social development. To date, there has been little evidence published on the burden of injuries during this period of transition. Methods The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is a comprehensive measurement of population health outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality. We analysed the GBD 2017 estimates for deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injuries to ascertain the burden of injuries in Nepal from 1990 to 2017. Results There were 16 831 (95% uncertainty interval 13 323 to 20 579) deaths caused by injuries (9.21% of all-cause deaths (7.45% to 11.25%)) in 2017 while the proportion of deaths from injuries was 6.31% in 1990. Overall, the injury-specific age-standardised mortality rate declined from 88.91 (71.54 to 105.31) per 100 000 in 1990 to 70.25 (56.75 to 85.11) per 100 000 in 2017. In 2017, 4.11% (2.47% to 6.10%) of all deaths in Nepal were attributed to transport injuries, 3.54% (2.86% to 4.08%) were attributed to unintentional injuries and 1.55% (1.16% to 1.85%) were attributed to self-harm and interpersonal violence. From 1990 to 2017, road injuries, falls and self-harm all rose in rank for all causes of death. Conclusions The increase in injury-related deaths and DALYs in Nepal between 1990 and 2017 indicates the need for further research and prevention interventions. Injuries remain an important public health burden in Nepal with the magnitude and trend of burden varying over time by cause-specific, sex and age group. Findings from this study may be used by the federal, provincial and local governments in Nepal to prioritise injury prevention as a public health agenda and as evidence for country-specific interventions.
... Mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD) is a pressing and prevalent safety concern around the world (WHO, 2011). Mobile phones are considered to be a severe form of distraction as they can deplete the driver's visual, physical, and cognitive resources (Ige, Banstola, & Pilkington, 2016). Distracted driving is described as undertaking secondary activities that could divert a driver's attention away from the primary task of operating a vehicle safely (Lee, Young, & Regan, 2008;Regan, Hallett, & Gordon, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The existing literature on mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD) mainly targets the participants from general population and the young adults, however, few studies pay attention to this form of distracted driving with samples in professional contexts. The present study aims to bridge the gap by identifying the extent of and the motives behind making use of mobile phones while driving for food dispatch among deliveryman. Method: The snowball sampling was used to collect the data (N = 317) through a self-reported questionnaire, including demographics, personality traits, risk perception, driving self-efficacy, and mobile phone use while driving. Results: Descriptive analysis for the assessed MPUWD behaviors showed that 96.3% (N = 315) of food deliveryman undertook the MPUWD behaviors, though disproportionate distribution among these behaviors existed. Structural equation modeling analysis displayed that psychoticism and driving self-efficacy directly predicted the MPUWD behaviors. The mediating role of driving self-efficacy was verified with the findings that driving self-efficacy completely mediated the relationships that between risk perception and MPUWD behaviors and that between extraversion and MPUWD behaviors, as well as partially mediated the correlation between psychoticism and MPUWD behaviors. Conclusions: The present study confirms the prevalence of MPUWD behaviors among food deliveryman. The SEM estimates and bootstrap estimates suggest that personality traits and perceived risk perception per se display limited predicting utility to MPUWD behaviors among food deliveryman, whereas driving self-efficacy and the proposed predictors together well illustrate the assessed MPUWD behaviors among food deliveryman. Practical Applications: These findings imply that developing and implementing intervention efforts in a concerted way would curb these behaviors effectively.
... When different jurisdictions have different crash reporting formats, definitions, and policies, unified reporting and coherent analyses across jurisdictions become difficult. This is often the case, with even the type of driver distractions eligible to be reported as a crash contributing factors varying between jurisdictions (Ige et al., 2016). In Texas, crashes are flagged as Distracted Driving Crashes when one of the three crash contributing factors includes either Driver Inattention, Distraction in Vehicle, or Cell/Mobile Device Use (Texas Department of Transportation, 2020a). ...
Article
Considering the number of people who have been involved in crashes associated with driver distractions, it is important to understand the characteristics of distracted driving on public roadways. While experiments have indicated that driver distractions are associated with slower driving speeds, the methodologies tend to have limited external validity. Observational studies are often conducted under limited circumstances – be it time or location. Therefore, in order to better understand the nature of driver distractions, the authors investigated the relationships between driving speed, posted speed limits, and phone handling frequency through naturalistic driving data obtained (via disruptive technology) from 8,240 mobile application users on state-maintained highways throughout Texas. As a measure of manual distractions, a phone handling rate (PHR; times/hours driven) was calculated based on phone rotations. Within-subject comparisons were drawn for driving speed and posted speed limits under normal driving conditions and distracted conditions. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between PHR and driving speed (rs = -0.87). Paired t-tests revealed significantly lower driving speeds (p = 0.000 < 0.01, d = -0.48, η = 0.69) and posted speed limits (p = 0.000 < 0.01, d = -0.20, η = 0.42) during phone handling events when compared to driving without phone handling. On average, users drove 3.26 mph slower in distracted conditions than in undistracted conditions. Driving speed had a larger effect size than posted speed limits. The findings were in line with existing theories and experiments as well as other observational studies conducted at fixed locations. Although this research did not reveal causal relations, it is noteworthy that speed reduction with manual distractions was observed under real road conditions. Spatial analyses are recommended to conduct in order to paint a more thorough picture of speed reduction, its relationship to space, and crash risks related to distracted driving.
