Article

Copper-Impregnated Antimicrobial Textiles; an Innovative Weapon to Fight Infection

Authors:
  • Argaman Technologies Ltd.
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Abstract

A platform technology has been developed in which copper oxide is impregnated or plated into polymeric fibres or cotton fibres, respectively, endowing the fibres with potent broad-spectrum anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-mite properties [1], This durable platform technology introduces copper oxide-treated fibres and enables the mass production of woven and non-woven fabrics with no requirement for alteration of industrial procedures or machinery. This technology facilitates the production of anti-viral gloves and filters (which deactivate HIV-1 and other viruses); anti-bacterial self-sterilizing fabrics (which kill antibiotic resistant bacteria, including MRSA and VRE); anti-fungal socks (which alleviate symptoms of athlete's foot); anti-dust mite mattress-covers (which reduce mite-related allergies) and gauze (which is highly effective in promoting skin regeneration, closure of chronic wounds and the alleviation of bed sores). This paper will demonstrate the potential use of copper in new applications that address medical issues of the greatest importance such as viral transmissions; nosocomial infections; wound healing and the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

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... Textiles which are treated with copper shows broad range of antimicrobial and antimite properties which are used in production of antiviral gloves and filters; antibacterial and self-sterilizing fabrics, antifungal socks and antidust mite mattress cover [25]. Copper destroys the microbes by replacing essential metals from their native binding sites, interfering with oxidative phosphorylation and osmotic balance and also altering the conformational structure of proteins, nucleic acid and membranes [29]. Copper textile is prepared by cotton fibres with copper oxide and by impregnating copper ions in polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyurethane, polyolefin or nylon fibres [27]. ...
Article
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The world is ever developing with new inventions and technology to cater the changing lifestyles of people. The COVID-19 pandemic has stressed an increased importance of health products. One such innovation is antiviral textile which are which are capable of preventing the microbes or viruses to contact the surface of textiles. Natural fibre textiles are the best medium for the growth of many microbes which leads to degradation and unpleasant odours. To prevent all these undesirable effects, textiles are impregnated with antiviral nanoparticles in the fibres or fabrics. The use of nanoparticles makes the textiles antimicrobial, anti odour, water and stain repellent. In the last few decades, natural polymers have gained much attention among scientific communities owing to their therapeutic potential. Antiviral textiles are classified into a few broad groups, such as polymeric materials, metal ions/metal oxides, and functional nanomaterials, based on the type of materials used at the virus contamination sites. This review is an overview of antiviral textiles and their types, properties, structure of polymers and nanoparticles involved and their significance.
... Effective antimicrobially active fibres are generally obtained by chemical or physical attachment of bacteriostatic and biocidal agents such as aminecontaining compounds, which rely on electrostatic interactions with anionic bacteria (Lim and Hudson 2003;Liu and Sun 2006;Ren et al. 2016;Dumont et al. 2018) or quaternary ammonium salts with four alkyl or aryl points of attachment to the nitrogen, yielding a permanent positive charge (NR 4 ? ) (Kang et al. 2016;Kim and Sun 2001), alone, or in combination with metals or metal oxides (as e.g. ZnO,SiO2,MgO,TiO2,Ag ?) in the form of nanoparticles (Velmurugan et al. 2014;Varaprasad et al. 2016;Milošević et al. 2017;Prado-Prone et al. 2018;El-Naggar et al. 2018;Kwak et al. 2019;Zhou et al. 2018), thus acting against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive (G ?) and Gramnegative (G-) bacteria, fungi and even some viruses, due to the diverse mechanisms of actions (Borkow et al. 2010;Rezaie et al. 2017;Marković et al. 2018;Ibrahim et al. 2019;Hasan 2018). ...
