Article

Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Neem Azadirachta Indica root bark

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Abstract

Background: Most of the parts of neem tree were studied in details by many researchers but neem root bark was not screened for antidiabetic effect. To evaluate antidiabetic effect of neem root bark this study was conducted. Aims & Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the 70% alcoholic neem root bark extract (NRE) in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Basal blood sugar levels were estimated in overnight fasted wistar albino rats of either sex. To evaluate antihyperglycemic action of Neem root bark extract (NRE) OGTT was done by giving glucose orally 60 minutes after giving standard drug (Glibenclamide),Test drug (NRE) in the dose of 200,400 and 800 mg/kg and blood sugar levels were estimated every half hourly up to 4 hours. To evaluate hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats similar doses once daily for 15 days. Blood sugar levels were estimated by using glucometer. Results: For glucose tolerance test Glibenclamide significant (p< 0.01) reduction in blood sugar levels. The NRE showed statistically significant results in only 800 mg/kg dose. In comparison to glibenclamide it did not show. In alloxan induced diabetes Glibenclamide showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in blood sugar levels. The NRE showed statistically significant results in only 800 mg/kg dose. Conclusion: Neem root has antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activity. It is not as significant as glibenclmide.

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... Moreover, it reduced blood sugar level by 54% after 4 hours as comparison to control. But in comparison to glibenclamide it was not showing significant result [35] Leaf Cardioprotective Neem extract shows equipotent cardioprotective activities as compared to Vitamin E [37] Leaf Antimicrobial Neem leaf extracts have been found to show zones of inhibition and further confirming that they contain antimicrobial properties and the extract showed significantly greater zones of inhibition that 3% sodium hypochlorite [39] Seed Antimicrobial Minimum inhibitory concentration of seed extracts was 31 µg/mL for all the dermatophytes tested. Furthermore, seed extract at 15 µg/mL concentration was noticed to be sufficient for distorting the growth pattern of the organisms tested [40] Bark Antimicrobial Bark extract confirmed that neem bark extract significantly blocked HSV-1 entry into cells [42] Leaf Antitumor Leaf extract considerably reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas and tumor burden [50] Leaf Antitumor Treatment with leaf extract inhibited MNU-induced mammary tumor progression and treatment was also highly effective in reducing mammary tumor burden and in suppressing mammary tumor progression even after the cessation of treatment [53] Leaf Antitumor Leaf extract gives 50% inhibition at a dose of 100 μg/ml in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells [54] AST=Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT=Alanine aminotransferase, DMBA=7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Moreover, the neem extract significantly reduced the enhanced effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammatory mediators, and mRNA expression of Bax and iNOS, studied in animal models. ...
... Higher dose of this extract (800 mg/kg b. w.) showed significant reduction in blood sugar level and it reduced blood sugar level by 54% as comparison to control. [35] Furthermore, the effects of neem kernel powder and glibenclamide either separately or in combination were used as an antidiabetic agent on laboratory animals. The results revealed that these two agents either separately or in combination significantly decrease the concentration of serum glucose, lipids, and activities of serum enzymes. ...
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Azadirachta indica, a member of the Meliaceae family, is commonly known as neem and its role in disease cure has been documented. Different parts of this tree contain numerous types of ingredients such as azadirachtin and quercetin and limonoids such as nimbin, nimbidin, and nimbinin with diverse pharmacological activities. Neem tree parts have also been used as a general folk medicine, and more recently, its constituents have been purified and found to possess greater antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancerous activities. Moreover, its constituents also show therapeutic implications in the modulation of cell signaling pathways involved in the management of cancer. Moreover, neem and its ingredient might be a potential candidate in prevention and treatment of tumor due to its broader pharmacological activities. This review presents an overview of the health-promoting effects of neem and its ingredients through modulation of biological activities.
... Their tested models had glucose levels over 50% could reduce with maintenance of 300 mg/dl during this period. Comparatively, other researchers had similar results when using chloroform-based extracts (Patil, Patil, Mane, & Verma, 2013). These chloroform-based experiments also tested for the recovery effect of G6PD and establish an increase in pancreatic islet function (insulin secretion), resulting in increased levels of glycogen in the muscle and liver (Ghatule et al., 2012;Joshi et al., 2010). ...
... As a final comment, we can say that the use of Neem leaf extract compounds have shown positive results in the reduction of glucose and overall pancreatic health as mentioned by McCalla et al, and Patil et al, as well as a retardation of liver and kidney damage, and recovery in antioxidant system mentioned by Basir et al, in murine models, giving an important perspective in the possible use of these compounds. Keeping in mind that diabetes is an important global health disease with a high rate of organ complication such as kidney failure and cardiovascular diseases, the development of new treatments, such as pharmacological active extracts (Neem extracts) to help preserve organ and metabolic integrity holds an important research matter (Basir & Shailey, 2012;McCalla et al., 2015;Patil et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Global health and medical practice seek to merge alternative medicine with evidence-based medicine for a better understanding of the metabolic process and its effects in the human body. An example is the use of complementary medicine like phytotherapy. Azadirachta indica (Neem), a tree originally from India and Myanmar, called by many "The village pharmacy" or "Divine tree" because of its many health properties. In recent times, Neem-derived extracts have been shown to work from anywhere from insect repellent, to supplements to lower inflammation, diabetic control, and even to combat cancer. Herein, we state the health benefits found in diverse compounds and extracts derived from Neem, highlighting the mechanisms and pathways in which Neem compounds produce their effects, while warning that the improper and unstandardized conditions to produce extracts can lead to health issues, particularly certain compounds might have damaging effects on the liver and kidneys.
... The importance of the plant extract cannot be overemphasized. Studies have shown that extracts from every part of Azadirachta indica is a therapeutic agent [17,18,19]. At various concentrations, the plant has proven numerous promising positive results against bacteria, fungi and viruses [17]. ...
... These various extracts were applied to numerous aspects of life which are but not limited to pharmaceautical, food preservation and alternative source of natural medicine among others. The most essential of these substances include flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, polyphenols, saponnins and anthroquinones which are extracted from this studies and several other studies [12,13,17,19,20]. ...