Article
Speeding and speed-related crashes have consistently represented over 25% of all traffic fatalities over the past two decades. The severity of these speed-related incidents not only impact the drivers but all road users. Thus, characterizing drivers who speed, understanding their motivations, and identifying the types of risky driving behaviors associated with speeding play a critical role in developing, implementing, and sustaining effective countermeasures. Using a survey administered to a U.S. nationally representative sample (N = 2,930 licensed drivers aged 16 or older), this study develops a partial proportional odds model to examine differences in characteristics between types of speeders – frequent, occasional, and non-speeders – and explores characteristics and risk driving behaviors that are most associated with speeding behavior. Additionally, motivations for speeding are examined for drivers who frequently speed compared with those who occasionally speed. Results show speeders tended to engage in other unsafe driving behaviors, such as distracted, aggressive, unbelted, and alcohol-impaired driving. Among demographic and socio-economic variables examined in this study, drivers’ age was the greatest associated determinant. The association with engagement in red-light running, however, outweighed that with drivers’ age. Interestingly, as drivers’ educational attainment increased, so did their engagement in speeding. Further, the interaction between educational attainment and engagement in aggressive driving was also predictive of speeding behavior. For motivations for speeding, frequent speeders were more likely to report enjoying driving fast and disagreeing with speed limits compared with occasional speeders. The findings of this study are useful towards identifying the various characteristics and behaviors of drivers who engage in speeding, which can provide future insights into where effective countermeasures and prevention efforts should be focused.
Article
The present study analysed and compared the impacts of distraction caused by eating, drinking and texting on risky driving behaviour at unsignalised intersections. For this purpose, 89 participants approached the simulated unsignalised intersections through the minor road and encountered a series of vehicles on the major road. Their driving performance data were analysed in terms of reaction distance and accident probability at approach and completion zones respectively. The results revealed that during the texting tasks, the drivers detected the major road traffic at a later stage compared to the baseline. Further, unlike the texting task, the eating and drinking tasks did not affect the driving performance negatively in the approach zone. However, the accident risk in the completion zone was increased significantly due to the presence of the eating and drinking tasks. Unexpectedly, the accident risk was as low as 76% for the texting task while crossing through the intersections, possibly because of the compensatory measures adapted by the drivers. The study suggested that everyday distractions could result in unsafe consequences particularly in complex driving situations because of the lower risk perceptions associated with these distractions.
Article
Research has found that mobile phone call engagement while driving negatively affects driving performance. However, no studies exist characterising hand-held mobile phone calls while driving under naturalistic conditions that include aspects such as the duration of mobile phone subtasks and glance behaviour. Identifying the particularly distracting phases of hand-held telephoning and the nature of influencing factors are the basis for developing design recommendations (e.g. for an in-vehicle information system). Potential influencing factors on driving performance such as call type, mobile phone storage location, or any self-regulatory behaviour need to be taken into account. The present study aimed to draw a comprehensive picture of making hand-held mobile phone calls while driving on limited-access roads using SHRP 2 naturalistic driving data. Mobile phone phase duration, glance behaviour, call type, and mobile phone storage location were coded manually across 98 events. The results show that the handling phase of a mobile phone call (e.g. searching for contacts, dialling) was the most dangerous due to longer mean off- than on-road glances. Outgoing calls caused longer mean off-road glances than incoming; nevertheless, the 2 s critical threshold was not exceeded. A significant influence of mobile phone storage location on glance behaviour did not exist. Moreover, at least in free-flow driving conditions, drivers had enough spare capacity to conduct a mobile phone call without reducing vehicle speed. The results suggest that in low complexity traffic situations drivers can compensate for the increased driving task demand due to telephoning by making minor changes in glance behaviour.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze message features of fear appeals in current British road safety campaigns directed against mobile phone use while driving and to discuss barriers to explicit theory use in campaign message design. Design/methodology/approach This message-centred research takes a qualitative content analytical approach to analyze nine British web-based road safety campaigns directed against mobile phone use while driving based on the extended parallel process model. Message content and message structure are analyzed. Findings There still exists a gap between theory and road safety campaign practice. The study reveals that campaigns with fear appeals primarily use threatening messages but neglect efficacy-based contents. Severity messages emerge as the dominant content type while self-efficacy and response efficacy are hardly represented. Fear appeal content in the threat component was mainly communicated through the mention of legal, financial and physical harm, whereas efficacy messages communicated success stories and encouragement. As regards message structure, the threat component always preceded the efficacy component. Within each component, different patterns emerged. Practical implications To enhance efficacy in campaigns directed against distracted driving and to reduce the gap between theory and practice, social marketers should include messages that empower recipients to abstain from mobile phone use while driving. Campaigns should show recommended behaviours and highlight their usefulness and effectiveness. Originality/value This paper adds to limited research conducted on effect-independent message properties of fear appeals. It enhances understanding of fear appeal message features across the structure and content dimension. By discussing barriers to explicit theory use in social marketing practice and offering practical implications for social marketers, it contributes towards reducing the barriers to explicit theory use in campaign message design.
