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Salvia officinalis (L.), or common sage, is an aromatic
herb that has been used in medicine and cooking
since ancient times and has been investigated for the
treatment of various diseases, especially infections
and skin inflammation. We conducted phytochemical
prospecting and quality control with hydroalcoholic
extracts of dried sage, to identify active compounds
in the plant. The aim was to assess antibacterial and
antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans and
Candida tropicalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was
investigated in vitro by agar-overlay and well-diffusion
techniques, in which disc and well were used. Salvia
officinalis (L.) was not effective against Streptococcus
agalactiae, Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis, but
best results were observed for antibacterial activity
against Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the results
of the inhibition tests presented here, we suggest that
cosmetic formulations containing Salvia officinalis (L.)
could contribute to inhibitor of pathogens in the skin
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... This variability is due to differences in the drive force of each solvent. Other studies have shown the richness of S. officinalis in phenolic compounds . Many studies have revealed the role of polyphenols and flavonoids in biological activities as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, etc. this activity is due in fact to the chemical groups, biologically functional, present in these chemical families. ...
... Salvia officinalis L. is a perennial shrubby herb used for the treatment of different disorders in traditional and folk medicine . Several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, hypoglycaemic, antitumor and neuroprotective activities . The major constituents identified in the essential oil of S. officinalis are monoterpene eucalyptol,thujone, -thujone, limonene, camphor andhumulene, sesquiterpenes -caryophyllene, caryophyllene, viridiflorol and diterpenemannol; while in the leafs are commonly found phenolic compounds such as apigenin 7-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, luteolin 7- The ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis demonstrated to reduce the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1 . ...
Salvia species are known for their biological properties in many countries and might potentially provide novel therapeutic agents. This review provides an overview of the available literature on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Salvia species.
Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed, this review aims to add new information to the list of Salvia species, including S. ceratophylla, S. chloroleuca, S. fruticosa, S. lachostachys, S. lavandulifolia, S. miltiorrhiza, S. mirzayanii, S. officinalis, S. plebeia, S. verbenaca, and S. virgata, and their main constituents as promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, highlighting their mode of action.
Salvia species are sources of health-promoting phytochemicals that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that plants from the Salvia genus reduce the oxidative stress and may be able to prevent and/or to treat inflammatory diseases. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of compounds that show antioxidant properties and that demonstrated to inhibit the molecular targets of pro-inflammatory mediators in inflammatory responses.
Salvia species and their secondary metabolites may be potential agents to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory diseases.
... It is also used as a mouth wash for the treatment of inflammations of the mouth and throat mucosa such as gingivitis and pharyngitis ( Saad and Said 2011;Hamidpour et al. 2013 ). Scientific researches have reported that hydroalcoholic and methanolic extracts of S. officinalis and several isolated compounds showed a wide range of biological activities ( Devansh 2012;Hamidpour et al. 2013 ), such as antibacterial, antifungal ( Gracia et al. 2012;Stefanovic et al. 2012;Abdelkader et al. 2014 ), antioxidant ( Rasmy et al. 2012;Neagu et al. 2014 ), antiinflammatory ( Baricevic et al. 2001 ), anti-angiogenic ( Keshavarz et al. 2010 ) and anti-cancer activities ( Janicsak et al. 2011 ), in addition to having anti-diabetic potential ( Christensen et al. 2010 ). ...
Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities.
This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells.
The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE.
Seven phenolic diterpenes-sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol-were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM.
The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation.
Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Side effects after taking current antifungal agents, resistance development to these drugs, and treatment failures are particular problems in the treatment of candidiasis. Salvia rhytidea Benth (S. rhytidea Benth) has shown significant biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, cytotoxic, antifungal, anti-tumor, digestive and healing, and anti-proliferative effects.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of different fractions of Salvia rhytidea Benth as a valuable medicinal plant against different Candida species in Kerman province (Southeast of Iran).
Materials and methods
In this study, antifungal activities of methanolic, petroleum ether, aqueous, and chloroform fractions of S. rhytidea Benth were evaluated against different Candida spp. compared with nystatin and crude extract of S. rhytidea Benth.