Article
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Bio-based, renewable and biodegradable products with multifunctional properties are also becoming basic trends in the textile sector. In this frame, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have been surface modified with hexamethylenediamine/HMDA and used as an antimicrobial additive to a ring-spun viscose yarn. The CNF-HMDA suspension was first characterized in relation to its skin irritation potential, antimicrobial properties, and technical performance (dispersability and suspensability in different media) to optimize its sprayability on a viscose fiber sliver with the lowest sticking, thus to enable its spinning without flowing and tearing problems. The impact of CNF-HMDA content has been examined on the yarn`s fineness, tensile strength, surface chemistry, wettability and antimicrobial properties. The yarn`s antimicrobial properties were increasing with the content of CNF-HMDA, given a 99% reduction for S. aureus and C. albicans (log 1.6–2.1) in up to 3 h of exposure at minimum 33 mg/g, and for E. coli (log 0.69–2.95) at 100 mg/g of its addition, yielding 45–21% of bactericidal efficacy. Such an effect is related to homogeneously distributed CNF-HMDA when sprayed from a fast-evaporated bi-polar medium and using small (0.4 mm) nozzle opennings, thus giving a high positive charge (0.663 mmol/g) without affecting the yarn`s tenacity and fineness, but improving its wettability. However, a non-ionic surfactant being used in the durability testing of functionalized yarn to 10-washing cycles, adheres onto it hydrophobically via the methylene chain of the HMDA, thus blocking its amino groups, and, as such, decreasing its antibacterial efficiency, which was slightly affected in the case when the washing was carried out without using it.
... The most commonly used are metals and metallic salts; for example, silver showed its efficiency when incorporated into textiles in the form of nanoparticles [11][12][13] or in the form of powder and silver salts [14,15]. Copper is also used in different forms and showed antibacterial activity against many bacterial stains [16][17][18]. Other metals are also used, such as zinc [19,20], titanium [21], iron [22], and their oxides. ...
Article
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Antimicrobial textile structures are developed based on polypropylene (PP) and a natural material, hydrolyzed casein. The casein, from bovine milk, is subjected to acid hydrolysis in aqueous media, then blended into the PP matrix in the melt phase by extrusion. The obtained blend, containing 5 wt.% of hydrolyzed casein, is then processed by a melt spinning process to get multifilaments, leading to the production knitting structures. Thanks to the addition of the hydrolyzed casein, the obtained textile showed a strong antibacterial activity towards both Gram (+) and Gram (−) bacterial strains. The addition of 5 wt.% hydrolyzed casein does not significantly impact the mechanical properties of PP in the dumbbells form, but a small decrease was observed in the tenacity of the filaments. No moisture retention was observed after the addition of hydrolyzed casein, but the rheological behavior was slightly affected. The obtained results can contribute to addressing concerns regarding nonrenewable antibacterial agents used in textile materials, particularly their effects on the environment and human health, by offering antibacterial agents from a biobased and edible substance with high efficiency. They are also promising to respond to issues of wasting dairy products and recycling them, in addition to the advantages of using melt processes.
... Moreover, this technology opened a way to produce filters and antiviral gloves (for HIV-1 and other viruses), antibacterial self-sterilizing fabrics, antifungal socks, antimite mattress covers, and gauzes. 409 Recently, Eremenko et al. used a wet chemical method to prepare Cu NPs and deposit them on cotton woven fabric using a pad-dry−cure method. It was found that the finished fabric resulted in significant antibacterial efficacy against S. aureus in both the quantitative and qualitative tests. ...
Article
The ongoing worldwide pandemic due to COVID-19 has created awareness toward ensuring best practices to avoid the spread of microorganisms. In this regard, the research on creating a surface which destroys or inhibits the adherence of microbial/viral entities has gained renewed interest. Although many research reports are available on the antibacterial materials or coatings, there is a relatively small amount of data available on the use of antiviral materials. However, with more research geared toward this area, new information is being added to the literature every day. The combination of antibacterial and antiviral chemical entities represents a potentially path-breaking intervention to mitigate the spread of disease-causing agents. In this review, we have surveyed antibacterial and antiviral materials of various classes such as small-molecule organics, synthetic and biodegradable polymers, silver, TiO2, and copper-derived chemicals. The surface protection mechanisms of the materials against the pathogen colonies are discussed in detail, which highlights the key differences that could determine the parameters that would govern the future development of advanced antibacterial and antiviral materials and surfaces.
... The review named " Microbial adherence on textile materials " once again put in evidence the relevance of infections problems [17]. Silver, copper, chitosan and natural products have been further used181920. Surface modified porous substrate by plasma immobilization of allyl alcohol has also been worked up for drug delivery, showing some connection with our approaches [21]. ...
Chapter
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Glycidyl methacrylate-cotton materials come from chemical or physical cotton surface activation to insert glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) appendages with a strong and stable chemical linkage. GMA appendages add new properties of absorption and release to cotton fibers which at the same time, maintains all of their peculiar properties. Glycidyl methacrylate-cotton materials are suitable to be used for a large spectrum of more or less sophisticated applications from waste water filtration to drug delivery devices development. They simply act as sponges, suggesting that a cotton surface exposes a sort of nano structure made by a GMA network.
