Article

National snapshot of adults with intellectual disabilities in the labor force

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Employment has been recognized as an important goal for improving the quality of life of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Governments at both the federal and state level have invested billions of dollars to encourage better outcomes for adults with ID as they transition out of high school and into the labor force. OBJECTIVE: Given these important efforts, this study documented the employment situation of working-aged adults with intellectual disabilities across the country. METHODS: Respondents included a nationally representative random sample of 1,017 parents/guardians of adult children (21 years of age or older) with an intellectual disability surveyed by Gallup. These parents/guardians were selected from approximately 341,000 households screened by Gallup. This methodology allowed for the inclusion of a sample of adults with ID who had never been in the labor force or even sought employment. RESULTS: The results indicate a troublingly low employment rate for adults with ID and a puzzlingly low number who are even in the labor force. CONCLUSIONS: The employment outlook for adults with ID will continue to be bleak until new ways are found to meaningfully incorporate this population into the labor force.

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... The employment rate for individuals with ID in 2011 was 34%, contrasted with the 76% employment rate for working-age adults without disabilities (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Further, engagement in competitive employment (compared with various forms of supported employment) was markedly low-only 18% of adults with ID were competitively employed in 2011 (Siperstein et al., 2013). ...
... The employment rate for individuals with ID in 2011 was 34%, contrasted with the 76% employment rate for working-age adults without disabilities (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Further, engagement in competitive employment (compared with various forms of supported employment) was markedly low-only 18% of adults with ID were competitively employed in 2011 (Siperstein et al., 2013). ...
... Table 2 reports their employment, wage, and reliance on SSI. Competitive employment is in employment settings where most people do not have disabilities compared to facility-based/sheltered employment settings where most workers have disabilities (Siperstein et al., 2013). Employment refers to an individual who achieved an employment outcome, with a broader definition than competitive employment, including home-maker and unpaid family worker (U.S. ...
Article
The low employment rates of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are a major concern. This study examined the effect of postsecondary education on employment atrnd earnings for individuals with ID and the effect of state variation on those outcomes. Rehabilitation Services Administration 911 (RSA-911) files for 2008-2013 were analyzed (n = 11,280 individuals with ID). Multilevel modeling techniques were used to understand state variation, such as various economic and programmatic features that influence outcomes. Postsecondary education was associated with increased employment, increased weekly earnings, decreased reliance on Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits. Policy implications are discussed.
... Individuals with disabilities work either full time or part time, with commensurate benefits with co-workers and wages at or above minimum wage (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Several researchers have studied competitive employment outcomes for people with IDD in integrated settings. ...
... Individuals with IDD are also increasingly entering the competitive job market. A study by Siperstein et al. (2013) investigated the employment of adults with ID, found that 18% of individuals with ID are engaged in competitive employment, and most of them (62%) kept their jobs for three years or more. Furthermore, persons with IDD are increasingly engaged in self-employment activities (Yamamoto, Unruh, & Bullis, 2011). ...
... The training and natural supports provided in supported employment enable those with IDD to deal with the different challenges experienced in competitive employment (West et al., 2005). Competitive employment further enhances career progression by providing those with IDD with opportunities for working in typical working environments (Siperstein et al., 2013). Under competitive employment, the management, colleagues, and supervisors to people with IDD play a significant role in enhancing their capabilities and career progression outcomes of such people through the provision of cross-training opportunities, individualized supervision, integration into the general employee population through multi-context relationships, and the provisions of jobs that are especially designed with the persons' strengths in mind (Parmenter, 2011). ...
Article
This review examined various studies regarding the employment outcomes for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) within the United States. This review provides a snapshot of the individuals' employment rate, setting, income, quality of life, and well-being. A thorough literature review was conducted to retrieve studies and gather information. The studies were retrieved from Proquest, Ebscohost, Emerald, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Other databases included Eric and PsycINFO. The inclusion criteria were the studies published after the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, as well as the studies published in English and limited to the population of the United States. A total of 27 studies were included in the review. The results indicated that the employment settings for individuals with IDD, such as sheltered, supported, or competitive employment, have different impacts on working hours and weekly wages. This paper also established that the employment of individuals with IDD has a positive influence on their self-esteem, self-confidence, career progression, and independence levels, especially in integrated employment. Furthermore, this review demonstrated that the work of such individuals provides a source of income and enables them to contribute to the national economy through taxes. However, the review suggests that there is still a need to improve the employment of such individuals in order to increase the employment outcomes to significant levels. There is a need to mainly focus on enhancing sheltered employment whose results are relatively lower when compared to the other forms of work. Practices and research implications were also discussed.
... Employment is one of the primary goals of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) [1,2]. Employment can lead to positive psychosocial and economic benefits for people with ID, including a sense of purpose, opportunities for new friendships [1, 2], health [3] and better quality of life [4,5]. ...
... (3) Was the current clinical condition of the person clearly described, (4) Were diagnostic tests or assessment methods and the results clearly described? (5) Was the intervention(s) or treatment procedure(s) clearly presented? (6) Was the post-intervention clinical condition clearly described? ...
Article
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Purpose This systematic review analyzed the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions on the employment and functioning of people with intellectual disabilities (ID), as well as barriers and facilitators of employment. Methods This was a systematic review of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies. The outcomes were employment, transition to the open labor market and functioning. The review included qualitative studies of employment barriers and facilitators. The population comprised people with ID aged 16–68 years. Peer-reviewed articles published in English between January 1990 and February 2019 were obtained from the databases Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Eric, Medic, Medline, OTseeker, Pedro, PsycInfo, PubMed, Socindex, and the Web of Science. We also searched Google Scholar and Base. The modified selection instrument (PIOS: participants, intervention, outcome, and study design) used in the selection of the articles depended on the selection criteria. Results Ten quantitative (one randomized controlled, one concurrently controlled, and eight cohort studies), six qualitative studies, one multimethod study, and 21 case studies met the inclusion criteria. The quantitative studies showed that secondary education increases employment among people with ID when it includes work experience and personal support services. Supported employment also increased employment in the open labor market, which sheltered work did not. The barriers to employment were the use of sheltered work, discrimination in vocational experience, the use of class teaching, and deficient work experience while still at school. The facilitators of employment were one’s own activity, the support of one’s family, job coaching, a well-designed work environment, appreciation of one’s work, support form one’s employer and work organization, knowledge and experience of employment during secondary education, and for entrepreneurs, the use of a support person. Conclusions The employment of people with ID can be improved through secondary education including proper teaching methods and personal support services, the use of supported work, workplace accommodations and support from one’s family and employer. These results can be utilized in the development of rehabilitation, education, and the employment of people with ID, to allow them the opportunity to work in the open labor market and participate in society.
... Work for people with disabilities should be encouraged because it is therapeutic, improves participation in the society, leads to better health outcomes, develops interpersonal relationships and enhances life quality (West et al., 2005;Waddell & Burton, 2006). For many people with an intellectual disability, work is an aspiration (Jahoda et al., 2008) and an important goal for improving the quality of life (Siperstein et al., 2013). Hall and Wilton (2011) state that work is a key route to social inclusion for people with a disability. ...
