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Effect of foxtail millet (setaria italica) supplementation on serum glucose, serum lipids and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetics

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to show the long term effect of low glycemic index (GI) foxtail millet (setaria italica) biscuits (GI = 50.8) and burfi, a sweet product (GI = 37.5), on diabetics. This case control clinical trial was conducted on 30 type 2 diabetic subjects who were equally divided into 3 groups: experimental group 1 (EG-1), experimental group 2 (EG-2) and control group (CG). The EG-1 patients were supplemented with 100 g foxtail millet biscuits and EG-2 patients with 100 g foxtail millet burfi for 30 days. The study was further carried on for the next 30 days with EG-1 and EG-2 with cross over randomized clinical trial, during which EG-1 and EG-2 acted as their own control. The metabolic parameters studied were serum glucose, serum cholesterol, serum LDL, serum HDL, serum triglycerides, serum VLDL and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb). Significant reduction was recorded in serum glucose (23%), serum cholesterol (6%), serum LDL (20%) and GHb (16.5%), and a slight decrease in serum triglycerides and VLDL. Serum HDL increased significantly by 23 per cent. Almost similar results were observed for foxtail millet burfi as for foxtail millet biscuits. During the cross over randomized clinical trial, all metabolic parameters except for HDL increased upon stopping the supplementation. Thus, it is concluded that foxtail millet as a low GI food product leads to modest improvement in long-term glycemic and lipidemic control in type 2 diabetics.

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... From those studies collecting venous blood, three [19,22] took blood every 15, 30 or 60 min, while others conducted long term feeding and took blood before and after the intervention periods [9,21] and 28 days, respectively). In the studies that had no defined blood collection methods, three [17,30,31] had blood samples taken every 30 or 60 min and only one study [32] had blood taken at the baseline, after a month and after two months. ...
... All 19 studies were rated for quality using the checklist for primary research from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; six studies received a positive rating [17,19,21,27,29,31], 12 studies were recorded as neutral [9,12,18,20,22,23,25,26,28,30,32] and only one study had a negative rating [24]. ...
... Postprandial IR (Insulinaemic response) was also measured in three of the studies [17,19,22]. 12 of the studies measured the GI of meals prepared from millet [12,20,21,[23][24][25][26][27]29,31,32], three of the studies measured the sensory characteristics of test meals [23,27,29] and the rest reported in vitro and in vivo starch digestion, protein and lipid profiles, glycosylated haemoglobin, lipemic response, serum cholesterol and glycaemic load as the outcomes [9,19,21,24,25,32]. ...
... The low GI diet has been shown to reduce blood glucose levels (Anjuthathola et al., 2011) [2] , Genetic variation increases the genetic diversity in and among populations allowing for new traits to become more or less prominent in the gene pool. The correlation analysis in combination, can give a better insight, into cause and effect relationship between different pairs of characters. ...
... The low GI diet has been shown to reduce blood glucose levels (Anjuthathola et al., 2011) [2] , Genetic variation increases the genetic diversity in and among populations allowing for new traits to become more or less prominent in the gene pool. The correlation analysis in combination, can give a better insight, into cause and effect relationship between different pairs of characters. ...
... Significant reduction was recorded in serum glucose (23%), serum cholesterol (6%), serum LDL (20%) and glycosylated hemoglobin (16.5%), and a slight decrease in serum triglycerides and VLDL. Serum HDL increased significantly by 23 per cent (Thathola et al., 2011) [13] . Also used in the treatment of dyspepsia; poor digestion and food stagnancy in abdomen (Yeung, 1985) [15] . ...
... Significant reduction was recorded in serum glucose (23%), serum cholesterol (6%), serum LDL (20%) and glycosylated hemoglobin (16.5%), and a slight decrease in serum triglycerides and VLDL. Serum HDL increased significantly by 23 per cent (Thathola et al., 2011) [13] . Also used in the treatment of dyspepsia; poor digestion and food stagnancy in abdomen (Yeung, 1985) [15] . ...
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Instant mix are easy to prepare, easy to cook and less time consume. Millets contain high nutritional value compare to rice and wheat. To blend millets in preparation of traditional based food product is due to rich in dietary fiber, protein, minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus. Puttu is steam cooked food product usually made from rice but blends with millets gives several health benefits. Instant millets puttu mix prepared from combination of finger millets with foxtail millets (50:50) were found to be better acceptability in organoleptic property and nutritional quality. Instant puttu mix stored in low density polyethylene and aluminium standing pouch for three months at ambient temperature (27±5°C). The chemical composition of finger millet and foxtail millet instant puttu mix comprise average value of crude protein 12.18 per cent, crude fiber 9.15 per cent, calcium 200.68 mg/100g, iron 6.24 mg/100g, magnesium 170.54 mg/100g, phosphorus 294.25 mg/100g.
... ghee, alongwith spices. Millets, commonly known as ''small seeded grasses'' possess certain advantages over conventional cereals in terms of protein content, sources of dietary fiber, phytochemicals and micronutrients and their ease to get digested (Thathola et al. 2010). Apart from this, millets exhibit a low glycemic index that provide sustained release of energy, thereby, also acting as a potential therapeutic aid (Ravi 2004). ...
... Use of foxtail millet in place of rice was done to promote utilization of millet and provide benefits to the consumer. Foxtail millet possess nutritional composition comparable to that of rice and wheat alongwith its added benefit to act as low GI food (Thathola et al. 2010). The fibre content and starch profile are better in foxtail millet than the rice used. ...
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Instant foods are a great convenience in today’s fast moving world, aiding to reduce the time spent on the cooking process, along with the added advantage of long shelf life and ease to carry. Ingredient composition was finalized by optimizing the design variables (instantised foxtail millet, instantised green gram dal and oat flakes) using Central Composite Rotatable Design besides suitable fat and spices for the development of instant foxtail millet khichdi. Over all acceptability and water holding capacity were considered as the responses for the experimental design. The developed quick cooking (jiffy) product possessed calorific value of 525.11 kcal/100 g with good rehydration/ reconstitution properties within 4 min. Shelf stability of the khichdi packed in polypropylene (75µ) and metallised polyester (90µ) pouches was evaluated in terms of chemical, microbiological and sensorial changes. The product was found to be shelf stable for 6 months of storage in metallised polyester.
... Millets lack gluten and can be consumed by people suffering from celiac disease [4]. Some in vivo studies by [5][6][7][8], showed significant lowering of blood glucose level by millet based diet when compared to a wheat or rice diet. However, most of the in vivo studies on millets have mainly considered millets products from composite flour. ...
... Epidemiological studies indicates that regular consumption of whole grain and their products can protect against the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, obesity, gastrointestinal cancers and atherosclerogenic effects, anti-oxidant and microbial properties and so many other disorders [3,9,10] reported that millet contain high level of methionine, tryptophan, vitamin B, fiber and minerals such as phosphorus, iron and it contains forty times calcium level more than that found in maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) and contain ten times calcium more than that found in wheat (Triticumestivum L.). Millets are known to have a low glycemic index as suggested by some in vivo studies however all of these studies have mainly focused on millet products from composite flour [6][7][8]. Starch digestibility studies on the 100% cooked millet flour have been rarely done. Dietary fibre, phenolics and lipids which are mainly lost during decortication may also affect in vitro starch digestibility [11,12]. ...
... Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is grown in semi-arid regions and has good nutritional quality which is equivalent to staple cereals like wheat and rice in terms of fiber, protein, vitamins, and minerals, but its potential as a low glycemic index food has yet to be recognized and utilized. Some studies have shown that foxtail millet has shown a reduction of cholesterol and triglyceride level in serum which is found to be good for lipidemic control in type 2 diabetes (Thathola et al., 2011). Foxtail millet protein-fed type 2 diabetic mice have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and cholesterol metabolism by increasing plasma HDL level and adiponectin gene expression, and also there was a significant decrease in cholesterol level in the liver (Choi et al., 2014). ...
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The incidence of obesity or excessive fat accumulation in the body is increasing worldwide and has become one of the major growing health problems. Obese condition is linked with an increased level of body lipids, oxidative stress, and expression of inflammatory markers. This leads to plasma and hepatic hyperlipidemia, activation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF‐α, IL‐6, and IL‐1β), and transcriptional factors, which in turn lead to a high risk of cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, diabetes, asthma, rheumatological problem, and liver failure. Grains are the major staple food crops grown for consumption in most of the developing countries. Cereals and millets, such as rice, wheat, maize, barley, finger millet, foxtail millet, proso millet, kodo millet in the whole form with bran, germ, and endosperm, are found to be rich in phytochemicals, such as phenolics acids, vitamin E, phytosterols, carotenoids, antioxidants, dietary fiber, which have a potential health benefit on various lifestyle disorders. In this article, we summarize the findings and investigations regarding the anti‐inflammatory effect of various grain phytochemicals in in vitro and in vivo models and their potential health benefits. Practical applications The occurrence of obesity is rising globally and is becoming a major health concern. Obesity will lead to multiple health problems due to oxidative and inflammatory stress in the body. Whole forms of cereals and millets consumptions have shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disorders and several chronic diseases. Potential bioactive components in various grains will act on the inhibition ofbiochemical markers connected with inflammation and adipogenesis.
... Foxtail millet is extensively used as an excellent source of energy for children, diabetics, sick people, pregnant and lactating women [13]. Consumption of foxtail millet by diabetics helps in maintaining low blood sugar levels, glycosylated haemoglobin and serum lipids, thus preventing heart diseases [14]. ...
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Fermentation is a household procedure used to preserve and produce diversified products enriched with bioactive components. Different combinations of instant or ready to use dosa mixes were prepared using foxtail millet, rice and pulses like black gram and green gram dals by fermenting at 37°C for 6, 12 and 18 hours depending upon the pulse used. The results revealed that 12 hours of fermentation was necessary to give best dosa for all combinations similar to control. The combination of 70% foxtail millet, 20% black gram and 10% green gram gave better results when compared with control and the percentage increase in appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptance were 3.66%, 2.41%, 1.18% and 1.19% respectively with decrease in taste by 7.53% and no change in sourness for both samples. Original Research Article Harichandana et al.; CJAST, 39(5): 21-26, 2020; Article no.CJAST.54695 22
... The study showed the supplementation of low glycemic index of foxtail millet biscuits causes a significant reduction of baseline serum glucose, serum cholesterol and LDL with a 19.68% reduction of glycosylated haemoglobin. Results suggested that millets have a potential protective role in the management of type2 diabetes [20]. ...
... This plant has good nutrition, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and rich in fiber (Bandyopadhyay et al. 2017). Aside from being a source of carbohydrates, millet can be developed as a functional food source because it has a low glycemic index (Thathola et al. 2011), the high anti-oxidant content (Sharma et al. 2015), even potentially as an anti-cancer (Saleh et al. 2013) and relative tolerance to drought or salinity stresses (Widyawan et al. 2018). Evaluation of nutritive values and antinutrients showed that foxtail millet from Papua, Indonesia is potential to be used as feedstuff, and used as a corn substitution in poultry feed (Tirajoh 2015). ...
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Daryono BS, Ramlah, Pabendon MB. 2020. Local food diversification of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) cultivars in West Sulawesi, Indonesia: A case study of diversity and local culture. Biodiversitas 21: 67-73. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.) is one of the non-rice cereal crops that has long been domesticated in the world, including West Sulawesi-Indonesia as an alternative food crop instead of rice on local culture. Traditional millet cultivars may become an indispensable part of the local culture and traditions of millet-growing people across Asia over many generations. The existence of this germplasm in West Sulawesi Province, Indonesia has been observed morphologically and showed a close relationship with local culture. A total of six traditional millet cultivars (Tarreang) with different morphological characteristics have been found in this region and still preserved sustainably by the local farmers along with their local culture and traditions. The tradition of Sayyang pattu’duq may become a good example of this relationship. In this tradition, some traditional food is made by the local people like porridge tarreang, jelly tarreang, buras tarreang, jepa golla mamea, jepa anjoroi, dodol tarreang, also widely presented and used as a symbol in important ceremonies, such as celebrations in the month of Muharram, completed Al-Qur'an for children, weddings, births or show the baby's. This information may be useful as guidance for conservation and millet breeding programs in the future.
... One such clinical study done on an Indian sample found that replacing a rice-based breakfast item with a millet-based breakfast item lowered the postprandial blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, hence, serving a protective role in the management of hyperglycaemia (Narayanan et al 2016). Another study based on the supplementation of low glycaemic index, foxtail millet-based biscuits and burfi found a significant decrease in serum glucose, serum lipids (serum cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein) and glycosylated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes of the sample population (Thathola et al 2011). ...
Article
Millets can play a role in providing nutrition security as they are rich in various macro and micronutrients, and can help to fight various non-communicable diseases. Hence, a suggestion was made to include them in the basket of goods provided through the public distribution system. The findings of this article suggest that, with the present level of production, millets can be provided in some states of India which have culturally grown as well as consumed them. However, scaling this policy to the national level may not be possible unless rigorous measures are undertaken to improve production as well as consumer acceptability.
... This might be the one of the causes for reduction in the weight of the subjects in experimental group. The finding of the changes in biochemical parameters of the present study is in line with findings of other Effect of high fibre food mix on lipid profile and body weight in obese subjects researchers [14][15][16][17]. Further, the lowering effect of millet based dietary fibre on plasma lipid concentration and FBS was observed in low glycemic index diet of lower fat content [18]. ...
... Significant reduction was recorded in serum glucose (23%), serum cholesterol (6%), serum LDL (20%) and glycosylated hemoglobin (16.5%) and a slight decrease in serum triglycerides and VLDL. Serum HDL increased significantly by 23 per cent (Thathola et al., 2011) [11] . Also used in the treatment of dyspepsia; poor digestion and food stagnancy in abdomen (Yeung, 1985) [12] . ...
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Traditional food product from south Indian puttu was selected for research project because it is steam based food product and easy to prepare and no oil in it. Its provides several health benefits but rice based food product have trouble to diabetes patient so blends with millets in preparation of puttu giving better nutritional and organoleptic value to the consumer. Finger and foxtail millet and other puttu were stored in refrigerated temperature (5± 2°C) and in deep freezer (-18± 2°C) to study their storage feasibility, chemical property and organoleptic attributes of millet puttu. Both millets are rich in dietary fiber, protein, minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus and play an important role in maintain blood glucose level, lowers the cholesterol and also preventing disease such as cardiovascular, diabetes. Millet puttu can be stored in good condition up to 14 days at refrigeration and 28 days at deep freezer conditions.