Article
Full-text available
The United Kingdom is witnessing some of the highest volumes of motor vehicle traffic on its roads. In addition, a large number of motor vehicle traffic accidents are reported annually, of which it is estimated that a quarter involve the illegal use of a hand-held mobile device by the driver. Establishing whether mobile phone usage was a causal factor for an accident involves carrying out a forensic analysis of a mobile handset to ascertain a timeline of activity on the device, focussing on whether the handset was used immediately prior to, or during, an incident. Previously, this involved identifying whether SMS messages have been sent or received on the handset alongside an examination of the call logs. However, with advancements in smartphone and application design, there are now a number of ways a driver can interact with their mobile device resulting in less obvious forms of evidence which can be termed as ‘passive activity’. This article provides an analysis of iPhone's CurrentPowerlog.powerlogsystem file and Android device ‘buffer logs’, along with their associated residual data, both of which can potentially be used to establish mobile phone usage at the time of, or leading up to, a motor vehicle accident.
Article
Full-text available
Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners' records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners' records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16-24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005-2010. Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner's records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people.
Article
Full-text available
Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ≤ .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the adult population.
Article
Full-text available
To compare death rates from road traffic injuries in China in 2002-2007 when derived from police-reported data versus death registration data. In China, police-recorded data are obtained from police records by means of a standardized, closed-ended data collection form; these data are published in the China statistical yearbook of communication and transportation. Official death registration data, on the other hand, are obtained from death certificates completed by physicians and are published in the China health statistics yearbook. We searched both sources for data on road traffic deaths in 2002-2007, used the χ(2) test to compare the mortality rates obtained, and performed linear regression to look for statistically significant trends in road traffic mortality over the period. For 2002-2007, the rate of death from road traffic injuries based on death registration data was about twice as high as the rate reported by the police. Linear regression showed a significant decrease of 27% (95% confidence interval, CI: 35-19) in the death rate over the period according to police sources but no significant change according to death registration data. The widely-cited recent drop in road traffic mortality in China, based on police-reported data, may not reflect a genuine decrease. The quality of the data obtained from police reports, which drives decision-making by the Government of China and international organizations, needs to be investigated, monitored and improved.
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Forty participants engaged in both a single task (driving) and a dual task (driving and text messaging) in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Analysis of driving performance revealed that participants in the dual-task condition responded more slowly to the onset of braking lights and showed impairments in forward and lateral control compared with a driving-only condition. Moreover, text-messaging drivers were involved in more crashes than drivers not engaged in text messaging. Text messaging while driving has a negative impact on simulated driving performance. This negative impact appears to exceed the impact of conversing on a cell phone while driving. The results increase our understanding of driver distraction and have potential implications for public safety and device development.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of using a cell phone to retrieve and send text messages on the driving performance of young novice drivers. Young drivers are particularly susceptible to driver distraction and have an increased risk of distraction-related crashes. Distractions from in-vehicle devices, particularly, those that require manual input, are known to cause decrements in driving performance. Twenty young novice drivers used a cell phone to retrieve and send text messages while driving a simulator. The amount of time that drivers spent not looking at the road when text messaging was up to approximately 400% greater than that recorded in baseline (notext-messaging) conditions. Furthermore, drivers' variability in lane position increased up to approximately 50%, and missed lane changes increased 140%. There was also an increase of up to approximately 150% in drivers' variability in following distances to lead vehicles. Previous research has shown that the risk of crashing while dialing a handheld device, such as when text messaging and driving, is more than double that of conversing on a cell phone. The present study has identified the detrimental effects of text messaging on driving performance that may underlie such increased crash risk. More effective road safety measures are needed to prevent and mitigate the adverse effects on driving performance of using cell phones to retrieve and send text messages.
