Accepted by S. Winterton: 28 Jun 2011; published: 29 Aug. 2011
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2011 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 3007: 1–49 (2011)
A review of the Oriental and Australasian Ptilocera species
& RUDOLF ROZKOŠNÝ
Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Centro Nazionale Biodiversità Forestale “Bosco Fontana”, Verona, Via Carlo Ederle 16/a, I – 37100
Verona, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlá ská 2, CZ - 61137 Brno, Czech Republic.
Table of contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Materials and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Ptilocera Wiedemann, 1820 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Key to species of Ptilocera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Ptilocera amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Ptilocera aureopilosa sp. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Ptilocera bergi James, 1948 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Ptilocera continua Walker, 1851 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Ptilocera kerteszi sp. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Ptilocera paradisea Lindner, 1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Ptilocera quadridentata Fabricius, 1805 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Ptilocera simplex sp. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Ptilocera smaragdina Walker, 1849 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Ptilocera violacea Edwards, 1915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
The species of Ptilocera Wiedemann, 1820 are re-examined on the basis of extensive historical as well as recent material
from several institutions and a critical evaluation of published records. Ten species are distinguished and three of them, P.
aureopilosa sp. nov., P. kerteszi sp. nov. and P. simplex sp. nov. are described as new. Ptilocera fastuosa Gerstaecker,
1857, is considered to be a synonym of P. continua Walker, 1851, and P. smaragdifera Walker, 1859 is interperted as a
synonym of P. smaragdina Walker, 1849. Lectotypes are designated for P. amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857, P.
fastuosa, P. quadridentata (Fabricius, 1805) and P. smaragdifera. Seven species (P. amethystina, P. continua, P. kerteszi
sp. nov., P. paradisea Lindner, 1951, P. quadridentata, P. simplex sp. nov. and P. smaragdina are mainly confined to the
Oriental Region and three to the Australasian Region (P. aureopilosa sp. nov., P. bergi James, 1948, and P. violacea Ed-
wards, 1915). Ptilocera quadridentata was introduced to Japan and Fiji, and P. smaragdina to New Britain. P. bergi is
newly recorded from Australia, P. amethystina, P. continua and P. quadridentata from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the
first two species also from Myanmar, P. amethystina also from Malaysia and Thailand, and P. continua also from Nepal
and Singapore. Diagnostic characters including terminalia of both sexes are illustrated for all species examined and an
identification key is compiled.
Key words: Revision, new species, lectotypes, variation, distribution, introduction
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
2 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
Species of Ptilocera are moderately large and robust pachygastrine flies (Figs 1, 2a–b) sharing a distinctly apomor-
phic character: slender lateral projections on antennal flagellomeres 3–5 (males, Fig. 5) or 2–5 (females, Fig. 7).
The known species have been described exclusively from the Oriental and Australasian regions. Similar projec-
tions on flagellomeres were found only in two Afrotropical species of Isomerocera Enderlein, 1914, but Kertész
(1916) defined a set of differences between both genera. In Isomerocera, compared with Ptilocera, the following
most conspicuous differences were found (the relevant characters of Ptilocera are in parentheses): (1) scape elon-
gate, three times as long as pedicel (scape at most twice as long as pedicel except in male of P. simplex), (2) apical
flagellomere at most twice as long as preceding one (apical flagellomere much longer except in P. kerteszi sp. nov.),
(3) projections on flagellomeres 3
5 asymmetrical, in females about as long as in males (projections at least on
5 symmetrical, in females markedly longer than in males), (4) female frons with two pairs of sil-
verish white hair patches (female frons with only one pair of silverish white hair patches; this character seems to be
variable in some species of Isomerocera), (5) female postocular area with iridescent, metallic shining scales
(female postocular area without iridescent scales), (6) scutellum swollen, distinctly turned upwards (scutellum flat,
in same level as scutum, Fig. 43), (7) aedeagal complex with slender, inwardly bent and pointed posterolateral pro-
jections (aedeagal complex without such posterolateral projections except in P. simplex sp. nov.). The relationship
of Ptilocera with Isomerocera needs further study to objectively express the level of their similarity and actual rela-
We assume that the projections on the male flagellomeres 3–5 of P. simplex sp. nov. probably have been sec-
ondarily lost (Fig. 130). The males of this species display virtually all other diagnostic characters of the genus and
the associated females possess flagellar projections of the same shape as in the other species of Ptilocera (cf. Fig.
131). Also the male terminalia of this new species essentially correspond with other species although the postero-
lateral projections of the aedeagal complex are unusually long and pointed (Fig. 133) and resemble similar struc-
tures in the Isomerocera species.
Ptilocera lateralis Macquart listed in the Woodley´s catalog (2001) is apparently a species dubium. Kertész
(1916) stated that he did not find any type specimen in the Muséum d´Histoire Naturelle, Paris. No type locality is
mentioned in the original description. The short description indicates that this species does not belong to Ptilocera
because the complex of colour characters on the thorax, wings and the abdomen described by Macquart is not
known in any species of this genus.
Larvae of Ptilocera live under the bark of trees as do many other Pachygastrinae. De Meijere (1911) published
a relatively detailed description of a P. quadridentata puparium (Figs 3–4) found under the bark of horseradish tree
(Moringa pterygosperma) at Jakarta (Java) and recently D. Kovac (pers. comm., 2010) reared the same species
from larvae found under the bark of a tree at Ban Nam Rin (Thailand).
Materials and methods
In total more than 1150 specimens from 21 institutions and private collections were examined. Acronyms of collec-
tions were taken from the “Abbreviations for Insect and Spider Collections of the World” (Evenhuis 2008). The
following abbreviations are used for the collections cited:
BMNH Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
BPBM Department of Natural Sciences, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
CAS Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA
CNBFVR Centro Nazionale Biodiversità Forestale “Bosco Fontana”, Verona, Italy
CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa,
FSMU Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
IRSNB Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium
MHC Martin Hauser collection, Sacramento, California, USA
MHNG Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland
MMB Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
MSNM Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano (Coll. M. Bezzi), Italy
MSNG Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Italy
NMB Abteilung Entomologie, Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Switzerland
RMNH Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum—Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands
SMF Senckenberg Forschungsinstitute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
UCR Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, California, USA
USNM Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C., USA
ZIB Zoological Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia
ZMAN Zoologisch Museum, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Ams-
terdam, The Netherlands
ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany
ZMUC Zoologisk Museum, Københavns Universitet, København, Denmark
The morphological terms used follow Papp & Darvas (2000). In addition, the narrow plate along the posterior mar-
gin of the female eye (distinct in lateral view) is called the postocular area, a leathery process in front of the wing
base is designated as a prealar prominence and the cylidrical appendages on sides of the aedeagal complex are
called posterolateral papillae. The size is given without the antennae and the frontal index refers to the relation of
the length (from the anterior ocellus to the bases of antennae) and the width in the middle of the female frons
Ptilocera Wiedemann, 1820
Ptilocera Wiedemann, 1820: 7
Type species: Stratiomys quadridentata Fabricius, by monotypy.
Diagnosis. The genus is characterized by the following set of characters: (1) flagellum consisting of 8 flagellom-
eres, medial 3
4 of them provided with slender lateral projections (Figs 5, 7), (2) thorax with leathery, rounded and
flat prealar prominence in front of wing (Figs 28–34), (3) scutellum with four moderately long spines (Fig. 43), (4)
starting close to or at crossvein R-M (Fig. 44), (5) vein R
present (Figs 57–73), (6) abdomen short,
rounded to subquadrate, distinctly convex dorsally (e.g. Fig. 64), and (7) aedeagal complex with short cylindrical
posterolateral papillae (Figs 56, 99). From these characters probably only characters (1) and (7) are autapomorphic
for this genus although partly shared with Isomerocera in a modified form (see Introduction). Character (1) is prob-
ably secondarily reduced in the male of P. simplex sp. nov. and character (2) was also found in some other Pachy-
gastrinae (e.g. in Camptopteromyia de Meijere, Gabaza Walker, Gnorismomyia Kertész, Lophoteles Loew,
Pegadomyia Kertész, Pseudopegadomyia Rozkošný & Kovac and Saldubella Kertész ) as well as in taxa outside of
Pachygastrinae (e.g. in some genera of Clitellariinae, as a subtriangular prominence in Adoxomyia Kertész and as
a strong spine in Clitellaria Meigen and Nigritomyia Bigot).
Description. Male. Head with strongly holoptic eyes contiguous for a relatively long distance, ommatidia in
upper part of eye larger than in lower third (Fig. 15). Postocular area usually narrow, more distinct only in lower
third of head in lateral view (Fig. 20). Upper frons barely broader than diameter of anterior ocellus, tapered anteri-
orly and reaching to about middle of distance between anterior ocellus and frontal tomentose spot above antennae
(Fig. 15). Ocellar tubercle (Fig. 16) distinctly prominent in lateral view, vertex beyond it transversely oblong, not
longer than ocellar tubercle in dorsal view. Lower frons above antennae (Fig. 19) shining black, slightly protuber-
ant, usually with distinct medial groove and rounded, medianly divided silverish tomentose spot in upper half.
Antenna (Fig. 5) usually more than twice as long as head, scape about twice as long as pedicel, longer only in P.
simplex sp. nov. Two basal flagellomeres cylindrical, with scattered sensory pits, first of them 1.5–2.0 times as long
as broad and second usually shorter than broad. Each of flagellomeres 3–5 with ventral and dorsal slender projec-
tions, flagellomeres 6–8 short but densely haired. Last flagellomere usually 4–5 times longer than preceding one,
relatively shorter only in P. kerteszi sp. nov. Face prominent, tubercle-like, rounded in profile. Proboscis with
fleshy and stout labellum, palpus relatively long, two-segmented, with apical segment oval and flattened.
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
4 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
Thorax longer than broad, scutum with markedly prominent postpronotal callus and slightly dilated toward
wing bases. Leathery, rounded and flat prealar prominence in front of wing base well developed as in females (cf.
Figs 29–34). Scutellum about at same level as scutum, subquadrate or more rounded posteriorly, with two pairs of
slightly upcurved and pointed spines, distance between middle pair of spines usually same as or longer than that
between medial and lateral spines. Scutum and scutellum mostly covered with metallic iridescent scales in different
arrangement and density. Scales usually more or less elliptical, subquadrate or tapered, often pointed apically, with
semi-globular to globular bases, similar to those in females (cf. Figs 35–39). Wing membrane densely covered
with microtrichia. In some species an irregular transverse yellowish streak from wing margin to lower margin of
discal cell or even to anterior cubital cell less or more distinct
(Figs 57, 65). Vein R
arising slightly before,
beyond or just at crossvein R-M (Fig. 44) and vein R
always present, no veins reaching posterior wing margin, all
faint before end. Calypter usually with dense and mostly wool-like, black marginal fringe (cf. Fig. 46). Halter rela-
tively long, usually with darkened knob (Fig. 48) and dense surface sensillae (Fig. 49). Legs dark, only mid and
hind basitarsomeres sometimes paler. Apical tarsomeres and pretarsus as in Figs 50–51.
Abdomen rounded, barely longer than broad, with prominent but rounded anterolateral corners, slightly con-
vex dorsally and ventrally. Silverish white (rarely golden yellow) hair patches may form species-specific ornamen-
tation, abdomen only rarely entirely bare dorsally (male of P. bergi). Male terminalia (Figs 55–56) specialised, with
autapomorphic aedeagal complex. Epandrium usually subquadrate or slightly dilated proximally, more or less
indented at proximal margin, proctiger mostly pentagonal, cerci only slightly reaching beyond epiproct. Genital
capsule subquadrate, usually somewhat tapered toward proximal margin, medial process well developed, bilobate
as a rule, simple only in P. simplex. Gonostylus leaf-shaped. True trifid phallic organ (Fig. 87, in middle of distal
part) protected by an enclosure consisting of a membrane between both gonocoxites and distally ending as a short
cylindrical posterolateral papilla on each side of phallus. Phallic organ continuing proximally as flat, transversely
margined or rounded aedeagal apodeme. Posterolateral papillae provided with transverse ridges in some species
and/or their bases with tranverse rows of flat, hyaline and pointed spines. Only male of P. simplex with additional
posterolateral, pointed projections at outer side of each posterolateral papilla (Fig. 133).
Female. Head with dichoptic eyes separated by frons occupying about 1/5 of head width, size of ommatidia
small on entire eye surface (Fig. 17). Ocellar tubercle (Fig. 18) and especially anterior ocellus prominent in profile
but less distinct than in male. Postocular area well developed, about as broad as pedicel is long and shining in dor-
sal view, narrower and pilose laterally (Fig. 20). Frons black, depressed in middle and slightly protuberant above
antennae in profile, granulose, short and densely pilose in upper half and shining in lower half, with medial groove
in lower half (Fig. 17). Two subtriangular, subquadrate or rounded, whitish tomentose spots at eye margin below
middle of frons. Scape and two basal flagellomeres usually stouter than in conspecific male. One unpaired projec-
tion present on flagellomere 2 and paired projections on flagellomeres 3–5, all projections much longer than in
males, with combs of conspicous erect setulae (Figs 7–9). Facial tubercle below antennae (Fig. 17) as in male but
usually broader. Iridescent scales on scutum and scutellum sometimes even denser than in males, usually arranged
in longitudinal stripes on scutum, in some cases of diagnostic value (cf. Figs 35–40). Scutellar spines short, reach-
ing only about 1/3 of scutellum length (e.g. Fig. 43), almost entirely darkened. Anterior spiracle as in Fig. 47. Yel-
low transverse streak in middle of wing usually indistinct or absent. Wing microtrichia are usually less developed
than in males, partly or extensively reduced especially in basal cells, anterior and posterior cubital, and anal cells
(Figs 58, 63, 71). Calypter with white or black marginal hair fringe. Female terminalia (Fig. 124) with two-seg-
mented cercus, the basal segment up to 5 times longer than apical one, tergite 10 subtriangular, shorter than basal
segment of cercus. Tergite 9 subquadrate and emarginated distally, sternite 9 weakly sclerotized, almost 3.0 times
as long as broad, subgenital plate (= sternite 8) (Fig. 127) longer than tergite 8, distally projecting in middle. Geni-
tal furca fairly uniform, elongate oval and pointed proximally, deepened in middle of frame distally, posterolateral
projections long and pointed (cf. Figs 81, 93–94, 106–107). Intersegmental membranous areas long although usu-
ally shorter than neighbouring segments. Completely extended oviscape usually longer than sclerotized abdominal
segments 1–5. Spermathecae not examined.