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The phytochemical properties and the antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of neem twigs (Azadirachta indica) on the bacterial species isolated from human mouth was investigated. The neem tree was observed to be devoid of any infection prior to cutting the twigs for laboratory analysis. The mouths of fifteen (15) students were swabbed using a sterile swab stick in the morning before each of them washes their mouth at Federal University Wukari. Bacterial isolation was done using nutrient agar. Identification of the bacteria isolates were done using standard techniques. Agar-well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial effect of the extract on a prepared nutrient agar. The twigs extracts showed antibacterial activity against all the test isolates at different concentrations. The zone of inhibition increased with increased concentrations of the extracts. Phytochemical extraction was done using GC-MS QP2010 PLUS machine. Polyphenols were extracted at a very large amount; Saponnins and Flavonoides were found to be in a large quantity while Glycosides and Alkaloids were found to be low. However, Phylobatanins, Anthraguinones, Hydroxymethyl Anthraguinones and Tannins were found to be absent. Most of these compounds extracted from neem twigs have antibacterial activity. Therefore, these results, further confirm the belief and other scientific studies on the importance of the traditional use of neem twigs in maintaining oral hygiene. Again, some of the isolates from the human mouth are potential pathogens and may pose a public health hazard to the community. Therefore, routine oral hygiene are strongly advocated to prevent oral diseases.
... Root [22] Decreasing baseline of glucose levels by 36.91%, and decreased serum glucose by 32.18%. ...
... Root barks [22] - Azadirachta indica leaves extracts normalized blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, and improved insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus. ...
Article
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Many people choose alternative medicines for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) disorders, such as herbal plants to suppress the occurrence of the disease widely. In general, DM occurs when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin, or when the body can't effectively use the insulin which it produces. The use of medicinal plants to treat various diseases has shown minimal side effects. Indonesia is one of the countries that has used plants as traditional medicine since ancient times. In Indonesia, thousands of species of medicinal plants have been studied to address health problems. Among the medicinal plants that have been studied is the Neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) which has been shown to cure various diseases. This review article describes the potential of the Neem plant as an antidiabetic. The results of this literature review, in the form of Neem herbal extracts, have quite good potential as an antidiabetic because they contain several compounds such as meliacinolin, azachdirichtin, gliserid oil, acetyl oxyturanoe acid and other compounds that can also act as antidiabetic.
... Their tested models had glucose levels over 50% could reduce with maintenance of 300 mg/dl during this period. Comparatively, other researchers had similar results when using chloroform-based extracts (Patil, Patil, Mane, & Verma, 2013). These chloroform-based experiments also tested for the recovery effect of G6PD and establish an increase in pancreatic islet function (insulin secretion), resulting in increased levels of glycogen in the muscle and liver (Ghatule et al., 2012;Joshi et al., 2010). ...
... As a final comment, we can say that the use of Neem leaf extract compounds have shown positive results in the reduction of glucose and overall pancreatic health as mentioned by McCalla et al, and Patil et al, as well as a retardation of liver and kidney damage, and recovery in antioxidant system mentioned by Basir et al, in murine models, giving an important perspective in the possible use of these compounds. Keeping in mind that diabetes is an important global health disease with a high rate of organ complication such as kidney failure and cardiovascular diseases, the development of new treatments, such as pharmacological active extracts (Neem extracts) to help preserve organ and metabolic integrity holds an important research matter (Basir & Shailey, 2012;McCalla et al., 2015;Patil et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Global health and medical practice seek to merge alternative medicine with evidence-based medicine for a better understanding of the metabolic process and its effects in the human body. An example is the use of complementary medicine like phytotherapy. Azadirachta indica (Neem), a tree originally from India and Myanmar, called by many "The village pharmacy" or "Divine tree" because of its many health properties. In recent times, Neem-derived extracts have been shown to work from anywhere from insect repellent, to supplements to lower inflammation, diabetic control, and even to combat cancer. Herein, we state the health benefits found in diverse compounds and extracts derived from Neem, highlighting the mechanisms and pathways in which Neem compounds produce their effects, while warning that the improper and unstandardized conditions to produce extracts can lead to health issues, particularly certain compounds might have damaging effects on the liver and kidneys.
... Different parts of the tree were shown to exhibit antimicrobial effects against a wide variety of microorganisms (Ruch et al., 2014). Aqueous extract of neem leaf has a good therapeutic potential (Mossadek & Rashid, 2008;Patil et al., 2013). Screening of this medicinal plant for bioactive compounds may lead to development of less expensive new antimicrobial agents with improved safety and efficacy (Hala, et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was carried out at Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratories, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa state. To investigate the activity of neem leave extract against some clinical isolates. The test organism includes Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The phytochemical compounds present in the neem was extracted using ethanol as solvent, soxhlet extractor was used to get the extract phytochemical screening were carried out using the standard methods, some of the examined phytochemical are Alkaloids, Saponin, Phenol, Tannins and Flavonoids. The extract is more effective against a Gram negative E.coli and K.pneumonae as compared to S.aureus gram positive. The zone of inhibition of the extract at the 125mg/ml is 21 and 14. For gram negative and gram positive bacteria respectively. The mean of the minimum inhibitory concentration of A. indica leaf extract, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract in vitro revealed to be at much lower concentration 50mg/ml against E.coli as compared to 100mg/ml against S. aureus the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of A. indica leaf extract shows that the extract have a bacteriostatic effect against gram negative bacteria with static effect against gram positive bacteria
... Glibenclamide was also given orally to the rats in this group at a dose of 0.5mg/kg body weight suspended in normal saline. This was administered orally and daily for two weeks (Patil et al., 2013). Alloxan/Neem (AN): Rats in this group were made diabetic by injection of 2 % alloxan monohydrate solution at a dose of 150 mg / kg body weight, intraperitoneally. ...