... Especially, as evidence from other countries such as the USA indicate that there may be what Casper and Carloni (2007) claim to be an underutilisation of supported employment services. Siperstein et al. (2013) warn that "the employment outlook for adults with intellectual disability will continue to be bleak until new ways are found to meaningfully incorporate this population in the labor force" (Siperstein et al., 2013, p. 157). Watson (2006) suggests that in relation to employment in its broadest sense, occupational therapists currently play a marginal role in this area. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Work is good for one’s health and well-being. Work for people with disabilities should be encouraged because it is therapeutic and improves participation in the society, leading to better health outcomes. It develops interpersonal relationships and enhances life quality. Work is an aspiration for many people with intellectual disability. Within research literature, there appears to be a lack of research into the experience of occupational therapists in Ireland who refer adults with intellectual disabilities to supported employment services. The purpose of this paper was to explore the experience of Irish occupational therapists who refer adults with intellectual disabilities to supported employment services. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with four occupational therapists recruited through the Association of Occupational Therapists of Ireland (AOTI). Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings Themes that emerged were as follows: occupational therapy participants did not directly refer adults to supported employment but received referrals; occupational therapy roles included assessments, task analysis and development of client’s skills are major components of current practice; pragmatics involved factors that facilitate and challenge; and future roles. Originality/value This paper contributes to occupational therapy practice knowledge by providing a perspective on supported employment in Ireland. Occupational therapists should continue to work in the area of supported employment to support social inclusion and enable participation. Further research with occupational therapists working in this field is required to inform practice.
... Compared to their typically developing peers, students with IDD are less likely to be employed. While more than 95% of high school students with IDD express expectations of getting a paid job after graduation (Wagner et al., 2007), only 44% of adults with IDD 21 to 64 years of age are in the labor force (Siperstein et al., 2013). In addition, adults with IDD who are employed are most likely to be underemployed, that is, not employed full-time and/or earning less than minimum wage (Siperstein et al., 2013). ...
... While more than 95% of high school students with IDD express expectations of getting a paid job after graduation (Wagner et al., 2007), only 44% of adults with IDD 21 to 64 years of age are in the labor force (Siperstein et al., 2013). In addition, adults with IDD who are employed are most likely to be underemployed, that is, not employed full-time and/or earning less than minimum wage (Siperstein et al., 2013). Subsequently, adults with IDD may change jobs continuously throughout their adulthood (Davidson, 2014). ...
Article
Exploring and facilitating the transition process from school to employment for young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), especially those still in the school system, has now become an important concern for researchers, educators, and service providers working in this area. The Bridge to the Future (BTTF) Frame of Reference offers a new approach to facilitate the school-to-work transition for secondary school students with IDD in a self-contained classroom setting by adopting the Social Cognitive Career Theory and Self-Determination Theory as its main theoretical foundation. The BTTF Frame of Reference was developed for use by the team of transdisciplinary school professionals. It aims to facilitate students’ learning in the area of career exploration, goal setting, and work-related skills, as well as to improve students’ self-efficacy and self-determination skills. The purpose of the BTTF Frame of Reference is to provide guidelines to teach students with IDD vocational skills as well as other life skills, including ADLs, IADLs, and community participation, and to increase students’ readiness for transition through engaging them in career exploration activities.
... Students with ID attend postsecondary education, defined as any institution of higher education, including 2-and 4-year colleges and uni-versities, at a rate of only 30%, compared to 56% of students with other disabilities (Grigal et al., 2011). Additionally, students with ID have higher rates of unemployment and underemployment, and earn lower wages than those in other disability categories and people without disabilities Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). ...
... Students with ID attend postsecondary education, defined as any institution of higher education, including 2-and 4-year colleges and universities, at a rate of only 30%, compared to 56% of students with other disabilities (Grigal et al., 2011). Additionally, students with ID have higher rates of and underemployment, and unemployment earn lower wages than those in other disability categories and people without disabilities Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Fortunately, interest in postsecondary education for students with ID has recently grown, due in part to the increased inclusion of students with ID and other significant disabilities in K-12 education, coupled with a societal focus on postsecondary education as a desired outcome for all, and increased parental expectations for enrollment in postsecondary education (Butler et al., 2016;Blumberg, Carroll, & Petroff, 2008;Grigal, Migliore, & Hart, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Institutions of higher education (IHEs) in the U.S. have implemented policy and practices to support on-campus diversity initiatives. Experiences with diverse populations are particularly relevant to young adults, who are developing their worldview by evaluating their perspectives and the perspectives of others. Because most of the conversations about diversity involve dimensions such as race, gender, and ethnicity, disability or ability is often omitted from such discussions. This study sought to review mission statements and diversity materials of four-year college and university websites in order to understand the extent to which disability is included as a dimension of diversity. As these materials provide the tone and values of the IHE, it may be possible to understand how these schools view disability in relation to diversity. Mixed methods were used to explore the extent to which IHEs include disability in their mission or diversity statements as a way to expand on the notion of diversity within their student body, staff, or faculty. Findings show that most of the randomly selected four-year IHEs (n = 300) do not include disability within their mission or diversity statements. Those who do are often found to include statements that describe campus cultures that are inclusive of students with disabilities and more likely to consider a diverse campus, inclusive of disability, an enriched community. Implications for further research and practice provide recommendations based on the literature on how to improve their inclusiveness of students with disabilities in IHEs. Keywords: disability, diversity, institutions of higher education, inclusive models
... Among 20 to 24 year-olds, those who engaged in the labor market was only around one-third (35.6%) in contrast to 64.6% for their peers without disabilities [1]. For individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), these rates are even lower [2]. ...
... Of the 34% who were employed during the survey period (2011-2012), only 26% with full-time jobs [25]. Only 44% of people with ID are vocationally engaged at all; of those employed, 18% of people with ID are employed competitively; 13% in a sheltered workshop and 3% in other settings (e.g., selfemployed, [2]). Most adults with ID who are employed in sheltered settings are unlikely to ever transition into a more inclusive competitive employment [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Work incentives benefits counseling (WIBC) can be a strong facilitator contributing to improved employment outcomes for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) by providing information about how income may affect disability benefits eligibility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of WIBC as a VR intervention to improve on employment outcomes and earnings of transition-age youth and young adults with ID who are Supplemental Security Income benefits recipients using a propensity score matching analysis approach. Propensity score matching using logistic regression analysis and the nearest neighbour method was conducted to equalize the treatment (received WIBC) and control groups (not received WIBC) on the six prominent demographic covariates. The treatment group had higher rates of employment, higher hourly wages than the control group, while the treatment group worked less hours per week than the control group. Methods Propensity score matching using logistic regression analysis and the nearest neighbour method was conducted to equalize the treatment (received WIBC) and control groups (not received WIBC) on the six prominent demographic covariates. Results The treatment group had higher rates of employment, higher hourly wages than the control group, while the treatment group worked less hours per week than the control group. Conclusions Findings of the present study can be used by policy makers, transition specialists, rehabilitation counselors, and other disability service providers to increase employment outcomes and earnings for individuals with ID through WIBC services. Future research and practice implications are provided.
... A number of reports have shown unemployment rates for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) range between 66% and 95.3% (Anderson, Larson, & Wuorio, 2010;Butterworth et al., 2012; National Core Indicator [NCI], 2015;Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). The high unemployment rates for individuals with ID are disheartening, especially given the U.S. unemployment rate has been on a steady decline for the past decade, hovering around 4% for the past several years (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018). ...
... Individuals with ID are greatly underemployed, with only 17% reporting to have a paid community job (NCI, 2015). For those individuals with ID who are employed, very few are employed full time, paid competitive wages, or receive work-related benefits ( Anderson et al., 2010;NCI, 2015;Siperstein et al., 2013;Siperstein, Heyman, & Stokes, 2014). The average salary for adults with ID was US$7.82 per hour, with only 24% of those employed receiving job benefits (NCI, 2015). ...