Diagnostic characters have been found especially on the antenna (the length and colour of basal segments, the
shape of two basal flagellomeres, the length and colour of the ultimate and penultimate flagellomere), on the wing
(presence or absence of the yellowish transverse streak, the extent of hyaline areas with reduced microtrichia) and
the shape of hair patches on the abdomen. However, colour characters and the extent of abdominal hair patches are
often considerably variable (cf. Figs 142–143, 148–153). A complex of characters must be thus taken in consider-
Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 5
ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
ation when making identifications. Our preliminary study of surface structures in some species indicates that the
size, shape and density of scales, especially on the scutum and scutellum, might be a diagnostic character even in
females (cf. Figs 37–39). Scales are often accompanied or replaced by slender or slightly dilated setulae inserted in
globose or semiglobose basal structures (Figs 39, 40). Nevertheless, these surface structures need further study
including a detailed comparison of scales and setulae among species, between both sexes and on different body
parts. On the contrary, the shape of the prealar prominence seems to be fairly uniform within this genus, apart from
some differences in the number and form of grooves on the dorsal surface (cf. Figs 29–34). The shape of the apical
segment of the palpus (Figs 24–27) shows only slight differences among the female specimens examined. The male
terminalia do not provide a sufficiently diverse set of morphological structures in some related species and only
those of P. simplex (Figs 132–134) display highly species-specific structures. Differences in the female terminalia
are generally even less distinct.
Key to species of Ptilocera
Key to males
(The male of P. aureopilosa sp. nov. is not known).
1 Antennal flagellomeres without paired slender projections (Figs 14, 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. simplex sp. nov.
- Antennal flagellomeres 3 5 with paired slender projections (Figs 5, 75) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
2 Abdominal tergites without any hair patches (Fig. 84) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. bergi James
- Abdominal tergites with distinct, usually paired hair patches (Figs 95, 110, 115, 128) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Last flagellomere snow white, relatively slender (Fig. 75) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven
- Whole flagellum dark brown to black, last flagellomere relatively thick (Fig. 85) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
4 Abdominal pattern consisting of golden hairs, hair patches occupying greater part of tergites 4 and 5 (Figs 53, 110). . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. paradisea Lindner
- Abdominal pattern consisting of silverish, rarely more golden hairs and hair patches on tergites 4 and 5 that are much reduced
(Figs 95, 128, 154) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
5 Discal cell predominantly hyaline, without microtrichia (cf. Figs 45, 64); scutum and scutellum with conspicuous, long and
erect hairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. kerteszi sp. nov.
- Discal cell completely covered with microtrichia (Figs 62, 66, 68); scutum and scutellum at most with short and appressed
pubescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
6 Presutural area of scutum with well defined, angulate, velvety golden yellow to brown patches separated by a bare medial
stripe dilated gradually toward suture (cf. Figs 2b, 115). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. quadridentata (Fabricius)
- Presutural area of scutum with much less defined patches, covered with differently coloured metallic shining scales, never
golden yellow to brown (Figs 95, 136, 154). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
7 Abdominal tergite 5 usually with paired transverse subtriangular to linear hair patches (Fig. 136) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
- Abdominal tergite 5 usually with transversely oval, ring-shaped hair patches (Figs 95–96) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P. continua Walker
8 Hair patches on tergites 3–4 usually small and rounded, sometimes missing on tergite 3, patches on tergite 5 well separated
(Fig. 136) (Oriental Region and New Britain) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. smaragdina Walker
- Hair patches on tergite 3 more longitudinal, usually bow-shaped outwardly on tergite 4 and sometimes even fused medially on
tergite 5 (Fig. 154) (Australasian Region). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. violacea Edwards
Key to females
(The female of P. paradisea is not known).
1 Thorax and abdomen with moderately long, mostly appressed and dense hairs (Fig. 82), golden on thorax and more greenish
on abdomen (Fig. 52) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P. aureopilosa sp. nov.
- Thoracic and abdominal pile much shorter and sparser (Figs 89, 101) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
2 Discal cell predominantly hyaline, without microtrichia, extensive bare areas also distinct in other cells (Figs 45, 64). Last
flagellomere only 1.6 times as long as preceding (Figs 12, 109) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. kerteszi sp. nov.
- Discal cell covered with microtrichia, some bare areas may be distinct in cubital, anal and basal wing cells (Figs 58, 60). Last
flagellomere usually much longer (Figs 13, 111) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
3 Presutural part of scutum markedly golden yellow pollinose except medial stripe that broadens toward suture (Figs, 2b, 120) .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. quadridentata (Fabricius)
- Scutum with medial and broad notopleural longitudinal stripes more or less distinct, consisting of violet, purplish or greenish,
brilliantly shining small scales (Figs 2a, 101). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Last two flagellomeres partly or entirely snow white (Figs 10 12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
- Last two flagellomeres completely dark brown to black (Fig. 144–145) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. smaragdina Walker
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
6 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
5 Last two flagellomeres slender and white (Figs 10, 80), hair patches on tergites 2 4 narrow, longitudinal; hair patches on terg-
ite 5 subtriangular (Fig. 79). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P. amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven
- Only apical flagellomere partly or entirely white (Figs 90, 131, 157), abdominal hair patches of another shape. . . . . . . . . . . .6
6 Hair patches at most indistinct on tergites 3 and 4, absent on tergite 5 (Figs 89, 91–92). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. bergi James
- Hair patches on tergites well developed (Figs 101, 129) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
7 Last flagellomere completely snow white (Fig. 131), abdominal hair patches on tergite 4 nearly cup-like (Fig. 129) . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. simplex sp. nov.
- Last flagellomere darkened at least basally (Fig. 103), abdominal hair patches of another shape (Figs 101, 155) . . . . . . . . . . .8
8 Apical flagellomere usually white on distal half (Fig. 103), posterior cubital cell with conspicuously reduced microtrichia (Fig.
63) (Oriental Region) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P. continua Walker
- Only apex of apical flagellomere usually snow white (Fig. 157), microtrichia on posterior cubital cell reduced at most along
narrow longitudinal medial stripe (Fig. 73) (Australasian Region) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P. violacea Edwards
Ptilocera amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857
(Figs 10, 24, 30, 35, 57–58, 74–81)
Ptilocera amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven 1857: 92.
Type material. Two syntypes deposited in ZMAN, here designated as lectotype and paralectotype. The lectotype is
labelled "Blume, Java [rounded label]/Ptilocera amethystina v. Voll., Coll. F. M. v. d. Wulp/Syntype/LECTOTY-
Ptilocera amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857: 92, F. Mason & R. Rozkošný det. 2009" [red label].
Condition: antennae and tarsus of hind left leg absent.
The paralectotype belongs to a different species: "Forsten, Bel Amour/Ptilocera amethystina v. Voll., Coll. F.
M. v. d. Wulp /Syntype/ PARALECTOTYPUS
Ptilocera amethystina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857: 92 [red
label]/ =Ptilocera continua Gerstaecker, 1857, F. Mason & R. Rozkošný det. 2010". Condition: pedicel and flagel-
lum of both antennae and left hind leg absent, anterior margin of both wings damaged.
Diagnosis. Last antennal flagellomere snow white, long and slender, gradually tapered toward apex. Trans-
verse yellow streak in male wing relatively broad and with less contrast than in other species, quite absent in
female wing. Marginal fringe of calypter dark brown to black in both sexes. Abdominal lateral markings longitudi-
nal on tergite 3 and subquadrate on tergite 4 in male, and longitudinal on tergites 2
4 in female, hair patches on
tergite 5 in form of two characteristic subtriangular spots.
Description. Male (Figs 57, 74–78). Length (mm): body 5.9–9.6 (n = 48); wing: 4.8–9.6 (n = 48). Head.
Lower frons shining dark brown, with transversely oval silverish tomentose spot divided by a median black line.
Scape brown, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 pale brown, both blackish haired, forming oval complex provided with
sensory pits and covered with short brownish pile. Basal flagellomere slightly longer than broad, apical flagellom-
ere snow white, slender, at most pale brown basally, as long as 5 preceding flagellomeres combined and at least 6
times as long as subapical flagellomere (Fig. 75).
Thorax black, finely punctuate, with scales in colour changing from silver, green and blue-green, depending on
angle of light, arranged in four longitudinal stripes on scutum, two broadly separated median and broader lateral
(=notopleural). Scattered scales also between medial and lateral stripes in presutural area, medial stripes inter-
rupted beyond transverse suture, distinct as elongate triangular spots touching base of scutellum (Fig. 74). Dense
scales distinct along margin of scutellum, middle scutellar spines reaching 0.5–0.6 length of scutellum, usually
with pale tips. Yellowish transverse streak on wing more or less distinct, relatively broad and fairly diffuse, from
apical part of discal cell and continuing along first branch of cubital vein. Wing microtrichia only indistictly
reduced in basal cells, alula and basal part of anal cell (Fig. 57). Calypter brown, with long dark brown hair fringe.
Slender basitarsus of mid legs sometimes reddish brown, other part of legs usually dark brown to black.
Abdomen dark brown to black, finely punctuate, with large silverish hair patches on tergites 3–5 (Fig. 74).
Medial process of genital capsule with divergent posterior lobes (Fig. 76), posterolateral papillae of aedeagal com-
plex without transverse ridges and hyaline flat spines at bases (Fig. 77). Aedeagal apodeme rounded proximally.
Female (Figs 10, 24, 30, 58, 79–81). Length (mm): body 6.9–11.7 (n = 34); wing: 6.4 –10.1 (n = 34). Head.
Frontal index 1.3–1.6 (avg = 1.4, n = 27). Basal flagellomere brownish, much broader than in male, almost quad-
rate in lateral view, projection on flagellomere 2 about as long as swollen basal complex (pedicel + 2 basal
flagellomeres), other projections up to twice as long, apical flagellomere four times as long as broad. Last
flagellomere 1.6–3.3 times as long as preceding flagellomere. Penultimate flagellomere usually white to pale yel-
Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 7
ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
low, rarely darkened (Fig. 80). Scutum black, finely punctate, with pattern consisting of two pairs of pink to green
and violet, parallel stripes usually being less conspicuous than in male (Fig. 79). Scutellum flattened, subquadrate,
with broad margin of shining, mainly silverish scales, stout and short brown scutellar spines at most half as long as
scutellum at middle. Wing (Fig. 58) extensively brown infuscated, transverse yellowish streak not distinct,
microtrichia absent in basal part of wing as in male but sometimes also in a narrow longitudinal stripe along middle
of posterior cubital cell. Calypter brown, with long blackish fringe as in male. Legs mainly brown with brown pile.
Abdomen black, with bluish reflections, finely punctate, with well defined vertically oriented hair patches of silver-
ish pile on tergites 2–5 (Fig. 79). Genital furca as in Fig. 81.
Variation. In addition to size (see above) both sexes may vary in darkening of both basal flagellomeres, den-
sity of scales in longitudinal stripes on scutum and the extent of abdominal hair patches. The last flagellomere may
rarely be slightly brownish basally (Fig. 10). The penultimate flagellomere is usually brown in males and snow
white to yellow in females but de Meijere (1914) mentioned two females with a dark penultimate flagellomere
from Sumatra. Especially females usually have white frontal spots of a slightly different size and shape, tips of
scutellar spines may be more reddish.
Remarks. The taxonomic status of this species is fixed by the lectotype designation because the second of the
original syntypes belongs to a different species (P. continua). Brunetti (1907, 1920, 1923) apparently had no
authentic material available. The diagnostic characters of this species were unambiguously defined by de Meijere
(1911, 1914). Edwards (1915) erroneously considered this species to be a synonym of P. continua. The male with a
white last flagellomere from Sumatra identified as Ptilocera sp. by Kertész (1916) very probably represents a male
of P. amethystina.