... These β-glucans increase the metabolism of sugar and cholesterol to induce hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolaemic effects and hence are beneficial for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (Krishnakumari and Thayumanvan, 1997;Itagi et al., 2012). Therefore, foxtail millet is used in the preparation of low GI foods for treating diabetics, particularly type 2 diabetes (Anju and Sarita, 2010;Thathola et al., 2010;Chhavi and Sarita, 2012;Itagi et al., 2012;Jali et al., 2012) and cardiovascular diseases (Choi et al., 2005). The use of foxtail millet grains as livestock feed is limited, though numerous studies investigating its value in poultry diets have been undertaken. ...
Chapter
China is the main producer, and foxtail millet is next to rice and wheat in importance. There is wide genetic diversity available in foxtail millet, and characterising these resources is a prerequisite for the genetic improvement of its cultivars. Collection of foxtail millet landraces in China started in the 1920s and more than 26000 accessions, 90% of which are landraces, are currently preserved at the Chinese National Genebank in Beijing. Information on the inheritance of important agronomic traits of foxtail millet, including susceptibility to key diseases, is limited. Genetic studies have been conducted on several morphological characters and disease response. Crop improvement in small millets as a whole have received less priority in the past, both at national and international levels. The ultimate goal of breeding small millets remains improvement of grain yield including maximisation of biomass and the harvest index.
... It has very diversified uses and health benefits. Foxtail millet has low glycemic index (GI), used for preparation of low GI food products (biscuits and sweets) which have great value for people suffering from diabetes (Thathola et al., 2010;Anju and Sarita, 2010). ...
... Foxtail millet is mixed with legumes to make porridge and also mixed with soybean to make mixed flour. Foxtail millet has low glycemic index (GI), used for preparation of low GI biscuits and burfi, a sweet product, and it is an ideal food for people suffering from diabetes (Thathola et al., 2010, Anju and Sarita, 2010, Wang et al., 2016. Foxtail millet is also fermented to make vinegar, yellow wine, maltose, beer and other related products. ...
... The Foxtail millet grain rich in protein (112 g/100gm), iron 28 mg/100mg, fat 4 gm/100 gm and it is a good source of the ß-carotene which is a precursor of vitamin-A ( Murgun & Nirmalakumari, 2006). It has low glycemic index and hence referred as diabetic rice ( Thathola et al., 2010). ...
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The present investigation targeted the foxtail millet Var. Srilakshmi for a high yielding attributes. The Variety Srilakshmi was irradiated with lethal dose of 400 Gy and post treated with 0.1% EMS at different time intervals of 6,12,18,24 hrs. The mutagenic concentration, (400 Gy + 18 hrs 0.1% EMS) found to be the best which leads significant increase in tiller and panicle number. The molecular profiling of selected promising mutants for tillering architect were then characterized using 27 SSR primers with 17.33% polymorphism, PIC (Polymorphic Information Content) value ranged from 0.37 to 0.69 with an average value of 0.31 and marker named SiGMS 12845 showed 100% polymorphism. The dendrogram was constructed based on SSR’s profiling and mutants were grouped into three cluster. The SSR’s markers were found to be helpful to determining the genetic diversity among mutants.
... Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), is one among the important grass family Poaceae, which is mainly cultivated in low water requirement and can be planted as second season crop due to its short life-cycle. Foxtail millet has high contents of protein and other nutrient potentials when compared to staple cereals (Thathola et al., 2011). It is a selfpollinating plant with miniature sized floral organs which traditional hybridization for new cultivar appears unfeasible (Siles et al., 2004). ...
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The effects of different concentrations of nitrous acid on the agronomic parameters of foxtail millet were investigated. Seeds treated with different concentrations of nitrous acid and untreated seeds (control) were planted in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) for two generations. The following data collected: percent germination, plant height, leaf number, length, and width, fresh and dry weights, number of days to 50% flowering, panicle length, and weight, and 1000-seed weight. Significant variations were observed in plant height, leaf number and length, fresh and dry weights, panicle length and weight, and 1000-seed weight in the control. Plant height, leaf length, fresh weight and dry weight had highest mean values at 0.1% nitrous acid. Number of leaves and panicle length and weight were highest at 0.4% concentration, while 1000-seed weight was highest with 0.3% nitrous acid. From this experiment, nitrous acid proved to be effective in inducing mutations that increased quantitative traits of the foxtail millet. The mutations have great potentials which can be harnessed for use in a breeding programme.
... It is reported to reduce the blood sugar concentration in women diabetics (Sema and Sarita 2002;Dwivedi et al. 2012). Foxtail millet consumption is very important for type-II diabetes patients as it helps in reducing blood glucose concentration, glycosylated haemoglobin, and serum lipids (Thathola et al. 2010). In China it is used to cure rheumatism. ...
Chapter
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Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a versatile crop known for being genetically closely related to biofuel grasses, for its C4 photosynthesis, and for its tolerance to abiotic stresses. These attributes have made this crop a model system and, in view of this, the genome of foxtail millet has been sequenced. Among millets, foxtail millet is the only crop possessing rich genetic and genomic resources, and globally it is the second most cultivated millet next to pearl millet. In the context of its importance in agronomic and research terms, the present chapter summarizes the origin, domestication, phylogeny, and agroeconomic importance of foxtail millet.
... Foxtail and little millets have superior nutritional qualities than rice and wheat regarding energy, proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Apart from their nutritional benefits, consumption of foxtail and little millets has been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes (Thathola, Srivastava, & Singh, 2011). Also, in vitro prevention of cancer initiation and progression was also attributed to millet phenolics (Chandrasekara & Shahidi, 2011a). ...
... After feeding thirteen healthy females between the ages of 22e27 years with refined wheat flour biscuits substituted with 45% foxtail millets and barnyard millets, Anju and Sarita (2010) reported glycemic index values of 50.8 and 68 for biscuits prepared from foxtail millets and barnyard millets respectively. Several other studies (Neelam, Kanchan, Alka, & Alka, 2013;Patil, Chimmad, & Itagi, 2015;Thathola, Srivastava, & Singh, 2011;Ugare et al., 2014) also indicated the hypoglycemic properties of millet and millet based products. It is important to note that all these aforementioned studies involved the use of humans. ...
... These β-glucans increase the metabolism of sugar and cholesterol to induce hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolaemic effects and hence are beneficial for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (Krishnakumari and Thayumanvan, 1997;Itagi et al., 2012). Therefore, foxtail millet is used in the preparation of low GI foods for treating diabetics, particularly type 2 diabetes (Anju and Sarita, 2010;Thathola et al., 2010;Chhavi and Sarita, 2012;Itagi et al., 2012;Jali et al., 2012) and cardiovascular diseases (Choi et al., 2005). The use of foxtail millet grains as livestock feed is limited, though numerous studies investigating its value in poultry diets have been undertaken. ...
... It is evident that a number of researchers have demonstrated very favorable nutritional, physical, rheological, and sensory properties for foods produced using foxtail millet. (62,90,93,(111)(112)(113)(114)(115)(116)(117)(118)(119)(120)(121)(122)(123)(124) ...