Article
Full-text available
Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was influenced by cell phone conversations. Compared with single-task (i.e., driving-only) conditions, when drivers used cell phones their reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was 12% greater, and they took 17% longer to recover the speed that was lost following braking. There was also a twofold increase in the number of rear-end collisions when drivers were conversing on a cell phone. These cell-phone-induced effects were equivalent for younger and older adults, suggesting that older adults do not suffer a significantly greater penalty for talking on a cell phone while driving than compared with their younger counterparts. Interestingly, the net effect of having younger drivers converse on a cell phone was to make their average reactions equivalent to those of older drivers who were not using a cell phone. Actual or potential applications of this research include providing guidance for recommendations and regulations concerning the use of mobile technology while driving.
Article
Full-text available
To explore the effect of drivers' use of mobile (cell) phones on road safety. A case-crossover study. Perth, Western Australia. 456 drivers aged > or = 17 years who owned or used mobile phones and had been involved in road crashes necessitating hospital attendance between April 2002 and July 2004. Driver's use of mobile phone at estimated time of crash and on trips at the same time of day in the week before the crash. Interviews with drivers in hospital and phone company's records of phone use. Driver's use of a mobile phone up to 10 minutes before a crash was associated with a fourfold increased likelihood of crashing (odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 7.7, P < 0.001). Risk was raised irrespective of whether or not a hands-free device was used (hands-free: 3.8, 1.8 to 8.0, P < 0.001; hand held: 4.9, 1.6 to 15.5, P = 0.003). Increased risk was similar in men and women and in drivers aged > or = 30 and < 30 years. A third (n = 21) of calls before crashes and on trips during the previous week were reportedly on hand held phones. When drivers use a mobile phone there is an increased likelihood of a crash resulting in injury. Using a hands-free phone is not any safer.
Article
Full-text available
The performance costs associated with cell phone use while driving were assessed meta-analytically using standardized measures of effect size along five dimensions. There have been many studies on the impact of cell phone use on driving, showing some mixed findings. Twenty-three studies (contributing 47 analysis entries) met the appropriate conditions for the meta-analysis. The statistical results from each of these studies were converted into effect sizes and combined in the meta-analysis. Overall, there were clear costs to driving performance when drivers were engaged in cell phone conversations. However, subsequent analyses indicated that these costs were borne primarily by reaction time tasks, with far smaller costs associated with tracking (lane-keeping) performance. Hands-free and handheld phones revealed similar patterns of results for both measures of performance. Conversation tasks tended to show greater costs than did information-processing tasks (e.g., word games). There was a similar pattern of results for passenger and remote (cell phone) conversations. Finally, there were some small differences between simulator and field studies, though both exhibited costs in performance for cell phone use. We suggest that (a) there are significant costs to driver reactions to external hazards or events associated with cell phone use, (b) hands-free cell phones do not eliminate or substantially reduce these costs, and (c) different research methodologies or performance measures may underestimate these costs. Potential applications of this research include the assessment of performance costs attributable to different types of cell phones, cell phone conversations, experimental measures, or methodologies.
Article
Full-text available
The empirical basis for legislation to limit cell phones while driving is addressed. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the effects of cell phones on driving performance was performed. A total of 33 studies collected through 2007 that met inclusion criteria yielded 94 effect size estimates, with a total sample size of approximately 2000 participants. The dependent variables of reaction time, lateral vehicle control, headway and speed and the moderating variables of research setting (i.e., laboratory, simulator, on-road), conversation target (passenger, cell phone) and conversation type (cognitive task, naturalistic) were coded. Reaction time (RT) to events and stimuli while talking produced the largest performance decrements. Handheld and hands-free phones produced similar RT decrements. Overall, a mean increase in RT of .25s was found to all types of phone-related tasks. Observed performance decrements probably underestimate the true behavior of drivers with mobile phones in their own vehicles. In addition, drivers using either phone type do not appreciably compensate by giving greater headway or reducing speed. Tests for moderator effects on RT and speed found no statistically significant effect size differences across laboratory, driving simulation and on-road research settings. The implications of the results for legislation and future research are considered.
Article
Background: Distracted driving (DD), particularly cell phone use (texting or speaking), is associated with 26% of all crashes and is increasing in frequency. The purpose of this study was to characterize behavior and predictors of DD in middle-aged adults. Methods: An anonymous online (SurveyMonkey) 60-question survey on DD attitudes and behaviors, particularly cell phone use, was administered to adults who were recruited via fliers posted around public locations (e.g. recreation centers) and email blasts from businesses. Participants were San Diego residents between 30-64 years old, who drove a car at least once a week and owned a cell phone (. n=715). A DD Scale (DDS) based on 15 questions was created. Factor analysis was conducted and a single parsimonious factor with good reliability was determined (Cronbachs alpha .879). Results: The majority of participants were white (69%), female (75%) and/or made >$50,000/year (68%). 65.1% reported texting while stopped at red lights. While driving on the freeway, 20.4% reported spending about 25% of the time on a cell phone. The DDS scores range from 0-54 (mean=12.92). DDS scores were analyzed as a continuous variable to determine if higher scores were associated with specific attitudes or beliefs. Significant predictors of higher scores on the DDS (. p>.05) were: perceiving oneself as capable of talking on the phone while driving and/or texting while driving (i.e. overconfidence in driving abilities), and obligation to take work calls. Conclusions: Work obligations and overconfidence in ones ability to drive while talking/texting are critical areas to intervene in and have large public health implications. Future studies should use the DDS among different populations to determine generalizability. There are numerous opportunities for education, policy and new technologies to expand on this research.