Material examined. 33
, 38 (including female lectotype). Cambodia: 1 , Bigot coll., in BMNH; 1 ,
Stevens, in ZMHB. Indonesia: Java
: Djampang Mts, Bibidjilan, 15.iii.1938 1 ; Djampang Tengah, 15.iv.1938 1
; both E. le Moult, in BMNH, 24.iv.1939 1 , 11.x.1939 1 , 28.xi.1939 1 , 2 , 24.i.1940 4 , 8.ii.1940 2 ,
, 25.iii.1940 1 , 24.iv.1940 1 , 1.vi.1941 1 , 4.xi.1941 1 ; Gunug Pangrango, 4.iv.1939 1 , all
in ZMAN. Gunug Tentang, 15.iii.1938 1
, E. le Moult, in BMNH; Ordjoeng Genton Bay, ix.1936 1 , Penandjo-
eng [=Penandjon] Peninsula, vii.1936 1
, Preanger [=Priangar], 29.iii.1939 1 , 15.v.1939 1 , 4.xi.1941 1 ;
Soekaboemi [=Sukabumi], 15.v.1926 1
, E. le Moult, in BMNH; Soekaboemi [=Sukabumi], Gedek Helling,
; Soekaboemi [=Sukabumi], Djampang Kidoel, 1000–1500 ft, 15.xii.1939 1 ; Tjimerangs, 4.v.1915
, ii.1937 1 , 1 ; Wynkoopsbay, ix.1936 1 , xii.1936 5 , 5 , ii.1937 1 , 3 , 15.xii.1937 1 , 1 ; all J.
M. A. van Groenendael, all in ZMAN. Kalimantan
: 2 , 1 , in MSNG. Si-Pora [=Sipura] Island, 1 , A. Maas;
: 1 , in MSNM (Bezzi Coll.). Lubuksikapink Westkust, 450 m, 1926 1 , both E. Jacobson, in ZMHB.
Tanjung Andalas, 15.v.1914 1
, J. M. A. van Groenendael, in ZMAN. Tanjung Morawa, Deli Serdang, 1 , in
RMNH. Laos: Sayaboury [=Xaignabouli] Province
; Sayaboury, 30.vi.1965 1 , in BPBM. Malaysia: Sabah: 19
km N of Kalabakan, Forest Camp, 17.x.1962 1
, K. J. Kuncheria; 21.xi.1962 1 , 21.xi.1962 1 ; Malaise trap,
, 13.xi.1962 1 , 1 , Y. Hirashima; all in BPBM, Bettotan nr. Sandakan, 15.viii.1927 1 ; Poring
Springs, 1600 ft, 6.v.1973 1
, K. M. Guichard, both in BMNH. Sarawak, Nanga Pelagus near. Kapit, 180–585 m,
, T. C. Maa, in BPBM. Selangor: Genting Tea Estate, Genting Sembah forest, 2000 ft, 24.xii.1972
, in BMNH. Myanmar: Nam Tamay valley, 3000 ft, 27°42´N, 97°54´E, 26.viii.1938 1 , R. Kaulbaek, in
BMNH. Thailand: Chon Buri
: Ban Bang Phra, 6.iii.1968 2 , M. D. Delfinado, in BPBM; Phuket: Kao Phra
Thaew National Park, 1250–2000 m, 08°0.672´N 98°21.07 E, 15.iv.2001 1
, H. Stuke, in FSMU; Trang: Forest
Research Station, Khao Chong trail, 75 m, 7°33´0´´ N, 99°47´25´´ E, 7.ii.2005 1
, D. Yanega, in UCR. Vietnam:
Taynynh [=Tay Ninh], 21.x.1923 1
, R. Vitalis de Salvaza, in IRSNB.
Distribution. From Myanmar through Thailand, Laos and Cambodia to Vietnam, from Malaysia known in the
continental part but also in Sabah and Sarawak, in Indonesia recorded from Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan. The
published records from Java and Sumatra (de Meijere 1911, 1914; Enderlein 1914) are apparently correct. The
occurrence in Sulawesi has not been confirmed by recent materal. A record from Sulawesi by Snellen van Vollen-
hoven (1857) is based on a misidentification (see comments on the paralectotype above) and actually refers to P.
continua. Records from the Philippines published by Osten Sacken (1882) under P. amethystina (cited by many
subsequent authors) very probably represent P. continua.
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
8 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
Ptilocera aureopilosa sp. nov.
(Figs 21, 31, 52, 59, 82–83).
Type material. Female holotype housed in BMNH labelled: "SOLOMON IS., Rennel I., Hutuda, 8.xi.1953 J. D.
Bradley/RENNEL I. Expedition. B.M. 1954-222/Ptilocera
n. sp. det. D. Hollis, 1962/HOLOTYPUS , Ptilo-
cera aureopilosa F. Mason & R. Rozkošný det., 2010" [red label]. Condition: good, only right wing glued on a
small glass on same pin.
Diagnosis. Apical flagellomere white, only slightly brown tinged basally, body mostly covered with dense
golden rusty pile, calypter with whitish and blackish marginal fringe. Wing brownish infuscated, with a broad,
transverse yellow band including large part of discal cell.
Description. Female (holotype) (Figs 21, 31, 52, 59, 82–83). Length (mm): body 9.2, wing 8.5. Head. Ocellar
tubercle black, with semi-erect, rusty to golden pile. Frons covered by dense semi-erect golden pile (Fig. 21), with
median groove; rounded, velvety-like spot at each inner eye margin. Antenna brown, only apical flagellomere
snow white and slightly brownish basally, basal flagellomere broader than long, ultimate flagellomere about 3
times as long as penultimate (Fig. 83). Face brown, polished, covered with silverish pile except on facial promi-
nence (Fig. 21). Proboscis short, brown, covered with brownish pile. Palpus two-segmented, brown. Postocular
area with mostly appressed, golden pile along eye margin. Thorax black, scutum densely covered with appressed,
golden, relatively long pile except broad median band in presutural area of scutum (Fig. 82). Postpronotal callus
and postalar callus mainly brown, covered with golden pile. Prealar prominence rounded as in other species, with
strongly furrowed ventral side (cf. Fig. 31). Scutellum with four short brown spines reaching only about 1/5 of
length of scutellum at middle, densely covered with golden pile except central area (Fig. 52). Wing only slightly
brown infuscated with poorly defined, broad yellowish transverse band from wing margin to lower margin of discal
cell; microtrichia only slightly reduced along second branch of cubital vein and in longidutinal areas in posterior
cubital and anal cells (Fig. 59). Calypter brown, with long, mixed whitish and brownish marginal hairs. Halter with
yellowish stalk and darkened knob. Legs mainly brown, tarsi brown with pale brownish pile.
Abdomen (Figs 52, 82) finely punctuate, mainly black, covered by dense golden pile except narrow basal area. Pile
mainly appressed to semi-appressed, partly with greenish shade in certain views. Female terminalia not examined.
Etymology. The specific name aureopilosa refers to the distinctive tousled golden hairs covering the main part
of the female’s body
Material examined. Only the female holotype.
Distribution. The female holotype is known from the Solomon Islands.
Ptilocera bergi James, 1948
(Figs 60–61, 84–94)
Ptilocera bergi James, 1948: 202
Ptilocera bergi flavescens James, 1948: 204
Type material. P. bergi is based on the female holotype, the male allotype and 246 paratypes (121 and 125 , cf.
James 1948). We examined a series of 41 paratypes (19
and 22 ), 38 of them labelled "Guadalcanal 1944–1945,
C. O. Berg/PARATYPE Ptilocera bergi James [red label, handwritten by James]/Paratype No. 57309 U.S.N.M.
[red label]", in USNM, and 2
labelled "Paratype [yellow circular label]/Lunga R. Val., Guadalcanal /Coll. J. Laf-
Ptilocera bergi James [handwritten by James] /Pres.by Com. Inst. Ent. B. M.
1950 322", in BMNH. One female paratype (Guadalcanal, 1944–1945, C. O. Berg) also in CNC. The majority of
the examined specimens are in perfect condition, only the antennae are missing in one male and antennal flagella
absent in 2 males and 3 females.
P. bergi flavescens is based on the female holotype, male allotype and 10 paratypes (8
, 2 ). We examined
the female holotype labelled: "Bougainville I. 10.iv.1944 W. G. Downs/ Ptilocera bergi flavescens James, det.
James 48 [handwritten by James]/ HOLOTYPE Ptilocera bergi flavescens James, 1948, N. E. Woodley 2000", and
3 male paratypes with the same data as the holotype. Condition: mostly perfect, only antennal flagella missing in a
pair of paratypes.
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
Diagnosis. Apical flagellomere brown in males and snow white on apical half in females. Males without any
hair patches on the abdominal tergites. Females with silverish patches on tergite 2
and 3 (often partly reduced or
absent on tergite 3). Male and female wing usually uniformly brown infuscated, in some specimens with a pale
Description. Male (Figs 60, 84–88). Length (mm): body 8.0–10.1 (n = 9), wing 6.6–8.5 (n = 9). Head.
Antenna (Fig. 85) completely dark brown to black, basal flagellomere slightly longer than broad, apical flagellom-
ere about 5.0–5.5 times longer than penultimate flagellomere. Face covered by erect silverish pile except for central
area. Thorax black, densely and finely punctuate, scutum in dorsal view mainly black, with more or less distinct,
narrow medial stripes and broad lateral stripes consisting of violet iridescent scales. Scattered scales also in space
between medial and lateral stripes in presutural area (Fig. 84). Scutellum enlarged, with dense scales mainly along
broad lateral margin, four scutellar spines slender, long and slightly upcurved, reddish yellow to brown. Apical
scutellar spines 0.6–0.8 as long as scutellum in middle. Wing (Fig. 60) uniformly covered with dense brown
microtrichia except proximal 2/3 of alula and sometimes fairly broad apex of wing membrane. Rarely a yellowish
transverse streak or somewhat yellowish areas along basal halves of both cubital veins distinct. Calypter brown,
margined with brown hairs. Halter light brown or blackish infuscated. Legs brown to black, only basitarsi on mid
and hind legs sometimes yellowish. Tarsi golden brown haired.
Abdomen (Fig. 84) dark brown to black, without any hair patches and iridescent scales, finely punctate, with
very fine micropile. Sternites brown, with reddish brown short pubescence. Male terminalia (Figs 86–88): Procti-
ger pentagonal, strongly emarginate proximally, cerci short (Fig. 88), posteromedial lobes of genital capsule well
developed, only slightly divergent (Fig. 86). Aedeagal complex abruptly constricted below middle, posterolateral
papillae without transverse ridges but with transverse basal rows of short hyaline spines (Fig. 87).
Female (Figs 61, 89–94). Length (mm): body 8.5–11.7 (n = 13), wing 7.1–10.1 (n = 5). Head. Antenna (Fig.
90) mainly dark brown to black, only distal half to two-thirds of apical flagellomere snow white. Basal flagellom-
ere slightly broader than long, apical flagellomere 5.0–5.3 times as long as preceding flagellomere. Frontal index:
0.9–1.3 (avg = 1.2, n = 6). Polished face covered with silverish pile except on facial prominence. Thorax black,
densely and finely punctate, entirely covered with very short black pile. Scutum with mainly violet shining scales
covering presutural area except large longitudinal stripe in middle and two oval areas between suture and postalar
callus on each side (Fig. 89). Scutellum semi-circular, covered with silver to violet scales, four stout spines reddish
apically or entirely black, shorter than in male, reaching at most 0.4 scutellum length at middle (Fig. 89). Wing
membrane brownish infuscated, only basal cells, alula and sometimes also wing apex partly hyaline (Fig. 61).
Calypter including marginal hairs brown to black. Halter brownish to black, rarely paler. Abdomen (Fig. 89) black,
with faint bluish reflections, finely punctate. Silverish hair patches mostly subquadrate, rounded or subtriangular
on tergite 3 (Figs 91–92) and semicircular, subtriangular or missing on tergite 4. Genital furca with a large median
aperture and long wing-like posterolateral projections (Figs 93–94).
Variation. James (1948) tried to separate specimens from the Bougainville Island as a subspecies on the basis
of extensively variable characters: the yellowish apices of scutellar spines and mid basitarsi, the irregular yellowish
transverse streak on the male wing and a reddish shade of hairs along the longitudinal stripes on the female scutum.
We found that these characters are more or less distinct also in populations from Guadalcanal and especially from
other Solomon Islands (e.g. from Florida Island). That is why we support Woodley´s (2001) conclusion about the
synonymy of P. bergi flavescens. Moreover, in males the apical and posterior margin of the wing may be more or
less hyaline or completely brown and the extent of the pale part of the last female flagellomere may be confined to
the apical half or less; on the other hand James (1948) recorded a female from Santa Cruz with the last flagellomere
completely white. Some distinct differences were also found in the extent of the whitish hair patches on female
tergites 3 and 4; in extreme cases they can even be confluent longitudinally (Fig. 92).
Remarks. Woodley (2001, Note 21, p. 333) supposed that the holotype of P. bergi was inadvertently labelled
as a paratype because the holotype could not be found in USNM. Some males and females designated originally as
“Ptilocera bergi flavescens James, det. James” in USNM were considered to belong to the type series and were dis-
cussed adequately by Woodley (2001, Note 22, p. 334).
Material examined. 58
and 50 (including 19 and 25 types). Australia: Queensland, Cairns, ix.1920
, J. A. Kusche, in BPBM. Solomon Islands: vii.–viii.1909 l , W. W. Froggatt; 15.i.1935 1 , R. J. A. W.