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Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is one of the earliest cultivated crops, extensively grown in the arid and semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa, as well as in some other economically developed countries of the world where it is more commonly used as bird feed. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the physico-chemical and health-functional properties of foxtail millet, and the processing technologies employed to improve these properties and develop more palatable food products. Foxtail millet contains significant levels of protein, fiber, mineral and phytochemicals. Anti-nutrients such as phytic acid and tannin present in this millet can be reduced to negligible levels by using suitable processing methods. The millet is also reported to possess hypolipidemic, low-glycemic index and antioxidant characteristics. This review concludes that, like most millet varieties, foxtail millet remains under-utilzed as a food source. It is however receiving increased research and commercial attention, especially because its cultivation is not too demanding of agricultural inputs and it can grow in difficult terrains. It would be reasonable to surmise that foxtail millet has a promising role to play in enhancing nutritional and food security.
... It has been reported that a local recipe named 'jaula' made out of foxtail millet works as medicine for people suffering from chicken pox (Pathak et al. 2000). Jali et al. (2012) reported that consumption of foxtail millet can result in good glycemic control, inhibit hyperinsulinemia and decrease plasma lipid concentrations, and is good for people suffering with type-2 diabetes (Anju and Sarita 2010;Thathola et al. 2010). ...
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Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] is an important small millet, grown as a short duration, drought tolerant crop across the world. This crop can be grown on wide ranges of soil conditions and has an immense potential for food and fodder in rainfed and arid regions of the India. In the present study, 31 primer pairs (27 SSR and 4 EST-SSR) were used to analyse the genetic diversity in 223 core collection accessions. Analysis resulted in detection of a total of 136 alleles with an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. Among these 136 alleles, 22 were rare, 70 were common and 44 were frequent. The PIC value ranged from 0.01 to 0.86 with an average of 0.31. The average number of observed alleles ranged from 2.0 (northern hills of India accessions) to 4.06 (exotic) with an average of 2.72. The mean Shannon’s Information Index ranged from 0.44 (northern hills of India) to 0.69 (exotic) with an average of 0.52. Pair-wise Fst values indicated little to moderate genetic differentiation among the group of accessions. UPGMA clustering grouped the accessions into two major groups while analysis for population substructure indicated presence of four subpopulations. However there was no statistically well supported grouping of the accessions based on eco-geographic specificities. The core collection designated here represented substantial genetic diversity at molecular level, hence may be a good source of diversity for use in foxtail improvement programs in the region.
... The millet content was maintained in the range 40∼45% of the flour to enhance the functional properties of the food via its antioxidant properties, high dietary fiber content, and high protein content containing a balanced amino acid profile Singh and Sarita, 2016). Further, scientific studies have shown the anti-diabetic properties of millets, as evidenced by their ability to regulate postprandial glucose levels by inhibiting -amylase activity (Shobana et al., 2009;Kim et al., 2011) and glucose homeostasis by increasing levels of plasma adiponectin (Pradhan et al., 2010;Thathola et al., 2011). ...
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Whole grain-based foods have been shown to reduce the risk of development of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we formulated whole grain-based multigrain flour and analyzed for available carbohydrate content, glycemic index (GI), and sensory evaluation. The multigrain flour composition 1 (C1) and composition 2 (C2) were formulated using defatted soya or bengal gram as a source of protein along with millets (40∼45%) and whole cereals. The proximate composition was calculated using Indian food composition tables. The microbial load and free fatty acid contents were analyzed in flour samples that were stored for different durations. The total dietary fiber, protein, and carbohydrate contents per 100 g of C1 and C2 flours were in the range of 11∼14, 13∼15, and 60 g, respectively. The available carbohydrate content in C1 and C2 were 55.4 and 62.3 g, and the in vivo GI was 63.2 and 66.2%, respectively. The acceptability scores of C1 and C2 products were in the range of 3.38 to 3.39 on the 5 points Hedonic scale. The multigrain flours were stable for 3 months based on microbial load and rancidity. The observed GIs of the multigrain flour were much lower than that of commercial refined wheat products. Therefore, these products may be recommended to regular diet plans to help prevent and/or ameliorate metabolic syndrome in the general population.
... Therefore, the high dietary fiber and medium gly- low glycemic index (Ugare et al., 2014) and high dietary fiber content (Chethan et al., 2008). Studies also showed that supplementation of millet rich diet or products for long term exhibited hypoglycemia, decreased serum insulin, glycated HbA1c, and cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetic participants (Thathola, Srivastava, & Singh, 2010). ...
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The efficacy of multigrain flatbread in regulating the lipid profile and carbohydrate homeostasis among type 2 diabetic patients was studied in 100 type 2 diabetic participants. The results revealed that the anthropometric parameters remained unaltered in both test and control groups. The fasting blood glucose levels (140.70 ± 8.43 versus 132.89 ± 5.63 mg/dl) did not significantly decrease. In contrast, the insulin levels (12.96 ± 1.06 versus 10.83 ± 1.03 μIU/ml) and HbA1c levels (8.01 ± 0.27 versus 7.40 ± 0.21%) in the test group decreased significantly, and it was associated with a decrease in insulin resistance. The LDL levels in the test group decreased after the intervention (116.0 ± 5.67 versus 98.7 ± 5.68 mg/dl), while triglycerides and VLDL increased significantly and HDL levels remained unaltered. A significant decrease in average blood pressure (systolic/diastolic) was noticed among the test group participants. The human RBP4 and hs‐CRP remained unaltered. Practical applications Millets are rich in fibers, has complex carbohydrate, protein, and is lower in fat content. Millets provide a wide range of nutrients, phytochemicals, and are gluten‐free with low glycemic nature. Their intake can reduce factors such as insulin resistance and oxidative stress responsible for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Our study indicated the use of multigrain flatbreads prepared from millets helped reduce serum insulin, LDL cholesterol, HbA1c levels, and incidentally blood pressure levels with a significant increase in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes participants. The results suggest using the multigrain flatbread meal as a food supplement or meal replacer in diabetic participants in terms of glucose control and insulin sensitivity.
... Millets are known to have a low glycemic index as suggested by some in vivo studies however all of these studies have mainly focused on millet products from composite lour [7,8]. Starch digestibility studies on the 100% cooked millet lour have been rarely done. ...
Article
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A mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease; COVID-19, has led to tremendous global health and economy damages. This virus could be dampened through home use of fermented bio food material. Fermented millet flour (ibyer) is an indigenous non-alcoholic gruel made from cereals either (maize, sorghum and millet). It is prepared by cooking reconstituted cereal flour or wet milled paste with water. In this study, fermented millet fl our supplemented with ginger powder blends were formulated in the ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for the production of gruel. The blends were subjected to feeding trial experiment using wistar albino rat. Results analysis revealed that Serum cholesterol was less than 200 mg/dl. The fasting blood glucose was also within the recommended range (67.7 - 125.0 mg/dl). The biochemical parameters were within recommended range, total serum protein ranged from 5.82-7.06 g/L, Alanine aminotransferase ranged from 28.53 to 41.13 iu/L, Aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 28.50 to 48.66 iu/L. The albino rats showed slight increase in body weight throughout the experimental period, ranging from 78.67 -103.80 g. The experiment shows that the diet did not have any adverse effect on the experimental animals and were within the recommended range hence a good anti diabetic blend and has excellent biochemical profile properties for homes use.
... The underlying phenomenon concerned with the development hypoglycaemic effect was elicited via acting on the channel of ATP sensitive K + ions in pancreatic b-cells. Thus the potent hypoglycemic activity observed in the case of foxtail millet (Thathola et al., 2011) and its possible mech-anism involved in their mode of action can be due to their stimulating effect on insulin secretion via pancreas followed by their role towards enhanced insulin sensitivity which could be attributed due to their presence of higher amount of selenium & magnesium in many organs (Sada et al., 2016). It can be observed that magnesium has the ability to improve cells for responding to insulin through rising the adiponectin hormone level. ...
