Interventional effects of pine pollen in rats with hyperplasia of prostate

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Aim: To study the effects of pine pollen on the intervention in rats with hyperplasia of prostate. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Room of Microelement, General Hospital of Chinese PLA from July to September 2003. Twenty-four clean-grade SD male rats aged 3 months were selected, and divided randomly into normal control group, starch placebo group and pine pollen group with 8 rats in each group. The rats in the normal control group were fed with common feed all the time. Those in the starch placebo group and pine pollen group were treated with 3 placebo starch tablets and 3 pine pollen tablets, respectively every day before giving feed. The total content of tablet and feed was the same to that in the normal control group. After 2-week adaptation, those in the normal control group were injected with 1 mL/kg olive oil every day into muscle. Those in the starch placebo group and the pine pollen group were injected with 4 mg/kg androtest parenteral solution dispensed by olive oil into muscles every day for 2 weeks, and the same feed way was kept. Four weeks later they were killed after anesthesia, and the examination on every indexes was performed. Serum homosteron and destradiol were detected with chemiluminescence. Blood biochemical index was measured with atom absorption spectrophotography. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocyte and tissue was detected with xanthine oxidase method. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and tissue was tested with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetric method. Results: Totally 24 included rats in th e experiment were involved in the result analysis. 1 Prostate index and observation result of pathological section: The prostate weight and index in the pine pollen group were lower than those in the starch placebo group [(1 062.3±91.9), (1 127.3±111.2) mg; (3.18±0.31), (3.26±0.31) mg/g; P < 0.05]. The pathological section showed that in the starch placebo group the prostate gland arranged very close; the epithelial cells appeared stratified shape or sham stratified shape. The papillary hyperplasia ratio was much higher than that in the pine pollen group with ectasia and hyperemia of small vessels of mesenchymal. While the gland volume in the pine pollen group shortened significantly. The epithelial cells showed simple layer cube or thin and flat shape, and the papillary hyperplasia decreased significantly. 2 Biochemical index: Compared with the normal control group, the glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, urea nitrogen and destradiol in the pine pollen group reduced significantly [(6.43±2.04), (4.07±1.38) mmol/L; (1.78±0.10), (1.49±0.17) mmol/L; (1.11±0.30), (0.61±0.10) mmol/L; (9.42±0.97), (7.44±0.79) mmol/L; (253.23±40.55), (199.12±37.09) nmol/L; P < 0.05]. Compared with the starch placebo group, the homosteron content in the pine pollen group fell down significantly [(11.85 ±8.25), (8.85 ±2.69)nmol/L, P < 0.05]. 3 Zinc and copper in serum and tissue: Compared with the normal control group, the contents of zinc and copper in plasm decreased significantly. [(1.60±0.20), (1.34±0.16); (1.49±0.16), (1.17±0.05)mg/L; P < 0.05]. The contents of zinc and copper in prostate increased significantly [(130.2±29.9), (187.9±56.0); (0.86±0.12), (1.07 ±0.39)mg/L; P < 0.05]. 4 Anti-oxidizing index: Compared with the normal control group, the activities of SOD in the liver in pine pollen group and prostate were all increased significantly [(3.18±0.57), (3.30 ±0.64); (2.90±1.41), (4.67±1.66) μkat/g; P < 0.05], while the activities of SOD in erythrocyte lightened obviously [(0.38±0.05), (0.30±0.04) μkat/g; P < 0.05]. The content of MDA in the liver and prostate decreased remarkably [(7.40±1.87), (5.85±1.20); (6.24±2.31), (5.67±2.30) nmol/g; P < 0.05]. Conclusion: The pine pollen not only can decrease the levels of body estrin and androgen, adjust microelement metabolism and activity of SOD, inhibit the hyperplasia of prostate, but its effective component can play selective inhibition on cell level through non-hormone way.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH has been growing steadily. Cernilton, prepared from the rye-grass pollen Secale cereale, is one of the several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. This systematic review aims to assess the effects of Cernilton on urinary symptoms and flow measures in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Phytodok), by checking bibliographies, and by contacting manufacturers and researchers. Trials were eligible if they were: (1) randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing Cernilton with placebo or other BPH medications in men with BPH; and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, or urodynamic measurements. Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. Main outcome measure for comparing the effects of Cernilton with placebo and standard BPH medications were the change in urologic symptoms scales. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia as well as urodynamic measures (peak and mean urine flow, residual volume, prostate size). Main outcome measure for side effects was the number of men reporting side effects. 444 men were enrolled in 2 placebo-controlled and 2 comparative trials lasting from 12 to 24 weeks. Three studies used a double-blind method although treatment allocation concealment was unclear in all. Cernilton improved "self rated urinary symptoms" (percent reporting satisfactory or improving symptoms) versus placebo and Tadenan. The weighted risk ratio (RR) for self-rated improvement versus placebo was 2.40 [95% CI = 1.21, 4. 75], and the weighted RR versus Tadenan was 1.42 [95% CI = 1.21, 4. 75]. Cernilton reduced nocturia compared with placebo and Paraprost. Versus placebo, the weighted RR was 2.05 [95% CI = 1.41, 3.00], and versus Paraprost, the WMD was -0.40 times per evening [95% CI = -0. 73, -0.07]. Cernilton did not improve urinary flow rates, residual volume or prostate size compared to placebo or the comparative study agents. Adverse events were rare and mild. The withdrawal rate for Cernilton was 4.8% compared to 2.7% for placebo and 5.2% for Paraprost. The Cernilton trials analyzed were limited by short duration, limited number of enrollees, gaps in reported outcomes, and unknown quality of the preparations utilized. The comparative trials lacked a proven active control. The available evidence suggests Cernilton is well tolerated and modestly improves overall urologic symptoms including nocturia. Additional randomized placebo and active-controlled trials are needed to evaluate the long-term clinical effectiveness and safety of Cernilton.
The aging process is associated with a progressive decline of plasma testosterone levels, while estrone and estradiol remain unchanged and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) increases, with reduction of bioavailable testosterone in prostatic tissue with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) the most important androgen is dihydrotestosterone: with its receptors it is almost uniformly distributed in the epithelial and stromal compartment and is not supranormal. Intraprostatic estrogens and their receptors are elevated and concentrated in the stroma. Androgens may act on the prostate indirectly through the production of growth factors; in human BPH no clear evidence exists on the modulatory effect of estrogens on bFGF, KGF and TGFbeta formation. A western diet, characterized by high fat consumption, predisposes men to BPH, while a diet rich in flavonoids and lignanes, containing phyto-estrogens, lowers this risk. These data suggest that in the medical treatment of BPH, antiestrogens or aromatase inhibitors may be used: however, up to now the clinical results of this treatment are not promising and the improvement of the obstructive symptoms does not exceed that of placebo. A possible explanation of this unsatisfactory result could be that the estrogen reduction secondary to the use of aromatase inhibitors is counterbalanced by the rise of androgen precursors.