Lever, both in USNM; Bougainville Island
: type series of P. bergi flavescens (see above). Florida Island: iii.1945 1
, G. E. Bohart, in USNM; 15.x.1966 2 , 2 , M. J. A. de Koster, in ZMAN. Guadalcanal Island: 1944, 9 , 13 ,
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
10 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
in USNM and 1 in CNC; 1944–1945, 1 , all C. O. Berg, 0–200 2 , x.1973 2 , 1 , N. L. H. Krauss, all in
USNM. Callego, Hidden Valley, 10.vii.1965 1
, ? leg., in BMNH; Honiara, 26.–31.iii.1972 2 , R. H. Carcasson;
, N. L. H. Krauss, all in USNM; 17.i.1974 1 , N. L. H. Krauss, in BMNH; 0–200 m, xi. 1976 1 ,
0–100 m, xii.1976 1
, i.1977, 1 , N. L. H. Krauss, in USNM; 15.xii.1980 1 , N. L. H. Krauss, in BMNH;
Kukum, without date 1
, 10.vi.1963 1 , 10.iv.1964 1 , 25.vi.1964 1 , M. McQuillan, all in BMNH. Lunga
River, ix.1944 2
, J. Lafoon, in USNM. New Georgia: Rendova, 1954 1 , W. H. Mann, in USNM. Russell
Islands: Mbanica Island, 24.xi.1945 1 , C. L. Gibson, in USNM.
Distribution. In addition to the examined specimens, James (1948) recorded some further localities on Gua-
dalcanal Island (Malimbu River Valley and Teneru District) and from Santa Cruz Islands. P. bergi seems thus to be
confined to Australia and the Solomon Islands.
Ptilocera continua Walker, 1851
(Figs 1, 2a, 5–9, 11, 15–16, 25, 32, 36, 44, 51, 54, 62–63, 95–107)
Ptilocera continua Walker, 1851: 84.
Ptilocera fastuosa Gerstaecker, 1857: 332, syn. nov.
Ptilocera fastuosa ssp. dilutiapitis Lindner, 1938: 434. Nomen nudum.
Type material: P. continua Walker: The female holotype is deposited in London (BMNH) and labelled: "This spe-
cimen is probably the type of Ptilocera continua Walk., E. E. 26.VII.1912/Java, A. R. Wallace/Presumed
HOLOTYPE of Ptilocera continua Walker, det. J. E. CHAINEY 1982 /HOLOTYPUS
Walker, 1851: 84, Mason & Rozkošný rev., 2009". Condition: The distal half of the left wing missing and the stron-
ger veins of the right wing broken proximally.
Ptilocera fastuosa Gerstaecker: Two syntypes (
and ) in ZMHB. The male lectotype is hereby designated
and labelled: "Ceylon, Nietn. [handwritten on grey label]/1857/Type [red label]/fastuosa Gerst. /Zool. Mus. Berlin/
Ptilocera fastuosa Gerstaecker, 1857: 332, F. Mason & R. Rozkošný det., 2010". The female
paralectotype, is labelled: "Ceylon Nietner S. [on yellow label]/Paratypus [red label]/Ptilocera fastuosa Gerstaeck.
/PARALECTOTYPUS , Ptilocera fastuosa Gerstaecker, 1857: 332, F. Mason & R. Rozkošný det.,
2010". Condition: Apical segment of right cercus in paralectotype missing. Relevant terminalia preserved in
microvials on same pin.
Diagnosis. Apical flagellomere completely brown in male and partly white in female. Metallic shining scales
on scutum arranged in more or less distinct paired longitudinal stripes, medial and lateral, both at least partly con-
fluent on each side of presutural area in males. Hair patches on abdominal tergite 5 in form of two transversely oval
and medially more or less open rings. Female wing with markedly reduced microtrichia.
(Figs 5–6, 15–16, 62, 95–100). Length (mm): body 5.6–11.0 (n = 85), wing 5.2–10.3 (n =
86). Head (Figs 15
16). Antenna completely brown to black (Figs 5–6, 97), last flagellomere 4.0–5.0 times as long
as penultimate flagellomere, basal flagellomere slightly longer than broad, two basal flagellomeres sometimes with
Thorax (Fig. 95) black, finely punctuate, scutum covered with very short reddish brown pile. Metallic irides-
cent scales covering presutural area of scutum except broad median band and continuing on postsutural area as
broad lateral longitudinal stripes. Medial stripes usually reduced in postsutural area. Scutellum (Fig. 95) slightly
convex dorsally, with iridescent scales distinct along broad margin. Scutellar spines slightly turned up, their distal
halves usually yellow to reddish brown, 0.5–0.7 as long as scutellum at middle. Wing (Fig. 62) blackish infuscated,
with yellowish, irregular, relatively narrow and contrasting transverse band. Apex and posterior wing margin in
apical third sometimes paler. Wing microtrichia partly reduced only on extreme wing base. Calypter dark brown,
with brown to black, dense and wool-like marginal hairs. Halter blackish, stalk usually somewhat paler. Legs black,
2 tarsomeres on mid and hind legs sometimes reddish brown.
Abdomen (Fig. 95) black, finely punctate, hair patches usually longitudinal or indistinct on tergite 3 and
oblique to transverse on tergite 4, a pair of transversely oval, ring-shaped and medially bare hair-patches distinct on
tergite 5. Male terminalia (Figs 98
100): Dorsal part (Fig. 100) as in other species, proctiger relatively short. Geni-
tal capsule (Fig. 98) somewhat tapered proximally, medial lobes on posterior margin high, almost pointed apically.
Gonostylus leaf-shaped, relatively broad. Posterolateral papillae of aedeagal complex with only one transverse,
subapical ridge and a basal group of hyaline spines (Fig. 99). Aedeagal apodeme transverse at proximal end.
Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 11
ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
Female (Figs 1, 2a, 7–9, 25, 32, 36, 51, 54, 63, 101–107). Length (mm): body 6.4–11.2 (n = 60), wing 5.9–9.8
(n = 59). Head. Frons black, punctate, with brownish to black, very short pile in upper half and two subtriangular or
rounded, silverish white tomentose spots usually being larger than in other species. Frontal index: 1.0–1.3 (avg =
1.1, n = 54). Antenna (Figs 7–9, 11, 103) dark brown, only pedicel and basal 1–2 flagellomere sometimes reddish
brown, apical flagellomere snow white at least on apical half. Basal flagellomere usually slightly longer than broad,
apical flagellomere about 2.5 times as long as penultimalte flagellomere. Palpus (Fig. 25) distictly broadened.
Scutum (Figs 1, 2a, 101) with mainly silverish, greenish to violet shining scales arranged into two pairs of longitu-
dinal stripes reaching base of scutellum and continuing on its broad margin. In presutural area medial and lateral
stripes fused only along anterior margin. Scales in presutural area of scutum (Fig. 36) subquadrate, with 3 teeth at
distal margin, distinctly shorter and clearly differing from those found in other females of all examined species (cf.
28). Prealar prominence (Fig 32) as in other species. Scutellar spines much shorter than in male, reaching
about ¼ of scutellum length at middle (Fig. 101). Wing mainly brown infuscated, irregular transverse yellowish
streak usually absent or at most indistinct (cf. wing of holotype, Fig. 63), wing microtrichia extensively reduced in
alula, basal part of anal cell, large area of posterior cubital cell and in proximal part of anterior cubital cell.
Calypter, halter and legs as in male. Pretarsus of fore leg as in Fig. 51. Abdomen (Figs 54, 101) mainly black, with
bluish reflections, finely punctuate. Hair patches on tergite narrow or broader, longitudinally oriented, on tergite 4
relatively narrow and oblique, ring-shaped as in male on tergite 5. Genital furca (Figs 105–107) usually with large
median aperture as in other species and deep median incision at posterior margin of frame.
Variation. The female apical flagellomere is sometimes almost completely white, at most indistinctly dark-
ened basally; on the other hand, in several specimens the white part is confined to the apical third or less. The trans-
verse yellowish streak on the wing is relatively narrow in the male but indistict or entirely missing in the female. A
reduction of the wing microtrichia is only very limited in the male and conspicuous in the female. The marginal
fringe of the female calypter is usually dark, rarely partly whitish. Some variation was noted in the extent of the
abdominal hair patches on tergites 3 and 4 in both sexes (cf. Figs 95–96, 101
Remarks. Most authors identified this species as P. fastuosa. The name of P. continua appears (in addition to
the original description by Walker 1851 from Java) only in Brunetti (1907), (two females named by Bigot from the
Andaman Islands). Edwards (1915) was the first to propose the synonymy of continua and fastuosa but his concept
was not accepted by subsequent authors. Kertész (1916) tried to separate the females of both “species” by a trans-
verse, irregular, yellow streak on the wing, which should be absent in continua, and his key was essentially
replaced by Brunetti (1923). P. fastuosa subsp. dilutiapicis Lindner has never been described, only the name is
listed in the Lindner´s paper from 1938.
Material examined. 244
and 285 (including 1 and 2 types). Cambodia: Siem Reap: Angkor
Thom. India: Assam
: Chabur, Doom Dooma, Tezpur. Kerala: Kallar; Trivandrum. Tamil Nadu: Anaimalai Hills;
Coimbatore; Madras [=Chennai]; Nilgiri Hills. Indonesia: Flores
. Java: Bibidjilan; Djampangs Mts; Djampang
Tengah; Sentani; Serdang; Soekaboemi [=Sukabumi]; Wynkoopsbay. Simeulue
: Sinabang. Sulawesi: Danowudu;
Manado; Utara; Dumoga Bone National Park. Sumatra
: Tanjung Morawa. Laos: Khammounane: Nongtevada;
Moung Sayaboury. Vientaine
: Ban Na Pheng; Vang Vieng. Malaysia: Pahang: Kuala Tembeling; Kedah: Jitra;
Pulau Langkawi , Sabah
: Bettotan near Sandakan; Sapulut, Batu Punggul; Selangor: Ulu Gombak. Myanmar
(without locality, 1
in BMNH); Nepal: Chitvan District, Sauraha National Park. Philippines: Leyte: Ormoc;
: Albey Province, Banahao Mt. [=Mount Banahaw]; Bataan; Caguscos, Libon; Los Banos; Makilling
Mt.; Manila. Masbate
: Moboarea. Mindanao: Bukidnon; Bukidusu; Davao; Dapitan; Kolambugan; Manalio;
Surigao; Tangcolan, Zamboanga Mt. Palawan
: Brooke´s Point. Panay. Singapore. Sri Lanka: Anniewatte;
Colombo Park; Gampaha Botanical Garden; Gannoruwa Timber Reserve; Galle Unawatuna; Gilimale; Henarath-
goda; Kahalla; Kandy; Katugastota; Kitulgala Jungle; Kott; Kurana; Labugama Reservoir; Maha-Oia; Matale; Mir-
igama Scout Camp; Lavinia Mt.; Nugegoda; Paradeniya; Rajavaka; Ratnapura; Suduganga; Sankt Uduvattakelle;
Uggalkalcota, Thailand: Chiang Mai
: Ban Pha Mon; Chiang Mai City, lower slopes of Doi Suthep Mts., 360 m,
(see photo by M. Kemal: Fig 2a). Loei: Na Haeo. Mae Hong Son: Pangmapha. Phuket: Koh Siray;
National Park Khao Phra Thaew; Nam Lang River; Phuket. Tak
: Sam Ngao, Bhunipol Dam. Vietnam: Nam Ha,
Pulo Condore [=Con Dao]; Tay Ninh. Data: from 15.i. to 18.xii. Examined specimens deposited in BMNH, BPBM,
CNC, CNBFVR, FSMU, IRSNB, MSNM, MHC, MHNG, MMB, RMNH, SMF, UCR, USNM, ZIB, ZMAN,
Distribution: Records from the Oriental Region are available from Nepal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
12 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
(India), continental India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines, W and E Malaysia, Indone-
sia (Simeulue, Sumatra, Java, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor and Sulawesi). In addition to material examined,
further localities are given in papers by Schiner (1868), Brunetti (1907, 1920, 1923, 1927), de Meijere (1916a),
Frey (1934) and Lindner (1937, 1955).
Probably all published records of P. fastuosa (= P. continua) from the Australasian Region actually refer to P.
violacea (as we could partly confirm by a study of the original material (see under P. violacea). The paralectotype
of Ptilocera amethystina from Sulawesi (see type material of P. amethystina) is conspecific with P. continua and
both alleged syntypes of P. smaragdina Snellen van Vollenhoven (not Walker) from Manado on Sulawesi (see
Woodley 2001: 136) belong to P. continua as well (see Remarks under P. smaragdina).
Ptilocera kerteszi sp. nov.
(Figs 12, 33, 37, 43, 45, 64, 108–109)
Ptilocera smaragdifera; Kertész 1916: 206, Lindner 1935: 43.
Type material. Female holotype in Honolulu (BPBM), labelled: "Indonesia, Celebes I., Lake Lindu, 900 m,
1.–5.i.1966/ R. Straatman, Malaise trap, Bishop/HOLOTYPE, Ptilocera kerteszi sp. nov., Mason & Rozkošný 2010
[red label]". Condition: nearly perfect, right antennal flagellum missing, left wing glued on label.
Diagnosis. Last flagellomere markedly short compared with other species, dark in male and snow white in
female, scutum and scutellum covered with black, short and erect hairs, discal cell hyaline, without microtrichia.
Scales on presutural area mixed with long hairs.
Description. Female (holotype) (Fig. 12, 33, 37, 43, 45, 64, 108–109). Length: body 9.4 mm, wing 8.4 mm.