Article
Background Police crash reports have been used to advance motor vehicle safety research, though their value is limited by their focus on the crash event rather than outcomes of the crash. Objective To develop and evaluate the effect of enhanced recruitment methods, including a monetary incentive, on response rates of drivers identified on police reports in a national MVC surveillance system. Methods The National Automotive Sampling System-General Estimates System (NASS-GES) was used to identify passenger vehicle crashes between 1 July and 30 October 2012 involving drivers ≥16 years old with at least one child occupant ≤17 years old. We collected data from the driver via self-administered hardcopy or interviewer-administered telephone surveys. Within each survey mode, half the drivers were randomly assigned to receive a small monetary incentive. Response rates were calculated overall, and by mode of survey administration and incentive condition. Results 495 drivers were eligible, and 127 completed the survey, yielding an overall response rate of 25.7% (95% CI 21.8% to 29.5%). The response rate across the two modes was higher for those who received an incentive than for those who did not (35.6% vs 15.7%, p<0.01). The highest response rate (45.9%) was for drivers allocated to the telephone survey who received an incentive. Conclusions The NASS-GES provides a surveillance system from which cases of interest can be identified and supplemental data collected via surveys of drivers identified on police reports. We adapted procedures commonly used in public health surveillance systems, including monetary incentives and branded recruitment materials, to improve driver response rates.
Article
Background: The use of a cell phone or communication device while driving is illegal in many jurisdictions, yet evidence evaluating the crash risk associated with cell phone use in naturalistic settings is limited. This article aims to determine whether cell phone use while driving increases motor vehicle crash culpability. Method Drivers involved in crashes where police reported cell phone use (n = 312) and propensity matched drivers (age, sex, suspect alcohol/drug impairment, crash type, date, time of day, geographical location) without cell phone use (n = 936) were drawn from Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Traffic Accident System data. A standardized scoring tool, modified to account for Canadian driving conditions, was used to determine crash culpability from police reports on all drivers from the crashes. The association between crash culpability and cell phone use was determined, with additional subgroup analyses based on crash severity, driver characteristics and type of licence. Results: A comparison of crashes with vs without cell phones revealed an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.36; P = 0.002). This association was consistent after adjustment for matching variables and other covariates. Subgroup analyses demonstrated an association for male drivers, unimpaired drivers, injured and non-injured drivers, and for drivers aged between 26 and 65 years. Conclusions: Crash culpability was found to be significantly associated with cell phone use by drivers, increasing the odds of a culpable crash by 70% compared with drivers who did not use a cell phone. This increased risk was particularly high for middle-aged drivers.
Article
Research has shown that using a mobile phone whilst driving may increase the risk of being crash involved by as much as nine times. As around 65% of New Zealand's population own mobile phones, this represents a potentially very significant hazard. In order to effectively target interventions towards those drivers who use mobile phones while driving, information is needed about the characteristics of these drivers. The present study investigated the frequency of mobile phone use on New Zealand's roads and the characteristics of drivers who use mobile phones while driving. The research found that more than half (57.3%) of the participants used a mobile phone at least occasionally while driving. Those who reported using a mobile phone more often whilst driving tended to; be male, reside in a main urban area, report a higher annual mileage, drive a later model car with a larger engine, prefer a higher driving speed, have less driving experience (in years) and to be younger. In line with previous research, there was also a significant relationship between crash involvement and use of a mobile phone whilst driving. However, once the contributions of the demographic and descriptive variables had been partialled out, using hierarchical logistic regression, the relationship between crash involvement and mobile phone use was no longer significant.