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Background Setaria italica (common name- foxtail, kangni) is one of the major food crops which is prominently cultivated in southern regions of India and in certain regions of Uttar Pradesh. Besides the crop’s consumption as a general source of carbohydrate rich cereal, the seeds of the crop are comprised of more fiber. So, it is recommended to add in the dietary supplementation of the diabetic people across the country. Objective: In this paper, it intends to investigate the antidiabetic activity and antioxidant activity of S. italica (foxtail millet) seeds in diabetic rats. Methods: The six genotypes of foxtail millets (S. italica) namely Kangni-1, Kangni-4, Kangni-5, Kangni-6, Kangni-7 & Kangni-10 respectively were subjected to in vitro investigations via. comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) involving blood glucose study, Kidney & Liver function test, and antioxidant study (Catalase test; Glutathione S-transferase (GST); Superoxide Dismutase (SOD); glutathione (GSH); hiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) & Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and were performed in vivo animal investigations in Wistar rats. The STZ induced diabetic rats were fed with doses of different S. italica seed aqueous extract to evaluate its anti-hyperglycemic activity by oral administration of SISAE. Further, it was compared with Glibenclamide which acts as one of the standard oral hypoglycemic agents. Results: From achieved outcomes, a significant fall of blood glucose level (70%) produced 300 mg SISAE/kg b.w. after 6 h of extract administration. However, no change could be produced by these doses of the SISAE in normal rats’ blood glucose levels. A significant fall in glucose level along with significant glycemic control by lower HbA1c levels was observed in diabetic treated rats after 3 weeks of treatment with 300 mg of SISAE/kg b.w./day when comparing to untreated diabetic rats. Among these five genotypes of S. italica, the differences in the glycemic index were found. a significant fall could be found in blood glucose levels of Wistar rats, when every experimental rat was incorporating with the extract of different genotypes of Setaria italica L. Beauv than the rats treated with Glibenclamide in every 7 days of interval. The level of catalase, SOD, GST, GPx, GSH and TBARS showed variation while the rats were fed with the extract of S. italica in the liver test of rats. In kidney function test, the result shows that there is significant relationship between foxtail extract and kidney function of STZ induced diabetes rats. They show the change in their serum creatinine level, serum urea and serum uric acid. Conclusion: The result obtained from the study shows that the extract of S. italica seeds is capable for the hypolipidemic and antihyperglycemic activities, thereby, they serve as one of the good sources for herbal medicinal items.
... It is an extraordinary beneficial dietary supplement for diabetic patients. In type-II diabetes patients it aids in controlling serum glucose level, reducing serum lipids and glycosylated haemoglobin (Thathola et al., 2010). It is also used for the treatment of dyspepsia, rheumatism, poor digestion and stomach-ache. ...
Article
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Foxtail millet is one among the earliest cultivated and climate-resilient crop species with an immense nutritional profile. They are adapted to grow under a wide range of harsh environmental conditions ranging from high temperature to drought and salinity. It does not demand proper irrigation, artificial soil nutrients or insecticide. But they are incredible with their nutritional contents; almost five to ten times more nutritionally richer than the extensively consumed rice or wheat in terms of micronutrients, fibres and vitamins. It is a staple food crop in the various regions of Asia and Africa. The current COVID-19 pandemic and forthcoming environmental challenges may lead to the instability of agriculture and food security. Therefore, foxtail millet may serve an emissary crop to meet the demand of food supply for humans and cattle as well as rejuvenate other economically important crops against environmental constraints through biotechnological approaches
... It is apparent that millet oil could be a good source of natural oil rich in linoleic acid and tocopherols (Liang et al., 2010;Amadou et al., 2011) [11,2] . Foxtail millet as a low GI food product leads to modest improvement in long-term glycemic and lipidemic control in type 2 diabetics (Thathola et al., 2005) [14] . Millets are more than just an alternative to common grains. ...
Article
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Foxtail millet (botanic name Setaria italica) is the second-most widely planted species of millet, and the most important in East Asia have not gain much importance in diet despite their nutritive value and therapeutic use. In this study efforts have been made to develop products like idly, dosa and upma by replacing the rice rawa and the wheat rawa in the recipe with foxtail millet rawa respectively. The study was aimed with objectives of developing products with foxtail millet rawa and their comparison with the traditional recipes of idly, dosa and upma, for their overall acceptability and evaluation of the organoleptic characteristics which was done by 10 semi-trained panelists and also the comparison of the three rawa in terms of their nutritional composition. Gluten content was determined by the method detailed in AACC (2000) method No.38-10. The study revealed that foxtail millet can be easily replaced and (or) incorporated in the local and common recipes for its greater utilization because of its health benefits and therapeutic use.
... Studies have also revealed that foxtail millet is a good option for diabetics as well as has good complete protein. It has a potential to be a low GI food, which helps in long term improvement in the glycemic index control and lipidemic control (Thathola et al. 2010). The aqueous extracts of foxtail millet have shown antihyperglycemic activity and hypolidimic effects, thus is a good potential as a health food (Sireesha et al. 2011). ...
Article
To keep up with changing trends and increasing demand for clean labels, consumers preferences have to be met for, not only convenient and tastier foods but with products which are nutritious and promote health and sustainability. The ready to cook foods are finding more market shelf space with a growing CAGR of over 18%. The present study explores development of ready to cook foods using bio-diversified grains for more sustainability and targets LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) segment. The study undertook trials for development of ready to cook millet khichdi and upma with packaging and shelf life study. The pilot study also undertook batch process trials for process standardization. For the development, the millet grains (foxtail and little millet) were subjected to dry roasting process. It was observed that the desirable conditions for roasting were 18 min at 110 °C to attain moisture below 4% and better organoleptic score for reconstitution. Nutritional analyses revealed that both the mixes had good amount of protein, dietary fibre and minerals compared to the similar products available in the market. Batch scale process trials revealed that the process can be easily undertaken for a small-scale production and had a good scope of being a women enterprise model. Shelf life studies performed indicated that products had a good shelf life at ambient conditions and required no additives or preservatives and thus, catered to the need for natural, clean, convenient to use nutritious products.
... It is superior to rice and wheat, because it provides protein, mineral and vitamins to the poor where the need for such nutrients is in high demand (Taylor and Emmambux, 2008). Proso millet is rich in nutraceuticals like dietary fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, and flavonoids which play a potential role in treatment of degenerative diseases and metabolic disorder by improving cholesterol metabolism, preventing the oxidative damage of body tissues and DNA as well as in the regulation of blood sugar (Thathola et al., 2011 andBora et al., 2018). Phytochemicals from proso millets have increased interest due to their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects as well as other potential health benefits (Awika et al., 2003 andKim et al., 2010). ...
... Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) is a functional food that has high potential to be developed in future plant breeding. This plant has several superiorities such as high protein, antioxidant, fiber, mineral, and supplementation to control type-2 diabetics (Thatola 2010). Moreover, this millet is tolerant to water and salinity stress (Moharil et al. 2019). ...