Head as in other species, with eyes separated by frons occupying about 1/5 of head width. Ocellar tubercle promi-
nent, vertex about same length, both with inconspicuous black erect hairs. Frons with transverse depression in mid-
dle and a roundish, whitish tomentose spot on each side at eye margin. Frontal index 1.6. Upper half of frons
covered with very short black, erect hairs, lower half shining black and bare but with a reddish brown patch above
bases of antennae. Antenna (Figs 12, 109) with usual slender projections on flagellomeres 2–5. Scape slightly more
than twice as long as pedicel, both shining black. Basal two flagellomeres reddish brown, with pale sensory pits,
flagellomere 1 about 1.5 times longer than broad. Last flagellomere snow white, only 1.5 longer than preceding
flagellomere. Postocular area in dorsal view as broad as pedicel, shining black, without any pubescence, narrowed
in lateral view.
Thorax (Fig. 108) black, densely punctate, green and reddish violet iridescent scales covering almost entire
scutum and scutellum except broad median stripe that is tapered toward scutellum. Scales oval, mixed with long
setulae (Fig. 37). Bare area on anepisternum barely distinct. Scutum and scutellum with moderately dense black
erect hairs about as long as pedicel. Prealar prominence well developed (Fig. 33). Scutellum (Fig. 43) rather short
and broad, medial scutellar spines almost 0.4 as long as scutellum at middle. Wing membrane brownish infuscated,
more intensely along anterior margin in basal half. Extensive areas of wing membrane hyaline, without microtri-
chia; in addition to bare areas at wing base, alula, anal and cubital cells, the bare discal cell is apparently species-
specific (Figs 45, 64). Halter dark brown with pale stem, calypter with long dark brown hairs along margin. Legs
completely shining dark brown to black, tarsi with dense but short brown pubescence.
Abdomen (Fig. 108) black with bluish reflections especially on apical half. Hair patches short and oblique on
tergite 4 and transverse along anterior margin of tergite 5. Venter shining black, with mainly short and appressed
brownish pubescence. Female terminalia externally as in other species, not dissected as the female is unique.
Male. The male of this species was not available but it was apparently commented upon under the name
“smaragdifera” by Kertész (1916) and Lindner (1935). Kertész (l. c.) mentioned in his key only two diagnostic
characters, the long erect hairs on the scutum and scutellum and the pale discal cell. Lindner (l. c.) stated that his
unique male had only a short apical flagellomere (2.5 times longer than the preceding flagellomere) which is dark,
reddish at the tip. The scutal pattern is the same as in P. violacea and scales seem to be larger than in P. smaragdina
and more iridescent, rather emerald green. The four silverish spots on the bluish black abdomen are reportedly
somewhat yellowish, distinct along the anterior margin of tergites 4 and 5. The first pair is broadly separated at the
middle and the second pair is almost confluent, forming a transverse stripe. Legs are as in P. smaragdina.
Etymology. This species is named in honour of Dr. K. Kertész (1867
1922), a prominent European dipterist of
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
Hungarian origin, who was an editor of the first comprehensive catalog of the Palaearctic Diptera and was a
respected authority on the world Stratiomyidae in his time.
Remarks. Lindner (1935) followed Kertész (1916) in interpretation of the male of "P. smaragdifera" but
expressed doubt regarding the identity of the actual male of P. smaragdifera described by Walker (1859). Unfortu-
nately, all three male specimens of alleged P. smaragdifera were apparently lost. Walker´s male was not found in
BMNH (cf. already Brunetti 1923), Kertész´s specimen was destroyed by fire in Budapest in 1956 and Lindner´s
male, described from the G. Heinrich collection, was probably lost during World War II (cf. a
note in Hauser &
Distribution. The female holotype is described from the vicinity of Lindu Lake (Indonesia: Sulawesi).
Kertész´male originated from “Borneo” (probably Kalimantan) and Lindner´s specimen from Bantimoeroeng
Ptilocera paradisea Lindner, 1951
(Figs 53, 65, 110–114)
Ptilocera paradisea Lindner, 1951: 221.
Type material. Holotype in Basel (NMB), labelled: "Typus [red label]/O. Sumba, Melolo, 7.6.1949, Expedition
Bühler-Sutter/Holotypus [handwritten by Lindner]/Ptilocera paradisea Lindner, det. Lind. [handwritten in red
Ptilocera paradisea Lindner, 1951: 221. F. Mason & R. Rozkošný rev., 2009 [red label]".
Condition: perfect, terminalia dissected and preserved in a small microvial attached on same pin.
Diagnosis. This species is immediately distinguishable by paired submedial longitudinal stripes on presutural
area of scutum and extensive patch of golden pile on abdominal tergites 3–5. Wing brownish infuscated, with dif-
fuse pale transverse band in middle.
Description. Male (Figs. 53, 65, 110–114). Length (mm): body 9.0; wing 7.7 (only holotype examined). Head.
Upper frons with erect, very short hairs in front of anterior ocellus. Antenna as in Fig. 111, antennal scape brown,
pedicel light brown, flagellomeres uniformly dark brown. First two flagellomeres short and densely haired, with
sensory pits, basal flagellomere almost twice as long as broad, apical flagellomere 3.5 times as long as preceding
flagellomere. Lower frons bare, shining dark brown, with two small triangular silverish tomentose spots. Face cov-
ered with erect silverish white pile. Proboscis brown, with whitish hairs. Palpus brown, two-segmented. Postocular
area not distinct in upper part and very narrow in lower part of head in profile.
Thorax (Fig. 110) black, densely punctate, with shining golden scattered scales and with two shining, narrow,
longitudinal, emerald stripes ending at transverse suture. Postpronotal callus brown, with erect brownish hairs at
base; postalar callus blackish, prealar prominence rounded. Scutellum flattened, with slender, yellowish brown
spines. Medial spines distinctly longer than half length of scutellum at middle. Anepisternum densely punctate,
with very short and appressed brown pile. Wing pattern as in Fig. 65. Wing membrane brownish infuscated, with
pale (rather hyaline than yellowish) transverse band from crossvein R-M, through distal half of discal cell to basal
part of cell m
. Calypter brown, densely brownish haired along margin. Halter with brown stalk and black knob.
Legs: coxa, femur and tibia dark brown, tarsi yellowish brown.
Abdomen (Figs 53, 110) black to dark brown, without obvious reflections, finely punctate, with very fine
micropile. Tergite 1 and 2 with brown pile along lateral margins, tergite 3 with paired lateral hair patches consisting
of golden pile, similar but dense pilosity extensively covering tergite 4 and almost completely covering tergite 5
(Fig. 110). Sternites brown, mainly bare. Male terminalia (Figs 112–114): Proctiger (Fig. 114) unusually high, sub-
triangular, cerci not reaching beyond tip of proctiger. Genital capsule (Fig. 112) subquadrate, posterior medial pro-
cess of genital capsule bilobed, resembling that of P. continua but middle incision more pointed, gonostylus leaf-
shaped as in other species. Posterolateral papillae of aedeagal complex relatively long, with two transverse ridges
but without any basal hyaline spines (Fig. 113).
Material examined. Only the holotype from Indonesia (Lesser Sunda Islands: Sumba) is known.
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
14 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
Ptilocera quadridentata Fabricius, 1805
(Figs 2b, 3–4, 13, 17–20, 22–23, 38–41, 46–50, 55–56, 66–67, 115–127)
Stratiomys 4dentata Fabricius 1805: 86.
Type material. Two female syntypes in ZMUC, København. The lectotype, herewith designated, is labelled: "/
P:4dentata, Sumatra, Daldorff/Ptilocera 4dentata Wied./LECTOTYPUS Ptilocera quadridentata Fabricius 1805:
, Mason & Rozkošný des. 2008”. The second syntype is labeled the same except “/PARALECTOTYPUS Pti-
locera quadridentata Fabricius 1805: 86,
, Mason & Rozkošný des., 2008". Condition: Lectotype: tarsi of middle
right and hind legs missing. Paralectotype: tarsi of all right legs missing, posterior margin of wing membrane partly
Diagnosis. A species characterised by dense golden presutural area of scutum, only broad medial band in mid-
dle contrastingly black. Antenna entirely dark in male but distal half of apical flagellomere pale in female. Male
wing with relatively narrow, irregular transverse streak in middle, microtrichia on female wing reduced only in nar-
row longitudinal stripe in middle of posterior cubital cell in addition to some other small areas. Female calypter
with conspicuously white marginal fringe.
Description. Male (Figs 19, 23, 55–56, 66, 115–119): Length (mm): body 6.2–9.8, wing 5.2–8.7 (n = 41).
Head. Frontal spot relatively small, rounded, finely divided in middle (Fig. 19).
Antenna (Fig. 116) completely
brown, basal flagellomere slightly longer than broad, apical flagellomere 4.0–5.0 times as long as preceding
flagellomere. Face covered by tiny erect silvery pile except medial tubercle.
Thorax (Fig. 115) black, densely and finely punctate, with presutural area of scutum covered by dense velvety
golden pile and greenish iridescent scales. Golden area divided medially by a broad, mainly black, longitudinal
stripe that is widened toward suture . Scales relatively sparse on scutellum, four scutellar spines brown, yellowish
apically, about half as long as scutellum at middle (Fig. 115). Postpronotal callus black, brownish at top; postalar
callus black. Wing (Fig. 66) brown infuscated with transverse, well defined yellowish stripe from stigma to basal
half of anterior arm of cubital vein. Microtrichia reduced only at base of wing. Halter with brownish to yellowish
stem and darkened knob. Legs and coxae brown, tarsi brown, usually with golden pile.
Abdomen (Fig. 115) black, almost without reflections, finely punctate, with fine micropile. Paired hair patches
on tergite 4 in form of convergent, slightly sinuate stripes, tergite 5 with two extensive hair patches resembling
those of P. continua. Sternites black, covered by tiny silverish and appressed pile. Male terminalia (Figs 55–56,
117–119): epandrium quadrate, cerci barely reaching beyond apex of proctiger (119), medial process of genital
capsule bilobed, moderately concave at middle (Fig. 117), gonocoxal apodemes relatively long, aedeagal complex
with short posterolateral papillae provided with dense basal row of hyaline and flat spines (Fig. 118).
Female (Figs 2b, 13, 17–20, 22, 26, 38–41, 48–50, 55–56, 67, 120–127). Length (mm): body 6.6–11.7 (n =
88), wing 6.1–10.9 (n = 88). Head (Fig. 17, 20), ocellar triangle (Fig. 18). Lower frons black, with two large trian-
gular patches of appressed silverish pilosity at eye margins (Fig. 22). Frontal index: 0.8–1.5 (avg = 1.1, n = 79).
Antenna (Figs 13, 122) dark brown, only distal quarter of apical flagellomere snow white. Basal flagellomere sub-
quadrate, apical flagellomere about 4.5 times longer than preceding flagellomere. Basal segment of palpus dark,
with mixed whitish and brown pile, apical segment velvety brown (Fig. 26), Thorax (Figs 120, 123) black as in
male, presutural area of scutum covered by medially divided golden area as in male, scales in presututal area of
scutum elongate oval with apical tip (Fig. 35), in anterior part mixed with slightly dilated setulae inserted in globu-
lar basal structures (Fig. 39). Pile on postsutural area consisting mainly of long and more dilated setulae (Fig. 40).
Scutellum (Fig. 120) with scattered silverish scales and four rather short yellowish to brown spines, medial spines
barely reaching 1/3 of scutellar length at middle. Anterior spiracle oblong (Fig. 47), prealar prominence as in other
species (cf. Figs 30–34). Wing (Fig. 67) uniformly brown infuscated, without yellowish transverse streak that is
present in male. Bare areas limited, confined to basal cells, alula, very narrow longuitudinal stripe along middle of
posterior cubital cell and at most small patch at base of anterior cubital cell. Calypter brown with long white mar-
ginal hairs (Fig. 46), halter as in Fig. 48 and its surface sensillae in Fig. 49. Legs black, tarsi covered with brownish
pile (apical tarsomeres of fore tarsus in Fig. 50). Abdomen mainly black, with bluish reflections, finely punctate.
Short appressed pile on abdominal tergites consisting of slender setulae inserted in globular structures (Fig. 41).
Hair patches (Figs 120–121) represented by oblique stripes on tergites 3–4 and oval, ring-shaped spots on tergite 5.
Female terminalia (Figs 124–127): Apical segment of cercus relatively short (Fig. 124), subgenital plate long and
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
tapered distally as in other species (Fig. 127), genital furca (Figs 125–126) with large median aperture, differently
concave posterior margin of frame and distinct prominences at inner base of posterolateral projections.
Variation. Some variation was noted in females: a reddish brown spot above the antennae may be more or less
distinct, the basal flagellomere may be reddish brown to dark brown and the posterior cubital cell may be rarely
completely covered with microtrichia.
Remarks. The characteristic pattern of the thorax and abdomen may be sometimes less distinct in older speci-
mens. But then the males may be distinguished by the characteristric terminalia with species-specific aedeagal
complex and the females by the conspicuously white marginal fringe of calypter in combination with the character-
istically coloured last antennal flagellum.
Material examined. 129
, 218 (including female lectotype and paralectotype). Oceania: Fidji (introd.).
