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Effects of Dietary Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) Leaf Powder on Growth Performance, Body Components and Digestive System of Broiler Chicks


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The purpose of this study was to determine, the effects of dry strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) leaves (SL) powder on growth performance, mortality rate and body components of broiler chicks. In total, 144 mixed sex male and female broiler chicks (1-d old) were used and divided into four treatment groups; 0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g SL were added to per kg basal diet. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and daily gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated weekly. Forty two days old broiler chick were humanly slaughtered to determine the possible changes in daily gain, body components and morphological changes in digestive parts. The results showed that SL had no effect on growth performance, body components and digestive parts in broiler chicks (P>0.05) with respect to any beneficial and detrimental effects, suggesting that SL powders can be used in broiler diets.
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Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, Vol.11 (2), April 2013 477
Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment Vol.11 (2): 477-480. 2013
WFL Publisher
Science and Technology
Meri-Rastilantie 3 B, FI-00980
Helsinki, Finland
Received 22 December 2012, accepted 22 April 2013.
Effects of dietary strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) leaf powder on egg yield,
quality and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens
Metin Duru
Uşak University, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, Department of Animal Science, 64200, Uşak, Turkey.
This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of dry strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) leaf (SL) powder on egg rate, feed intake, egg
yield and mass, feed conversion ratio, egg yolk cholesterol level and external and internal egg quality of laying hens. In total, 64 Lohmann Brown laying
hens, 30 week old were used. Treatment groups were control, 10 g, 20 g and 40 g SL. These mentioned doses were added to per kg basal diet (171 g
crude protein and 2817 kcal ME kg-1). Egg yield and feed intake were monitored weekly and egg quality was monitored biweekly for 10 weeks. SL
had no effect on egg rate, feed intake, egg yield and mass, feed conversion ratio, egg yolk cholesterol level and external and internal quality of egg
(P>0.05) as having no affect on birds’ health status, suggesting that SL powders can be used in layer diets as a feed additive.
Key words: Strawberry leaves, laying hens, egg yolk cholesterol, egg yield and quality.
Food safety has become an increasingly important issue for all
sectors of the livestock industry in the World. Food safety means
the essentially healthy diet and healthy next generation. Because
of high quality protein, which is easily digested in human body,
vitamin and mineral contents, essential amino acid profile and
saturated fat content, egg is a healthy diet 1, 2.
Growth promoters were used in livestock feeding during years,
but in recent years they have been banned in livestock feeding
because of they are serious health risk to human health. New
natural alternative feed additives have been developed in poultry
feeding as plants, probiotics and prebiotics etc. Aromatic and
medicinal plants are alternative for feed additives to harmful
growth promoters 3, 4. As a supplement or an additive, the
vegetative parts of aromatic and medicinal plants are used to get
powder or extracts to be included in the poultry diets. Only these
plants but also some agricultural plants have a great potential to
be used for the same purpose because of aromatic and medicinal
charactheristics. This kind of plants are lemon, orange, olive,
strawberry and other endemic plants.
Strawberry leaf includes tannins, antioxidant flavonoids, a small
amount of ascorbic acid and a tiny amount of essential oil. In folk
medicine, strawberry leaf has been used as appetiser, cholesterol
and blood pressure lowering, healing of gastrointestinal disorders,
diuretic stricture, strengthening of sight and tooth, expelling
kidney stones and intestinal worms, anemia, hepatitis,
strengthening of nerves and immune system, intestinal and liver
activity, diarrhoea suppressant, arthritis and speeding up a
sluggish metabolism 5, 6.
World strawberry production has dramatically increased in
recent years. Strawberry production was 4,366,661 tons in 2010
and 3,779,102 tons in 2005 in the World 7. For example, in Turkey,
the strawberry production was 150,000 tons in 2003 but it was
302,416 tons in 20118. However, strawberry leaves have not been
used efficiently; expect vegetative turf material in soil fertilisation.
When literature are investigated in detail, this agricultural by-
product has not been used in animal nutrition even though it has
a great potential to be used as feed additive in livestock diets due
to its multifunctional properties as given above.
Leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa D.) plants were
analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance
capacity) and total phenolic content. Strawberries had the highest
oxygen radical absorbance capacity values during the green
stages. Compared with fruits, leaves were found to have higher
oxygen radical absorbance capacity values. According to Wang
and Lin 9, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity in strawberry
leaves was between 67.9 and 182.2 µmol TE/g for fresh leaves and
205.0-728.8 µmol of TE/g for dried leaves. When the strawberry
leaves become older, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity
values and total phenolic contents become lower. They found a
linear correlation between total phenolic content and oxygen
radical absorbance capacity for strawberry fruits and leaves.
Strawberry leaves include the phytoactive compounds with
potentially beneficial physiological impacts. Mudnic et al.10
studied the dose-dependent effects of wild strawberry (Fragaria
vesca, L.) leaf extract on the isolated guinea pig hearts and rat
aortic rings with two experimental models. They compared the
vasodilatory efficacy of strawberry leaf extract with that of aqueous
extract of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha, L.) leaves including
flowers which are known as a reference plant extract for vasodilator
activity. The current extracts showed the same dose-dependent
vasodilatation. The maximum relaxation or resting was observed
as 72.2±4.4% and 81.3±4.5%, affected by the strawberry and
478 Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, Vol.11 (2), April 2013
hawthorn extract, in order. Mudnic et al.10 used endothelium-
denuded and intact rings exposed to nitric oxide synthase inhibitor
L-NAME or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin in order to
learn about the vasodilatory mechanisms of the wild strawberry
leaf extract. The wild strawberry extract was applied to the isolated
hearts of guinea pigs at the concentrations of 0.06, 0.18, 0.6 and
1.8 mg/100 ml. The determined parameters were heart contractility,
electrophysiological activity, coronary flow and oxygen
consumption. The extract had no impact on heart rate and
contractility. They determined cardiac actions via coronary oxygen
flow. This flow increased up to 45% over control value with a
simultaneous decrease of oxygen extraction by 34%. They concluded
that the aqueous extract of wild strawberry leaves works similarly as
the hawthorn aqueous extract with respect to vasodilator activity.
This research was carried out to determine the effects of dry
strawberry leaf (SL) powder on egg rate, feed intake, egg yield and
mass, feed conversion ratio, egg yolk cholesterol level and external
and internal egg quality of laying hens.
Materials and Methods
Animals, diets and feeding treatments: A total number of sixty-four
30 week old Lohmann Brown laying hens of nearly similar initial body
weight (1832±20.24 g) was divided into 4 experimental groups (control
group and 3 treatment groups) each including 16 and kept individually
in cages sized 35 cm x 40 cm x 45 cm.
Strawberry leaves were obtained from the Research Farm of
Mustafa Kemal University after fruit harvesting. These leaves were
stored and maintained air drying in clean surface without any
microbiological contamination and sunshine effect. Strawberry leaves
were used after dried and powdered with 1 mm sieve opening mill.
Birds were fed basal (commercial) diets (171 g crude protein and 2817
kcal ME kg-1) supplement with 0 (control), 10, 20 and 40 g SL powder
from 30 to 40 weeks age (Table 1). Feed was offered limited (115 g/
hen) and water was available ad lib. Birds were exposed to 16 hours
day light, 19-22°C ambient temperature in poultry house during
experimental period of 10 weeks.
Determination of growth parameters: Body weights of hens were
recorded at the start and the end of study. Feed intake, egg number
and weight for each hen were monitored daily, and egg mass and
rate were determined. Feed conversion ratio was found as a
division of total feed intake by total egg mass.