Article
Road traffic injury (RTI) has become one of the leading causes of deaths in China, yet numbers on road traffic deaths are often inconsistent. This study sought to systematically review 4 national-level data sources that can be used to estimate burdens of RTI, including mortality, injury, and crashes in China. We conducted structured literature reviews in PubMed, using combined key words of injury or fatality or injury surveillance and traffic and China in order to identify relevant studies (in both English and Chinese) and data sources. We also conducted interviews and hosted seminars with key researchers from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC) to identify potential useful data sources for injury surveillance. We then extracted key information from publicly available reports of each data source. Four national-level data sources were reviewed and compared: Ministry of Health-Vital Registration (MOH-VR) System, Chinese CDC-Disease Surveillance Points (DSP), Chinese CDC-National Injury Surveillance System (NISS), and police reports. Together they provide a complementary yet somewhat contradictory epidemiological profile of RTIs in China. Estimates on road traffic fatalities obtained from MOH-VR and police reports are often used by researchers and policymakers, whereas DSP and NISS, both with great merits, have virtually not been used for RTI research. Despite the well-documented problems of underreported deaths with both MOH-VR and DSP, estimated road traffic deaths from both systems were 3 times those reported by the police. As the foundation of injury prevention, national-level data sources and surveillance systems were reviewed in the study. Existing data infrastructures present the Chinese government a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing surveillance systems to better track road traffic injury and fatality and identify the population at risk.
Article
Prior research has estimated that crash risk is 4 times higher when talking on a cell phone versus not talking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the extent to which drivers talk on cell phones while driving and to compute the implied annual number of crashes that could have been avoided if driver cell phone use were restricted. A national survey of approximately 1200 U.S. drivers was conducted. Respondents were asked to approximate the amount of time spent driving during a given day, number of cell phone calls made or received, and amount of driving time spent talking on a cell phone. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed for each combination of driver gender, driver age, day of week, and time of day. These were multiplied by the corresponding crash counts to estimate the number of crashes that could have been avoided. On average, drivers were talking on cell phones approximately 7 percent of the time while driving. Rates were higher on weekdays (8%), in the afternoon and evening (8%), and for drivers younger than 30 (16%). Based on these use rates, restricting cell phones while driving could have prevented an estimated 22 percent (i.e., 1.3 million) of the crashes in 2008. Although increased rates of cell phone use while driving should be leading to increased crash rates, crash rates have been declining. Reasons for this paradox are unclear. One possibility is that the increase in cell phone use and crash risk due to cell phone use have been overestimated. Another possibility is that cell phone use has supplanted other driving distractions that were similarly hazardous.
Article
The effects of telephoning while driving were studied in three different traffic conditions, i.e. in light traffic on a quiet motorway, in heavy traffic on a four-lane ring-road, and in city traffic. Twelve subjects, unfamiliar with mobile telephones, drove an instrumented vehicle for one hour each day during three weeks and while in each of the three traffic conditions, had to operate the mobile telephone for a short while. To ensure a fixed "heavy traffic load" in the second condition, the subjects were instructed to follow another instrumented vehicle (at a safe distance). The results showed a significant effect of telephoning while driving as opposed to normal driving (i.e., not involving telephone conversation), on the effort subjectively measured by an effort scale and objectively measured by heartrate indices and on some of the measured parameters of driving performance. One half of the subjects had to operate the telephone manually, the other half performed the telephone task with a handsfree mobile telephone set. The subjects who operated the handsfree telephone showed better control over the test vehicle than the subjects who operated the handheld telephone, as measured by the steering wheel movements. Also, a clear improvement over time in the course of the 15 test days was found for some of the measurements. As a consequence of the results, some advice concerning mobile telephoning can be given to authorities, manufacturers, and users.
Article
Between August 1986 and July 1987 more than 24,000 households, containing nearly 67,000 persons, were surveyed by telephone about traffic injuries during the past three months. Expressed on an annual basis, approximately 430,000 people, or about 1 in 34 of the Dutch population, had suffered some sort of injury in a road accident. The road traffic morbidity was, therefore, 2,942 per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these, about 135,000 had to be treated in hospital (20,000 as inpatients). More than 100,000 did not need treatment. Cyclists formed by far the largest category of road user, but mopedists had the highest injury rate per kilometer travelled. 210,000 of these casualties fell within the definition for recording by the police. The police recorded only 49,748 traffic casualties, or about 25%, during the same period. The police data were not representative; the completeness declined according to severity of the injuries: inpatients, about 70%; outpatients 26%; extramural about 11%. Cyclists (11%), children (9%), and single vehicle accidents (5%) were very much underrepresented. The largest category of road user is cyclists, not car occupants as indicated by the police data. A number of recommendations are made for supplementing the police data and the existing hospital inpatient data. These include extending the Home Accident Recording System of outpatients and the General Practitioner Panel to include road accident victims. Together a representative sample of 95% of all those receiving medical treatment would thus be obtained.
Article
Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: (1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents within the past 2 years, and (2) a control group of 100 randomly selected licensed drivers not involved in accidents within the past 10 years. Groups were matched on geographic residence. Approximately 13% (N = 7) of the accident and 9% (N = 7) of the non-accident group reported use of cellular phones while driving. Data was obtained from Department of Motor Vehicles accident reports and survey information from study subjects. We hypothesized that increased use of cellular phones while driving was associated with increased odds of a traffic accident. Results indicated that talking more than 50 minutes per month on cellular phones in a vehicle was associated with a 5.59-fold increased risk in a traffic accident. The combined use of cellular phones and motor and cognitive activities while driving were also associated with increased traffic accident risk. Readers should be cautioned that this study: (1) consists of a small sample, (2) reveals statistical associations and not causal relationships, and (3) does not conclude that talking on cellular phones while driving is inherently dangerous.