Oriental Region: Cambodia: Siem Reap
: Angkor Thom. Indonesia: Java: Baros; Batavia [=Jakarta]; Batoer-
raden; Bibidjilan, Banten; Bogor [=Buitenzorg]; Depok; Djampang Mts.; Gunung Banter; Gunung Gedeh; Gunung
Slamat; Jampang Tengah; Malang; Oengaran [=Ungaran]; Padang; Pelaboean Ratoe [=Pelabuhan Ratu]; Preanger
[=Priangan]; Radjamandala; Semarang; Soekaboemi [=Sukabumi]; Tjiangsana; Tjibarangbang; Tjibodas, Tjiogreg;
Tjimerang; Wynkoopsbay. Kalimantan
: Barabei. Sumatra: Fort de Kock [=Bukitinggi]; Kambang; Medan; Padang
Tarap; Tandjung; Tapanoeli. Sumbawa
: Sepanjang. Laos: Bolikhamxai: Ban Nape. Malaysia: Pahang: Kuala Tem-
beling; Lata Lembik, Raub; Penang. Sabah
: Danum Valley; Ranau; Poring. Sarawak: Mount Dulit [3°20´N,
: Hulu Langat. Sembilan Islands: Lukut, Negri. Philippines: Palawan: Brooke´s Point, Tigo-
plan River; Porto Princessa; Tarumpitao. Singapore. Thailand: Chiang Mai
: Don Inthanon; Khun Klang;
Samoeng. Mae Hong Son
: Ban Nam Rin, Nakhon Ratchasima: Khao Yai National Park. Trang: Khao Chong trail,
near Forest Research Station. Vietnam: Nam Ha, Pulo Condore [=Con Dao]. Palaearctic Region: Japan (introd.).
Data: from 24.i. to 31.xii. Examined specimens deposited in BMNH, BPBM, CAS, CNC, FSMU, IRSNB, MHC,
MSNM, MMB, RMNH, SMF, USNM, ZMAN, ZMHB.
We also examined 3 puparial exuviae (without cephalic capsule) pinned with emerged adults, labelled Batavia
[=Jakarta, Java], April 1908, in ZMAN (cf. Figs 3–4).
A female (Fig. 2b) was photographed by N. Messina at Poring, Ranau District in Malaysian Sabah, in an eco-
tonal area of a lowland forest of Dipterocarpaceae, basking in sun on a leaf of Musa paradisiaca, June 10, 2008 at
8 a. m. (N. Messina, pers. comm., 2010).
Distribution. This species was recorded in the Oriental Region from Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam,
Philippines, Malaysia including Sabah and Sarawak, Singapore, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi,
Sumbawa); it is apparently missing in western part of the Oriental Region (including India, Myanmar, Nepal and
Sri Lanka) but its incidence in southern China is highly possible. The published records include localities from the
Philippines (Walker 1856a), Java and Sumatra (Fabricius 1805, Walker 1849, Gerstaecker 1857, Wulp 1881, de
Meijere 1904, 1911, 1916b, 1918, Enderlein 1914, Edwards 1915, Frey 1934, Lindner 1937), Kalimantan (de
Meijere 1907), Sulawesi (Walker 1861c), West Malaysia (Brunetti 1927), Sarawak (Walker 1856b), Singapore
(Walker 1858) and Thailand (Brunetti 1923). We can document the occurrence of this species in Cambodia, Laos
and Vietnam for the first time.
In BMNH we found a female from Japan (Yokohama, 25.v.1906, presented by Brunetti , B.M, 1927–184, iden-
tified by D. Hollis). It was probably introduced to Japan from the Oriental Region with some wood material (the
larva was found under the bark of trees, see the Introduction). Likewise the occurrence of 3 specimens from Fiji
, 18.iv.1954 1 , H. W. Simmonds, in BMNH) indicates an introduction from the Oriental Region.
Records from the Australasian Region published by Walker (1858, 1860, 1861a, 1861b, 1861c, 1866) and van
der Wulp (1898) belong actually to P. violacea (see Distribution of this species).
Ptilocera simplex sp. nov.
(Figs 14, 68–69, 128–135)
Type material. Holotype, : "NE India, Meghalaya State, West Gard Hills, reg. Tura, 700±100 m, N 25°30.7' E
90°13.9', 7.V.1996, E. Jendek & O. Šauša leg./HOLOTYPUS Ptilocera simplex Mason & Rozkošný det., 2009", in
ZIB, terminalia in a plastic microvial on the same pin. Paratypes, 1
, 2 : "NE India, Gopaldhara, Darjeeling,
3440-4720 ft, 13.vii.1914 1
, 21.vii.1914 1 , H. Stevens, presented by Brunetti, B.M. 1927-186", in BMNH and
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
16 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
"Thailand, Mae Hong Son Province, Pangmapha District, near Pha Mon waterfall, larva under bark, 2.x.2004, 1
emerged 17.v.2005, D. Kovac", in SMF. Condition: both flagella of the holotype glued on a label, apical part of the
Diagnosis. Male flagellomeres without any lateral projections, about distal third of the apical flagellomere
snow-white. Female flagellomeres 2–5 with usual projections, last flagellomere completely snow white. Male ter-
minalia species-specific, with slender and pointed posterolateral projections on aedeagal complex, abdomen with
characteristic hair patches in both sexes.
Description. Male (Figs 14, 68, 128, 130, 132–134). Length (mm): body 6.9–8.0 (n = 2), wing 6.9 (n = 1).
Head. Upper frons with very short black hairs, lower frons with a small, triangular, whitish tomentose spot at each
eye margin. Antenna (Figs 14, 130) black with snow white tip, scape unusually long, about three times as long as
pedicel, flagellomeres simple, short densely haired, without slender lateral projections, ratio of flagellomere length
from base is 0.8, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.0, 1.4, 1.4 and 4.0. Last flagellomere stout but tapered beyond middle and with
pointed tip, white in apical third. Face shining black, covered with erect whitish hairs, hairs on facial tubercle
below antennae sparser and shorter. Postocular area indistict in profile, only postgena narrowly prominent, covered
with fairly long, white, erect hairs. Proboscis brown, stout, with sparse brownish hairs. Palpus brown, two-seg-
Thorax (Fig. 128) black, densely and finely punctate, with mainly blue to green shining scales especially dis-
tinct in presutural area of scutum except for a broad, medial, longitudinal band. Medial and lateral longitudinal
stripes more distinct in postsutural area. Postpronotal callus mainly black with only small top brown, with erect
black hairs at base; postalar callus black. Bare medial stripe on anepisternum long and polished, proepisternum
with long black hairs. Scutellum with relatively sparse scales along margin, scutellar spines slender, medial pair as
long as 0.4–0.5 length of scutellum at middle. Wing (Fig. 68) brown, covered with dense brown microtrichia, only
alula mainly bare. Transverse yellowish stripe in middle indistinct or quite absent. Calypter black, densely haired
with brown to black hairs along margin. Halter with yellowish stem and darkened knob. All legs including coxae
and entire tarsi black, mid basitarsus markedly more slender than fore and hind basitarsus (as in other species of
Abdomen (Fig. 128) black with slightly bluish reflections, finely punctate, micropile dense and black dorsally
and indistinct, pale on venter. Sparse rounded hair patches on tergite 4, silverish, paired, subtriangular hair patches
distinct on tergite 5. Male terminalia (Figs 132–134): epandrium subquadrate, cerci only slightly reaching beyond
proctiger (Fig. 134), genital capsule (Fig. 132) subquadrate, somewhat tapered proximally, medial process broadly
spatulate, hind margin essentially truncate, gonostylus leaf-shaped. Posterolateral papillae without transverse
ridges and basal hyaline spines but with a long, inwardly curved and distally pointed projection on outer side of
each papilla (Fig. 133).
Female (Figs 69, 129, 131, 135). Length (mm): body 7.1–8.2, wing 6.9–7.9 (n=2). Head. Frons black, with
brownish pile in the upper part and with two large subtriangular spots of whitish tomentum at eye margin below
middle. Frontal index 1.2 (n=2). Antenna (Fig. 131) dark brown or black, apical flagellomere completely snow
white, barely twice as long as preceding one. Penultimate flagellomere unusually long, about 6.0–7.0 times as long
as broad. Basal flagellomere longer than broad. Proboscis short, brown, covered by brown pile. Palpus two-seg-
mented, apical segment oval, large and compressed, velvety rusty brown. Postocular area with appressed pile along
eye margin. Thorax (Fig. 129) black as in male, densely and finely punctate, scutum entirely covered by very short
and fine black pile and with shining iridescent scales covering presutural area of scutum as in male but medial and
lateral stripes broader and more distinct than in male. Scutellum (Fig. 129) with silverish to violet scales along
broad margin. Four, stout, yellowish scutellar spines shorter than in male, medial spines only about 0.2 times as
long as scutellum at middle. Wing (Fig. 69) mostly covered with dense microtrichia, particularly dark in the basal
radial and median cells, transverse yellowish streak in middle absent. Calypter brown with whitish marginal fringe.
Halter with darkened knob and brownish stem. Legs black with pale brownish haired tarsi. Abdomen (Fig. 129)
mainly black, with bluish reflections, finely punctate. Large paired hair patches distinct on tergites 3–5, those on
tergite 5 transverse, almost suboblong. Genital furca (Fig. 135) pointed proximally, with a large median aperture
and usual posterolateral projections, posterior middle incision of frame shallow.
Etymology. The specific name simplex refers to the simple male antenna without any projections on the flagel-
Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 17
ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
Variation. Considering the limited material available, only small differences in the extent of abdominal hair
patches were recorded in both sexes.
Remark. The description of the female is based on the specimen collected in association with a male in the
same locality in NE India: Gopaldhara, Darjeeling.
Material examined. 2
and 3 (type series).
Distribution. Northeastern India and North Thailand.
Ptilocera smaragdina Walker, 1849
(Figs 27–29, 34, 42, 70–71, 136–153)
Ptilocera smaragdina Walker 1849: 525.
Ptilocera smaragdina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857: 92. Primary homonym of Ptilocera smaragdina Walker, 1849.
Ptilocera smaragdifera Walker, 1859: 94, syn. nov.
Type material. P. smaragdina: The female holotype is deposited in BMNH and labelled: "Type/Philippine Is., Pur-
chased Cumming. /One of Walkers series so named/Holotype [in red circle], HOLOTYPE Ptilocera smaragdina
Walker, det. J. E. Chainey 1982/HOLOTYPUS
Ptilocera smaragdina Walker, 1849: 525, F. Mason & R. Roz-
košný det., 2009". Condition: left flagellum absent and right flagellum partly missing, mid left leg absent, right
wing broken at costal vein.
P. smaragdina Snellen van Vollenhoven: Location of syntypes unknown (see Remarks).
P. smaragdifera Walker: Two female syntypes are deposited in BMNH and labelled: "Celebes, Macassar, A. R.
Wallace, purchased Stevens [round greyish label]/ SYNTYPE, Ptilocera smaragdifera Walker, det. J. E. Chainey
1982, SYNTYPE ?" [in azure circle]/. One of them is herewith designated as "LECTOTYPUS
smaragdifera Walker 1859: 94, Mason & Rozkošný des. 2009" [red label] and the second as "PARALECTOTY-
. Both are conspecific with the holotype of P. smaragdina. Condition of the lectotype fairly bad, (last three
antennal flagellomeres missing, left wing broken at discal cell, glued on plastic label). Condition of the paralecto-
type much worse (thorax broken, only a half of left wing present, all legs missing).
Diagnosis. Antenna completely brown to black in both sexes. Male abdomen with only two very small hair
patches on tergite 4 and transversely subtriangular patches on tergite 5. Female usually with extensively reduced
wing mictrotrichia as in P. continua but relatively narrow and longitudinal hair patches on tergites 3 and 4; tergite 5
with transversely subtriangular or almost linear patches.
Description. Male (Figs 70, 136–141): Length (mm): body 8.7–9.5 (n=5), wing 8.5–9.0 (n=5) Head. Lower
frons shining black, only slightly testaceous near bases of antennae, with small, reverse heart-shaped, finely
divided medially, silverish tomentose spots along each eye margin. Antenna (Fig. 137) completely brown to black,
basal flagellomere longer than broad, sometimes reddish brown. Apical flagellomere long, about 5.0 times as long
as preceding flagellomere. Palpus brown, with apical segment distally truncate and brown haired.
Thorax (Fig. 136) black, finely punctate, scutum covered with short black pile and shining purple to bluish-
green, green and silverish scales arranged into four longitudinal stripes. Medial pair reaching to transverse suture
but lateral pair continuing to base of scutellum. Scutellum (Fig. 136) margined with iridescent scales, with brown
and slightly upturned spines, medial spines as long as 0.4–0.5 of scutellar length at middle. Wing (Fig. 70) with dis-
tal half somewhat less infuscated than proximal half, pale transverse streak in middle of wing reaching from costa
to lower margin of discal cell, relatively broad. Proximal part of axillary cells and basal half of alula bare. Calypter
brown, with dense brown hairs along margin. Legs brown and brownish haired but slender basitarsus of mid leg
Abdomen (Fig. 136) black, finely punctate, paired small hair patches present on tergite 4, tergite 5 with two
well separated subtriangular to transverse patches. Male terminalia (138–141): tergites 6–8 as in Fig. 138, epan-
drium subquadrate (Fig. 141), medial process of genital capsule gently concave (Fig. 139), posterolateral papillae
on aedeagal complex rather short, without transverse ridge but with a group of small, hyaline and flattened spines
at base (Fig. 140).
Female (Figs 27–29, 34, 42, 71, 142–153). Length (mm): body 6.0–10.7 (n = 9), wing: 5.9–9.0 (n = 9) Head.