Article
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The need of functional foods that provide health benefits beyond the essential nutrient has caused foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) potential to be developed. The foxtail millet superior development needs to be equipped by the production of pathogen-free seeds. Seed-borne pathogens have the potential to inhibit plant growth, reduce plant productivity, change the nutritional content of plants, and may cause new plant disease epidemics. This study aimed to detect and identify fungi associated with foxtail millet seeds genotype ICERI-6 from the Indonesian Cereal Research Institute, Maros which have 8 mo shelf life. Seeds surface-sterilized with NaOCl was grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated for 4 days. Detected fungal colonies were recultured on PDA medium to be characterized by morphological characteristics. The colonies were dominated by Fusarium oxysporum (52%) followed by F. verticilloides, Curvularia sp., Helminthosporium sp., Cladosporioum sp., and Rhizoctonia solani ranging from 4% to 13%. The fungal growth rate varies from 0.73 - 2.67 cm per day. Hot water treatment with temperature 52 oC for 20 min could reduce the percentage of infection by up to 64% without the reduction of seed germination. Detection of pathogens at different shelf lives and genotypes is needed as basic information to optimizing the method of controlling seed-borne pathogen in foxtail millet seeds. Keywords: growth rate, hot water treatment, incubation, morphological characterization, shelf life.
... Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of millets in improving glycaemic control, decreasing fasting, and postprandial rise in blood glucose concentration (7,8), reducing insulin index and insulin resistance and lessening glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level (8)(9)(10)(11)(12). Glycaemic index (GI) is a measure of how much the carbohydrate present in the food affects the rate and extent of change in post-prandial blood glucose concentration. ...
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Millets (including sorghum) are known to be highly nutritious besides having a low carbon footprint and the ability to survive in high temperatures with minimal water. Millets are widely recognised as having a low Glycaemic Index (GI) helping to manage diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analyzes across the different types of millets and different forms of processing/cooking collated all evidences. Of the 65 studies that were collected globally, 39 studies with 111 observations were used to analyze GI outcomes and 56 studies were used to analyze fasting, post-prandial glucose level, insulin index and HbA1c outcomes in a meta-analysis. It is evident from the descriptive statistics that the mean GI of millets is 52.7 ± 10.3, which is about 36% lower than in typical staples of milled rice (71.7 ± 14.4) and refined wheat (74.2 ± 14.9). The descriptive, meta and regression analyses revealed that Job's tears, fonio, foxtail, barnyard, and teff were the millets with low mean GI (<55) that are more effective (35-79%) in reducing dietary GI than the control samples. Millets with intermediate GI (55-69) are pearl millet, finger millet, kodo millet, little millet, and sorghum which have a 13-35% lower GI than the control with high GI (>69). A meta-analysis also showed that all millets had significantly (p < 0.01) lower GI than white rice, refined wheat, standard glucose or white wheat bread except little millet which had inconsistent data. Long term millet consumption lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels significantly (p < 0.01) by 12 and 15%, respectively, in diabetic subjects. There was a significant reduction in HbA1c level (from 6.65 ± 0.4 to 5.67 ± 0.4%) among pre-diabetic individuals (p < 0.01) who consumed millets for a long period. Minimally processed millets were 30% more effective in lowering GI of a meal compared to milled rice and refined wheat. In conclusion, millets can be beneficial in managing Anitha et al. Millets to Manage Diabetes and reducing the risk of developing diabetes and could therefore be used to design appropriate meals for diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects as well as for non-diabetic people for a preventive approach.
... Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of millets in improving glycaemic control, decreasing fasting, and postprandial rise in blood glucose concentration (7,8), reducing insulin index and insulin resistance and lessening glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level (8)(9)(10)(11)(12). Glycaemic index (GI) is a measure of how much the carbohydrate present in the food affects the rate and extent of change in post-prandial blood glucose concentration. ...
... Further, the starch quality of millets also varies from other cereals; the proportion of resistance starch ranges between 13-15 % in millet flour, which is approximately double of rice. High dietary fibers and low glycaemic index have marked the millet-based food products a suitable diet for type II diabetic patients (Thathola et al., 2011;Ugare et al., 2014). Gluten-free millet grains reduce the change of celiac disorder caused due to gluten intolerance. ...
Article
‘Small millets’ is a generic term that includes all the millets except pearl millet and sorghum. These small or minor millets constitute eleven species that are marginally cultivated and consumed worldwide. These small millets possess excellent agronomic-, climate-resilient, and nutritional traits, although they lack popularity. Small millets withstand a broad spectrum of environmental stresses and possess better water-use and nitrogen-use efficiencies. Of note, small millets are five- to seven-fold nutritionally rich in terms of protein, bioactive compounds, micro- and macro-nutrients as compared to major cereals. Irrespective of these merits, small millets have received little research attention compared to major millets and cereals. However, the knowledge generated from such studies is significant for the improvement of millets per se and for translating the information to improve major cereals through breeding and transgene-based approaches. Given this, the review enumerates the efforts invested in dissecting the climate-resilient traits in small millets and provides a roadmap for deploying the information in crop improvement of millets as well as cereals in the scenario of climate change.
... Similar trend of negative effect of post intervention on very low density lipoprotein was noticed among the groups. In line to our study, a report by Thathola et al. (2010) noticed slight reduction in lipid profiles of triglycerides, LDL and VLDL and significant increase in HDL fractions on consumption foxtail millet biscuits. ...
Conference Paper
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Background: Diabetes has emerged to be an undesired public health concern, one of four priority Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) that call for immediate universal attention. While adherence to drug is well practiced among diabetics, dietary regimen, especially macronutrient distribution, is not strictly followed. Objectives: The study was embarked to identify the food frequency pattern and macronutrient consumption of Type-2 diabetics with Metabolic Syndrome. Methods: A sample of 166 Type-2 diabetics with metabolic syndrome (MS) were selected from a diabetic clinic in a tertiary hospital through purposive sampling based on inclusion/exclusion criteria and after signing an informed consent. Baseline characteristics of the selected Type-2 diabetics were elicited using a developed and validated questionnaire. Food frequency pattern and macronutrient intake were assessed. Results: The macronutrient consumption of the Type-2 Diabetics (T2D) deviated from the ICMR guidelines for T2D by exceeding in total calorie consumption which was supplied by the excess carbohydrate consumption. The mean Diet Diversity Score (DDS) was slightly raised in the female (6.3±1.0) T2D with MS compared to male (5.7 ±0.6) subjects. An overall majority (80.8%) of the subjects had an average DDS. The scores reflect a moderate diversity in the daily diet of the Type-2 Diabetics with MS. Conclusion: Food frequency pattern and Macronutrient consumption of the T2D showed higher consumption of carbohydrates compared to recommended values. Critical attention needs to be drawn towards the quality of macronutrients, specifically, carbohydrates and fats, and their quantity, in managing the total calories in routine diet. Key words: Type-2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, macronutrient consumption
... Compared with rice, foxtail millet has double protein content, fourfold minerals and fat, and triple calcium [4]. Ample evidence showed that increasing the consumption of foxtail millet was associated with a lower risk of diabetes [5]. Therefore, foxtail millet is gaining increasing attention among consumers. ...