Article
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Introduction: Diabetes-related complications encompass injury to blood vessels, renal system, integuments, feet and nerves resulting from hyperglycaemia. As herbal remedy, the effects of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves on hyperglycaemia and Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) in rats were assessed. Methods: Thirty-five Wistar rats (both sexes) used in this study were assigned into two phases of three groups in each phase and a common control group;-Control (C), Diabetic group (DG), Glibenclamide group (AG), and Neem group (AN) with five rats in each group. All the groups in phase 1 except control were rendered diabetic by injection of 2% solution of alloxan monohydrate, intraperitoneally at 150 mg/kg. AG and AN rats were immediately given Glibenclamide (0.5mg/kg) and Neem extract (500mg/kg) respectively. The control group received 0.5ml of normal saline daily for 2 weeks. In phase 2, after injection of 2% alloxan monohydrate, rats were left till we confirmed that they were diabetic using glucometer before Neem and Glibenclamide were introduced to the corresponding groups. This was done at 48 hours when all rats were confirmed diabetic. At two weeks, Electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded. Results: There were signs of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) in the DG groups during both phases such as increased heart rate, myocardial infarction, increased R and T amplitudes, Atrial fibrillation and flutter. Significance: It could be concluded that Neem reversed alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia but could not totally ameliorate the cardiovascular effects of CAN in diabetic rats once it is fully established. ABSTRACT Article history:
... When the neem root extract was given in the dose of 800 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood sugar level by 54% after 4 hours as comparison to control [23]. ...
Article
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Arista (Azadirachta indica) is rapidly growing evergreen plant found commonly in India, Africa and America. Arista is the Sanskrit name of neem tree meaning "reliever of sickness'' and hence is known as "sarbarogaribarini". This contains many active chemicals viz., alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, steroids and ketones, biologically most active compound is azadirachtin. All parts of neem tree are commonly used in traditional Indian medicine for household remedy against various human diseases. This plant showed various medicinal activities such as antiallergic, antifungal, antibiotic, antidermatic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, larvicidal, antimalarial, and antiulcer. It also showed anti-cancerous and anti-HIV activity. Azadirachtin-A dose-dependently reduced hepatocellular necrosis in CCi4 imduced hepatotoxicity. The present paper enlightens the pharmacological profile of Arista vis-à-vis taxonomical status, chemical constituents and some major market formulations containing Arista as an important ingredient.
... Different parts of the tree were shown to exhibit antimicrobial effects against a wide variety of microorganisms (Ruch et al., 2014). Aqueous extract of neem leaf has a good therapeutic potential (Mossadek & Rashid, 2008;Patil et al., 2013). Screening of this medicinal plant for bioactive compounds may lead to development of less expensive new antimicrobial agents with improved safety and efficacy (Hala, et al., 2015). ...
Research
The present study was carried out at Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratories, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa state. To investigate the activity of neem leave extract against some clinical isolates. The test organism includes Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The phytochemical compounds present in the neem was extracted using ethanol as solvent, soxhlet extractor was used to get the extract phytochemical screening were carried out using the standard methods, some of the examined phytochemical are Alkaloids, Saponin, Phenol, Tannins and Flavonoids. The extract is more effective against a Gram negative E.coli and K.pneumonae as compared to S.aureus gram positive. The zone of inhibition of the extract at the 125mg/ml is 21 and 14. For gram negative and gram positive bacteria respectively. The mean of the minimum inhibitory concentration of A. indica leaf extract, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract in vitro revealed to be at much lower concentration 50mg/ml against E.coli as compared to 100mg/ml against S. aureus the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of A. indica leaf extract shows that the extract have a bacteriostatic effect against gram negative bacteria with static effect against gram positive bacteria
... A trial was conducted to assess the glucose lowering potential 70% alcoholic neem root bark extract (NRE) in diabetic patients. The results demonstrated that neem extract significantly improves blood glucose levels at 800 mg/kg dose in comparison with the standard medication glibenclamide at the dosage of 200,400 and 800 mg/kg [48]. ...
... Azadirachtin, Meliacin, Salanin, Nimbin, Valassin Nimbidin,β-sitosterol [5,10,12,18,19,20,21,24,25,31,32,33,34] Chenopodiaceae Beta vulgaris Beetroot Entire plant -Pectin, Polydextrose [12,14,21] Brassicaceae Brassica juncea Mustard Seed, Leaf Aqueous Isorhamnetin diglcoside [12,13,14] Brassicaceae Brassica nigra -Seed Aqueous - [22,35] Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens Chilli --Capsaicin [12,13,14,22,36] Cariaceae Carica papaya papaya fruit Aqueous extract Saponin, Tannin, alkaloid, Flavonoid, Anthraquinone, Glycoside [12,13,18,37,38] Leguminoceae Cajanus cajan Pigeon pea Seed, Leaf Ethanolic 7-phenoloctahydroquinolisin-2-one [12,14,19,21,39] Apocynaceae ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time and is identified as one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. Diabetes is one of four priority non-communicable diseases (NCDs) targeted for action by world leaders. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a fifth fastest growing disorder and entailing a huge financial burden and multiple medical policy issues. The management of diabetes is still a major challenge. All the existing therapies of diabetes have limited efficacy, confined tolerability and/or significant mechanism based side effects. Thus there is great demand for research on natural products with anti-diabetic properties. Numerous studies have confirmed that the plant drugs and formulations are considered to be less hazardous and free from side effects than the synthetic ones. The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Medicinal plants and phyto-constituents play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries where resources are meagre. Additionally, lifestyle and particularly dietary habits play an important role in the development of diabetes. On the other hand, specific individual food groups and diet components such as monounsaturated fatty acids, fruits, vegetables, whole grain cereals, dietary fiber, fish, magnesium and nuts may protect against the development of diabetes, possibly through the amelioration of insulin sensitivity and its anti-inflammatory actions, while consumption of red and processed meats and saturated fat may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. A comprehensive review was conducted to pile up information about medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes along with plant parts used and its active chemical constituents. In this review article, emphasis is also given on the role of diet and life style in the management of diabetes.
... The ethanolic extract of neem root bark has also been evaluated for antidiabetic activity (42). The neem root bark extract (NRE) showed statistically significant results at 800 mg/kg dose in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ...
... In Indian traditional medicinal system, the use of Azadirachta indica for centuries is such an example. The bark, seeds, leaves, fruit, extracts and oils of A. indica tree contain pharmacological constituents which offer some impressive therapeutic qualities, like anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antipyretic and anti-tumor activities [3][4][5][6]. Further, it leads to regeneration of insulin-producing cells and a corresponding increase in the plasma insulin [7]. ...