Chapter
Textile materials are susceptible for the growth of a wide range of microorganisms that cause hazards to public health and textiles’ quality losses due to appearance changes, including colour, strength reduction and odour formation. Of these microorganisms, some developed multidrug resistance because of the extensive use of antibiotics. Microbes should be treated by following better hygiene conditions, thus leading to less infection. Growth of microorganisms on textiles affects the textile materials themselves and the wearer as well. There is a need for antimicrobial (AM) active agents to be added to the textiles materials to protect them from contamination of these microorganisms. Biocides, silver, quaternary ammonium salts, polyhexamethylene biguanide, triclosan, chitosan, dyes and regenerable N-halamine compounds and peroxyacids are some of these strategies used to prevent textile materials contamination. In this study, various materials or methods used to inhibit the contamination or growth of microorganisms will be investigated briefly.
Article
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Impregnation or coating of cotton and polyester fibers with cationic copper endows them with potent broad-spectrum antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antimite properties (Borkow, G. and Gabbay, J. (2004). Putting Copper into Action: Copper-impregnated Products with Potent Biocidal Activities, FASEB Jounal, 18(14): 1728-1730). This durable platform technology enables the mass production of woven and non-woven fabrics, such as sheets, pillow covers, gowns, socks, air filters, mattress covers, carpets, etc. without the need of altering any industrial procedures or machinery, but only the introduction of copper oxide-treated fibers. The biocidal properties of fabrics containing 3-10% copper-impregnated fibers are permanent, are not affected by extreme washing conditions, and do not interfere with the manipulation of the final products (e.g., color, press, etc.). In this article, the authors describe data showing that (i) antifungal socks containing 10% w/w (weight/weight) copper-impregnated fibers alleviate athlete’s foot; (ii) antimicrobial fabrics (sheets) containing 10% (w/w) copper-impregnated fibers decrease bacterial colonization in a clinical setting; and (iii) these products do not have skin-sensitizing properties or any other adverse effects. Taken together, these results demonstrate the wide preventive and curative potential of copper oxide-impregnated apparel products.
Article
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Previous studies of intrauterine devices (IUDs), many of which are no longer in use, suggested that they might cause tubal infertility. The concern that IUDs that contain copper--currently the most commonly used type--may increase the risk of infertility in nulligravid women has limited the use of this highly effective method of birth control. We conducted a case-control study of 1895 women recruited between 1997 and 1999. We enrolled 358 women with primary infertility who had tubal occlusion documented by hysterosalpingography, as well as 953 women with primary infertility who did not have tubal occlusion (infertile controls) and 584 primigravid women (pregnant controls). We collected information on the women's past use of contraceptives, including copper IUDs, previous sexual relationships, and history of genital tract infections. Each woman's blood was tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis. We used stratified analyses and logistic regression to assess the association between the previous use of a copper IUD and tubal occlusion. In analyses involving the women with tubal occlusion and the infertile controls, the odds ratio for tubal occlusion associated with the previous use of a copper IUD was 1.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.7). When the primigravid women served as the controls, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.9 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.6). Tubal infertility was not associated with the duration of IUD use, the reason for the removal of the IUD, or the presence or absence of gynecologic problems related to its use. The presence of antibodies to chlamydia was associated with infertility. The previous use of a copper IUD is not associated with an increased risk of tubal occlusion among nulligravid women whereas infection with C. trachomatis is.
Article
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Reports of immune hypersensitivity reactions of both the immediate and the delayed type following cutaneous or systemic exposure to copper are reviewed here in an endeavor to draw a comprehensive profile of the immunogenic potential of that metal and its compounds. The immunotoxic potential of the metal is also briefly reviewed. In principle, as noted for other transition metals, the electropositive copper ion is potentially immunogenic because of its ability to diffuse through biological membranes, forming complexes when in contact with tissue protein. Based on the results of the predictive guinea pig test and the local lymph node assay (LLNA), copper has a low sensitization potential. Reports of immune reactions to copper include immunologic contact urticaria (ICU), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), systemic allergic reactions (SAR) and contact stomatitis (STO), but considering the widespread use of copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the importance of copper in coinage, items of personal adornment and industry, unambiguous reports of sensitization to the metal are extremely rare, and even fewer are the cases that appear clinically relevant. Most reports of immune reactions to copper describe systemic exposure as a cause--predominantly to intrauterine devices and to prosthetic materials in dentistry--implicitly excluding the induction of hypersensitivity from contact with the skin as a risk factor.
