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Assessment of Salvia officinalis (L.) hydroalcoholic extract for possible use in cosmetic formulation as inhibitor of pathogens in the skin

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Abstract

Salvia officinalis (L.), or common sage, is an aromatic herb that has been used in medicine and cooking since ancient times and has been investigated for the treatment of various diseases, especially infections and skin inflammation. We conducted phytochemical prospecting and quality control with hydroalcoholic extracts of dried sage, to identify active compounds in the plant. The aim was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in vitro by agar-overlay and well-diffusion techniques, in which disc and well were used. Salvia officinalis (L.) was not effective against Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis, but best results were observed for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the results of the inhibition tests presented here, we suggest that cosmetic formulations containing Salvia officinalis (L.) could contribute to inhibitor of pathogens in the skin microbiota.

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... This variability is due to differences in the drive force of each solvent. Other studies have shown the richness of S. officinalis in phenolic compounds [24]. Many studies have revealed the role of polyphenols and flavonoids in biological activities as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, etc. this activity is due in fact to the chemical groups, biologically functional, present in these chemical families. ...
... Salvia officinalis L. is a perennial shrubby herb used for the treatment of different disorders in traditional and folk medicine [89]. Several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, hypoglycaemic, antitumor and neuroprotective activities [90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97]. The major constituents identified in the essential oil of S. officinalis are monoterpene eucalyptol,thujone, -thujone, limonene, camphor andhumulene, sesquiterpenes -caryophyllene, caryophyllene, viridiflorol and diterpenemannol; while in the leafs are commonly found phenolic compounds such as apigenin 7-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, luteolin 7- The ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis demonstrated to reduce the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1 [98]. ...
Article
Background: Salvia species are known for their biological properties in many countries and might potentially provide novel therapeutic agents. This review provides an overview of the available literature on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Salvia species. Methods: Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed, this review aims to add new information to the list of Salvia species, including S. ceratophylla, S. chloroleuca, S. fruticosa, S. lachostachys, S. lavandulifolia, S. miltiorrhiza, S. mirzayanii, S. officinalis, S. plebeia, S. verbenaca, and S. virgata, and their main constituents as promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, highlighting their mode of action. Results: Salvia species are sources of health-promoting phytochemicals that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that plants from the Salvia genus reduce the oxidative stress and may be able to prevent and/or to treat inflammatory diseases. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of compounds that show antioxidant properties and that demonstrated to inhibit the molecular targets of pro-inflammatory mediators in inflammatory responses. Conclusion: Salvia species and their secondary metabolites may be potential agents to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory diseases.
... It is also used as a mouth wash for the treatment of inflammations of the mouth and throat mucosa such as gingivitis and pharyngitis ( Saad and Said 2011;Hamidpour et al. 2013 ). Scientific researches have reported that hydroalcoholic and methanolic extracts of S. officinalis and several isolated compounds showed a wide range of biological activities ( Devansh 2012;Hamidpour et al. 2013 ), such as antibacterial, antifungal ( Gracia et al. 2012;Stefanovic et al. 2012;Abdelkader et al. 2014 ), antioxidant ( Rasmy et al. 2012;Neagu et al. 2014 ), antiinflammatory ( Baricevic et al. 2001 ), anti-angiogenic ( Keshavarz et al. 2010 ) and anti-cancer activities ( Janicsak et al. 2011 ), in addition to having anti-diabetic potential ( Christensen et al. 2010 ). ...
Article
Background: Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. Methods: The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE. Results: Seven phenolic diterpenes-sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol-were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM. Conclusions: The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation.
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The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry.
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Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. The treatment of periodontal disease includes scaling and root planning (SRP) associated with proper oral hygiene. However, some patients may have negative responses to different therapeutic procedures, with a continuous loss of insertion, so the use of antimicrobials is needed as an adjuvant to SRP treatment. The use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, such as tetracycline and metronidazole, as an aid in periodontal treatment has also been a factor for the development of superinfections by resistant bacteria and Candida species, even in patients with HIV. In the dental practice, the most commonly used antifungals are nystatin and fluconazole. However, the introduction of new drugs like the next generation of azoles is essential before the onset of emergent species in periodontal disease. Plants are good options for obtaining a wide variety of drugs. This alternative could benefit a large population that uses plants as a first treatment option. Plants have been used in medicine for a long time and are extensively used in folk medicine, because they represent an economic alternative, are easily accessible and are applicable to various diseases. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining the presence of Candida sp. in periodontal pockets, the conventional antifungal resistance and new therapies that include natural antifungal agents are reviewed.
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Traducción de: Pharmacognosie: phytochimie, plantes médicinales Incluye bibliografía e índice
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1. All except two of 106 strains of hemolytic streptococci isolated from man, other animals, milk, and cheese have been classified into five groups, which bear a definite relationship to the sources of the cultures. These broad groups may be subdivided into specific types by methods discussed elsewhere. The specific group classification is made possible by employing two special reagents: (a) extracts prepared by treatment of the bacteria with hot hydrochloric acid, and (b) serum of animals immunized with formalinized cultures. This differentiation is not detected by the agglutination reaction. The grouping agrees with that described by other investigators on the basis of cultural and biochemical characteristics. 2. The group-specific substance present in strains of Group A has been identified chemically as carbohydrate in nature. The chemical composition of the specific substances upon which the specificity of the other groups depends has not been determined. It seems not unlikely, however, that all of them may belong in the general class of carbohydrates, each being chemically distinct and serologically specific in the individual groups.
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An extract from Salvia officinalis (Sage) leaves showed antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). We isolated the effective compound and identified it as oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid. We also tested antimicrobial activity of similar triterpenoids, ursolic acid, uvaol, betulinic acid and betulin. We found that ursolic acid also showed antimicrobial activity against VRE. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 8 and 4 microg/ml, respectively. These two compounds also showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These compounds showed bactericidal activity against VRE at least for 48 h when added at concentrations that were two-times higher than their MICs.
Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais sobre bactérias patogênicas humanas
  • A L Alvarenga
  • R F Schwan
  • D R Dias
  • Krf Schwan-Estrada
  • Cec Bravo-Martins
Alvarenga AL, Schwan RF, Dias DR, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Bravo-Martins CEC. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais sobre bactérias patogênicas humanas. J Bras Patol Med. 2007;9(4):86-91.
Relação entre a suscetibilidade de Cândida spp. a anfotericina B, com óbito ou sobrevivência dos pacientes em episódios de candidemia
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