Article
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often experience a combination of both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits that impact conceptual, social, and practical domains. These deficits can negatively impact an individual’s ability to achieve independence and sustained employment. Fortunately, research has shown assistive technology can help support employment skills for individuals with ID. This multiple baseline design study investigated the use of a Task Analysis smartphone application, which utilized video and audio prompting, with four young adults with ID on the completion of work-related office tasks. Findings indicate that all four young adults with ID showed large effect size gains for completing several common office-related tasks including shredding, copying, and scanning. Implications and future research are discussed.
... In some states that have developed expanded day services, options include assistance in volunteer opportunities, leisure and health promotion activities, community engagement, and further education (Sulewski et al., 2017). In spite of this, the unemployment rate for individuals with IDDs remains higher than 50% (Siperstein et al., 2013), which seems to indicate a clear and critical need for more developed and broader programming throughout the U.S. for individuals with IDDs. ...
... The company subject for the movie is a social enterprise cookie brand in South Korea that only employs intellectually disabled bakers-workers who have IQs (intellectual quotients) lower than 70. Given the generally low employment rate of intellectually disabled workers (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013), this company stands out as an exemplary exception. There is a written case on the company (Chang & Choi, 2013) that describes the history, the corporate philosophy, and managerial challenges of making cookies while only employing the intellectually disabled. ...
Article
Visual communication, especially films, can be an effective way to teach complex topics. The use of films in business schools, however, has been limited even though demand for such content is increasing. This article takes a focused look at how educators can take advantage of films to teach diversity in business. Despite the importance of diversity in business and marketing education, there is not enough written materials such as case studies to teach it. Even when they do exist, written content may not be adequate in communicating the issues involved in diversity because of difficulties related to representing a given diversity group only using text. This article discusses how films can help overcome the limitations of text-only representation of a specific diversity group—intellectually disabled workers. The empirical study shows that film can be more effective than text in eliciting consumer responses such as emotions and a positive attitude to an identified disabled personality as well as to the employer brand. This article also provides practical steps that educators can take in gradually integrating visual materials such as film to their traditional method and contents of instruction when teaching diversity in business.
... However, this scant employment participation for Norwegian individuals with ID is not unique. Studies from other countries, such as the US and Australia, also report troublingly low employment rates for adults with ID (Siperstein, Parker & Drascher 2013;Tuckerman et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Norway, very few people with intellectual disability (ID) are employed, and most of them receive a disability pension. This suggests that they may not face a financial need for employment, but participation in the labor market may provide persons with ID with other benefits, such as social inclusion and self-realization. This article explores what motivates Norwegian adults with ID to participate in the labor market. The study is based on qualitative interviews with use of photovoice with seven employees from sheltered workshops and competitive employment, and their employers. A thematic structural analysis revealed the following themes: experience of self-efficacy, having sufficient workload, personal development, self-determination, salary, social relationships, and meaningful employment. These themes were then structured into three categories based on Ryan and Deci’s (2002) self-determination theory: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Findings suggest that employees with ID value their work for the sense of self-efficacy that it gives them and for the social contact that the work floor provides. Participants reported to experience little autonomy and self-determination at work.
... Lack of resources (Sullivan 2007), limited staff training (Jahr 1998) and limited service delivery are common barriers to providing high-quality services to individuals with IDD (MENCAP 2006). Despite the barriers, high quality services are critical for adults with IDD as they are at risk for fewer and lower quality employment opportunities (Siperstein et al. 2013) placement in more restrictive settings, social exclusion (Allen et al. 2007), rejection from services (Cooper et al. 2009), and increased use of psychotropic medication (Manente et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current review summarized 54 peer-reviewed articles concerning the assessment treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Results indicated that functional analysis was most commonly used to identify the operant function of SIB. Noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement, functional communication training and response blocking were found to be the most frequently implemented interventions across studies. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated using the Council for Exceptional Children quality indicator standards. None of the included studies met all indicators to be considered methodologically sound. Directions for future research and implications for practice are discussed.
... The unemployment rate for adults with ID is more than twice as high as those without disabilities, with only 44% of adults with ID aged 21 to 64 years participating in the labor force (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Having a job in high school is a key predictor of work for adults with ID, but only 8% to 10% of young adults with ID are currently employed (Erickson, Lee, & von Schrader, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this Opinions in the Profession paper, we explore how occupational therapists can better address the occupational needs of adults with ID. We describe the facilitators and barriers to occupational therapists’ work with this population, and we provide recommendations that align with broader efforts of national, state, and community-based organizations aimed at improving the lives of adults with ID.
... The precise impact of many risk factors for intellectual disability, however, remains poorly understood (Hatton, 2012). The relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and intellectual disability illustrates the complexity and bi-directionality of risk factors (Simonoff, 2015); poverty is a risk factor for exposure to both environmental and psychosocial hazards associated with intellectual disability (Emerson & Hatton, 2007;Emerson, 2012); having an intellectual disability is a risk factor for under and unemployment and associated poverty (Siperstein et al, 2013); caregiving for a family member is associated with increased risk of poverty due to additional costs of transport, childcare, etc., and reduced rates of maternal employment (Shahtahmasedi et al, 2011;Parish et al, 2004). ...
Chapter
Seminars in the Psychiatry of Intellectual Disability - edited by Mark Scheepers February 2019
... The results of this study demonstrate no significant associations between environmental correlates (accommodation type and level of deprivation) and percentage time sedentary. This was an unexpected finding as previous research has highlighted that adults with intellectual disabilities experience their environment differently to the general population; for example, facing barriers to accessing transport (Bodde and Seo, 2009), inaccessibility of fitness centers (Heller et al., 2003), and low rates of employment (Siperstein et al., 2013). Given the important role that environmental factors have in understanding and changing sedentary behaviours (O'Donoghue et al., 2016), it is important that future research investigates a wider range of environmental correlates. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for adverse health conditions. Adults with intellectual disabilities spend a high proportion of their day engaged in sedentary behaviour, however, there is limited evidence on potential correlates of objectively measured sedentary behaviour in this population group. In Glasgow, UK from July to September 2017, a secondary analysis of pooled baseline accelerometer data from two randomised controlled trials of lifestyle behaviour change programmes was conducted. Backwards linear regression was used to investigate the associations between demographic, biological, and environmental correlates and objective measure of sedentary behaviour (percentage of time spent sedentary). One-hundred and forty-three participants provided valid accelerometer data. Mean percentage time spent sedentary (adjusted for wear time) was 72.9% [Standard Deviation (SD) = 8.7] per day. In the final model, physical and mental health problems were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with increased percentage time spent sedentary. This is the first study to provide evidence on multi-level, demographic, biological, and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities. To inform the development of interventions to modify sedentary behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities, further research is required including a wide range of socio-ecological correlates.
... Due to this lack of access, the unemployment rate among people with print disabilities is more than double their non-disabled counterparts nationwide [13,14]. Various studies put the unemployment rate among disabled individuals around 32% [5,12,14]. People with disabilities are also significantly underrepresented in STEM related fields [6][7][8]. ...
Chapter
Print-disabled individuals (e.g., visually impaired and specific learning disabilities) rely heavily on accessibility features for information input. For students with print disabilities, lack of accessibility to printed material creates a barrier for getting appropriate education and taking standardized online tests. Although various accessible testing software exist in the market, there is no standardized accessible testing system for high-stakes state-mandated tests. In this paper we present the design, implementation and evaluation of an accessible testing system (ATS) for high-stakes state-mandated tests. We also present results from various pilot studies of ATS which prove its efficacy.