In this study, MIC and MFC values for the methanolic fraction of S. rhytidea Benth on tested Candida spp. ranged from 62.25 to 250 μg/ml and 500 to 2000 μg/ml, respectively; MIC and MFC values of chloroform fraction of S. rhytidea Benth ranged from 250 to 500 μg/ml and 500 to 2000 μg/ml, respectively; MIC and MFC values of petroleum ether fraction of S. rhytidea Benth ranged from 125 to 500 μg/ml and 500 to 2000 μg/ml, respectively; MIC and MFC values of aqueous fractions of S. rhytidea Benth ranged from 250 to 1000 μg/ml and 250 to > 2000 μg/ml, respectively; MIC and MFC values of crude extract of S. rhytidea Benth were from 15.625 to 125 μg/ml and 31.25 to 2000 μg/ml, respectively; and MIC and MFC values of nystatin ranged from 16 to 64 μg/ml and 16 to 128 μg/ml, respectively. As well as, C. albicans showed the highest susceptibility to methanolic fraction and crude extract of S. rhytidea Benth. C. glabrata was more susceptible to petroleum ether of S. rhytidea Benth and nystatin. C. parapsilosis displayed the highest susceptibility to an aqueous fraction of S. rhytidea Benth. C. krusei and C. glabrata were most susceptible to chloroform fraction of S. rhytidea Benth.
All tested fractions had antifungal effects on Candida spp. but less than nystatin. In this study, methanolic fraction of S. rhytidea Benth showed the highest antifungal activity against most Candida species among the other fractions. Except for C. parapsilosis, the aqueous fraction of S. rhytidea Benth had the least antifungal effect.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant native from Americas of high economic and medicinal value due to the presence of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids. Considering that the presence of secondary metabolites is essential for the maintenance of biological cycles of the plants and their production can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors, the objective of the present study was to analyze the profile of the secondary metabolites from chia in an acute exposure (in short term) at different salinity concentrations. The methodology consisted of germinating chia seeds in B.O.D. (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) chambers with controlled photoperiod and temperature. After eight days of germination, the seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of NaCl, for further prospection of the methanolic extract and analysis of the metabolites. Morphometric data did not reveal changes in shoot length or radicle of saline treatment plants when compared to control (P > 0.05, one-way ANOVA and Tukey test). However, it was possible to observe that saline-induced groups increased their levels of tannins and flavonoids, suggesting a physiological and biochemical response to the related acute stress.
The stabilization of microparticles suspensions is always assured by macromolecules that allow the increasing of dispersing phase viscosity and maintaining the microparticles dispersibility. In this work, the effect of xanthan gum, tragacanth, and sodium alginate on the stability of gelatin–pectin microcapsules suspensions containing sage polyphenols as an active substance was investigated. After polyphenols extraction from Salvia officinalis, their characterization by HPLC-UV/DAD and their microencapsulation by complex coacervation technique using gelatin and pectin. Three different suspensions of microcapsules were prepared using different polymeric dispersant agents. The suspensions were characterized by laser for particle size, zetametry, viscosimetry, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities was carried out by the DPPH scavenging radical method. Stability study of prepared suspensions was undertaken during 90 days, the results obtained showed that sodium alginate and tragacanth had a better stabilizing effect compared with xanthan gum. After formulation of sage extract, its antioxidant activity increases and its half-life time increases from 12.75 ± 1.95 days (R2 = .93) to 258.64 ± 21.99 days (R2 = 0.98). Microencapsulation yield of sage extract in gelatin–pectin is 73.54 ± 2.04%. About 0.5% of sodium alginate permits the stabilization of microcapsules suspension. Sodium alginate and tragacanth had a better stabilizing effect compared with xanthan. After formulation, antioxidant activity of sage extract increases. After formulation, half-life time of sage extract increases from 12.75 ± 1.95 to 258.64 ± 21.99 days.
In this study, we investigated the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants in the Arabian
peninsula, including Rhamnus globosa, Ocimum basilicum, Tecoma stans and Coleus forskohlii. Our results
showed high inhibitory growth in yeast after treatment with R. globosa and O. basilicum. C. tropicalis was
shown to be a sensitive strain with an inhibition of 29, 28, 35, 25 and 27 mm after treatment with R.
globosa, R. globosa* “leaf with thorns,” O. basilicum, Tecoma stans and Coleus forskohlii, respectively.