Tomentose patches at inner eye margin as in other species. Frontal index: 0.8–1.5 (avg = 1.2, n = 8). Antenna (Figs
144–145) completely black, lateral projections on flagellomeres 3 and 4 usually paler. Basal flagellomere slightly
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
18 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
broader than long, sometimes reddish brown, apical flagellomere about 4–5 times as long as preceding flagellom-
ere. Palpus large and dark brown, two-segmented (Fig. 27). Scutum (Figs 142–143) black, densely punctate, with
short pile, covered with metallic iridescent appressed scales (Fig. 42). In dorsolateral view relatively broad longitu-
dinal stripes more or less visible although only indistinctly separated in presutural area. Scutellum covered with rel-
atively sparse scales and with four stout but short, brown to yellow spines, medial spines only 0.2–0.3 times as long
as scutellum at middle. Anepisternum with fairly large bare area (Fig. 28), prealar prominence as in other species
(Figs 28–29, 34). Wing membrane (Fig. 71) bare on alula, proximal part of anal cell, extensive central part of pos-
terior cubital cell and base of anterior cubital cell. Transverse yellowish streak in middle of wing moderately dis-
tinct but less conspicuous than in male. Calypter brown, with wooly, white (rarely blackish) marginal fringe. Legs
mainly black, only middle and hind basitarsi yellow. Abdomen black, with black, bluish or violet reflections, finely
punctate, tergites 3 and 4 usually with well defined subrectangular to narrow and longitudinally oriented hair
patches, tergite 5 with two usually transverse and narrow to subtriangular patches at anterior margin (Figs 142–143,
148–153). Genital furca as in Figs 146–147.
Variation. In the female the first and second flagellomeres may be ochre yellow to dark brown, the tips of the
scutellar spines also vary from yellow to dark brown as well as the colour of basitarsus on the mid and hind leg.
The reduction of microtrichia on the female wing membrane is usually as extensive as in the females of P. conti-
nua. The yellowish transverse streak at the middle of the wing is more or less distinct and also the shape of the
abdominal hair patches varies in both sexes. Rarely the female hair fringe along the margin of the calypter may be
darkened. In extreme cases the hair pattern on tergite 4 may resemble that of P. continua (cf. Figs 148–153).
Remarks. The synonymy of P. smaragdina and P. smaragdifera proposed here is based on a comparison of the
type material of both species and fixed by the lectotype designation of P. smaragdifera. Walker´s (1859) superficial
original description of P. smaragdifera is based on a male but Brunetti (1923) stated that only 2 females (identified
probably by Walker) were available in BMNH in reasonable condition and J. E. Chainey labelled them as syntypes
of P. smaragdifera in 1982 (cf. Woodley 2001: 136) . Recently we found in the BMNH a third female collected also
at Macassar [=Ujung Pandang] by A. R. Wallace (see Material examined).
P. smaragdina Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1857 is preoccupied by P. smaragdina Walker, 1849 and was consid-
ered to be identical with P. smaragdifera already by Edwards (1915). We tried to find the syntypes of P. smarag-
dina Snellen van Vollenhoven that should be deposited in ZMAN (Woodley 2001: 136) but without any success. In
RMNH there is a pair of specimens from the type locality Manado (Sulawesi) labelled as “Syntype (red label), P.
smaragdina v.Voll., Coll. F. M. v. d. Wulp”. These specimens are evidently conspecific but especially the female
differs considerably from the original description where the female is characterised by the completely black last
flagellomere. Actually both specimens belong to P. continua (with markedly, although only partly, white last
flagellomere in the female) and their diagnostic characters are significantly distinct from the original description so
that we believe they are not syntypes of P. smaragdina Snellen van Vollenhoven. Nevertheless, this erroneous des-
ignation of syntypes may explain the fact that van der Wulp (1896) proposed the name P. smaragdina Snellen van
Vollenhoven as a synonym of P. fastuosa (=P. continua).
Material examined. 38
, 40 (including 3 female type specimens). Indonesia: Sulawesi: Macassar
[=Ujung Pandang], 1
, A. R. Wallace, in BMNH. Kendari, iv. 1874 3 , 1 , O. Beccari, in MSNG. Utara, Mage
Dumoga National Park, Torant Base camp, 200 m, Project Wallace 1985, 15.v.1985 1
, M. R. Wilson, in BMNH.
Lueuk Bunga, Malaise trap, 300 m, 1.xi.1989 1
, C. V. Achterberg, in RMNH. Philippines: Leyte: Utap,
30.xii.1957 1 m, in BPBM. Luzon
: Los Banos, viii.1916 2 , F. X. Williams, in BPBM; 2 , P. I. Baker, in
MSNM. Manila, 11.iv.1918 2
, 4 , 15.ix.1918 4 , 15.x.1918 17 , 13 , 15.xi.1918 1 , 2 , 5.vi.1919 1 ,
; all Mc Gregor, all in MSNM. Mt. Makiling, 1 , Baker, in USNM; 30.iv.1968 1 , M. D. Delfi-
nado; Dalton Pass, 915 m, Nueva Vizcaya, 9.–10.iv.1968 1
, D. E. Hardy; all in BPBM. Mindanao: Butuan, 1 ,
McGregor; Cotabato Province, Polo near base of Mt. Matutum, 600 m, 14.viii.1958 1 m, H.E. Milliron, in BPBM.
, P. I. Baker; both in MSNM. Negros Or.: Basig, 16.xii.1959 1 f, L. W. Quate, in BPBM. Masbate:
Moboarea, 28.xii.1986 1
, C. K. Starr, 1 , in USNM. Papua New Guinea: New Britain: Bismarck I., Yalon,
1000 m, 20.v.1962 1
, 2 , Noona Dan Expedition 1961–1963, in ZMUC. Keravat, 23.–30.vi.1965 3 , R. W.
Crosskey; Mosa, Palm Oil Plantation near Hoskins, 0–200 m, January 1969 1
, Mrs. J. E. Benson, B.M.
1970–162; all in BMNH. Gazelle Peninsula, Gaulim, 140 m, 21.–27.x.1962 1
, 1 , 19.–20.xi. 1962 1 and
100–150 m, 20.–28.xi.1962, 1
, all J. Sedlacek, all in BPBM.
Distribution. This species was described from the Philippines and later recorded in Sulawesi. Some earlier
data concerning Ujung Pandang (Walker 1859), Sangir (de Meijere 1911), Latimodjonggebirge-Uru and Talassa
Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 19
ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
(Maros) (Lindner 1935) from Sulawesi are probably correct. Records by Kertész (1916) from “Borneo” and Lind-
ner (1935) from Bantimoeroeng in Sulawesi under “smaragdifera” refer actually to P. kerteszi sp. nov. A record
from Sri Lanka (Wulp 1896) needs revision (the original documentary material was destroyed in Budapest in
1956). Surprisingly we recorded this species also in New Britain (Papua New Guinea), where it was probably intro-
duced. A record of Ptilocera sp. by Kertész (1916: 206) from Neu-Pommern [=New Britain] very probably also
refers to this species.
Osten Sacken (1881) recorded about 30 specimens under P. smaragdina Snellen van Vollenhoven. In the origi-
nal collection (MSNG) only 7 specimens were found in good condition, 4 of which from Kendari (Sulawesi) actu-
ally belong to P. smaragdina in the present concept (see Material examined) and 3 to P. violacea (see under this
Ptilocera violacea Edwards, 1915
(Figs 72–73, 154–161).
Ptilocera violacea Edwards, 1915: 394.
Type material. The female holotype is deposited in BMNH and labelled: "Ptilocera violacea, Type Edw. /Dutch
N. Guinea, Mimika River, viii.1910, A.P.R. Wollaston, 1911–229./Holotype [circular label with a red circle],
HOLOTYPE Ptilocera violacea Edwards, det. J. E. Chainey 1982/HOLOTYPE
Ptilocera violacea Edwards
1915: 394, F. Mason & R. Rozkošný det. 2009". Condition perfect, terminalia dissected and preserved in a
microvial attached on the same pin. The original female paratype is provided with the same locality label.
Diagnosis. Pedicel and basal two flagellomeres reddish yellow to red in both sexes, female basal flagellomere
usually broader than long, tip of female apical flagellomere whitish. Apical flagellomere about 4.0 times longer
than preceding flagellomere in both sexes. Silverish hair patches on abdomen longitudinal on tergite 3 and trans-
verse on tergite 5. Microtrichia on female wing at most slightly reduced on narrow longitudinal stripe in middle of
posterior cubital cell, marginal fringe on female calypter white.
Description. Male (Figs 72, 154, 156, 158–60). Length (mm): body 8.3–0.1, (n=5), wing 5.9–8.0 (n=5). Head.
Antenna (Fig. 136) with scape brown to black, pedicel and basal two flagellomeres usually reddish yellow to red,
apical flagellomere entirely black, about 4.0 times as long as preceding flagellomere. Basal flagellomere narrower
than in female although only slightly longer than broad. Frons with two small subtriangular spots of silverish
tomentum at inner eye margin. Face covered by fine erect silverish hairs except on medial tubercle. Proboscis
brown, stout, with brownish pile. Second segment of palpus flattened, subtriangular.
Thorax (Fig. 154) dark, densely and finely punctate, covered by very short black pile and moderately spaced
metallic iridescent scales occupying presutural area of scutum except a broad medial stripe and distinct along
whole notopleura to base of scutellum. Postpronotal callus brownish at top, postalar callus usually dark. Scutellar
spines about as long as half length of scutellum, predominantly reddish yellow. Bare part of anepistenum confined
to a spot at notopleural suture. Wing (Fig. 72) with transverse yellowish stripe extending from costa to lower mar-
gin of discal cell, wing membrane beyond it paler than in basal half. Halter with yellowish stem and darkened
knob. Calypter with narrow blackish margin and dense brown marginal fringe. Legs and coxae brown to black,
only mid and hind tarsi entirely ochre yellow.
Abdomen (Fig. 154) black with light bluish to violet reflections, finely punctate, with fine micropile. White
longitudinal hair patches present on tergite 3, bow-shaped along lateral and posterior margin of tergite 4 and in
shape of transverse stripe (or two transverse spots) along anterior half of tergite 5. Sternites black, covered by
inconspicuous silverish brown appressed pile. Male terminalia (Figs. 158–160): epandrium subquadrate (Fig. 159),
medial process of genital capsule markedly bilobate (Fig. 158), bases of posterolateral papillae on aedeagal com-
plex without transverse ridges but with numerous hyaline flat spines at bases, spines elongated on outer side (Fig.
Female (Figs 73, 155, 157, 161): Length (mm): body 8.5–10.5 (n=5), wing 5.8–8.4 (n = 5). Head. Antenna
(Fig. 157) predominantly dark brown, except snow white tip of apical flagellomere. Flagellomere 1–2 bright yel-
low to pale brown, both broader than long, all lateral antennal projections dark brown. Frons relatively deeply
excavated in middle. Upper half of frons black, covered with short, erect and very dense black hairs. Lower half of
frons shining black, paired, round or semicircular, silverish tomentose spots distinct on each side at eye margin
MASON & ROZKOŠNÝ
20 · Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press
below middle. Elevation above antennae with diffuse reddish patch. Face shining black, covered with silvery pile
reduced on facial prominence. Proboscis short, brown, covered with brown pile. Basal segment of palpus sparsely
whitish and brownish haired, apical segment rounded, velvety brown. Postocular area with appressed whitish vel-
vety pile along eye margin. Thorax (Fig. 155) black as in male, densely and finely punctate, entirely covered by
very short and fine pile and with mainly green to violet shining scales covering mainly prescutellar area of scutum.
Relatively broad longitudinal medial stripes and longitudinal band between postpronotal and postalar callus more
or less distinct. Scutellum with silver to violet scales along broad margin. Four short and stout spines mainly dark
brown to black, barely as long as one-fourth of scutellar length at middle (Fig. 155). Wing (Fig. 73) with more or
less distinct pale transverse streak, covered with dense microtrichia, darker in basal radial and medial cells.
Microtrichia in posterior cubital cell reduced along narrow longitudinal medial stripe. Marginal hair fringe of
calypter white. Legs black with brownish pile, only basal 2 tarsomeres of mid and hind legs more brownish. Abdo-
men mainly black, with bluish reflections, finely punctate. Narrow whitish hair patches oriented longitudinally on
sides of tergites 2–4, transverse, medianly divided hair patch distinct on tergite 5 (Fig. 155). Genital furca (Fig.
161) with a large median aperture.
Variation. The colour of the pedicel and basal two flagellomeres are usually bright red in both sexes but some-
times also the scape is reddish apically or the pedicel is darkened. A transverse yellowish stripe on the female wing
can be slightly developed or quite absent. Microtrichia on the posterior cubital cell in the female are barely
reduced, not nearly as extensively as in P. continua and P. smaragdina. Hair patches on the male tergites with a pale
yellow to golden shade, those on tergite 4 confined to lateral markings or continuing along its posterior margin. The
two transverse hair patches on female tergite 5 are sometimes reduced, and narrow.
Remarks. Edwards (1915) designated two females from Mimika River as the holotype and paratype. He also
mentioned 2 males and 1 female from the Aru Islands but he did not include them in the original type series. We
examined a male which was erroneously labelled as a “paratype” of Ptilocera violacea Edwards by J. E. Chainey in
1982 and we can confirm that it is conspecific with the holotype.
Edwards (1915) tried to distinguish the male of this species from P. smaragdifera (=P. smaragdina) by the kink
at the base of the last flagellomere. However, we found that such a kink may also occur in some males of other spe-
cies (e.g. P. continua, P. quadridentata and P. smaragdina) and apparently has no diagnostic value.