Article
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Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important minor cereal crop in China. The yellow color of the de-husked grain is the most direct aspect for evaluating the foxtail millet quality. The yellow pigment mainly includes carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) and flavonoids. To reveal the diversity and specificity of flavonoids in foxtail millet, we chose three high eating quality and two poor eating quality varieties as research materials. A total of 116 flavonoid metabolites were identified based on Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) system. The tested varieties contained similar levels of flavonoid metabolites, but with each variety accumulating its unique flavonoid metabolites. A total of 33 flavonoid metabolites were identified as significantly discrepant between high eating quality and poor eating quality varieties, which were mainly in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway and one of its branches, the flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathway. These results showed the diversified components of flavonoids accumulated in foxtail millets and laid the foundation for further research on flavonoids and the breeding for high-quality foxtail millet varieties.
Chapter
With the immense advancements in sequencing and data mining approaches, identification of genome-wide genetic variants in a population has become very popular. The use of these resources in the development of a dense genetic map of genome variations and to identify associated quantitative traits has become widespread in crop genetics. In recent years, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a powerful tool in revealing the relationship between natural variation of complex genotype and genetic locus. A slight variation in the genetic architecture of an individual in a population results in contrasting agronomic traits compared to the other individuals. GWAS utilized high-throughput genotyping platform and extensively phenotyping data to detect the links between genetic variations that underlie variations in agronomic traits. These studies can accelerate the use of genomic selection in marker-assisted breeding for crop improvement. Here, a brief discussion of available genomic resources and their utilization, quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying agronomic traits, GWAS in foxtail millet, and the prospects for this field in crop designing is given.
Article
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Background & objectives: Millets are rich source of dietary fibre and non-starchy polysaccharides with low glycaemic index (GI), hence can be used as a therapeutic diet. This study was conducted to estimate the effects of a millet-based dosa (foxtail dosa) compared to a rice dosa for breakfast on postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The GI of rice dosa and foxtail millet dosa was estimated. A total of 105 T2DM participants were randomly selected for the study. The participants were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) and not on insulin. In this study, each individual served as their own control and experimental group. The postprandial increase in blood glucose was compared after a breakfast of rice dosa and millet dosa. Single and paired t test was used to note the change in blood glucose levels and the level of the significance. Results: The GI of foxtail millet dosa was 59.25 and rice dosa was 77.96. There was a significant reduction (P
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Many health benefits of millets (defined broadly to also include sorghum) have been advocated, including their roles in managing and preventing diabetes; however, the effects of millets on hyperlipidemia (high lipid levels) have been underrecognized. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to collate available evidence of the impacts of millets consumption on lipid profile, namely total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low–density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). The results from 19 studies showed that the consumption of millets for periods as short as 21 days to 4 months reduced levels of TC, triacylglycerol, LDL-C, and VLDL-C ( p <0.01) by 8.0, 9.5, 10 and 9.0%, respectively. Four studies demonstrated that millets consumption brought TC and triacylglycerol levels to the normal levels (<200 and <150 mg/dl, respectively). Furthermore, upon consumption of millet-based meals, there was a 6.0% increase in the HDL-C 4.0 and 5.0% reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and 7.0% reduction in body mass index (BMI). This evidence, leads us to conclude that consumption of millets reduces hyperlipidemia and hence hypertension, and raises the levels of HDL-C (good cholesterol), which can be beneficial for managing the associated risk of developing hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in future. Systematic Review Registration: The protocol of this systematic review has been registered in the online registration platform called “research registry” with the unique identification number “reviewregistry1123.”
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Globally malnutrition is an emerging challenge in the context of rising uncertainty of food supplies. The latest estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization revealed that up to the year 2017 the number of undernourished people in the world has increased to 821 million. Stunting, wasting, and anemia are the most prevalent form of malnutrition in low-income and food-deficit countries. Hidden hunger or micronutrient deficiency is yet another malnutrition problem faced globally. Together all these factors put children and women at a greater risk of dying as they become susceptible to common infections and life-threatening diseases. With changing lifestyle and food habits noncommunicable diseases have emerged as major health problems worldwide more so in developing countries. It is predicted that noncommunicable diseases will increase substantially in low- and middle-income countries because of lifestyle, transition associated with increasing urbanization, and globalization. Millets are the ancient heritage grains grown on poor soils without the use of chemicals therefore in a way these are organic grains. Owing to their exceptional nutritional profile in terms of micronutrients concentration, fiber content, gluten free nature, resistant starch, and various phytochemicals of therapeutic uses they are known as miracle grains. In the present chapter, a brief account of malnutrition statistics and the role of millets in achieving nutritional security to combat hidden hunger has been furnished.
Chapter
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia owing to insufficient or inefficient insulin secretion. Globally half a billion people are living with diabetes and in India the rate is increasing at an alarming rate. This possesses a large and increasing burden and therefore immediate and collective actions are required to prevent diabetes. The four identified pillars of managing diabetes are drugs, exercise, education, and diet. Diet can play an important role in treatment and prevention of diabetes. Millets can be effectively explored to incorporate in the diet of diabetics. Millets contain certain bioactive components like non-starch polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyphenols, protein, certain vitamins, and minerals which attribute antioxidative, anti-inflammatory properties, and reduce insulin sensitivity. The nutraceutical potency of millets aids in lowering the glycemic index (GI) of food containing millets. The present chapter deals with the incorporation of millets in developing food products for diabetics. Various millet-based low GI value-added food products have been developed and proven to reduce blood glucose, lipid profile, glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics through intervention studies. Thus, millets the underutilized but potential grains can be effectively used to formulate functional food products and can form an integral part of the diet for diabetics.
Article
This review paper presents the state‐of‐the‐art of techniques such as decortication, parboiling and germination affecting nutritional parameters of millets. Functional characteristics of millets useful for designing special foods and value‐added products have been discussed. Why millets, known as superior grains due to their nutritional value and climate resilience, grown extensively, long ago, were replaced by other crops is highlighted? Based on leads from literature, technology interventions required to motivate farmers to adopt millets again have been identified. It is concluded that by adopting decortication, parboiling and germination, it is possible to enhance nutritional and sensory properties of millets. Value‐added and functional foods, including the fast‐moving ones (baked, extruded ready‐to‐eat meal etc.) can be designed using composite flours containing millets, like Kodo and Kutki, to drive demand of these grains. This will help strategize plans for making millets, a preferred crop again for sake of sustainability of agriculture and addressing malnutrition.
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Millets can be sustainable food sources in future agronomy because of its ability to flourish in harsh climatic conditions, however limited studies exist on the nutritional and hypoglycaemic properties of millets. This study is intended to identify millets as potential functional food ingredients based on their nutrient profile and in vitro starch digestibility. Seven millet types exhibiting diverse structures and compositions were investigated. Chemical composition revealed that depending on the millet type, millets are excellent sources of insoluble dietary fibre, lipids and minerals, these components had values ranging from 9.3–56.7 mg/g, 11.5–31.7% and 2.1–8.0%, respectively. Linoleic and oleic were the major unsaturated fatty acids detected in all the millet types. Millets were also found to be rich in free and bound phenolic acids. Kodo millet was found to have the highest free and bound phenolic contents. Expected glycemic index of millets ranged between 42.7 and 58.3, hence making them some valuable low GI food sources for diabetics. The obtained results may suggest that millets with its superior nutrient profile and hypoglycaemic property could be a promising ingredient for the functional food industry.