Thus, our results confirmed the fungicidal effect of O. basilicum and R. globosa with a 20 and 30%
reduction in CFU compared with the starting inoculums in the time-kill.
Aqueous and alcoholic plant extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), gingerroot (Zingiber officinale), peppermint (Mentha piperita), Oregano (Origanum vulgare) and sage (Salvia officinalis), at 10 and 20%, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 33090), Salmonella choleraesuis (ATCC 14028), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 25931), Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 9811) and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) using the agar diffusion method. No antimicrobial activity was found in aqueous plant extracts in both concentrations prepared (10 and 20%) upon all microorganisms tested. All alcoholic extracts showed intermediary inhibition properties at 20% against Shigella flexneri.
Investigations were carried out to assess the efficiency of five plant essential oils: thyme, myrtle, laurel, sage, and orange oils as natural food preservatives. The effect of the plant essential oils against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at concentrations of 5-20 μl/disk (diameter 6 mm) and 0.5-3% (v/v) was studied in agar diffusion test medium and milk medium. The essential oils of these extracts exhibited markedly antibacterial and bacteriostatic activity, with thyme showing the highest inhibition and orange the lowest. However, with thyme extract, high inhibitory activity was observed for all tested concentrations, L. monocytogenes showed less sensitivity towards essential oil extracts.
O emprego de recursos naturais como mecanismo auxiliar no tratamento de distintas patologias tem ressurgido, com ênfase, nos útimos tempos. Tendo em vista esta situação, este estudo teve por finalidade investigar a atividade antimicrobiana de algumas plantas medicinais e aromáticas bastantes comuns na cultura brasileira. Foi constatado que, de modo particular, o alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides) levou a uma considerável inibição do crescimento bacteriano. Tambêm plantas como alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis), cravo (Sysygium aromaticum), noz-moscada (Myristica fragrans), pimenta-da-jamaica (Pimenta dioica) e sálvia (Salvia officinalis) demonstraram constituir fontes eficientes de compostos bioativos antibacterianos.Medicinal plants, natural colour and spices were examined in vitro for antibacterial effects on the growth of Escherichia coli (EPEC) serotype O:125, Salmonella thyphimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610. The most effective medicinal plant was Lippia sidoides at concentration of 3 percent (w/v), that added to Trypticase Soya Broth completely inhibited the growth of S. thyphimurium, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. Among the spices, the cloves (Sysygium aromaticum) extract had the strongest inhibitory activity on the growth of E. coli, S. thyphimurium e Y. enterocolitica demonstred through the agar difussion technique. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. The nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) extract also prevented the development of L. monocytogenes.
Apresenta breve revisao bibliografica sobre a composicao
quimica e as propriedades antimicrobianas do oleo essencial
de alecrim. Enfoca aspectos gerais, usos, atividade contra
bacterias e fungos em alimentos e as principais substâncias
do oleo de alecrim oriundo de diferentes paises. Conclui que
os compostos oxigenados sao os responsaveis pelas
atividades fisiologica e antimicrobiana, mas ha discordância
sobre os compostos majoritarios, ora hidrocarbonetos ora
ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis L.): ESSENTIAL OIL ANTIMICROBIAL AND
This article presents a brief review on the chemical composition and antimicrobial
properties of the rosemary essential oil. It focuses general features, uses, antimicrobial
activity against bacteria and fungi in foods and the major compounds of the rosemary oil
from different countries. Concludes that physiologic and antimicrobial activities are due
to oxygenated compounds, but there is discordance about the major components if
hydrocarbon or oxygenated monoterpenes.
This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs) obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides), peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva), barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens), erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea) and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense) and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300, 400 and 500mg mL-1) was tested using the disk diffusion method. The phytochemical screening detected components with antimicrobial potential in the EAPs tested. The disk diffusion test showed that peppertree (≥200mg mL-1), barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1) and erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1) extracts inhibited S. aureus growth, but not E. coli development. The EAPs did not affect E. coli development, but the leaves from peppertree, barbatimão and erva-baleeira exhibited potential to inhibit S. aureus growth. The leaves and bark of the studied plants may consist in a sustainable, affordable and feasible alternative to treat microbial infections.
INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae). C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of womens health.
The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.
Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.