Material examined. 15
and 16 (including female holotype and paratype). Indonesia: Maluku, Kepu-
lauan Aru, 1
, A. R. Wallace, in BMNH (labelled as “paratype” by J. E. Chainey, see Remarks); 1 , O. Beccari,
in MSNG. Bacan, Kamping Wayamiga, 27.vii.1981 1
, A.C. Messer. Halmahera, Jailolo, Kampung Pasir Putih,
0°53´N, 127°41´E, 1. –14.i.1981 1
, 15.–31.i.1981 1 , A. C. Messer & P. M. Taylor; Pulau Tidore, Kampung
Guaepaji, 5. –10.vii.1981 1
, A. C. Messer; Irian Jaya: Dorey [= Dory near Manokwari], 1 , A. R.Wallace, in
BMNH. Hollandia [=Jayapura], January 1945 1
, May 1945 1 , B. Malkin; Maffin Bay, 10.vi.1944 1 , E.S.
Ross; all in USNM. Ifar Gunung, 15.xii.1957 1
, G. den Hoed; Meja Reserve near Manokwari, 0°52´S 134°06´E,
, ZMAN Exp.; both in ZMAN. Papua New Guinea: Ramoi, 1873 1 , 1 , O. Beccari, in MSNG.
Finschhafen, 13.xii.1944 2
, D. G. Hall, in USNM; 180 m, 16.iv.1963 1 m, J.Sedlacek, in BPBM. Kokoda, 200 ft,
, 1 , ix.–x. 1933 1 ; Aitape, 10.ix.1936 1 ; all L. E. Cheesman; all in BMNH. Central Mts.,
Archbold Lake, 760 m, 26.xi. –3.xii.1961 1 f, S. Quate, in BPBM. Central District, Gaile Forest, 28 km SE of Port
Moresby, 4.v.1965 1
, R. W. Crosskey, in BMNH. Avar bush, st. 1071, 11.v.1982 1 , P. Grootaert, in IRSNB.
Tikeling nr. Buso River, 20 km E Lae, lowland rainforest, 17.vii.1999 1
, Yeates et al., in USNM. Tsenga, 1200
m, Upper Gimi Valley, 15.vii.1955 1
, J. L. Gressit; Wau, 1200, 15.x.1965 1 , 1 , 15.xii.1965 1 , J. & M. Sed-
lacek, all in BPBM.
Distribution. Apparently only found in the Australasian Region from Maluku to Irian Jaya and Papua New
Guinea. Described from Irian Jaya (Mimika River) and also recorded from Kepualan Aru [Maluku] (Edwards
1915) and Klamono Oil-Fields [Irian Jaya] (Lindner 1957), both in Indonesia. P. violacea was apparently misinter-
preted as P. quadridentata in all papers concerning the Australasian Region published by F. Walker from Indonesia:
Aru and Maluku (Walker 1858), Amboina [=Ambon] (Walker 1860), Batchian [=Bacan] and Kaisaa [=Kajoa
Island] (Walker 1861c); Gilolo [=Halmahera], Ceram [=Seram] (Walker 1861b); Irian Jaya: Dorey [=Dory near
Manokwari] (Walker 1861a); Salwatty [=Salavati] (Walker 1866). According to present information (e-mail from
N. Wyatt, 20 November 2010) no specimens from the Australasian Region are placed under P. quadridentata in the
BMNH. Some specimens from the Australasian Region identified originally by F. Walker were identified as P.
violacea already by Edwards (1915). They all were collected by A. R. Wallace and partly also confirmed by our
Zootaxa 3007 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 21
ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
recent revision (see a male from Kepulauan Aru and a female from Dory in Irian Jaya). Data on P. smaragdina
Snellen van Vollenhoven by Osten-Sacken (1881) from Maluku: Amboina (=Ambon), Ternate Island and New
Guinea apparently belonged also to P. violacea (we found 3 specimens in the original collection [MSNG], see
Material examined). Likewise, specimens recorded as P. quadridentata from Papua New Guinea by van der Wulp
(1898) (Friedrich Wilhelmshafen [=Madang] and Erima in Astrolabe Bay) were evidently conspecific with P.
violacea. Wulp´s original material had been deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest but
was destroyed by fire in 1956.
A record from Manokwari (Irian Jaya) was published by de Meijere (1906) under P. fastuosa (=P. continua)
and Lindner (1938) mentioned Wewak and Aitape in Papua New Guinea under the same name.
Our thanks are due to the colleagues who provided material for our study, sent some valuable information on types
and other older material or made some rare literary sources available for us: C. van Achterberg (Leiden, via M.
Hauser), P. Audisio (Rome), U. Barelli (Amsterdam), D. Birtele and A. Zanetti (Verona), M. Brancucci and D.
Burckhardt (Basel), P. Cerretti (Verona), J. Cumming (Ottawa), M. Daccordi (Verona), N. L. Evenhuis and K.
Arakaki (Honolulu), P. Grootaert and P. Limbourg (Brussels), M. Hauser (Sacramento, CA), E. Jendek & O. Šauša
(via M. Kozánek, Bratislava), H. de Jong and B. Brugge (Amsterdam), Erica McAlister and N. Wyatt (London), I.
Malenovský (Brno), G. Nardi (Verona), B. Merz (Genève), T. Pape (Copenhagen), F. Penati (Genova), N. Penny
(San Francisco), F. Rigato and M. Pavesi (Milano), P. Tschorsnig (Stuttgart), D. Whitmore (Verona), N. Woodley
(Washington) and J. Ziegler (Berlin). N. E. Woodley critically reviewed the manuscript. M. Lopresti (Verona) for
assembling tables and figures. Our study was supported by the Central Biodiversity Office of the National Forest
Service, Rome, and the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic and the Masaryk University at Brno (Grant
No. MSM 0021622416).
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURE 1. Ptilocera continua, female (orig. by F. Mason). Scale: 1.0 mm.
FIGURE 2. Two of the commonest species of Ptilocera in their habitat. Female of P. continua on a leaf of a Fabaceae tree (by
courtesy of M. Kemal) (a) and female of P. quadridentata basking on a leaf of Musa paradisiaca (by courtesy of N. Messina)
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FIGURES 3–8. Ptilocera spp. 3–4. P. quadridentata, puparium in dorsal view (3) and in ventral view (4) (larva collected under
bark of Moringa pterygosperma by J. C. H. de Meijere. Abbreviations: Apical seta (AP), anal slit (asl), dorsal seta (D), dorso-
central seta (DC), lateral seta (L), posterior spiracular open (pso), subapical seta (SAP), sternal patch (sp), ventral seta (V), ven-
trolateral seta (VL). The morphological terms used follow Bu
ánková et al. (2009). 5–8. P. continua, male antenna (5) and
conjunction between 3rd and 4th flagellomeres (6), female antenna (7) and female 3rd and 4th flagellomeres in dorsal view
showing sensory pits (8).
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 9–14. Ptilocera spp. P. continua, lateral projections of female 4th and 5th flagellomeres in ventral view (9). 10–13.
Female antenna in lateral view, P. amethystina (10), P. continua (11), P. kerteszi sp. nov. (12) and P. quadridentata (13). 14. P.
simplex sp. nov., male antennae in lateral view (14).
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FIGURES 15–20. Ptilocera spp. 15–16. P. continua, male head (15) and male ocellar tubercle in frontal view (16). 17–20. P.
quadridentata, female head (17) and female ocellar triangle in frontal view (18), male lower frons in frontal view (19) and
female head in lateral view (20).
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 21–26. Ptilocera spp. 21. P. aureopilosa, female head in frontal view. 22–23. P. quadridentata, female lower frons
(22) and male head in lateral view showing proboscis and two-segmented palpus (23). 24–26. Female palpus of F. amethystina
(24), F. continua (25) and P. quadridentata (26).
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FIGURES 27–32. Ptilocera spp. 27–29. P. smaragdina, female. Palpus (27), part of thorax in lateral view showing bare area
on anepisternum and prealar prominence in lateral view (28, arrow), prealar prominence in lateral view (29). 30–32. Female
prealar prominence in dorsal view, P. amethystina (30), P. aureopilosa (31) and P. continua (32).
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 33–38. Ptilocera spp. 33–34. Female prealar prominence in dorsal view, P. kerteszi sp. nov. (33) and P. smaragdina
(34). 35–38. Scales on presutural area of female scutum, P. amethystina (35), P. continua (36), P. kerteszi sp. nov. (37) and P.
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FIGURES 39–44. Ptilocera spp. 39–41. P. quadridentata, female, scales mixed with setulae inserted in semiglobular basal
structures on anterior part of scutum (39), flattened setulae on postsutural area of scutum (40), appressed setulae with globular
bases on 3
abdominal tergite (41). P. smaragdina, scales on female notopleural area of thorax (42). P. kerteszi sp. nov., female
scutellum in lateral view (43). P. continua, detail of female wing (base of R
with arrow) (44).
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FIGURES 45–50. Ptilocera spp. P. kerteszi sp. nov., female, predominantly bare discal cell (45). P. quadridentata, female,
calypter (46), anterior spiracle (47), halter (48), sensillae on halter surface (49) and apical tarsomeres of fore leg in dorsal view
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FIGURES 51–56. Ptilocera spp. P. continua, pretarsus of female fore leg in ventral view (51). P. aureopilosa, female abdomen
in dorsal view (52). P. paradisea, distal half of male abdomen in dorsal view (53). P. continua, female abdomen in lateral view
(54). P. quadridentata, dorsal part of male terminalia in ventral view (55) and genital capsule and aedeagal complex in dorsal
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 57–64. Ptilocera spp., wings: P. amethystina, male (57) and female (58), P. aureopilosa sp. nov., female holotype
(59), P. bergi James, male (60) and female (61), P. continua, male (62) and female holotype (63). P. kerteszi sp. nov., female
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FIGURES 65–73. Ptilocera spp., wings: P. paradisea, male holotype (65), P. quadridentata, male (66) and female (67), P. sim-
plex sp. nov., male holotype (68) and female (69), P. smaragdina, male (70) and female (71), P. violacea, male (72) and female
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 74–81. Ptilocera amethystina. 74–78. Male, dorsal view (74), antenna (75), genital capsule (76), aedeagal complex
(77), proctiger, cerci and epandrium (78). 79–81. Female, dorsal view (79), female antenna (80), genital furca (81).
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FIGURES 82–88. Ptilocera spp. 82–83. P. aureopilosa sp. nov., female holotype, dorsal view (82), antenna (83). 84–88. P.
bergi James, male, dorsal view (84), antenna (85), genital capsule (86), aedeagal complex (87), proctiger, cerci and epandrium
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 89–94. Ptilocera bergi James, female, antenna (89), variability of abdominal pattern (91–92), genital furca (93–94).
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FIGURES 95–100. Ptilocera continua, male, dorsal view (95), variable pattern on abdomen (96), antenna (97), genital capsule
(98), aedeagal complex (99), proctiger, cerci and epandrium (100).
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 101–107. Ptilocera continua, female, dorsal view (101), variable pattern on abdomen (102), antenna (103),
abnormal lateral projection of 2
flagellomere (104), variability of genital furca (105–107).
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FIGURES 108–114. Ptilocera spp. 108–109. P. kerteszi sp. nov., female holotype, dorsal view (108), antenna (109). 110–114.
P. paradisea, male holotype, dorsal view (110), antenna (111), genital capsule (112), aedeagal complex (113), proctiger, cerci
and epandrium (114).
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FIGURES 115–119. Ptilocera quadridentata, male, dorsal view (115), antenna (116), genital capsule (117), aedeagal complex
(118), proctiger, cerci and epandrium (119).
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FIGURES 120–127. Ptilocera quadridentata, female, dorsal view (120), variable pattern on abdomen (121), antenna (122),
thorax in lateral view (123), female terminalia (124), genital furca (125–126), subgenital plate (127).
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 128–135. Ptilocera simplex sp. nov., male in dorsal view (128), female in dorsal view (129), male antenna (130),
female antenna (131), genital capsule (132), aedeagal complex (133), proctiger, cerci and epandrium (134), genital furca (135).
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FIGURES 136–141. Ptilocera smaragdina, male, dorsal view (136), antenna (137), tergites 6–8 (138), genital capsule (139),
aedeagal complex (140), proctiger, cerci and epandrium (141).
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ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN PTILOCERA
FIGURES 142–153. Ptilocera smaragdina, female, dorsal view (142), pattern on thorax and abdomen of P. smaragdifera
holotype (143), antenna (144), antenna of P. smaragdifera holotype (145), genital furca (146), genital furca of P. smaragdifera
holotype (147), different abdominal pattern in females from same population: Philippines, Manila (148–153).
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FIGURES 154–161. Ptilocera violacea., male in dorsal view (154), female in dorsal view (155), male antenna (156), female
antenna (157), genital capsule (158), proctiger, cerci and epandrium (159), aedeagal complex (160), genital furca (161).
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FIGURE 162. Distribution of Ptilocera spp. in Oriental Region I: P. amethystina, P. paradisea and P. smaragdina.
FIGURE 163. Distribution of Ptilocera spp. in Oriental Region II: P.continua and P. kerteszi sp. nov.
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FIGURE 164. Distribution of Ptilocera spp. in Oriental Region III: P. qudridentata and P. simplex sp. nov.
FIGURE 165. Distribution of Ptilocera spp. in Australasian Region: P. smaragdina and P. violacea.
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FIGURE 166. Distribution of Ptilocera spp. in eastern part of Australasian region and Fiji: P. aureopilosa, P. bergi and P. qua-