Article
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Objective: This study evaluated the antidiabetic activities of the ethyl acetate-methanol (4:1) extract (EA) of Rhodococcus qingshengii strain BJC15- A38 supernatant. Methods: In vitro alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory assays, were used to determine the antidiabetic activity of EA (100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 μg/ml). Also, the total phenol content of the extract was determined, followed by understanding the mode of α-amylase inhibition. Results: The crude extract from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. endophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus qingshengii strain BJC15-A38 was found to have significant inhibition against α-amylase (IC50 = 65.93 µg/ml) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 929.56 µg/ml). The total phenol content of the crude was found to be 97.25±6.47 and 15.40±0.43 mg/g of the extract in terms of catechol and gallic acid equivalents respectively. Purification of the extract was carried out using silica gel column chromatography. Kinetic analysis revealed the mixed competitive with mixed competitive of inhibition towards α-amylase. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the extract of Rhodococcus qingshengii strain BJC15-A38 possesses antidiabetic effects.
... 27 Anti-diabetic Reduces blood sugar level and precludes adrenaline and glucose-induced hyperglycaemia. 28 Anti-ulcer Produce highly potent antiulcer activity. 29 Anti-fertility Avoids pregnancy and could be used as a way of contraception. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND The Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) growing in tropical and subtropical regions, is a native tree of India. Neem belongs to Meliaceae family, also known as a Limbo, Nim, Nimba, Medusa and Vempu. It is also called “village pharmacy“ of South Asia because of its enormous medicinal properties. Every part of Neem is so useful for the treatment of human disease. Various parts of the tree are well known for their medicinal properties which are prescribed by Ayurvedic, Siddha, and herbal medicine practitioners in India. Currently Azadirachta indica- Neem formulations are effective against a several diseases, ulcers, eczema, sores, burns, ulcers etc. It has been used in ayurvedic medicines for thousands of years because it exhibits therapeutic properties such as anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-insecticidal, anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory and anti-dermatic properties. Approximately 135 different structural compounds have been identified from different parts of Neem tree for their beneficial effects.
... Distinctive results showed that leave concentrates of Azadirachta indica advance damage retouching activity through expanded provocative reaction neovascularization [17]. An examination was grasped to evaluate the 70% alcoholic neem root bark remove (NRE) in diabetes and results showed that neem root bark extricate gave measurably noteworthy results in 800mg/kg portion [18]. Another examination was performed to take a look at the pharmacological hypoglycemic action of Azadirachta indica in diabetic rodents and results exhibited that in a glucose versatility test with neem extricate 250mg/kg indicated glucose levels were fundamentally less when contrasted and the control group and Azadirachta indica basically decline glucose levels at fifteenth day in diabetic rodents [19]. ...
... Role of neem root bark extract is very imperative against diabetes. An experiment conducted on the neem bark root extract (NRE) showed statistically significant result in 800 mg/kg dose (Patil et al., 2013). Another study was performed to examine the pharmacological hypoglycemic action of Azadirachta indica in diabetic rats and the results revealed significant decrease in glucose levels when compared to control rats (Akter et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Background: Herbal drugs are used in treatment of diseases since decades. Major contributing factor for their use is easy availability, less expensive and more belief of common population because of relatively less side effects compared to allopathic medicines. Medicines of natural origin or functional foods in the prevention of disease are the need of hour. Hence, the present review focused on activity of four drugs viz. Withania somnifera,Allium sativum,Curcuma longa andAzadirachta indica and role in different clinical complications. Methods: A thorough review of all the articles, research as well as reviews available regarding the concerned topic was performed. MEDLINE database was searched and English language articles were preferably selected. Results: Withania somnifera, Allium sativum, Curcuma longa andAzadirachta indicahave shown alleviation in inflammation, diabetes and cancer states. The herbal drugs have shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. Conclusion from these facts:Utilizing this concept, it can be assumed that herbal drugs play an intricate role in safeguarding the health of individuals from life-threatening complications. However, validation and reproducibility of results in clinical trails should be there in order to confirm the safety and efficacy of these herbal drugs.
... Azadirachta indica is commonly called as neem which is an indigenous plant with a multitudinous uses because of medicinal properties [9,10]. The phytochemical compounds of A. indica can be alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, steroids, and ketones, biologically most active compound is Azadirachtin which is a mixture of seven isomeric compounds labeled as azadirachtin A-G and azadirachtin E [11,12]. ...
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Objective: This study was aimed to inhibit the sulfite reductase using naturally obtained secondary metabolites of common plants Azadirachta indica and Lawsonia inermis.Methods: The active ingredients of neem and henna were selected and the.sdf files of these were downloaded from PubChem database. Converted the.sdf files to.pdb files with the help of OPENBABEL software which is prerequisite to dock. The three-dimensional structure was incurred from the template of homology of sulfite reductase using MODELLAR software version 9.0. Docking of sulfite reductase with the ligands was performed using iGEMDOCK and Autodock Vina softwares. The physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, drug-likeness, lead-likeness, and toxicological properties were obtained by SWISSADME and admetSAR online tools.Results: The active ingredients show an excellent affinity with the sulfite reductase which obtained was tabulated and the significant properties of a ligand were showing that these can be an investigational new drug entity.Conclusion: In this research, it can concluded that the secondary metabolites obtained from plants were inhibiting the induction of sulfite reductase thereby inhibiting Sulfite Assimilation Pathway leads to commove the amino acid metabolism of organism which shows unique in fungi.
... Varying degrees of central nervous system depressant activity in mice were observed with the acetone leaf extract. [7] The anxiolytic activity of the fresh leaves was studied in rats and compared with that of diazepam using elevated plus maze and open field behavior test paradigms of anxiety. The extract was administered orally in various doses (10,20,50,100,200,400, and 800 mg/kg) 45 min prior behavioral testing. ...
... Of these components, the most active, and found in larger amounts in seeds is azadirachtin, which has attracted more attention because it presents isolated effects more selective for insects than the neem extract with all compounds together ( Bleicher et al., 2007;Neves et al., 2003). The active substances present in neem also have fungicidal, bactericidal, nematicidal, medicinal ( Barrek et al., 2004) and antioxidant properties (Nahak & Sahu, 2011), as well as antiulcer ( Mohapatra et al., 2012) and antidiabetic activities (Patil et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Azadirachta indica A. Juss, popularly known as neem, is a species native to India, belonging to family Meliaceae, considered the most important plant species with insecticidal action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of growth regulators on induction and growth of neem callus and to observe their viability for embryogenesis through morpho-histological characteristics. In vitro germinated plants were used for excision of nodal explants. These segments were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog culture medium containing 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic) combined with BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) at the following concentrations: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l (T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively), for callus induction. At 0 (mass of nodal segments without callus), 20, 40 and 60 days of culture, the percentage of callus formation was observed and the callus weight was measured for each treatment and at the end of the 60 days, consistency, color, and cell histology were evaluated. There was callus formation in all treatments tested. The highest induction of Azadirachta indica A. Juss callus is observed in the presence of 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D + 2.0 mg/l BAP, with callus showing light brown color, friable consistency and rounded cells with intense cell division, typical of cells with potential embryogenic capacity.