O gênero Candida spp é responsável por cerca de 80% das infecções fúngicas no ambiente hospitalar e constitui causa relevante de infecções de corrente sanguínea. Nos Estados Unidos da América, Candida spp é a quarta causa mais comum de infecções de corrente sanguínea, respondendo por cerca de 8% dos casos das infecções documentadas neste sítio. Espécies não-albicans respondem hoje por ao menos 50% das infecções invasivas por Candida spp, apresentando peculiaridades de história natural e sensibilidade a antifúngicos. A mortalidade geral de fungemias por Candida spp é da ordem de 40 a 60%, tornado esta complicação infecciosa um grande desafio para os clínicos que trabalham em hospitais terciários em diferentes países.
Candida dubliniensis is a recently identified species which is implicated in oral candidosis in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. The species shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, Candida albicans. In this study the phylogenetic relationship between these two species was investigated and a comparison of putative virulence factors was performed. Four isolates of C. dubliniensis from different clinical sources were chosen for comparison with two reference C. albicans strains. First, the distinct phylogenetic position of C. dubliniensis was further established by the comparison of the sequence of its small rRNA subunit with representative Candida species. The C. dubliniensis isolates formed true unconstricted hyphae under most induction conditions tested but failed to produce true hyphae when induced using N-acetylglucosamine. Oral C. dubliniensis isolates were more adherent to human buccal epithelial cells than the reference C. albicans isolates when grown in glucose and equally adherent when grown in galactose. The C. dubliniensis isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B. Homologues of seven tested C. albicans secretory aspartyl proteinase (SAP) genes were detected in C. dubliniensis by Southern analysis. In vivo virulence assays using a systemic mouse model suggest that C. dubliniensis is marginally less virulent than C. albicans. These data further confirm the distinct phenotypic and genotypic nature of C. dubliniensis and suggest that this species may be particularly adapted to colonization of the oral cavity.
The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC) Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L.) was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.
The biosynthesis and the accumulation of the chemical composites that have allelopathy characteristics in Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are resulting from the secondary plant metabolism. The present work had as objective to analyze the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Sálvia collected during the seasons, obtained by decoction, static infusion and grinding, on the germination and development of seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The experiment had 20 treatments (concentrations 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30%). The results had been submitted to the Tukey test, to the level at 5% probability. The appraised variables, germination percentage, the germination speed index (GSI), the growth of shoot and roots and abnormality formation of seedlings did not present a pattern of allelopathy in the different seasons, indicating a possible alteration in the plant metabolism in function of the seasonal variation in the plant ambient.
The biosynthesis and the accumulation of the chemical composites that have allelopathy characteristics in Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are resulting from the secondary plant metabolism. The present work had as objective to analyze the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Sálvia collected during the seasons, obtained by decoction, static infusion and grinding, on the germination and development of seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The experiment had 20 treatments (concentrations 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30%). The results had been submitted to the Tukey test, to the level at 5% probability. The appraised variables, germination percentage, the germination speed index (GSI), the growth of shoot and roots and abnormality formation of seedlings did not present a pattern of allelopathy in the different seasons, indicating a possible alteration in the plant metabolism in function of the seasonal variation in the plant ambient. A biossíntese e o acúmulo dos compostos químicos que conferem a característica alelopática em Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) são resultantes do metabolismo secundário do vegetal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas frescas de Sálvia coletadas durante as estações do ano, obtidos por decocção, maceração estática, infusão e trituração sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.), totalizando 20 tratamentos nas concentrações 0; 7,5; 15; 22,5 e 30%. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. As variáveis avaliadas, porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG), crescimento da parte aérea e das raízes e formação de plântulas anormais não apresentaram um padrão de resposta alelopática nas diferentes estações do ano, indicando possível alteração no metabolismo vegetal em função da variação sazonal presente no ambiente da planta em estudo.
Composition and antifungal activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil were studied. Three samples of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of plants grown in Portugal and one commercial sample were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Quantitative differences were observed in the compositions, particularly in the amounts of cis-thujone (8.8–37.1%) and camphor (11.6–23.4%). Antifungal activity of the oils was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) determinations against Candida (four clinical isolates and four ATCC type strains), dermatophytes (five clinical strains) and other filamentous fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Fusarium). The oils exhibited a broad antifungal spectrum, with higher activity against dermatophyte strains. The oil with 10.4% of cis-thujone and 20.5% of camphor was the most active and showed fungicidal activity, with MIC and MLC values of 0.63 μl/ml, against dermatophyte strains. Sage products, with low content of thujones, may be an alternative as antifungal agents in different areas.