... According to the American Community Survey (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.), in 2011, the employment rate for individuals with disabilities (ages 22-30) was 35%, less than half of the employment rate for people without disabilities (75%) (Sulewski, Zalewska, Butterworth, & Migliore, 2013). For some people with ID, the gap in employment rate is even more pronounced: the rate of paid, integrated employment for people with ID is estimated at 14-22% (Simonsen & Neubert, 2013;Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study sought to identify predictors associated with paid employment outcomes for community and technical college students with intellectual disability (ID). Data used were collected from the Transition and Postsecondary Programs for Students With Intellectual Disabilities (TPSID) implemented in two community and technical colleges in the upper Midwest. The participants included 228 students with ID attending college who received supports based on the Check & Connect model. Results using logistic regression showed that students who only took inclusive classes, participated in campus events, had prior paid work experience, and participated in volunteering and/or community service were more likely to earn at or above minimum wage during their most recent year in the TPSID program. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
... For example, researchers have found it useful to conceptualise sedentary behaviour across occupational, transport and household settings (Owen et al. 2011). However, this model may need to be modified for adults with ID, who have low rates of paid or supported employment (Siperstein et al. 2013), report major barriers to accessing transport (Sherman and Sherman 2013), have low levels of participation in community based activities and spend long periods within their household settings (Verdonschot et al. 2009). There is some generic evidence that lifestyle behaviour change programmes can reduce sedentary behaviour and improve health in adults (Martin et al. 2015). ...
Article
Background: High levels of sedentary behaviour have a negative impact on health and well-being. There is limited evidence on the prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviour of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: A population-based sample of adults with ID were invited to take part in a comprehensive health check programme. Demographic and health data were collected during a structured interview and physical examination. Screen time was used as a proxy measure of sedentary behaviour. Bivariate and multivariate statistical modelling examined correlates of screen time. Results: Fifty per cent of the 725 participants reported four or more hours of screen time per day. Male gender, higher levels of intellectual ability, mobility problems, obesity, not having hearing impairment and not having epilepsy were all significantly associated with higher screen time in the final multivariate model (R2 = 0.16; Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit statistic P = 0.36). Conclusions: This is the first study to publish population-based data on the prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviour in adults with ID. Compared with adults who do not have ID, adults with ID have higher levels, and different correlates, of sedentary behaviour. A better understanding of the social context of sedentary behaviour will inform the design of effective behaviour change programmes for adults with ID.
... The World Report on Disability recognises the importance of employment as a means of social and economic participation for people with disabilities and as a pathway out of poverty (World Health Organisation, 2011). This focus on employment clearly resonates for people with intellectual disability (ID), who experience high levels of unemployment and economic deprivation relative to the general population (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). For this group, the unemployment rate is higher compared to the general population and other disability groups, regardless of severity (Australian Bureau Statistics, 2014). ...
Article
Introduction: Conceptualisation of occupation requires understanding of subjective wellbeing and experiences of occupation. Opportunities for participation in productivity activities, such as employment, may be limited for people with intellectual disability (ID). An occupational wellbeing framework was recently re-imagined to focus on the subjective meaning of a person's occupational life rather than occupational performance. This study analysed experiences and possible benefits to occupational wellbeing of young adult men with ID in an intergenerational mentoring program based on Australian Men's Sheds using this revised occupational wellbeing framework. Methods: A qualitative approach was used to gather individual semi-structured interviews at the end of an intergenerational mentoring program to explore occupational wellbeing experiences. Eight individual mentees and five parents of mentees (n = 13) from the different Men's Sheds sites agreed to participate in an individual interview about their experiences of the program. All mentees were male aged between 17 and 24 years. Family members included four female mothers and one male father. Data were highlighted, selected and deductively coded using content analysis according to the five occupational wellbeing domains of the framework. Results: Mentees reflected upon their experience with their mentor, the program, activities and environment of the Men's Shed. Findings were organised in relation to each of the five domains of occupational wellbeing, including contentment, competence, belonging, identity and autonomy. Experiences of mentees and their family members reflected the positive impact of participation on each domain and occupational wellbeing, including opportunities for socialisation outside of the program, mastery of skills and knowledge and validation of belief in self. Conclusion: Mentees involved in an intergenerational mentoring program in Australian Men's Sheds report benefits of participation in activities that foster and increase occupational wellbeing experiences. The experience of such domains should be considered when attempting to understand the quality of life and function for people with disabilities.
... The precise impact of many risk factors for intellectual disability, however, remains poorly understood (Hatton, 2012). The relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and intellectual disability illustrates the complexity and bi-directionality of risk factors (Simonoff, 2015); poverty is a risk factor for exposure to both environmental and psychosocial hazards associated with intellectual disability (Emerson & Hatton, 2007;Emerson, 2012); having an intellectual disability is a risk factor for under and unemployment and associated poverty (Siperstein et al, 2013); caregiving for a family member is associated with increased risk of poverty due to additional costs of transport, childcare, etc., and reduced rates of maternal employment (Shahtahmasedi et al, 2011;Parish et al, 2004). ...
... They also typically experience more transitions than their peers, such as the transitions into and out of special schools or segregated classrooms in mainstream schools. The importance of supporting students with autism and intellectual disabilities through diverse schooling transitions cannot be understated, given the alarming postschool outcomes of this population, including being less likely to be employed and living in poverty, compared to any other group of people with disabilities (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Research throughout the past few decades has provided a solid evidence base that promotes effective transition practices for students with these disabilities . ...
Article
Students with autism and intellectual disabilities experience many transitions during their schooling, and a large body of literature is devoted to best practices in transition planning and support. The Taxonomy for Transition Programming 2.0 is a research-based model that provides best practice suggestions to guide the planning of various transitions and contexts. The researchers aimed to use the current qualitative study to discover the transition planning practices used to support students with autism and intellectual disabilities in inclusive school settings when transitioning from primary to secondary schools and from secondary school to postschool life in New South Wales (Australia). The practices that emerged were then examined for alignment with the Taxonomy for Transition Programming 2.0. The inductive content analysis of interviews with 8 parents and 13 teachers indicated that although most of the areas of the Taxonomy are represented in the planning processes, there is room for improvement, particularly in the areas of formal individual education program and transition planning, student involvement, information sharing, and program assessment. The results highlighted the importance of formal student- and family-centred planning processes to the success of both transitions. The results were used to make further recommendations for future research, policy, and practice.
... Due to this lack of access, the unemployment rate among people with print disabilities is more than double their non-disabled counterparts nationwide (United States Census Bureau, 2013;US Department of Labor, 2013). Various studies put the unemployment rate among disabled individuals around 32% (US Department of Labor, 2013;Center for Accessible Society, 2016;Siperstein et al., 2013). People with disabilities are also significantly under-represented in STEM related fields (Jeannis et al., 2017;Goldberg et al., 2016;Falkenheim and Hale, 2015;Burgstahler and Ladner, 2006;Burgstahler, 1994;Matyas et al., 1991). ...
Article
For years, students with print disabilities have struggled to have access to instructional materials in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). People with print disabilities rely heavily on speech for information input. Mathematical expressions transmitted through typical spoken language are replete with multiple interpretations. These ambiguities create a substantial burden for the acquisition of basic mathematics and of knowledge from fields requiring a strong foundation in mathematics such as science, technology, and engineering. MathSpeak is based on a set of rules for conveying mathematical expressions in a non-ambiguous manner. The MathSpeak technology contains a computerised component that can easily and rapidly translate STEM materials into the non-ambiguous MathSpeak form, which can then be converted to an auditory rendering via a custom-designed high-quality computer-synthesised voice. This technology has great potential for increasing the accessibility to STEM materials and careers in related fields as shown by the efficacy studies.