... Root bark (P. Patil, Patil, Mane, & Verma, 2013), flowers (Jayasree et al., 2013), and fruit extracts (Rao, Madhuri, & Prasad, 2012) have also shown antidiabetic potential in rat models; however, their activity is relatively less than that of leaves extracts. In another study, diabetic rats were treated with diabetic control saline, bitter leaves extract in combination with A. indica tree, A. indica extract, bitter leaves extract, and chlorpropamide for 24 days. ...
Article
Azadirachta indica L. is a multipurpose medicinal tree of family Meliaceae. It occurs in tropical and semitropical regions of the world. Different parts of this miraculous tree are used to treat pyrexia, headache, ulcer, respiratory disorders, cancer, diabetes, leprosy, malaria, dengue, chicken pox, and dermal complications. The tree is popular for its pharmacological attributes such as hypolipidemic, antifertility, microbicidal, antidiabetic, anti‐inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, insecticidal, nematicidal, antiulcer, antioxidant, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and antileishmaniasis properties. A. indica is also rich in various phytochemicals for pharmaceuticals such as alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. The fungicidal potential of the tree is due to the presence of azadirachtin and nimbin. Herein, we have compiled a comprehensive review of phytochemical profile, pharmacological attributes, and therapeutic prospective of this multipurpose tree.
... Yet another study carried out by Prabhakar et al. [141] , also proved Neem bark extracts as potent antihyperglycemic agents. A comparative evaluation of the extracts of Neem with that of the standard drugs glibenclamide and metformin was performed. ...
... Serum glucose level was reduced in the aqueous extract of M. charantia fruit treated diabetic rats [136] . [32] 3 Azhardica indica Meliaceae Root and Bark Ethanol Antidiabetic [168] 4 Cassia fistula Fabaceae Leaves Ethanol Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetiv [56] 5 Cassia auriulata Cesalpinaceae Flower Methanol Ethanol ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder widespread in developing and well-developed countries. It is the sixth leading cause of death in upper middle-income countries in 2015. Many of the synthetic medicine such as sulfonylureas, biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and thiazolidinediones are the diabetic agents currently available to control the hyperglycemic condition. Due to the limitations of the drugs, it is required to find a natural alternative for the control of Diabetes Mellitus. Safe and effective antidiabetic agents can be extracted/separated from the traditional medicinal plants. 80% of the population around the Globe depends on traditional medicine. About 350 plants were traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus. Medicinal plants were assessed for their antidiabetic activity, but these plants were not scientifically evaluated for the presence of an antidiabetic agent. Identification of anti-hyperglycemic agent without any side effects is the need of the hour. WHO has reported tremendous increase of 433million adults with Diabetes Mellitus in 2014, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in India increased to 7.8% in India. The review focuses on the commonly available and traditionally used medicinal plants of North TamilNadu, India and their role in the control of diabetes mellitus. Introduction Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder. It was first described clinically by the Greek physician Aretaeus Cappadocia in 1500 BC "as a condition where Flesh and Bones run together and are siphoned into the urine". Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemic condition along with impaired metabolic functions. Two major types of DM exist; the first type is characterized by insufficient production of insulin and in the other type the target cells do not respond to insulin. The chronic hyperglycemic condition leads to long term damage and failure of target organs. The first WHO global report on diabetes demonstrates that the number of adult living with diabetes has almost quadrupled since 1980 and to 422 million adults in 2014; type 2 diabetes and associated factors such as overweight and obesity were the reason for the dramatic increase. Prevalence of diabetes in India accounts for 7.8% of the adult population [1] Over the past, three decades, the rise in the occurrence of diabetes was dramatic and grows very rapidly in low and middle income countries. The prevalence of diabetes in Tamil Nadu accounts to 13.7% in urban and 7.8% in rural areas in the year 2011 [2]. The synthetic drugs used lead to side effects as well as persistence of hyperglycemic conditions for a longer period of time resulting in serious complications and damages to the heart, blood vessels eyes, kidney and nerves, moreover, increases the risk of heart diseases and stroke [3]. Progressive reduction in β-cell function made it difficult to maintain glycemic control among many diabetic patients [4]. Polytherapy with many hypoglycemic agents to attain better glucose control is a common practice [5]. Many plants have been found to be useful in managing diabetes mellitus. Plants are the major source of drug and are available in the market as extracts directly or indirectly from the plant sources [6]. For the purpose of preventive and curative reasons plants were used as medicine in various parts of the world. Medicinal herbs were used to treat diabetes in large proportion all over the Globe because of the easy availability and affordability [7]. Plant medicines show a potential hypoglycemic activity in diabetes-induced animals. Further, the metabolites from the plant were formulated and were administered to control diabetes mellitus. Novel compounds with antihyperglycemic potential have to be isolated from the plant sources. Studies reveal the role of crude extracts of plants with potential antidiabetic activity in alloxan and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. It is required to isolate, purify and characterize the specific compounds with the efficacy to control by reducing blood glucose level and by means of regenerating the damaged β cells of the pancreatic islets for the normal secretion of insulin. The objective of the review is to collect and elucidate the antidiabetic properties of the medicinal plants used by the traditional healers to manage diabetes mellitus.