Eggs were collected biweekly from hens and their external and
internal characteristics were determined. Eggs were weighed with
a sensitive scale (±1 g) and afterwards eggs’ length and width
were monitored using a calliper (0.01 mm, Mitutoyo, Japan). Eggs
were broken on a flat glass surface for measurement of thickness
and length of albumen and yolk. Yolk color was observed using
the Roche color fan 11. Then egg yolk was weighed and the weight
of the albumen was calculated as the difference between the weight
of whole egg and the weight of the yolk. The shells were dried at
room temperature 12. Their thickness was measured from the
equator, top and truncated edge parts of shell in egg by using a
micrometer. Shape index 13, albumen index 14, yolk index 15 and
Haugh unit 16 were calculated as follows:
· Shape index = maximum width (mm) / maximum length (mm) x 100
· Albumen index = albumen height (mm) / [albumen length (mm) +
albumen width (mm)] x 100
· Yolk index = yolk height (mm) / yolk diameter (mm) x 100
· Haugh unit =100 log (albumen height (mm) + 7.57 - 1.7 x egg
weight (g)0.37)
Determination of egg yolk cholesterol: At the end of the
experiment, 8 eggs for each group were determined for egg yolk
cholesterol level 17-19. Eggs were hard-boiled to separate the yolk
and 0.1 g samples of yolks were weighed in a sterile 10 ml Falcon
tube. Cooked yolk was extracted with 4 ml isopropanol, vortexed
for 2 to 3 min, and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The egg yolk
cholesterol level (mg of cholesterol/ g of egg yolk) was determined
using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer (Shimadzu 1240) and
commercial kits (Diasis Diagnostic Systems). It was calculated by
the method of Biochemical Analysis and Food Analysis 20.
Statistical analysis: All data were analysed using the One Way
ANOVA procedure of SPSS statistical package SPSS 21. Duncan’s
Multiple Range Test used to identify the significant differences
between the respective means. Results obtained in this study
were presented as means per hen with the standard error of means
The results of present study are given in Table 2 and 3 showing
SL powder. All parameters (egg rate, feed intake, egg yield and
mass, feed conversion ratio, egg yolk cholesterol level and external
and internal egg quality of laying hens) were not affected by
treatments (P>0.05). The highest 0-10 weeks egg rate (91.16%),
feed intake (7621.2 g) and egg yield (63.82 number) in 40 SL powder
group but was not statistically different than control group
(89.20%; 7378.1 g and 62.44 number) (P>0.05) (Table 2). The lowest
feed conversion ratio (1.86) in control group but was not different
than other groups (P>0.05) (Table 2). Egg yolk cholesterol was
not affected by any treatment (P>0.05) (Table 2).
Egg weight, egg shape index, dry shell, albumen and yolk
weights, albumen and yolk indexs, yolk color, haugh units and
egg shell thickness were not affected by any treatment with respect
to control group (P>0.05) (Table 3). Use of 20 g SL powder,
Feed Ingredients, %
Corn 47.8
Full fat soya 17.9
Sunflower meal 9.7
Barley 7
Corn gluten meal 7.6
CaCO3 8.3
DCP (17.5%) 0.9
Methionine&Lysine 0.1
NaHCO3&NaCl 0.3
Mineral and Vitamin premix* 0.4
Culculated composition
ME, kcal kg-1 2817
Crude protein, % 17.1
Lysine, % 0.65
Methionine + systine, % 0.57
Ca, % 3
P (available), % 0.7
Table 1. Experimental layer diet
(Phase I).
*Per kg diet included 7000 IU Vitamin A, 2000 IU
Vitamin D3, 15 mg Vitamin E, 2 mg Vitamin K3, 4 mg
Vitamin B2, 10 mg Vitamin B12, 60 mg Mn, 50 mg Zn,
25 mg Fe, 15 mg Cu, 0.25 mg Co, 1 g Iodine, 0.2 mg Se
Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, Vol.11 (2), April 2013 479
increased eggshell thickness about 3.6 µm without statistical
significance (P>0.05) (Table 3). Low level dose of SL powder
decreased egg weight but this decrease was not statistically
significant (P>0.05) (Table 3).
In the present study results showed that SL has no effect on any
parameter in laying hens. There has been no study regarding
dietary SL powder on egg rate, feed intake, egg yield and mass,
feed conversion ratio, egg yolk cholesterol level and external and
internal quality of eggs in literature on feeding laying hens.