Article
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Copper ions, either alone or in copper complexes, have been used for centuries to disinfect liquids, solids, and human tissue. Today copper is used as a water purifier, algaecide, fungicide, nematocide, molluscicide, and antibacterial and antifouling agent. Copper also displays potent antiviral activity. We hypothesized that introducing copper into clothing, bedding, and other articles would provide them with biocidal properties. A durable platform technology has been developed that introduces copper into cotton fibers, latex, and other polymeric materials. This study demonstrates the broad-spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal) and antimite activities of copper-impregnated fibers and polyester products. This technology enabled the production of antiviral gloves and filters (which deactivate HIV-1 and other viruses), antibacterial self-sterilizing fabrics (which kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci), antifungal socks (which alleviate symptoms of athlete's foot), and anti-dust mite mattress covers (which reduce mite-related allergies). These products did not have skin-sensitizing properties, as determined by guine pig maximization and rabbit skin irritation tests. Our study demonstrates the potential use of copper in new applications. These applications address medical issues of the greatest importance, such as viral transmissions; nosocomial, or healthcare-associated, infections; and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Article
Full-text available
Copper ions, either alone or in copper complexes, have been used to disinfect liquids, solids and human tissue for centuries. Today copper is used as a water purifier, algaecide, fungicide, nematocide, molluscicide as well as an anti-bacterial and anti-fouling agent. Copper also displays potent anti-viral activity. This article reviews (i) the biocidal properties of copper; (ii) the possible mechanisms by which copper is toxic to microorganisms; and (iii) the systems by which many microorganisms resist high concentrations of heavy metals, with an emphasis on copper.
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This treatise reviews medical uses of various forms of copper recorded throughout the history of mankind. Ancient Egyptian papyri, Greek, Roman, Aztec, Hindu, and Persian writings as well as medieval and subsequent European medical literature record various consistent medical uses of copper. There are many reported uses of copper and its compounds as antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antiarrhythmic, antitumor, and antiepileptic agents. Copper was also recommended to promote wound healing and heal broken bones. Tracing the development of folk medicine and the many rediscoveries of the beneficial effects of copper compounds leads to the suggestion that serious consideration should be given to modern-day medical uses of complexes of this essential metalloelement.
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Airborne transmission is known to be the route of infection for diseases such as tuberculosis and aspergillosis. It has also been implicated in nosocomial outbreaks of MRSA, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Despite this there is much scepticism about the role that airborne transmission plays in nosocomial outbreaks. This paper investigates the airborne spread of infection in hospital buildings, and evaluates the extent to which it is a problem. It is concluded that although contact-spread is the principle route of transmission for most infections, the contribution of airborne micro-organisms to the spread of infection is likely to be greater than is currently recognised. This is partly because many airborne micro-organisms remain viable while being non-culturable, with the result that they are not detected, and also because some infections arising from contact transmission involve the airborne transportation of micro-organisms onto inanimate surfaces.
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This report details an investigation of a significant increase in nosocomial gramnegative bacteremia caused by enteric bacilli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chute-hydropulping waste disposal system was identified as a bacteria-rich reservoir, with 108 enteric bacilli and P. aeruginosa per gram of pulp. The system was found to be a gross source of airborne fecal flora. Airborne dissemination of a virus by that system was documented, and other viruses and infective agents of human disease might have been introduced from the waste pulp through the 16-story chute into the patients' ecosystem. Closure of the waste disposal complex resulted in disappearance of enteric organisms and P. aeruginosa from the hospital air. Average colony counts declined from > 150 to 40 per cubic foot of air. The incidence of nosocomial septicemia caused by P. aeruginosa and other gramnegative organisms declined concomitantly and continued at a reduced rate throughout a 19-month follow-up. Even though the evidence is circumstantial, it is urged that hospital designers prevent the described sources of gross contamination and nosocomial hazards.