... Moreover, neem root bark extract was succeeded to reduce in blood glucose level at dose of 200 and 400 mg per kg whereas the higher dose of this extract (800 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in blood sugar level. It decreased blood glucose level by 54% as compared to control Glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) [73] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Drugs of traditional system of medicine including Unani and Ayurveda are recommended and used in various diseases since long. These drugs are mainly derived from herbs and plants. Neem is a pre-eminent and a sacred gift of nature. This tree is still regarded as "Wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", "Divine tree", "Heal all", "Materia medica", "Panacea of all diseases" and "Village dispensary" also considered as "An ancient cure for modern world". In Unani System of Medicine (USM) it is widely used as anti-infective agent in various skin diseases (Amrāḍ-i Jild) such as leprosy, syphilis, tinea, itching and in ulcers. It is very effective in painful menses and dysmenorrhea, chronic joint pain, constipation, intestinal warm (Kirm-i Shikam) and also prefer in the killing of head lices, diabetes and rheumatic arthritis. This study is based on a comprehensive analysis of related articles published in journals using the phrases "Neem or Azadirachta indica ", "Neem research paper", "Neem and Unani Medicine" and "Neem used in traditional medicine" in electronic searches of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar advanced search and AYUSH Research Portal. The evidence based scientific and clinical studies reported in the present review confirming the therapeutic efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Biological active phytoconstituents of Neem also indicate that it may serve as very effective natural medicine in different disease. In this aspect, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in respect to explore the recommendations of USM as well as other traditional system of medicines in term of the extensive therapeutic values of Azadirachta indica.
... Neem flower actively involved in the oestrous cycle and act as infertility agent (Sinha et al., 1984;Botelho et al., 2008;Gbotolorum et al., 2008). At present medicinal plants have developed for the cure of different disease conditions, such as diabetes, malaria, anaemia and tumors (Chopra et al., 1958;Pillai & Santhirakumari, 1981;Fujiwara et al., 1982;Patil et al., 2013). Periodical screening of them may result in the detection of unique effective compounds (Tomoko et al., 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Azadirachta indica is a multipurpose tree called as Neem which is used in Ayurvedic medicine for skin infections and household pesticide. Methods: Aqueous extraction of plant material such as leaf and stem bark were investigated for anti-microbial activity without altering concentration. Results: Results of study revealed that all extracts had inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with the clear zone of 2.6cm, which is higher than streptomycin control. The inhibition zone was found descending order against Klebsiella, Psedumonas and Bacillus species. Antifungal activity of bark extract of Azadirachta indica against Aspergillus and Yeast showed the inhibitory growth of 64.2 % and 64% whereas the leaf extract showed less inhibition than bark extract. Conclusion: The findings reveal that bark and leaf aqueous extracts have wide-ranging activity.
... A study was undertaken to analyse the 70% alcoholic neem root bark extract (NRE) in diabetes and results showed that the neem root bark extract showed that the statistically significant results in 800 mg/kg dose [56] . Another experiment was performed to analyse the pharmacological hypoglycemic action of Azadirachta indica in diabetic rats. ...
Article
Full-text available
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as Neem, it is a member of the Meliaceae family. It has gained research interest worldwide prominence in recent years due to its wide range of medicinal properties such as it is rich source of antioxidant and other valuable active compounds such as azadirachtin, nimbolinin, nimbin, nimbidin, nimbidol, salannin, and quercetin isolated from different plant parts. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathic medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Neem plays role as free radical scavenging properties, prevention of disease pathogenesis antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory. It also play a key role as anticancerous agent, antipyretic, hypolgcemic, antigastric ulcer, and antitumour activities. In the present review we have summarized the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.
... Moreover, neem root bark extract was succeeded to reduce in blood glucose level at dose of 200 and 400 mg per kg whereas the higher dose of this extract (800 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in blood sugar level. It decreased blood glucose level by 54% as compared to control Glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) [73] . ...
Article
Drugs of traditional system of medicine including Unani and Ayurveda are recommended and used in various diseases since long. These drugs are mainly derived from herbs and plants. Neem is a pre-eminent and a sacred gift of nature. This tree is still regarded as "Wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", "Divine tree", "Heal all", "Materia medica", "Panacea of all diseases" and "Village dispensary" also considered as "An ancient cure for modern world". In Unani System of Medicine (USM) it is widely used as anti-infective agent in various skin diseases (Amrāḍ-i Jild) such as leprosy, syphilis, tinea, itching and in ulcers. It is very effective in painful menses and dysmenorrhea, chronic joint pain, constipation, intestinal warm (Kirm-i Shikam) and also prefer in the killing of head lices, diabetes and rheumatic arthritis. This study is based on a comprehensive analysis of related articles published in journals using the phrases "Neem or Azadirachta indica ", "Neem research paper", "Neem and Unani Medicine" and "Neem used in traditional medicine" in electronic searches of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar advanced search and AYUSH Research Portal. The evidence based scientific and clinical studies reported in the present review confirming the therapeutic efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Biological active phytoconstituents of Neem also indicate that it may serve as very effective natural medicine in different disease. In this aspect, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in respect to explore the recommendations of USM as well as other traditional system of medicines in term of the extensive therapeutic values of Azadirachta indica.
... Moreover, neem root bark extract was succeeded to reduce in blood glucose level at dose of 200 and 400 mg per kg whereas the higher dose of this extract (800 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in blood sugar level. It decreased blood glucose level by 54% as compared to control Glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) [73] . ...
Article
Drugs of traditional system of medicine including Unani and Ayurveda are recommended and used in various diseases since long. These drugs are mainly derived from herbs and plants. Neem is a pre-eminent and a sacred gift of nature. This tree is still regarded as "Wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", "Divine tree", "Heal all", "Materia medica", "Panacea of all diseases" and "Village dispensary" also considered as "An ancient cure for modern world". In Unani System of Medicine (USM) it is widely used as anti-infective agent in various skin diseases (Amrāḍ-i Jild) such as leprosy, syphilis, tinea, itching and in ulcers. It is very effective in painful menses and dysmenorrhea, chronic joint pain, constipation, intestinal warm (Kirm-i Shikam) and also prefer in the killing of head lices, diabetes and rheumatic arthritis. This study is based on a comprehensive analysis of related articles published in journals using the phrases "Neem or Azadirachta indica ", "Neem research paper", "Neem and Unani Medicine" and "Neem used in traditional medicine" in electronic searches of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar advanced search and AYUSH Research Portal. The evidence based scientific and clinical studies reported in the present review confirming the therapeutic efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Biological active phytoconstituents of Neem also indicate that it may serve as very effective natural medicine in different disease. In this aspect, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in respect to explore the recommendations of USM as well as other traditional system of medicines in term of the extensive therapeutic values of Azadirachta indica.
... Different types of extracts from different part of neem plant were used for different activities. [20] Iabichella et al., noted in a clinical case of foot ulcer, that the fusion of two plant extracts, Hypercom (Hypercom perforatum) and neem oil helped to decrease the dimension of the ulcer, thereby increasing the granulated tissue and remodeling the skin tissue. In a different study. ...