There has been no information in literature on the component
of SL powder on egg rate, feed intake, egg yield and mass, feed
conversion ratio, egg yolk cholesterol level and external and internal
egg quality of laying hens as having no data on other farm animals.
In this study, it was hypothesized that beneficial content of
strawberry leaf powder may enhance the health status of laying
hens reflecting to egg yield and characteristics, egg yolk
cholesterol and liveability.
There has been limited studies on strawberry leaves. Strawberry
leaves (Fragariae herba folium) total phenolic content (related
antioxidant capacity) was found strong 22, being anti-cancer as an
alternative medicine 23, a source of bioactive phytochemicals for
cardiovascular system 24, having antioxidant properties 25 and an
endothelium-dependent vasodilator 10.
SL powder, g kg-1 Parameters,
g bird-1 Control 10 20 40 SEM
Body weight (g)
Initial body
weight 1836.6 1883.6 1775.4 1832.4 20.24 0.31
Final body
weight 1770.0 1818.9 1767.3 1700.4 30.20 0.38
-66.6 -64.7 -8.1 -132.0 36.73 0.37
Egg rate (%)
0-5 weeks 93.57 92.32 92.38 94.64 0.81 0.71
5-10 weeks 84.82 86.25 82.86 87.68 1.34 0.63
0-10 weeks 89.20 89.29 87.62 91.16 0.82 0.50
Feed intake (g)
0-5 weeks 3800.8 3830.0 3827.8 3939.3 40.92 0.65
5-10 weeks 3577.3 3570.8 3482.7 3681.9 34.78 0.26
0-10 weeks 7378.1 7400.8 7310.5 7621.2 65.93 0.38
Egg yield (number)
0-5 weeks 32.75 32.31 32.33 33.13 0.30 0.76
5-10 weeks 29.69 30.19 29.00 30.69 0.71 0.79
0-10 weeks 62.44 62.50 61.33 63.82 0.78 0.75
Egg mass (g)
0-5 weeks 2056.5 2001.5 1990.7 2061.6 24.06 0.64
5-10 weeks 1900.4 1880.6 1788.2 1933.0 52.72 0.63
0-10 weeks 3956.9 3882.1 3778.9 3994.6 54.91 0.54
FCR (g feed: g gain)
0-5 weeks 1.85 1.91 1.92 1.91 0.021 0.65
5-10 weeks 1.88 1.90 1.95 1.90 0.054 0.49
0-10 weeks 1.86 1.91 1.93 1.91 0.023 0.27
Egg yolk cholesterol (mg/g)
40 weeks
age 12.66 13.44 14.93 12.72 0.56 0.47
Table 2. Effects of dietary SL powder body weight, egg rate,
feed intake, egg yield, egg mass, feed conversion ratio
(FCR) and egg yolk cholesterol of laying hens.
*: SEM: Standard error of difference between means. a, b: Means in the same row with different superscript
letters are significantly different (P<0.05). **: 32-40: Overall.