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To screen copper and noncopper paints for their bactericidal effectiveness in rendering surfaces self-disinfecting. Tested paints were applied to glass coverslips, cured, inoculated with test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis), and dried. After 0, 24, or 48 hours, surviving organisms were eluted and enumerated, and counts compared with those obtained from inoculated control (unpainted) coverslips for the corresponding time periods. Copper elution from select copper paints was quantified by complete immersion of coated coverslips followed by spectroscopic analysis to infer a threshold relationship between kill and copper release. Nearly all of the tested copper paints were capable of reducing organism counts to negligible levels within 24 hours. Exterior latex paints supplemented with a fungicide were similarly efficacious. Standard interior latex paint reduced bacterial counts to nearly zero within 24 hours for E coli and P aeruginosa, and to zero within 48 hours for E faecalis. However, substantial survival of S aureus occurred (up to 4 logs at 24 hours). Chi-squared analysis of elution and cidal data indicated that lethality was dependent on copper release in excess of 32 micrograms. The data support presumptive bactericidal claims for several copper and noncopper paints. Despite controversy over environment-based contagion, such paints could be used to render surfaces self-disinfecting in strategic locations where environmental causation of nosocomial infections is suspected.
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The Dutch guideline on hospital policy for the prevention of nosocomial spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) states that patients transferred from hospitals abroad must be placed in strict isolation immediately on admission to a hospital in the Netherlands. Three patients colonized with both MRSA and a multiresistant Acinetobacter were transferred from hospitals in Mediterranean countries to 3 different hospitals in the Netherlands. Despite isolation precautions, Acinetobacter spread in 2 of the 3 hospitals, whereas nosocomial spread of MRSA did not occur. For outbreak analysis, the Acinetobacter isolates, identified as Acinetobacter baumannii by the use of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, were comparatively typed by 4 methods. Comparison of isolation measures in the hospitals was performed retrospectively. In the 2 hospitals in which nosocomial spread of Acinetobacter occurred, most of the epidemiologically related isolates were indistinguishable from the index strains. In these 2 hospitals, isolation measures were in concordance with those recommended for the prevention of contact transmission. The precautions of the hospital in which no outbreak occurred included the prevention of airborne transmission. Precautions recommended for multiresistant gram-negative organisms are insufficient for the prevention of nosocomial spread of multiresistant Acinetobacter. The airborne mode of spread of acinetobacters should be taken into account, and guidelines should be revised accordingly.
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To evaluate the effect of copper-silver ionization on Legionella colonization and nosocomial legionnaires' disease and to compare the efficacy of metal ions versus the superheat-and-flush method of disinfection. Prospective determination over a 36-month period of copper and silver ion concentrations in the recirculating hot-water system, Legionella colonization of the hospital water distribution system, and cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease. Retrospective comparison of results with the previous 13 years, during which the superheat-and-flush method was used. The Pittsburgh Veterans' Affairs Health Care System (University Drive Division) acute-care hospital. Three copper-silver ionization systems were installed on the hot-water distribution system in November 1994. The average number of cases of legionnaires' disease per year and the percentage of distal sites positive for Legionella pneumophila for the superheat-and-flush method versus the copper-silver ionization method was six cases with 15% positivity versus two cases with 4% positivity, respectively. The reduction in Legionella colonization after copper-silver ionization was significant (P<.05) compared to the superheat and flush. Mean copper and silver ion concentrations (mg/L) were 0.29 and 0.054 from hot-water tanks, and 0.17 and 0.04 from distal outlets, respectively. We conclude that a properly maintained and monitored copper-silver ionization system was more effective than the superheat-and-flush method for reducing the recovery of Legionella from the hospital water distribution system.
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Fibronectin, a large extracellular matrix cell adhesion glycoprotein has diverse functions in wound repair including organization of matrix deposition and promotion of angiogenesis. We have previously shown that purified plasma fibronectin can be made into three-dimensional, fibrous materials, termed fibronectin mats (Fn-mat). The aim of this study was to examine means of increasing the stability of Fn-mats using a novel treatment with micromolar concentrations of copper ions which may be used to improve wound healing/nerve repair. Cytotoxicity of incorporated copper was determined using rat Schwann cells, rat tendon fibroblasts and human dermal fibroblasts. Dissolution of protein from the Fn-mat showed that treatment with the lowest concentration of copper used (1 microM) increased the stability of mats by 3-4 times at room temperature relative to control mats and twofold at 37 degrees C. Copper mediated increase in stability was dose dependent. Orientation of the Fn-fibres (within mats), monitored by scanning electron microscopy was retained with 1 microM copper but disappeared with higher concentrations. Schwann cells grew in culture with mats stabilized by 1 microM copper treatment without reduction in cell number but growth was inhibited at 10-200 microM Cu. All types of fibroblasts were unaffected by copper treatment upto 200 microM. Fn-mats can be successfully stabilized by this technique producing longer survival in vitro. The differential effects of copper on these cell types suggests that CuFn-mats may be used to select the type of cells which colonize these materials.