... Root bark extract of neem significantly lowered the blood sugar concentration with the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b. w. Increased dose of this extract (800 mg/ kg b. w.) led to decline in blood sugar level by 54% in comparison to control (Patil et al., 2013). Limonoids from neem have been identified for their remedial properties against pancreatic α-amylase, a wellknown anti-diabetic agent. ...
Book
Plants are a fascinating group of plants that have been dominating the earth for 400 million years. During evolution, they have undergone series of evolutionary changes to suit themselves with the surrounding environment. These evolutionary changes not only included morphological changes to suit varied climatic conditions but also armed with intricate physiological changes to synchronize with the former and fortify better adaptability. These physiological changes of the plant later proved to be of immense help to the humans who evolved much later somewhere between 6 million to 2 million years ago. The physiological and biochemical evolution of the plants with the synchronous origin of various taxa resulted in the formation of numerous biochemical pathways producing a large number of secondary metabolites whose one primary aim is to protect the plants from herbivores and insect which in the due course of evolution became an integral part of the food chain. However, the secondary metabolites also proved to be of immense use to humans since antiquity who unknowingly since prehistoric times used plants for their food and medicine. It is only in the past hundred years or so, people became aware of the chemical constituent of the plants and started exploring their various beneficial properties. The agricultural activities also coevolved with human civilization and with the increase in population, higher yield along with protection of crops from pathogen attack became a necessity. This lead to the formulation of fertilizers which consequently paved the way for biofertilizers with a fewer side effects on humans and animals but with a more green approach towards fertility enhancement. With the advent of industrialization the menace of pollution cropped up and presently this pollution is encroaching soil water and air. This is having a deleterious effect on the ecosystem concerning human and animal health and also agricultural productivity. Thus keeping this in mind the scientific community was determined to remediate the polluted sites with the help of biological agents in which the plants and microbes played an important role. This provided major protection to agriculture from contamination thereby sustaining productivity. Thus, an attempt is made to highlight the progress and advances in the field of agriculture and plant science. Thus A handbook of Agricultural and Plant Sciences is an attempt to compile information related to the field of agriculture and plant science. The main purpose of the book is to provide relevant information to the readers on aspects largely cantered on plants. The book is divided into three sections namely agriculture and sustainable development, plants and microbes as nutraceutical agents, and medicinal potential of plants. Selected chapters in relevance to the sections have been accommodated to provide an overview. The first section deals with various aspects through which crops can be fortified through bio fertilization and also decontamination of polluted lands. The world population is presently stressing upon consumption of foods from natural sources as consumption of fast food with artificial agents is leading to the onset of several diseases. This has led to a group of foods that confers nutrition as well as a medicinal benefit at the same time. They are presently termed and considered nutraceuticals. The second section of the book deals with the nutraceutical potential of plants and microbes which are symbiotically associated with plants. The third section is also related to the second one concerning the medicinal importance. This section encompasses the medicinal importance of plants. Plants as antiviral agents have been accommodated because of the current pandemic situation. The section also contains a chapter on the ant diabetic potential of plants and also the medicinal importance of gymnosperms and bioactive potentials of bryophytes which adds up to the variation in chapters focusing on the medicinal aspect. The book is also accompanied by several tables within each chapter which gives a clear and systematic description of the theme that is discussed upon. The book is an academic venture and would benefit the scientific community and readers who are interested in the field of plant sciences.
... Yet another study carried out by Prabhakar et al. [141] , also proved Neem bark extracts as potent antihyperglycemic agents. A comparative evaluation of the extracts of Neem with that of the standard drugs glibenclamide and metformin was performed. ...
Chapter
Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from either insulin deficiency or insulin dysfunction. Based on the recent advances and involvement of oxidative stress in complicating diabetes mellitus, efforts are on to find suitable antidiabetic and antioxidant therapy. The WHO expert committee on diabetes has recommended that traditional herbal medicines be further investigated. Phytotherapy has been a backbone of medicine since long back, in which various herbs and their extracts containing active ingredient of therapeutic significance is used. In lieu of a search for some alternative therapy against infections, traditional herbal remedies are again in market due to their readily availability, being cost effective and comparatively less side effects. Azadirachta indica (Neem) also known as sacred gift of nature is native plant of south eastern Asia and distributed in India and neighboring countries and known for its incredible therapeutic and Ethnomedicinal values for humankind since prehistoric era. Every part of the tree has been used as traditional medicine for household remedy against various human ailments, from antiquity. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Azadirachta indica has complex of various constituents including nimbin, nimbidin, nimbolide, and limonoids and such types of ingredients play role in diseases management through modulation of various genetic pathways and other activities. The pharmacological hypoglycemic action of Azadirachta indica has examined in diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of Neem leaves significantly decreases blood sugar level and prevents adrenaline as well as glucose-induced hyperglycemia. Aqueous Neem fruit extract were found to be effective as blood glucose lowering agent at the dose of 500 mg/kg in normoglycemic albino rabbits upon oral administration. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the antihyperglycemic activities of some of the Neem compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the Neem extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of Neem along with their safety evaluation
... It has been known and documented that the use of neem extract is potent in combating a range of clinical diseases which has led to the increase use of neem as phytotherapy for malaria (Udeinya et al., 2006;Lucantoni et al., 2010;Habluetzel et al., 2019), diabetes (Akinola et al., 2011;Dholi et al., 2011;Patil et al., 2013), cancer (Sharma et al., 2014;Patel et al., 2016;Santos et al., 2018), ulcer (Ofusori et al., 2010;Maity et al., 2014), bacterial (Prashant et al., 2007;Heyman et al., 2017), viral (Mbah et al., 2007;Ahmad et al., 2016;Urade et al., 2019), hypertensive (Peer et al., 2008), inflammatory (Naik et al., 2014;Lee et al., 2017), neurodegenerative diseases (Bamidele et al., 2013;Kandhare et al., 2017) etc. Despite the increased use of neem-based products for therapeutic and other purposes, little information on its toxicity is available as compared to its application level, this has necessitated further studies to ascertain the safety of neem compounds and extract for various applications. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In recent years, the growing research towards new drugs has been targeted on plant-based drugs, and Neem (Azadirachta indica) is one of the plants that have been extensively researched for its diverse medicinal properties. The study aimed to determine the effects of neem on the hematological parameters (total white blood cells, neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil counts) and histology of some organs of rats. Methods: Fifteen healthy male Wister rats divided into control (Nm0) and experimental groups (Nm11 and Nm22). Control group 1 (Nm0) was given 100mg/200g body weight of normal saline orally twice daily; experimental group 2 (Nm11), 100mg/200g body weight neem extract twice daily for 11 days and experimental group 3 (Nm22), 100mg/200g neem leaf extract twice daily for 22 days. Total number of white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, packed cell volumes (PCV) and histological changes in the spleen, liver and kidneys were evaluated. Results: There were no significant differences in mean values of the hematological parameters (total WBC; PCV; neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils). We observed the central vacuolation and accumulation of lymphocytes in the spleen, hypertrophy of the central vein in the liver and shrinking of the glomeruli and accumulation of the lymphocytes in the kidney using hematoxylin and eosin staining following prolonged administration of neem extract (Nm22). Conclusion: Prolonged administration of neem affected the histology of some organs of the rats more than the hematological parameters.