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A fermented millet flour called “Ibyer” traditionally available in Nigeria is increasingly being enhanced with ginger powder, which its quality characteristics to our best knowledge appears not yet reported. To supplement existing information, therefore, the microbiological (which involved bacteria and fungi counts), pasting (which involved peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity, set back, peak time, and pasting temperature), proximate (which involved moisture, ash, crude fat, fibre, protein, as well as carbohydrates), and sensory (which involved appearance, aroma, mouth-feel, consistency, taste, and overall acceptability) properties of fermented millet “ibyer” beverage enhanced with ginger powder were investigated. The major experimental stages included assembly of millet flour and ginger powder, preparation of blend formulation, making of “ibyer” beverage blends, and laboratory analysis. The blend involved fermented millet flour (FMF) decreasing, and ginger powder (GP) increasing, by proportions. Results showed noticeable microbiological, pasting, proximate, and sensory differences between blend samples and control. Compared to control, the blend samples obtained reduced bacterial and fungal counts, with increased peak, trough, final, set back viscosities, peak time, and pasting temperature, as well as moisture, ash, crude fat, crude fibre, and crude protein contents, but yet, with decreased sensory appearance, aroma, mouthfeel, taste and overall acceptability.
Chapter
Food grains since inception are playing a major role in human society by providing nutrition, energy and survival of people. Rice, wheat, maize, and millets are considered as important functional food worldwide, and besides their basic nutritional value, the functional foods and their component affords a health benefit and health-promoting effect. In India, wheat, rice, and millets are some important food grains. A number of varieties of these cereals are cultivated in India and exported to others parts of world. Rice, wheat, and millets are the important source of fiber, energy, minerals, proteins, vitamins, and antioxidants which act in synergy and exerted beneficial effect on health. In recent time, research intensifies to find the therapeutic efficacy of food grains. Preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological studies found the therapeutic effectiveness of such cereals. This review mainly focused on the therapeutic value and bioactive phytochemicals, most importantly antioxidant molecules of rice, wheat, and millets.
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Several crops, including millets with immense nutritional and therapeutic values, were once a part of our regular diet. However, due to domestication and selection pressures, many of them had become marginally cultivated crops confined to a particular region, race, or locality. Millets are a perfect example of neglected species that have the potential to address both food and nutritional insecurities prevalent among the ever-growing global population. Starvation and malnutrition contribute to a large number of health-related issues, being the main reason behind the occurrence of most of the severe diseases worldwide. These constraints are repeatedly disturbing both the social and economic health of global society. Naturally, millets are rich in minerals, nutrients, and bioactive compounds, and these crops are less dependent on synthetic fertilizers, systemic irrigation, and pest/weed control. Given this, the review emphasizes the nutritional values, health benefits, processing techniques, and genomic advancements of millets. In addition, it proposes a roadmap for enhancing the utility and commercialization of millets.
Chapter
Today human race is suffering from host of diseases owing to behavioral changes and genetic predisposition. Health foods can play a crucial role in prevention and control of health disorders. Functional foods which are interchangeably termed as designer food, health food or nutraceuticals are in demand because of their efficacy in allaying the symptoms of ever-rising health disorders. Small millets which are natural, low-cost resource with tremendous nutritional and therapeutic properties can be explored as an ingredient in functional foods designed to manage diseased conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), cancer, obesity, and celiac disease. The special attributes such as good content of dietary fiber, micronutrients, phytochemicals, and non-gluten-forming protein content present in small millets impart them with the therapeutic characteristics to be an apt ingredient in development of functional foods. Many human and animal researches have proved the efficiency of small millets as a functional food ingredient; however more studies in this arena are required.
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To define those patients most likely to benefit from the hypolipidemic effect of low-glycemic-index (GI) traditional starchy foods, 30 hyperlipidemic patients were studied for 3 mo. During the middle month, low-GI foods were substituted for those with a higher GI with minimal change in dietary macronutrient and fiber content. Only in the group (24 patients) with raised triglyceride levels (types IIb, III, and IV) were significant lipid reductions seen: total cholesterol 8.8 ± 1.5% (p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol 9.1 ± 2.4% (p < 0.001), and serum triglyceride 19.3 ± 3.2% (p < 0.001) with no change in HDL cholesterol. The percentage reduction in serum triglyceride related to the initial triglyceride levels (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). The small weight loss (0.4 kg) on the low-GI diet did not relate to the lipid changes. Low-GI diets may be of use in the management of lipid abnormalities associated with hypertriglyceridemia.
Article
To determine whether low-glycemic index (GI) diets have clinical utility in overweight patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Six patients with NIDDM were studied on both high- and low-GI diets of 6-wk duration with metabolic diets with a randomized crossover design. Both diets were of similar composition (57% carbohydrate, 23% fat, and 34 g/day dietary fiber), but the low-GI diet had a GI of 58 compared with 86 for the high-GI diet. Small and similar amounts of weight were lost on both diets: 2.5 kg on high-GI diet and 1.8 kg on low-GI diet. On the low-GI diet, the mean level of serum fructosamine, as an index of overall blood glucose control, was lower than on the high-GI diet by 8% (P less than 0.05), and total serum cholesterol was lower by 7% (P less than 0.01). In overweight patients with NIDDM, reducing diet GI improves overall blood glucose and lipid control.
Article
The effect of dietary education incorporating information about the glycaemic index of carbohydrate was tested against standard dietary advice in a randomized controlled study in 51 newly diagnosed patients with Type 2 diabetes treated as out-patients with diet only over a 12-week study period. Outcome was assessed by dietary analysis of 3-day diet diaries, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Dietary analysis indicated that the group who received low glycaemic advice not only had a significantly lower calculated mean diet glycaemic index intake (77 +/- 1.1 (SEM) vs 82 +/- 1%, p < 0.01) but also had a lower fat intake (25 +/- 1 vs 32 +/- 2% of total energy day-1, p < 0.001), a higher carbohydrate intake (49 +/- 2% vs 44 +/- 1% of total energy day-1, p < 0.05) and non-starch polysaccharide intake (21 +/- 1.5 vs 14 +/- 1 g, p < 0.01). There was a significantly greater within-group fall in fructosamine (3.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.2 +/- 0.2 mmol-1 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.6 +/- 0.3 mmol-1, p < 0.05) and cholesterol (6.1 +/- 0.3 to 5.4 +/- 0.3 mmol-1 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.2 to 5.3 +/- 0.1 mmol-1, p < 0.05) in the low glycaemic index group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
A multitude of investigations have demonstrated the beneficial hypoglycemic effect of millets, fenugreek seeds and legumes in diabetic subjects. However, the bitter taste of fenugreek seeds and coarse nature of millets have been limitations in using them in daily dietaries. Moreover, as of today, the availability of special foods for diabetics in the Indian market is negligible. The millets, fenugreek seeds and legumes in judicious combination, after suitable processing, were used to formulate three nutritious food products--dhokla (leavened steamed cake), uppuma (kedgeree) and laddu (sweet balls), which are popular traditional snack foods in India. Evaluation of these food products for glycemic response in five normal and five diabetic subjects showed hypoglycemic effects in terms of glycemic-index (GI). The highest GI was observed for dhokla (34.96) followed by laddu (23.52) and uppuma (17.60) in normal subjects. All three food products differed significantly from each other in GI. Comparison of GI of all three food products in normal subjects with diabetes did not show significant differences (P approximately 0.05). The food products were well tolerated and acceptable to the subjects. These food products may have an important role in dietary management for diabetic people and may cater for their needs on a large scale if commercialized.