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Although the trace elements zinc, copper and manganese are used in vivo for their healing properties, their mechanism of action is still only partially known. Some integrins expressed by basal layer keratinocytes play an essential part in healing, notably alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, alpha6beta4 and alphaVbeta5, whose expression and distribution in epidermis are modified during the re-epithelialization phase. This study demonstrates how the expression of these integrins are modulated in vitro by trace elements. Integrin expression was studied in proliferating keratinocytes in monolayer cultures and in reconstituted skin that included a differentiation state. After 48 h incubation with zinc gluconate (0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 microg/mL), copper gluconate (1, 2 and 4 microg/mL), manganese gluconate (0.5, 1 and 2 microg/mL) and control medium, integrin expression was evaluated by FACScan and immunohistochemistry. Induction of alpha2, alpha3, alphaV and alpha6 was produced by zinc gluconate 1.8 microg/mL in monolayers, of alpha2, alpha6 and beta1 by copper gluconate 2 and 4 microg/mL and of all the integrins studied except alpha3 by manganese gluconate 1 microg/mL. Thus, alpha6 expression was induced by all three trace elements. The inductive effect of zinc was particularly notable on integrins affecting cellular mobility in the proliferation phase of wound healing (alpha3, alpha6, alphaV) and that of copper on integrins expressed by suprabasally differentiated keratinocytes during the final healing phase (alpha2, beta1 and alpha6), while manganese had a mixed effect.
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This chapter discusses methods that were employed to quantify biofilm development. There are three principal components of a biofilm: living cells, dead cells, and intercellular polysaccharide. Living cells are estimated by plating cells from the biofilm on the surface of a suitable medium. Dead cells are quantified by counting the total number of cells in a sample from the biofilm and subtracting from it the number of viable cells. Extracellular polysaccharide is estimated by quantifying it colorimetrically in material removed from the biofilm. In addition to the methods employed, one can use transmission or scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, substrate uptake, or measurement of a chemical specific to the cellular or extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) component of the biofilm.
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Dust mite proteins have been implicated as a predominant cause of the current increase in asthma prevalence. Recent advances in the understanding of these allergens have vastly increased the potential for more effective treatment and prophylaxis. In the absence of vaccines, environmental controls aimed at allergen avoidance are currently the best defense against the disease.
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The number of airborne methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) before, during and after bedmaking was investigated. Air was sampled with an Andersen air sampler in the rooms of 13 inpatients with MRSA infection or colonization. Sampling of surfaces, including floors and bedsheets, was performed by stamp methods. MRSA-containing particles were isolated on all the sampler stages-stage 1 (>7 microm diameter) to stage 6 (0.65-1.1 microm). The MRSA-containing particles were mostly 2-3 microm diameter before bedmaking and >5 microm during bedmaking. The number was significantly higher 15 min after bedmaking than during the resting period, but the differences in counts after 30 and 60 min were not significant. MRSA was detected on many surfaces. The results suggest that MRSA was recirculated in the air, especially after movement. To prevent airborne transmission, healthcare staff should exercise great care to disinfect inanimate environments. Further studies will be needed to confirm the level of MRSA contamination of air during bedmaking and establish measures for prevention of airborne transmission.
Article
The aim of this chapter is to review the worldwide use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception and the long-term contraceptive efficacy and safety of copper-bearing IUDs. The TCu380A and Multiload Cu375 have a very low failure rate (0.2-0.5%) over 10 years. The main concerns of the use of IUDs are risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases and increased menstrual blood loss and irregular bleeding. Factors associated with an increase in risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases are discussed. Preventive measures can be taken with careful screening of eligible IUD users, technical training and adequate service facilities for provision of IUDs. Levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs have the benefit of reducing menstrual blood loss in addition to high contraceptive efficacy. The copper IUD is the most effective method for emergency contraception. It can prevent over 95% of unwanted pregnancies within 5 days of unprotected intercourse.