The essential oils of Salvia officinalis and Salvia triloba cultivated in South Brazil were analyzed by GC–MS. The major constituents of the oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone, 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and β-pinene, whereas those of S. triloba were α-thujone, 1,8-cineole, camphor, and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils of both species exhibited remarkable bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus subtilis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Klebsiella oxytoca. Moreover, the essential oil of S. triloba efficiently inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus and A. hydrophila growth were drastically reduced even in the presence of 0.05 mg/ml of the essential oil of S. triloba.
The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry.
Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. The treatment of periodontal disease includes scaling and root planning (SRP) associated with proper oral hygiene. However, some patients may have negative responses to different therapeutic procedures, with a continuous loss of insertion, so the use of antimicrobials is needed as an adjuvant to SRP treatment. The use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, such as tetracycline and metronidazole, as an aid in periodontal treatment has also been a factor for the development of superinfections by resistant bacteria and Candida species, even in patients with HIV. In the dental practice, the most commonly used antifungals are nystatin and fluconazole. However, the introduction of new drugs like the next generation of azoles is essential before the onset of emergent species in periodontal disease. Plants are good options for obtaining a wide variety of drugs. This alternative could benefit a large population that uses plants as a first treatment option. Plants have been used in medicine for a long time and are extensively used in folk medicine, because they represent an economic alternative, are easily accessible and are applicable to various diseases. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining the presence of Candida sp. in periodontal pockets, the conventional antifungal resistance and new therapies that include natural antifungal agents are reviewed.
1. All except two of 106 strains of hemolytic streptococci isolated from man, other animals, milk, and cheese have been classified into five groups, which bear a definite relationship to the sources of the cultures. These broad groups may be subdivided into specific types by methods discussed elsewhere. The specific group classification is made possible by employing two special reagents: (a) extracts prepared by treatment of the bacteria with hot hydrochloric acid, and (b) serum of animals immunized with formalinized cultures. This differentiation is not detected by the agglutination reaction. The grouping agrees with that described by other investigators on the basis of cultural and biochemical characteristics. 2. The group-specific substance present in strains of Group A has been identified chemically as carbohydrate in nature. The chemical composition of the specific substances upon which the specificity of the other groups depends has not been determined. It seems not unlikely, however, that all of them may belong in the general class of carbohydrates, each being chemically distinct and serologically specific in the individual groups.
An extract from Salvia officinalis (Sage) leaves showed antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). We isolated the effective compound and identified it as oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid. We also tested antimicrobial activity of similar triterpenoids, ursolic acid, uvaol, betulinic acid and betulin. We found that ursolic acid also showed antimicrobial activity against VRE. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 8 and 4 microg/ml, respectively. These two compounds also showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These compounds showed bactericidal activity against VRE at least for 48 h when added at concentrations that were two-times higher than their MICs.
Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais sobre bactérias patogênicas humanas
A L Alvarenga
R F Schwan
D R Dias
Alvarenga AL, Schwan RF, Dias DR, Schwan-Estrada
KRF, Bravo-Martins CEC. Atividade antimicrobiana de
extratos vegetais sobre bactérias patogênicas humanas. J
Bras Patol Med. 2007;9(4):86-91.
Relação entre a suscetibilidade de Cândida spp. a anfotericina B, com óbito ou sobrevivência dos pacientes em episódios de candidemia
Boff E. Relação entre a suscetibilidade de Cândida spp. a
anfotericina B, com óbito ou sobrevivência dos pacientes
em episódios de candidemia. [Dissertação].
Perfil químico e controle de qualidade de Turnera diffusa
Camargo EES. Perfil químico e controle de qualidade de
Turnera diffusa. [Dissertação]. Araraquara: Faculdade de
Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista
Júlio de Mesquita Filho; 2001.
Diversidade genética e patogenicidade em Strepcoccus agalactiae
Corrêa ABA. Diversidade genética e patogenicidade em
Strepcoccus agalactiae. [Tese].
The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
L G Silva
F G Fernandes
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