... First, it is unknown whether the results of Bancroft et al. (2011) would generalize when using backward chains by adults with developmental disabilities on vocational tasks. Second, because rates of employment of adults with disabilities is vastly lower than neurotypical adults (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013;U.S. Dept. of Labor, 2018), additional research is needed on effective and efficient instructional arrangements. Specifically, there is a need for research exploring the efficacy and efficiency (i.e., total sessions, trials, and total duration to mastery) of backward chaining procedural variations when teaching vocational tasks to adults. ...
Article
Backward chains are widely used to teach complex skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. Implementation of chaining procedures may vary regarding untaught steps and there is little to guide practitioners in the selection of chaining procedures. Moreover, there is a dearth of research evaluating effectiveness and efficiency of procedural variations of behavior chains. The purpose of this study was to extend previous research by evaluating the effectiveness, efficiency, and preference for four procedural variations (i.e., teacher‐completion, participant‐completion, no‐completion, and a control condition) of backward chains across vocational tasks with adults with developmental disabilities. Although procedural variations effectively established vocational skills, the participant‐completion procedure (in which the instructor implemented a least‐to‐most prompt hierarchy during all untrained steps in the chain) was the most efficacious backward chaining procedural variation and efficient in terms of sessions to mastery. The no‐completion procedure (in which the instructor completed all untrained steps in the chain out of view of the participant) was least efficient across trials, sessions, errors, and total duration to mastery. One participant preferred the no‐completion condition while the other two participants showed an initial preference for the teacher‐completion condition that changed to preference for the no‐completion condition. Vocational skills maintained 1‐ and 4‐weeks postmastery. Stakeholders rated goals, procedures, and outcomes as socially valid.
... (3) rejection from the parents, as some of this children sometimes faces rejection from their fathers; and (4) rejection from schools which make them always stays at home (Craig 2015). In Kenya, many of the Special Olympics athletes get jobs as manual workers or return to their rural homes once they are through with basic schooling and have no time to join SO programs as supported by Siperstein et al. (2013). Table 4 shows the average height (151 cm) by age category for all participants. ...
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Information on the fitness status of people with disabilities in Kenya is scanty, particularly for those who participate in Special Olympics sports. The study aimed to assess the physical fitness level of athletes with Intellectual Disability participating in the Special Olympics program in Nairobi region and compare their fitness levels across different centers and gender, using the commonly used race-specific percentiles. A total of 208 children from four Special Olympics program centers with the overall mean age of 16.8 years were assessed. Assessment protocol includes the anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness variables. There was a significant differences in physical fitness characteristics among the participants. This information should be used by program developers to design and improve program that enhance the capacity of athletes with intellectual disabilities in terms of exercise prescription, nutritional considerations, and motivating the athletes to stay in the course. This will improve their motor skills and general quality of life.
... Relatedly, it could also be that education simply has less of a pay-off for adjudicated juveniles in special education programs because of other traits or characteristics. For example, education may help youth get a job or be admitted to college, but those with special education needs may have characteristics that make it difficult to keep a job, advance in a job, do well in college, or graduate (Kaye, 2009;Murray et al., 2000;Siperstein et al., 2013). Future research should examine the external validity of this finding by testing whether education relates to recidivism with adjudicated juveniles in special education programs in samples outside of the state of Indiana. ...
Article
This study examines recidivism among adjudicated juveniles in special education programs in the juvenile correctional facility during the period of 2009–2015. There were two aims of this research: to conduct exploratory analyses of recidivism and to examine whether level of education relates to recidivism among this segment of juvenile offenders. Results revealed that 37.6 % of adjudicated juveniles with special education recidivated and that 52 % of those who recidivated were recommitted within 12 months of being released. Results from logistic regression also show that education failed to significantly predict recidivism once other factors were controlled for in multivariate analyses.
... With the 2014 passage of WIOA and Employment First policies, competitive, integrated employment is a national priority (Riesen, Morgan, & Griffen, 2015). Despite such employment first initiatives, Siperstein, Parker and Drascher (2013) estimate that only 18% of adults with ID are competitively employed. For individuals with ID dually diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder who often require additional supports to effectively manage their cognitive, emotional/behavioral, and interpersonal challenges (National Association for the Dually Diagnosed [NADD], 2018), this competitive employment rate is likely lower (Austin & Lee, 2014). ...
Article
The following study investigated VR professionals' perceptions of recent policy changes under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) of 2014. As a consequence of WIOA amendments, the minimum education requirements have changed; thus, perceptions of education level and professional certification on successful outcomes were two primary areas of interest. Findings from 209 survey participants across State agencies revealed VR professionals believe WIOA changes have impacted employment outcomes within six central domains: caseload, quality of services, pre-employment transition services (pre-ETS), counseling/consumer relationships, documentation of counselor/consumer interactions and services provided, and VR agency management. Obtaining a master's degree and/or Certified Rehabilitation Counselor certification was perceived as beneficial for overall employment outcomes by improving aspects such as counselor qualifications, counselor-consumer relationships, and quality of services provided. The focus of this article is to explore the frequency of these perceptions and to provide recommendations for future study and considerations regarding WIOA implementation.
... In addition to input from disability professionals and self-advocates, we used prior research to guide survey development. Most notably, past research has indicated increased mental and physical health problems Wallén et al., 2018;Wilson et al., 2019), as well as difficulties with access to services (Havercamp & Scott, 2015) and employment opportunities (Ellenkamp et al., 2016;Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Consequently, we wanted to understand if the pandemic had further complicated these areas of life. ...
Article
Background Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may be especially vulnerable to changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic given increased likelihood of health concerns, low socioeconomic status, and difficulty accessing services. Aims The purpose of this study was to explore mental health problems and services in individuals with IDD during the pandemic. We explored whether number of mental health problems differed by age, gender, living situation, physical health, and access to services. Methods and procedures An online survey about experiences during the pandemic was administered to adults with IDD and their caregivers in the United States and in Chile. Outcomes and results In both Chile and the United States, few people endorsed increased health problems. Half of the sample in Chile and 41% of the sample in the United States endorsed increased mental health problems. Approximately 15% of the sample in the US reported no longer receiving state developmental disability services. Conclusions and implications Healthcare and disability-specific agencies should consider strategies to tailor supports to improve mental health functioning and access to community.
... Osim eksternih barijera navode se i interne, koje potiču od samih osoba s ometenošću, poput neadekvatne obuke za rad, motivacije, socijalnih veština, prisustva nepoželjnih oblika ponašanja itd. (Jahoda et al., 2008;Lindsay, 2011) U odnosu na ostale tipove ometenosti, osobe s intelektualnom ometenošću (IO) nalaze se u posebno nepovoljnom položaju da ostvare svoje mogućnosti i pravo na rad (Jahoda et al., 2008), kako u našoj sredini i okruženju (Milanović-Dobrota i Radić-Šestić, 2012;Skočić Mihić & Kiš-Glavaš, 2010), tako i u razvijenim zemljama, kao što su Sjedinjene Američke Države i Australija (Siperstein et al., 2013;Snyder et al., 2010). Nedostatak adekvatnog posla i posebnih servisa podrške u pronalaženju posla čini da osobe sa IO zavise od članova svojih porodica i usluga socijalne zaštite (Davies & Beamish, 2009;Dixon & Reddacliff, 2001;Donelly et al., 2010, sve prema Holwerda et al., 2013. ...