SL powder, g kg-1
Parameter Age,
wk Control 10 20 40 SEM P
32 65.05 60.21 63.26 60.96 0.92 0.23
34 63.69 62.42 62.60 62.74 0.81 0.95
36 61.49 60.57 62.16 62.28 0.92 0.92
38 62.61 60.81 61.09 61.52 0.70 0.83
40 61.41 61.73 57.66 60.64 0.74 0.20
32-40 62.80 60.99 61.51 61.63 0.37 0.36
32 76.98 77.15 77.96 78.36 0.59 0.83
34 79.17 76.87 78.88 77.50 0.47 0.25
36 78.84 78.72 77.20 77.51 0.50 0.56
38 77.81 77.28 77.89 76.35 0.58 0.78
40 78.41 77.58 78.98 77.86 0.46 0.75
32-40 78.25 77.42 78.27 77.52 0.23 0.40
32 6.40 6.44 6.28 6.31 0.20 0.96
34 6.52 6.57 6.18 6.50 0.60 0.46
36 6.22 6.38 6.46 6.35 0.10 0.85
38 6.41 6.32 5.84 6.32 0.09 0.13
40 6.41 6.59 6.02 6.28 0.10 0.24
Dry shell
32-40 6.38 6.43 6.18 6.35 0.05 0.22
32 40.78 37.87 39.59 37.78 0.93 0.36
34 38.82 38.51 37.94 37.82 0.65 0.95
36 39.65 38.25 37.91 38.34 0.75 0.85
38 37.50 39.33 36.24 39.98 0.88 0.43
40 39.20 41.88 35.76 35.88 1.15 0.20
32-40 39.20 39.00 37.59 37.96 0.37 0.35
32 15.41 15.24 15.31 14.66 0.20 0.70
34 15.78 15.28 16.22 15.74 0.24 0.61
36 16.23 15.42 15.58 15.27 0.28 0.29
38 16.62 16.43 16.90 16.23 0.23 0.79
40 16.33 16.28 15.56 16.03 0.21 0.55
32-40 16.07 15.62 15.96 15.56 0.11 0.24
32 5.81 6.75 6.72 6.36 0.35 0.18
34 7.00 6.90 7.23 7.12 0.23 0.96
36 6.73 6.52 6.70 6.64 0.19 0.98
38 4.95 5.89 4.87 5.59 0.17 0.10
40 4.18 4.67 4.05 3.98 0.12 0.17
32-40 5.70 6.16 5.92 5.95 0.11 0.52
32 44.11 46.83 47.35 47.50 1.70 0.16
34 47.53 49.26 47.31 48.60 0.52 0.51
36 44.94 46.00 46.82 48.02 0.56 0.25
38 42.51 45.00 41.53 44.55 0.66 0.19
40 36.34 38.95 37.22 38.78 0.52 0.22
32-40 42.95b 45.38a 44.19ab 45.53a 0.37 0.05
32 10.90 10.90 10.50 11.00 0.14 0.63
34 10.80 10.90 10.40 10.40 0.09 0.10
36 11.00 11.00 10.70 10.80 0.05 0.11
38 11.00 10.78 10.80 11.00 0.07 0.55
40 10.91 11.00 10.60 10.50 0.09 0.12
32-40 10.92a 10.90a 10.61b 10.74ab 0.04 0.03
32 82.45 88.21 87.40 85.95 0.96 0.15
34 89.70 88.70 90.67 91.64 1.06 0.80
36 92.20 91.86 91.82 90.85 0.99 0.97
38 83.60 88.94 84.87 88.68 0.98 0.13
40 72.38 75.69 75.58 76.07 1.12 0.62
32-40 84.00 86.81 86.04 86.60 0.62 0.35
32 404.0 415.3 402.3 411.0 2.91 0.36
34 395.3 394.3 378.7 394.0 2.91 0.13
36 391.0 411.7 410.7 398.0 3.46 0.10
38 406.0 401.7 405.3 420.0 3.05 0.15
40 398.5 401.5 385.0 383.7 3.07 0.13
32-40 399.5 403.1 397.1 401.3 1.41 0.49
Table 3. Effects of dietary SL powder external and internal quality
of egg of laying hens.
480 Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, Vol.11 (2), April 2013
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... Strawberry leaves are used in traditional medicine as an appetizer, for treating hypercholesterolaemia, to lower blood pressure and to treat a host of other conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders and strictures. There is a long list of other effects reported in folk medicine: as a diuretic, to strengthen sight and dentition, to expel kidney stones and intestinal worms, to treat anaemia and hepatitis, to strengthen the nervous and immune system, to promote intestinal and liver activity, to suppress diarrhoea, to treat arthritis and to speed up metabolism (Duru 2012). Strawberry fruits also have anti-carcinogenic activities (Wedge et al. 2001) and anti-thrombotic effects (Naemura et al. 2005). ...