Article
We have previously described the production of large cables of fibronectin, a large extracellular matrix cell adhesion glycoprotein, which has a potential application in tissue engineering. Here we have stabilised these cables for longer survival and looked at their ultrastructural cell-substrate behaviour in vitro. Dissolution experiments showed that low concentrations of copper not only caused significant material stabilisation but left pores which could promote cell ingrowth, as we have previously reported with Fn-mats. Indeed, the greatest amount of cell ingrowth was observed for copper treated cables. Immunostaining showed S-100(+) multi-layers of cells around the edge of cables while ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence of a mixture of fibroblasts and bipolar cells associated with fragments of basal lamina, which is a Schwann cell phenotype. Interestingly, the outermost layers of cells consisted of S-100(-) cells, presumed fibroblasts, apparently 'capping' the Schwann cells. Toxicity tests revealed that Schwann cells were only able to grow at the lowest concentration of copper used (1microM) while fibroblasts grew at all concentrations tested. These results could be used to design biomaterials with optimum properties for promoting cellular ingrowth and survival in tissue engineered grafts which may be used to improve peripheral nerve repair.
Article
Because copper-containing ointments are frequently used in anthroposophical medicine, a phase I trial to investigate the cutaneous absorption of copper was conducted. Sixty-one volunteers were randomized [group A: 0.4% copper (I) oxide, 13 men and 18 women (19-55 years); group B: 20% elementary copper, 11 men and 19 women (18-70 years)]. The ointment was applied over a 4-week period followed by a 4-week wash-out phase. Serum and urine copper concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and hair copper concentration by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For statistical analysis, the Student t test for related random samples was used; alpha = 0.05 was chosen for the standard error. In group A, an increase of copper in serum and scalp hair and a decrease in urine were found in the study period. The mean serum concentration in all premenopausal women using oral contraceptives was above normal. In group B, the serum copper concentration increased significantly; in urine, it decreased, and in scalp hair, it remained stable. A higher level of serum copper was found in female volunteers using hormonal contraception. Treatment with the 2 different ointments did not cause toxic irritations on the skin, and it can therefore be deduced that the appropriate application of ointment preparations containing copper in concentrations up to 20% do not present a toxic risk.
Article
Air sampling directly onto a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) selective agar was performed at six locations three times weekly over a period of 32 weeks in a new, initially MRSA-free Intensive Care Unit to examine if MRSA is present in air sample cultures and, if so, whether it is affected by the number of MRSA colonized patients present. A total of 480 air samples were collected on 80 days. A total of 39/480 (8.1%) samples were found to be MRSA positive of which 24/160 (15%) positive air samples were from the single rooms, where MRSA colonised patients were isolated, and 15/320 (4.7%) were from the open bed areas. A significant correlation was found between the daily number of MRSA colonized or infected patients in the Unit and the daily number of MRSA positive air samples cultures obtained (r2=0.128; P<0.005). The frequency of positive cultures was significantly higher in the single rooms than in the open bed areas (relative risk=3.2; P<0.001). The results from one of the single rooms showed a strong correlation between the presence of MRSA patients and MRSA positive air samples (relative risk=11.4; P<0. 005). Our findings demonstrate that the presence of airborne MRSA in our unit is strongly related to the presence and number of MRSA colonized or infected patients in the Unit.
Huntingdon Res Center: Primary screening of copper compounds for herbicidal, nematocidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity
  • W D Fraser
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Fraser, W. D., Quinlan, A, Reid, J., and Smith, R. N. Huntingdon Res Center: Primary screening of copper compounds for herbicidal, nematocidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. INCRA Project no. 211, 43. 2001.
Copper IUDs, infection and infertility
"Copper IUDs, infection and infertility," Drug Ther. Bull. 2002 40, 67-69.
HealthStide TM Socks -Footware to a higher standard
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R. C. Zatcoff, "HealthStide TM Socks -Footware to a higher standard," Podiatry Management 2005 November/December, 202-203.
Role de l'infection sur la contamination microbienne des draps des patients
  • D Coronel
  • A Boiron
  • F Renaud
D. Coronel, A. Boiron, and F. Renaud, "Role de l'infection sur la contamination microbienne des draps des patients," Reanimation 2000 9S, 86-87.
Infection et contamination bacterienne de l'environnement des patients: les draps
  • D Coronel
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  • A Boiron
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  • F Renaud
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  • J Freney
D. Coronel, J. Escarment, A. Boiron, J. Y. Dusseau, F. Renaud, M. Bret, and J. Freney, "Infection et contamination bacterienne de l'environnement des patients: les draps," Reanimation 2001 10S, 43-44.