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Introduction. Of all people with disabilities, persons with intellectual disabilities are the most numerous unemployed group who wait for a job the longest. In order to spend their day in a more productive way, these people spend time in centres and day-care centres within the system of social protection, but their motivation for work decreases over time. Objectives. The main goal of this research was to determine work readiness in adults with intellectual disabilities by assessing the specific dimension of work motivation, with special emphasis on determining differences in gender, level of formal education, type of family environment, and records in the National Employment Service. Methods. The convenience sample consisted of 78 respondents of both genders, users of services provided by associations for helping persons with intellectual disabilities in Belgrade. Work Readiness Scale (Rose et al., 2010) was used in this research. Results. Adults with intellectual disabilities were moderately interested in employment, but the obtained results differed from the estimated variables. Respondents who were professionally trained for work, as well as those who were registered in the records of the National Employment Service, showed proactive attitudes towards employment. Family support was insufficient and the lack of support was the most pronounced among the respondents living in foster families. No statistically significant differences were found with regard to gender. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the need to provide professional support to adults with intellectual disabilities regarding the importance of working in integrated employment, with simultaneous cooperation with family members. Also, further research is needed in order to profile work readiness more clearly and adequately plan various services for the inclusion of adults with intellectual disabilities in the world of work.
... Paid employment rates for adults with IDD remain low. Adults with intellectual disability are half as likely to be in the labor force (44%), compared to working-age adults without disabilities (84%; Siperstein et al., 2013). The employment rate is even lower for adults with autism (Roux et al., 2013). ...
Article
As the United States grows more racially and ethnically diverse, Koreans have become one of the largest ethnic minority populations. We conducted this qualitative study to explore the perspectives of Korean immigrant parents about their child’s future and the factors that shape those perspectives. We used modified grounded theory methods. Twenty Korean immigrant parents of children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities participated in the study. Four themes emerged: navigating complicated and limited service systems, maintaining safety and relationships through work and higher education, ongoing parental care at home, and the need for culturally relevant adult services. We discuss implications for culturally responsive practice and inclusive research.
... Despite policy and allocated resources, a large discrepancy of employment rates and security among persons with versus without disabilities still exists (Wehman 2011). According to the results of a nationally representative survey analyzed by Siperstein et al. (2013), fewer than half of the working-aged individuals with intellectual disabilities from a random sample were reported to be employed or seeking employment. While most people with intellectual and developmental disabilities may generally report to be motivated to gain employment , various barriers may influence their motivation to work such as circumstances related to monetary gain, negative social aspects, and selfperceptions of competencies (Andrews and Rose 2010). ...
Article
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Assessing performance of individuals with disabilities in relation to their preferences is a method of determining the social validity of practices. The benefits of using vocational preferences on related behavioral outcomes of individuals with disabilities such as task completion, challenging behavior, and indices of happiness, have been explored through several studies. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of preference for certain vocational activities on performance outcomes for individuals with disabilities. A comprehensive search resulted in a total of 16 included studies. Studies were analyzed according to (a) participant characteristics (e.g., diagnosis, age), (b) setting, (c) work tasks, (d) service provider, (e) experimental design or observational method, (f) preference assessment method, (g) independent variable, and (h) outcomes. Studies were appraised with quality indicators for single-case research. While outcomes were primarily positive in support of incorporating preferred vocational conditions, quality indicators were generally lacking and there are numerous areas calling for future research.
... Despite the numerous advantages of supported employment and the ongoing efforts to promote inclusive employment options both KOCMAN et Al. on national and international level, estimates of people with intellectual disability working in these settings range from only 9% to 40% (Ellenkamp, Brouwers, Embregts, Joosen, & van Weeghel, 2016) and employment success represents the largest gap between people with disabilities and people without (Wehmann, 2011). Although these statistics have to be interpreted with care both due to the absence of common metrics (Lysaght, Šiška, & Koenig, 2015) and the heterogeneity of legal regulations associated with supported employment (Visier, 1998), data from several studies indicate that inclusive employment is unavailable to many individuals with intellectual disability in many regions and that progress towards these settings staggers in many countries (e.g., Kamp, 2012;König, 2010;Olney & Kennedy, 2001;Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013;Spjelkavik, 2012;Tuckermann, Cain, Long, & Klarkowski, 2012;Wehmann, 2011). ...
Article
Background: Obtaining employment is among the most important ambitions of people with intellectual disability. Progress towards comprehensive inclusive employment is hampered by numerous barriers. Limited research is available on these barriers and strategies to overcome them. Method: A mixed method approach in a sample of 30 HR-managers was used to assess (i) differences in perceived barriers for employment of people with specific disabilities and mental disorders; (ii) barriers specific to employing people with intellectual disability; (iii) strategies to overcome these barriers. Results: Employers perceive more barriers for hiring people with intellectual disability and mental disorders than for physical disabilities. Employment for this population is hampered by a perceived lack of skills and legal issues. Strategies perceived as beneficial are supplying information, changes in organizational strategies and legal changes. Conclusions: Employers’ differentiated expectations and reservations towards hiring individuals with specific disabilities need to be taken into account to increase employment for people with intellectual disability.
... Therefore, the present benefit levels appear insufficient in the light of the hardships faced by these families. A second possible contributor to the markedly high rates of hardship in these families is the low employment rates and low wages typically earned by adults with intellectual impairments (Siperstein et al. 2013). Indeed, in our study, mothers with intellectual impairments were more likely to be unemployed. ...
Article
Background: While the United States has seen increased attention by policymakers on the rights of parents with disabilities, there is limited understanding of the health and economic well-being of parents with intellectual impairments. This study compares the health and economic well-being of mothers with and without intellectual impairments. Methods: This descriptive, exploratory study is a secondary analysis of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. This study includes a subsample of mothers of three-year-old children (n = 1561), including mothers with intellectual impairments (n = 263) and without intellectual impairments (n = 1298). Results: US Mothers with intellectual impairments are more likely to report serious health conditions, have less instrumental support, live in poverty, receive public benefits and experience certain material hardships. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the need for policies and programmes to support parents with intellectual impairments by addressing their health and economic needs.
... Currently, only 18% of adults (aged 18-64) with intellectual disability are employed in community-based, integrated employment (Siperstein et al. 2013). Relatedly, and not surprisingly given this fact, the majority of people with intellectual disability live below the poverty line (Stapleton, O'Day, et al. 2006). ...
Article
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Self-determination has been identified as a key predictor of employment for people with intellectual disability. The Self-Determined Career Development Model enables support providers to support job seekers with intellectual disability to use a self-regulated problem-solving process to set and attain job and career goals. This single-case design study examined the impact of the Self-Determined Career Development Model on a component element of self-determination (knowledge of strengths, interests, and needs). Employment outcomes of participants were also tracked. Positive changes were demonstrated for two job seekers on knowledge of strengths and interests. Additionally, all three job seekers changed their employment status in line with their goals. The implications of these findings for future research and practice are discussed.
... When compared to other students with and without disabilities, students with intellectual disabilities are at risk for some of the poorest post-school outcomes (Baer, et al. 2017;Carter et al., 2011;Hart et al., 2010;Mazzotti et al., 2016;Newman et al., 2010;Sanford et al., 2011;Trainor et al., 2020). American Community Survey results found 28% of adults with a cognitive disability ages 21-64 were employed compared to 37% of persons with any disability (Erickson et al., 2017), and Siperstein et al. (2013) found that one-third of adults with ID were working compared to 76% of adults without disabilities. ...
Article
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The rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has continued to rise in prevalence to 1 in 54 with males being four times more likely to be diagnosed as having ASD (Maenner et al., 2020). Which leads to questions regarding if females are less likely to have ASD or do females present differently with ASD. This literature review looks at the differences between males and females with ASD in the current literature over the last five years. Articles were coded for demographics information and open coding was used until nine distinct categories emerged. These categories and implications for practice and future research will be shared.