... The present study showed a significant decrease in the renal MDA level and significant increase in renal SOD and CAT activities in treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats. These results might be explained as a result of high antioxidant capacity of strawberry leaves (Katalinic et al. 2006 and Bu ri cov a & R eblov a 2008) due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds (Wang & Jiao 2000) such as tannins, flavonoids and ascorbic acid (Duru 2012). In support of this view, Mandave et al. (2013) reported that strawberry fruits possess high antioxidant capacity due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds (Ninomiya et al. 2010) such as anthocyanins (Van de Velde et al. 2013), flavonols, ellagitannins (Aaby et al. 2005) and fistein (Mahe et al. 2011). ...
Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by albuminuria, hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were orally treated with three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of strawberry leaves extract for 30 days. Nephropathy biomarkers in plasma and kidney were examined at the end of the experiment. The three doses of strawberry leaves extract significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, kidney injury molecule (Kim)-1, renal malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)- 6 and caspase-3 in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma insulin, albumin, uric acid, renal catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were significantly elevated in diabetic rats treated with strawberry leaves extract. These results indicate the role of strawberry leaves extract as anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.
... Penggunaan antibiotik alami dari bahan herbal dapat meningkatkan mutu keamanan konsumsi dan mengurangi sifat residu pada hasil ternak. Senyawa aditif pada bahan herbal dapat diperoleh dalam bentuk serbuk ataupun ekstrak yang kemudian digunakan sebagai imbuhan pada pakan ternak (Duru, 2012). Salah satu bahan herbal yang memiliki senyawa antibiotik adalah tanaman jambu biji (Psidium guajava L.). ...
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ABSTRAK Penggunaan senyawa bioaktif alami sebagai feed supplement pada pakan dapat meningkatkan produktivitas ayam di industri peternakan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari penggunaan serbuk daun jambu biji sebagai feed supplement dalam pakan terhadap performans pertumbuhan dan morfologi duodenum ayam jawa super. Penelitian menggunakan 80 ekor day old chick (DOC) ayam jawa super yang dipelihara sampai umur 16 hari. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap, dengan perlakuan penambahan serbuk daun jambu biji dalam pakan basal sebanyak 0 g/ kg pakan (Kontrol); 2,5 g/kg pakan (P1); 5 g/kg pakan (P2); 10 g/kg pakan (P3). Parameter yang diamati meliputi performans pertumbuhan, komponen badan, komponen organ pencernaan, dan morfologi duodenum yang terdiri dari tinggi, luas area vili, serta kedalaman kripta. Analisis data dilakukan dengan sidik ragam satu arah, dilanjutkan uji LSD dan Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa serbuk daun jambu biji secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan tinggi vili, dan komponen organ pencernaan pada ayam. Hasil pengamatan morfologi duodenum menunjukan bahwa P2 dan P3 lebih baik dibandingkan kontrol (Pd"0,05). Pertumbuhan bobot badan dan komponen badan ayam jawa super tidak memperlihatkan perbedaan yang nyata (Pd"0,05) antara kontrol dengan perlakuan. Penelitian menunjukan bahwa serbuk daun jambu biji dengan dosis 10g/kg pakan dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan vili duodenum, bobot intestinum dan hati tanpa mempengaruhi pertumbuhan bobot badan ayam jawa super umur 16 hari. ABSTRACT Natural bioactive compounds used as feed supplements in feed could increase chicken productivity in the livestock industry. The research aims to study the use of guava leaf powder as a source of bioactive compounds in the feed on growth performance and duodenum morphology of Jawa Super Chicken. This study used 80 days old chick (DOC) Jawa Super chickens reared until the age of 16 days. The study used a completely randomized design, with the addition of treatments guava leaf powder in the basal feed from 0 g/kg diet (control); 2.5 g/kg of feed (P1); 5 g/kg of feed (P2); 10 g/kg of feed (P3). Parameters observed included growth performance, body components , digestive organ components and duodenum morphology consisting of crypt depth, height, and area of villi. Data was analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance then continued with LSD and Duncan test (Pd"0.05). The results showed that guava leaf powder could significantly increase the height of villi, and components of digestive organs in chickens. The results of the duodenum morphology observation showed that the P2 and P3 are better than the control (Pd"0.05). The growth performance and body components of the Jawa Super chicken did not show a significant difference (Pd"0.05) between the control and the treatment. In conclusion, the guava leaf powder with a dose of 10 g/kg body weight can increase duodenal villi growth, the weight of intestine and liver without influence the weight of Jawa Super chickens aged 16 days.