Article
Because of a belief that the use of cellular telephones while driving may cause collisions, several countries have restricted their use in motor vehicles, and others are considering such regulations. We used an epidemiologic method, the case-crossover design, to study whether using a cellular telephone while driving increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision. We studied 699 drivers who had cellular telephones and who were involved in motor vehicle collisions resulting in substantial property damage but no personal injury. Each person's cellular-telephone calls on the day of the collision and during the previous week were analyzed through the use of detailed billing records. A total of 26,798 cellular-telephone calls were made during the 14-month study period. The risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used (relative risk, 4.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 6.5). The relative risk was similar for drivers who differed in personal characteristics such as age and driving experience; calls close to the time of the collision were particularly hazardous (relative risk, 4.8 for calls placed within 5 minutes of the accident, as compared with 1.3 for calls placed more than 15 minutes before the accident; P<0.001); and units that allowed the hands to be free (relative risk, 5.9) offered no safety advantage over hand-held units (relative risk, 3.9; P not significant). Thirty-nine percent of the drivers called emergency services after the collision, suggesting that having a cellular telephone may have had advantages in the aftermath of an event. The use of cellular telephones in motor vehicles is associated with a quadrupling of the risk of a collision during the brief time interval involving a call. Decisions about regulation of such telephones, however, need to take into account the benefits of the technology and the role of individual responsibility.
Article
The study sample consisted of 3,869 drivers, split approximately 50/50 between observed cell phone users and those observed not using cell phones (labeled "nonusers"). Cell phone use was determined by a snapshot observation made on city streets. The sample represented 54% of those originally observed, for whom a match was obtained for both vehicle license plate and for gender and estimated age group of the observed driver and that of the driver named in the vehicle policy. Data were obtained from records of insurance claims, police-reported collisions and violations, following a strict protocol to protect individual privacy. The dependent measures were at-fault crash claims and "inattention" violations. A logistic regression model controlled for age, gender, exposure (represented by not-at-fault crash claims), alcohol-related offenses, and aggressive driving offenses. The study also involved a comparison of the contributing factors and collision configurations of police-reported collisions involving the users and "nonusers" in the sample. Drivers observed using cell phones had a higher risk of an at-fault crash than did the "nonusers," although the difference was not significant for males. There was no apparent effect on "inattention" violations. The cell phone users also had a higher proportion of rear-end collisions. The violation pattern of cell phone users suggests that they are, in general, riskier drivers. These differences likely reflect lifestyle, attitude and personality factors. It is essential to control for these factors in assessing the direct risk attributable to cellular telephone use.
Article
Police crash data, which are the basis for safety research in most countries, are incomplete and biased. We focus here on the extent of under-reporting in France, and how it is related to casualty and crash characteristics. Police data are compared with a road trauma registry, on the Rhône county, after record-linkage. The study covers the 1997-2001 period, totalling 59,714 casualties. A multivariate analysis is conducted, modelling the probability of being police-reported among casualties in the registry, as a function of crash and casualty characteristics. Results are expressed as relative risks (RR) and adjusted probabilities. Police reporting rate is 37.7%. Under-reporting varies mainly according to injury severity (RR=0.35 for slightly injured versus severely injured), to road user type and third party involvement (yes/no): comparing casualties with no third party versus those with one, RR=0.32 among motorcyclists whereas RR=0.78 among car occupants. Under-reporting also varies with road type, road environment (metropole/rural) and type of police force, all of which are structurally dependent. Any study based on police crash data may be quite misleading. We are therefore working on obtaining unbiased estimates of road casualties figures, by extrapolating the Rhône road trauma registry to the nation-wide level.