... For labeled individuals, nominal practices of civic education within legally mandated special education transition services focus largely on the acquisition of individualized self-management and character skills rather than self-actualization-or epistemic agency (Smith & Routel, 2009). Given this lack of preparation for adult social and civic life, it is perhaps no wonder that people labeled with intellectual disabilities experience low rates of participation in voting (Agran, MacLean, & Kitchen, 2015), in higher education (Butler, Sheppard-Jones, Whaley, Harrison, & Osness, 2016), or in gainful employment (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). ...
Article
Intellectual disability may appear to many as a barrier to participation in or the production of educational research. Indeed, a common perception of individuals seen as having cognitive impairments, and especially those with minimal or no verbal communication, is that they are incapable of the reasoning or lack the deliberative capacities necessary to participate in research or policy-influencing decision making. In this essay, Ashley Taylor dismantles these assumptions, challenging both the view of intellectual disability on which they rest and the view of epistemic competence they imply. Taylor shows how the absence or exclusion of people with intellectual disabilities labels from dominant knowledge-making institutions and arenas, including within educational research, amounts to injustice and results in their tacit or overt exclusion from civic education and political membership.
Article
Background In the pursuit of improving employment outcomes for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), understanding how participants are using Vocational Rehabilitation (VR), and which services result in competitive integrated employment is of great interest to advocates, families, professionals, and policy makers. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationships between participant characteristics, service delivery, and employment outcomes for individuals with ASD in state VR programs. Method The Rehabilitation Services Administration's Case Service Report (RSA-911) database for fiscal year 2013 was examined using a binary logistic regression analysis to explore ASD characteristics and service variables. Results Results indicate that ASD characteristics, defined as a source of impairment by VR, had predictive capacity for administrative VR services participants received (e.g. assessment and vocational rehabilitation counseling and guidance (VRCG)), but not for job-related services (e.g. job search, job placement, and on-the-job supports). In addition, job-related VR services were more likely to be associated with integrated employment at closure as compared to administrative VR services. In some cases, additional variables related to gender, race, and state system decreased the likelihood of a VR recipient receivingspecific services or achieving integrated employment. Conclusion Discussion includes how awareness of service access and equity can assist in improving the quality and outcomes of VR services.
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BACKGROUND: People with neurodevelopmental disorders often face significant challenges to finding and keeping employment including engaging in a job interview. Successfully navigating a job interview is a complex and essential stage to finding employment and requires skillful behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the feasibility of the Presenting Qualifications intervention for people with neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: Direct skills teaching (DST) is a researched method that can be utilized to help people learn a new skill. The current study implemented a multi-session, group based work-related soft skills intervention (“Presenting Qualifications”) for 76 people with various neurodevelopmental disorders via a DST approach. RESULTS: Participants reported increased perceived interview preparedness from pre to post intervention. Participants also reported satisfaction with the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests soft skills interventions delivered in group settings can be successfully implemented among people with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.
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Background: Supported employment provides individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) the support needed for community work. ID work is an integral occupation of adult life, facilitates social interaction, and fosters a sense of accomplishment and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore the unique contribution of occupational therapy to supported employment of adults with ID. Methods: Case study methodology incorporating qualitative and quantitative data were used to examine two supported employees. Qualitative data were collected from interviews and administration of the Occupational Self-Assessment (OSA) and Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) was used to measure change. The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) was used. Results: Both supported employees demonstrated improvements in work performance, as demonstrated by improved motor and process ability scores, after intervention. The job coaches at this supported employment agency felt OT could add value to their team. Conclusion: The OTIPM was effectively used to address work performance of supported employees. The value of OT was seen in the adaptation of tasks and environments for enhanced work performance. OT’s skill in observation and targeting intervention was the most significant contribution in this study.
Article
This article describes a four‐component context‐based change model that can be used to unfreeze the status quo and drive change that enhances valued outcomes of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The model's components involve contextual analysis, planning, doing, and evaluating. The article also includes guidelines for synthesizing information from the contextual analysis, selecting change strategies that influence valued outcomes, and evaluating valued outcomes and organization and systems‐level outputs. The article concludes with a discussion of the next steps involved in driving valued outcomes.
Article
Progress toward competitive integrated employment (CIE) for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) over the last 40 years has been mixed. Despite evidence showing that supported employment interventions can enable adults with IDD to effectively get and keep jobs, national rates of integrated employment remain below a third of the working-age population. Progress is being made to improve these outcomes. Pathways have been identified that lead to CIE through supported employment, customized employment, internship experiences, and postsecondary education. The recent passage of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) has created fresh momentum and increased the onus on interagency collaboration. This article examines what is known about promoting CIE through these pathways and highlights recommendations for future research and policy change. Recommendations for the future provide direction toward positive change for CIE into the 21st century.
Article
BACKGROUND: Employment and independent living are both critical factors for increasing the quality of life for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Recently there has been an increasing number of post-secondary education (PSE) programs opening on college campuses focused on improving these outcomes. Unfortunately, there are a lack of studies measuring the efficacy of PSE programs, especially based on the type of programming provided (i.e., inclusive, mixed/hybrid, separate). OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the effectiveness a mixed/hybrid PSE program had on employment and independent living outcomes for individuals with ID. METHODS: A 33 item survey was mailed to the parents of all program graduates who exited between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: Findings indicated 96% of students had at least one paid employment position after graduation, while the remaining 4% had enrolled in additional PSE training. However, at the time of the survey only 84% were currently employed, while 44% of graduates were living independently. On average, graduates worked 22 hours per week, earning $8.93 per hour. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to the national average for individuals with ID, graduates from a hybrid/mixed PSE program demonstrated significantly higher rates of employment (84% v. 34%) and independent living (44% v. 16%).
Chapter
Preparing youth to become active and independent citizens is a critical goal for all societies. However, youth with disabilities are less likely to achieve the same adult outcomes as their non-disabled peers. Although there is a growing body of research that has identified best practices regarding the facilitation of youth with disabilities from school to an inclusive adult life, many teachers do not have the requisite skills or knowledge to facilitate this process. This chapter explores best practices in transition education for teachers beyond the academic content, identifying eight key strategies that should inform teacher preparation programs. Using a case study from Iran, this chapter critically reflects on the relevance of these strategies in an international context, where inclusion and education of students with disabilities is an emerging field.
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Entendiendo la discapacidad desde el modelo social, los desafíos para la inclusión laboral de personas con discapacidad intelectual y psicosocial desde una perspectiva de derechos humanos, se explicarían por diversos factores de exclusión, entre ellos barreras estructurales económicas y culturales. Los factores económicos están asociados a la precarización del mercado laboral, y los culturales, referidos a actitudes y prácticas discriminatorias en esferas íntimas, privadas, públicas y sociales. Debido a estas barreas económicas y culturales, las personas con discapacidad no tendrían completamente realizado un derecho humano, el derecho al trabajo, ya que no estarían en posición de ejercer su ciudadanía en las dimensiones de participación y pertenencia, encontrando brechas en su interacción con el entorno, en el uso de servicios dentro de la comunidad y en el desarrollo de relaciones interpersonales satisfactorias. Existen modelos de inclusión laboral que contribuyen a cambiar esta realidad, como el Empleo con Apoyo, promotor de la inclusión social mediante el trabajo. Los valores del modelo están en efecto alineados con los principios generales de la CDPD del artículo 3, como el respeto por la dignidad inherente, la no discriminación, participación plena y efectiva, igualdad de oportunidades y accesibilidad. También los puntos d, e, i y j del Artículo 27 relacionados con el apoyo, asistencia y ajustes razonables en el proceso de inclusión laboral, están en concordancia con la línea de intervención propuesta por el modelo. Junto con lo anterior, el modelo se alinea con la visión de la CDPD sobre inclusión social (artículo 19). Cumplir con los estándares de la CDPD es difícil porque implica un cambio de paradigma en la concepción de las personas con discapacidad y su rol en el mercado del trabajo. Para ello, sería necesario contar con una legislación sólida que proteja los derechos de las personas con discapacidad, sobre la base de los principios de accesibilidad y no discriminación; en tanto será necesario también que este marco legal se transforme en cultura, mediante un enfoque de derechos. Finalmente, en concordancia con lo propuesto en el artículo 29 de la CDPD sobre participación en la vida política y pública, y entendiendo el derecho al trabajo como algo fundamental para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía, persisten desafíos asociados al cambio de paradigma y los modelos comprensivos en discapacidad, para así acabar con el asistencialismo, la estigmatización y generar estructuras económicas y culturales que contribuyan a construir la identidad del colectivo desde la diversidad y los derechos. Esto, con el fin de promover y articular la participación política como colectivo, la incidencia de sus demandas en el espacio público y social, y la movilidad y posicionamiento en estructuras de poder y toma de decisiones.