... Botanical name: Fragaria × ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier Local name: Strawberry Family: Rosaceae Ethnobotanical uses: Used in prepared foods, flavored used in to dairy products, pigment extract used as a natural acid/base indicator due to the different color of the conjugate acid and conjugate base of the pigment. This fruit is a great source of iron[11][12][13]. ...
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Fruit is a ripened ovary, it may either fleshy or nut and divided into cultivated as well as wild categories. Wild fruits are worldwide distributed and mostly found in the part of earth where anthropogenic activities are no or negligible. The use of Himalayan plant species for food and medicine has been known for a long time. Uttarakhand is one of these places which is suitable for wild edible fruiting plants because of their difficult geography and climatic conditions and awesome taste of fruits which are attracted by their people as a rich source of their nutrition. Wild edible plants are very important for the well being of rural populations in the region, not only as sources of supplemental food, nutritionally balanced diets, medicines, fodder and fuel, but also for their income generating potential. Large numbers of wild fruits along with their edible values also used in medicine and many other wild fruits viz. Rubus ellipticus, Fragaria × ananassa, Prunus persica, Myrica esculenta etc. have high nutritive quality and used by the local peoples for the different edible products. Such wild plants might be explore for their nutritional and medicinal properties and need to conserve for biodiversity maintenance.
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Potassium bromate (KBrO3) has been used widely for water disinfection, hair coloring, oxidizing agent in food, food additive in bread making process as maturing agent, and as dough conditioner for flour. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of two doses (150 and 300 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of strawberry leaves on antioxidant capacity of liver, kidney and testis, thyroid hormones, and kidney function in rats treated with potassium bromate as toxic and free radical producer compound. Forty-eight male rats were divided: group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with oral dose of strawberry leaves extract (150 mg/kg), group 3 treated with oral dose of strawberry leaves extract (300 mg/kg), group 4 treated with oral dose of potassium bromate (20 mg/kg), group 5 treated with strawberry leaves extract (150 mg/kg) and potassium bromate (20 mg/kg), and group 6 treated with strawberry leaves extract (300 mg/kg) and potassium bromate (20 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, kidney, and testis tissues. Measurements of serum total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and insulin. Administration of potassium bromate (KBrO3) induced significant increase in TBARS; decrease in GSH and SOD in liver, kidney, and testis tissues; non-significant decrease in total protein and albumin; significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, and FT3; and significant decrease in FT4 and insulin. Administration of strawberry leaves extract showed significant improvement in some studied parameters. In conclusion, the protective effect of strawberry leaves extract may be attributed to its antioxidant property.
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The antioxidant activity of 17 Czech medicinal plants was studied and compared with the antioxidant activity of green tea. The antioxidant activities of water and ethanol extracts of the plants tested were determined by a spectrophotometric method using the stable free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and further the contents of the compounds with reducing properties in water extracts were determined by flow injection analysis with amperometric detection (using a detection potential +0.7 V). Considerable antioxidant activities were found in the extracts of plants from the Rosaceae family (rosehips and leaves of raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry), the Lamiaceae family (oregano, sweet balm, thyme, dead-nettle, and mint), and flowers of linden and elder.
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INTRODUCTION INCREASING importance is being given to the colour of egg yolk when judging the quality of eggs. Besides the customary standards of measurement such as shape and weight, firmness of the shell, freshness, structure of egg white and yolk etc. the colour of yolk and its year round constancy are decisive criteria in the maintenance of standardized egg quality (Farnsworth and Nordskog, 1955; Bräunlich, 1962, 1966; Bartlett and Podger, 1962; Snyder, 1962; Tagwerker, 1962; Scholtyssek, 1962, 1964; Scholtyssek and Böhm, 1962; Torges, 1964; Mehner et al., 1965; Brown, 1964; Schmidt, 1963). In the last ten to fifteen years a number of papers appeared which are concerned especially with pigmentation of the yolk, e.g. by Rescheleit (1953); Steinegger and Zanetti (1957 Steinegger and Zanetti (1959); Steinegger et al. (1957); Rauch (1959, 1960, 1961); Scholtyssek et al. (1961, 1966); Smetana (1961); Brown (1964); Carlson et al. (1961); Treat (1963); Boguth and Czernicki (1962); Mainguy . . .