Article
The research literature on drivers' use of cell phones was reviewed to identify trends in drivers' phone use and to determine the state of knowledge about the safety consequences of such use. Approximately 125 studies were reviewed with regard to the research questions, type and rigor of the methods, and findings. Reviewed studies included surveys of drivers, experiments, naturalistic studies (continuous recording of everyday driving by drivers in instrumented vehicles), studies of crash risk, and evaluations of laws limiting drivers' phone use. Observational surveys indicate drivers commonly use cell phones and that such use is increasing. Drivers report they usually use hand-held phones. Experimental studies have found that simulated or instrumented driving tasks, or driving while being observed, are compromised by tasks intended to replicate phone conversations, whether using hand-held or hands-free phones, and may be further compromised by the physical distraction of handling phones. Effects of phone use on driving performance when drivers are in their own vehicles are unknown. With representative samples of adequate size, naturalistic studies in the future may provide the means to document the patterns and circumstances of drivers' phone use and their effects on real-world driving. Currently, the best studies of crash risk used cell phone company billing records to verify phone use by crash-involved drivers. Two such studies found a fourfold increase in the risk of a property-damage-only crash and the risk of an injury crash associated with phone use; increased risk was similar for males and females, younger and older drivers, and hands-free and hand-held phones. A number of jurisdictions in the United States and around the world have made it illegal for drivers to use hand-held phones. Studies of these laws show only limited compliance and unclear effects on safety. Even if total compliance with bans on drivers' hand-held cell phone use can be achieved, crash risk will remain to the extent that drivers continue to use or switch to hands-free phones. Although the enactment of laws limiting drivers' use of all phones is consistent with research findings, it is unclear how such laws could be enforced. At least in the short term, it appears that drivers' phone use will continue to increase, despite the growing evidence of the risk it creates. More effective countermeasures are needed but are not known at this time.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to identify risky driving behaviors and dispositions that distinguish drivers who use a cell phone while operating a motor vehicle from non-cell phone using drivers. Annual telephone surveys were used to identify drivers who reported using a cell phone while driving in the last month (n=1803) and were compared to those who said they did not use cell phones while driving (n=1578). Cell phone using drivers were more likely to report driving while drowsy, going 20 mph over the speed limit, driving aggressively, running a stop sign or red light, and driving after having had several drinks. They were also more likely to have had a prior history of citation and crash involvement than non-cell phone using drivers. Cell phone using drivers also reported they were less careful and more in a hurry when they drive than non-cell phone using drivers. Cell phone using drivers report engaging in many behaviors that place them at risk for a traffic crash, independent of the specific driving impairments that cell phone usage may produce. Strategies that combine coordinated and sustained enforcement activities along with widespread public awareness campaigns hold promise as effective countermeasures for these drivers, who resemble aggressive drivers in many respects.
Mobile phone use: a growing problem of driver distraction Available at
WHO, 2011. Mobile phone use: a growing problem of driver distraction. Available at: 〈http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/distracted_ driving_en.pdf〉. (accessed 19.05.2015).
Cellular phone use while driving Harvard Center for Risk Analysis Available at: 〈http://www.nsc.org/DistractedDrivingDocuments/Cellular-Phone-Use-While-Driving-Risk-and-Benefits.pdf〉
  • Karen S Lissy
  • Cohen Joshua
  • Park Mary
  • Graham John
Lissy, Karen S., Cohen Joshua T., Park Mary Y., Graham John D., 2000. Cellular phone use while driving. Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts. Available at: 〈http://www.nsc.org/DistractedDrivingDocuments/Cellular-Phone-Use-While-Driving-Risk-and-Benefits.pdf〉. (accessed 26.05.2015).
Driver distraction in commercial vehicle operations: Final report (Report No. FMCSA-RRR-09-042) Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
  • R L Olson
  • R J Hanowski
  • J S Hickman
  • J Bocanegra
Olson, R.L., Hanowski, R.J., Hickman, J.S., Bocanegra, J., 2009. Driver distraction in commercial vehicle operations: Final report (Report No. FMCSA-RRR-09-042). Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, DC.
Traffic Collision Statistics: police-attended injury and fatal collisions
  • British Columbia
British Columbia, 2005. Traffic Collision Statistics: police-attended injury and fatal collisions. Available at: 〈http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/ ContentPages/528027285.pdf〉. (accessed 28.05.2015).
Crashes involving cell phones; challenges of collecting and reporting reliable crash data Available from: 〈http://www.nsc.org/Dis tractedDrivingDocuments
National Safety Council, 2012. Crashes involving cell phones; challenges of collecting and reporting reliable crash data. Available from: 〈http://www.nsc.org/Dis tractedDrivingDocuments/NSC-Under-Reporting-White-Paper.pdf〉. (accessed 19.05.2015).
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2006. The impact of driver inattention on near-crash/crash risk: an analysis using the 100-car naturalistic driving study data
  • S P Mcevoy
  • M R Stevenson
  • A T Mccartt
  • M Woodward
  • C Haworth
  • P Palamara
  • R Cercarelli
McEvoy, S.P., Stevenson, M.R., McCartt, A.T., Woodward, M., Haworth, C., Palamara, P., Cercarelli, R., 2005. Role of mobile phones in motor vehicle crashes resulting in hospital attendance: a case-crossover study. BMJ 331 (7514), 428. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2006. The impact of driver inattention on near-crash/crash risk: an analysis using the 100-car naturalistic driving study data. Available from: 〈http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/esv/esv19/05-0400-W.pdf〉. (accessed 22.05.2015).