Article
Research consistently demonstrates that attainment of a driver’s license and access to a vehicle directly and favorably influence employment outcomes, enhance one’s ability to capitalize on quality jobs, and expand one’s access to community and independent opportunities. This study used a driving simulator to provide driving lessons to 12 young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The purpose was to use a safe learning environment to screen candidates for those who showed the potential to obtain a driver’s license. Instruction was provided using a set of interactive exercises focusing on controlling the vehicle via lane keeping, speed maintenance, and obstacle avoidance tasks. Results revealed that simulator training provided a safe learning environment to identify individuals demonstrating the potential to safely operate a motor vehicle. Participants demonstrated moderate to large gains in maintaining lane position, speed, braking response, and target detection. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.
Article
BACKGROUND: Data on graduates’ development and employment outcomes from postsecondary programs for young adults with an Intellectual Disability (ID) continue to increase and provide information on program efficacy and areas for growth. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the development of graduates’ social networks, employment outcomes, and self-determination a year after graduating from an inclusive postsecondary program. METHODS: The social networks, employment outcomes, and evidence of self-determination in a combined cohort of graduates (n = 6) were analyzed using social network analysis. RESULTS: All graduates except one were employed a year later. Half displayed smaller networks consisting of family members and new work ties. Only two graduates displayed large networks because of opportunities for socialization. In the absence of employment, students also fall back on familiar supports. Most parents were involved in graduates’ employment decisions, thereby curbing graduates’ expression of self-determination. CONCLUSIONS: Family supports are prominent in graduates’ networks and play a crucial role in employment choices. They act as constant protective and social-emotional supports ensuring graduates’ access to benefits and maintenance of well-being. Employment skills valued by employers and further opportunities to develop students’ social networks while in the PSE program needs to be a focus going forward.
Chapter
Preparing youth to become active and independent citizens is a critical goal for all societies. However, youth with disabilities are less likely to achieve the same adult outcomes as their non-disabled peers. Although there is a growing body of research that has identified best practices regarding the facilitation of youth with disabilities from school to an inclusive adult life, many teachers do not have the requisite skills or knowledge to facilitate this process. This chapter explores best practices in transition education for teachers beyond the academic content, identifying eight key strategies that should inform teacher preparation programs. Using a case study from Iran, this chapter critically reflects on the relevance of these strategies in an international context, where inclusion and education of students with disabilities is an emerging field.
Article
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Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) aspire to work, though they are often excluded from the workforce. However, little is known about the perspectives and work experiences of adults with IDD viewed through a vocational psychology lens. Our study focused on the Psychology of Working theoretical (PWT) framework, which is anchored in inclusivity, lived experiences, and equity. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 adults with IDD across the United States to understand how they make meaning of work and the extent to which their lived experiences aligned with the PWT taxonomy. We employed consensual qualitative research to analyze participants’ views within the three functions of the PWT taxonomy (i.e., power and survival, social connection, and self-determination). Our findings affirm the taxonomy as an appropriate framework to apply to the working experiences of adults with IDD. We discuss implications of this study for research and practice in vocational psychology.
Article
Background: This review synthesizes the available literature regarding factors which facilitate a sense of belonging in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, and provide a comprehensive integrative view of the subject. Methods: Four electronic databases were searched, and 13 studies met inclusion criteria for review. The “standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields” indicated satisfactory quality. Factors which facilitate a sense of belonging in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities were analyzed into themes. Results: Sense of belonging is enhanced by feeling respected, accepted, and valued (Subjectivity). These experiences are more likely to be achieved in a familiar and safe environment (Dynamism), and with access to platforms for social interactions (Groundedness), where a sense of relatedness and connectedness achieved by shared experiences with others (Reciprocity). Sense of belonging is associated with committed action of people with disability, taking assertive action or being agentic (Self-determination). Conclusion: Sense of belonging is a unique concept that should be addressed in disability research and practice.
Article
Objective: To investigate if 3D gamified simulations can be valid vocational training tools for persons with intellectual disability. Methods: A 3D gamified simulation composed by a set of training tasks for cleaning in hostelry was developed in collaboration with professionals of a real hostel and pedagogues of a special needs school. The learning objectives focus on the acquisition of vocabulary skills, work procedures, social abilities and risk prevention. Several accessibility features were developed to make the tasks easy to do from a technological point-of-view. A pilot experiment was conducted to test the pedagogical efficacy of this tool on intellectually disabled workers and students. Results: User scores in the gamified simulation follow a curve of increasing progression. When confronted with reality, they recognized the scenario and tried to reproduce what they had learned in the simulation. Finally, they were interested in the tool, they showed a strong feeling of immersion and engagement, and they reported having fun. Conclusions: On the basis of this experiment we believe that 3D gamified simulations can be efficient tools to train social and professional skills of persons with intellectual disabilities contributing thus to foster their social inclusion through work.
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Despite national and state policies promoting integrated employment, the majority of adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities (76%) are served in facility-based programs. This article focuses on whether or not this gap between policy and practice is in part due to the lack of interest of adults with intellectual disabilities and their families for employment outside facility-based programs. Results are based on the answers given by 210 adults with intellectual disabilities in 19 sheltered workshops, their respective families or caregivers (N = 185), and staff members in these workshops (N = 224). Results show that the majority of respondents would either like employment outside sheltered workshops or at least consider it an option. Moreover, the majority of respondents believe that adults with intellectual disabilities can perform outside workshops, if support is made available if needed. It is noteworthy that the preference for employment outside of workshops is not associated with the severity of the disability. Based on these findings, this study supports the literature that advocates for system change policy promoting the employment of adults with intellectual disabilities in the general labor market.
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Despite research that has investigated whether the financial benefits of open employment exceed the costs, there has been scant research as to the effect sheltered and open employment have upon the quality of life of participants. The importance of this research is threefold: it investigates outcomes explicitly in terms of quality of life; the sample size is comparatively large; and it uses an established and validated questionnaire. One hundred and seventeen people with intellectual disability (ID) who were employed in either open or sheltered employment by disability employment agencies were interviewed. Quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life Questionnaire. After making an initial assessment to see whether the outcomes achieved depended on type of employment, quality of life scores were analyzed controlling for participants' level of functional work ability (assessed via the Functional Assessment Inventory). The results showed that participants placed in open employment reported statistically significant higher quality of life scores. When the sample was split based upon participants' functional work ability, the type of employment had no effect on the reported quality of life for participants with a low functional work ability. However, for those participants with a high functional work ability, those in open employment reported statistically significantly higher quality of life. The results of this study support the placement of people with ID with high functional work ability into open employment. However, a degree of caution needs to be taken in interpreting the results presented given the disparity in income levels between the two types of employment.