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A research study was conducted to find the effect of Zingiber officinale, Carum apticum, withania somnifera, Trigonella Foenum Graecum, Silybum marianum, Allium sativum and Berberis lyceum, on the growth performance of broiler chicks. A total of 240 day old chicks were purchased and were reared for 35 days in summer month. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Total numbers of chicks were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) each having 60 chicks. Each group was further subdivided into three groups (replicates) each having 20 chicks. Aqueous extract of these plants was mixed at the rate of 5, 10 and 15 ml/lit with water offered to group B, C and D, respectively while group A served as a control. Mean weight gain, dressing percentage, breast weight and leg weight were significantly high (P
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Buřičová L., Réblová Z. (2008): Czech medicinal plants as possible sources of antioxidants. Czech J. Food Sci., 26: 132–138. The antioxidant activity of 17 Czech medicinal plants was studied and compared with the antioxidant activity of green tea. The antioxidant activities of water and ethanol extracts of the plants tested were determined by a spectropho-tometric method using the stable free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and further the contents of the compounds with reducing properties in water extracts were determined by flow injection analysis with amperometric detection (using a detection potential +0.7 V). Considerable antioxidant activities were found in the extracts of plants from the Rosaceae family (rosehips and leaves of raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry), the Lamiaceae family (oregano, sweet balm, thyme, dead-nettle, and mint), and flowers of linden and elder.
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There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 µg/mL–5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31–490 µg/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The immune system is extremely sensitive to oxidative damage. Many immune cells produce reactive oxygen species as part of the body’s defence against infection and depend on adequate protection by antioxidants for optimal function. Many antioxidants can be obtained directly from the diet (e.g. vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenolic flavonoids) or require micronutrients as integral components of protective enzymes (e.g. selenium, copper and zinc). Whilst a balanced diet should provide sufficient protection, periods of infection, inflammatory conditions or cigarette smoking may tip the balance in favour of oxidative stress. This review summarises some of the mechanisms by which antioxidants may affect immune status.
The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinal plant infusions was analyzed. Infusions were prepared in common way in which teas are prepared for human consumption. The total phenolics were measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make practical comparison of relative antioxidant potential of phenolics extracted from selected medicinal plants, the phenol antioxidant coefficient (PAC) was calculated for each infusion. The total phenolic content of medicinal plant infusions ranges from 9 to 2218 mg/L. The FRAP range from 0.06 to 25 mM/L. There was significant linear correlation between total phenolic content and FRAP. According to their antioxidant capacity, 70 medicinal plant extracts can be divided in five groups: (a) very low FRAP (<1 mM/L) n = 9; (b) low FRAP (1–5 mM/L), n = 37; (c) good FRAP (5–10 mM/L), n = 15; (d) high FRAP (10–20 mM/L), n = 8; and (e) very high FRAP (>20 mM/L), n = 1 medicinal plant extract. The PAC was ranging from 1.1 to 3.9 (average 2.4). The best results were obtained for Melissae folium infusions: high phenolic concentration, very high FRAP (>20 mM/L) and PAC > 3. The effect of infusion time and infusion temperature on the phenolic content, FRAP, and free radical scavenging ability was tested. DPPH radical scavenging ability of Melissae folium phenolics was similar to (+)-catechin but not as good as for quercetin. Compared to Trolox and vitamin C, Melissae folium phenolics were more efficient free ABTS radical scavengers. The results indicate that Melissae folium infusions could be an important dietary source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity comparable with red wine or beverages like tea.