... Lactucain C [XXII] (Fig. 1) obtained from Lactuca indica found to produce significant hypoglycemic activity (Hou et al., 2003). Further, saponin fraction (100mg/kg) of Garcinia kola root (Bitter kola) showed potent Hypoglycemia effect in alloxaninduced diabetic rats [58] -Sitosterol [XXIII] (Fig. 1), a steroidal triterpene obtained from Azadirachta indica, may be responsible for its hypoglycemic property [59] . Two novel triterpenes, 12-ursene and 23, 24 dimethyl-24-ethylstigmast-25-ene (50 mg/kg) [XXIV, XXV] (Fig. 1) isolated from the chloroform extract of Agarista mexicana showed marked hypoglycemic potency against alloxan induced diabetic in-vivo model [60] . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus, one of the most common non-communicable metabolic disorders is emerging as a pandemic worldwide. In particular, type II (insulin resistance) diabetes is the most commonly encountered type of diabetes, manifested by the incapability to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin. The antidiabetic therapy, at present is primarily based on synthetic medicines that have severe side effects very often with higher cost. For this reason, there is a continuous need to develop new and better pharmaceuticals as alternatives for the management and treatment of diabetes. Natural hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic compounds may be considered as reinforcement to currently practiced treatments. Along with safety and low cost, they have huge advantage that they can be accommodated in everyday diet. During last decade, many Indian medicinal plants have been investigated for their beneficial effects in different types of diabetes and reports occur in numerous scientific journals. With this background, this review has been structured to provide an upto date information regarding Indian medicinal plants, extracts, lead molecules and other natural with anti-diabetic potential. Moreover, potential molecular mechanisms of actions of few drugs are also discussed.
... The hypoglycemic effect of neem root bark extract was tested in alloxan diabetic rats, and the reduction in glucose level was significant at high doses only [52]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes is a global health problem, and the number of diabetic patients is in continuous rise. Conventional antidiabetic therapies are associated with high costs and limited efficiency. The use of traditional medicine and plant extracts to treat diabetes is gaining high popularity in many countries. Countries in the Middle East region have a long history of using herbal medicine to treat different diseases, including diabetes. In this review, we compiled and summarized all the in vivo and in vitro studies conducted for plants with potential antidiabetic activity in the Middle East region. Plants of the Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families are the most investigated. It is hoped that this review will contribute scientifically to evidence the ethnobotanical use of medicinal plants as antidiabetic agents. Work has to be done to define tagetes, mechanism of action and the compound responsible for activity. In addition, safety and pharmacokinetic parameters should be investigated.
... The intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (at doses of 100, 120, and 150 mg/kg) is a conventional method for the induction of diabetes in rat models (88). The oral administration of ethanolic extract of neem in different doses (100 to 800 mg/ kg for 14 or 28 days) reduced blood glucose levels in rats which were treated with alloxan (52,89,90). The combination of neem (50 mg/kg) with Gynura procumbens ethanolic (112.5 mg/kg) extracts (2 times a day for 15 days) increased insulin expression, decreased blood glucose concentration, and improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and beta-cells in rats (91). ...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome is a condition associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Recently, the use of phytochemicals is suggested in the control and treatment of metabolic syndrome. The Azadirachta indica (neem) is an evergreen tree belonging to the family of Meliaceae. Multiple studies have been confirmed the anti-diabetic and anti-hypertension, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-obesity effects of neem. In this review, we reported the protective effects of neem against the complications of metabolic syndrome with a special focus on mechanisms that are involved. It has been shown that neem can control hyperglycemia and hypertension through over-expression of transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and anti-oxidant effects. Neem also reduced the glucose uptake through up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and inhibition of key intestinal enzymes such as glucosidases. Moreover, neem showed anti-hypertensive effects possibility via the block of calcium channels, up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. Anti-oxidant effects play an important role in protective mechanisms of neem against metabolic syndrome and its complications. © 2021 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.
... The results of neem extract 250 mg/kg with glucose tolerance test revealed that there is less glucose level in comparison to control group. Glucose level is significantly reduced by Azadirachta indica at 15th day in diabetic rat (Patil et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is an important member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed to it is rich source of phytoconstituents. It has been widely used in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicines worldwide particularly in Indian Subcontinent in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its phtoconstituents play a key role to scavenge free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and regulates the various biological processes without any adverse effect. In this current review, the role of Azadirachta indica is summarized in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various physiological and biological pathways.
... Another experiment was conducted to examine the pharmacological hypoglycaemic action of neem in diabetic rats and results showed that in a glucose tolerance test with neem extract 250 mg/kg demonstrated glucose levels were significantly less as compared to the control group and neem significantly reduce glucose levels at 15 th day in diabetic rats [29] . Results of a study undertaken to evaluate the 70% alcoholic neem root bark extract (NRE) in diabetes showed that neem root bark extract showed statistically significant results in 800 mg/kg dose [30] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used various medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. It possesses maximum useful non-wood products (leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seed, gum, oil and neem cake) than any other tree species. These non-wood products are known to have anti-allergenic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, mosquito-repellent activity, larvicidal, spermicidal and other biological activities. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of the neem and some of their compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the neem extracts and products, and plausible medicinal and therapeutical applications.
Article
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a globally spreading metabolic disorder with a high incidence rate. About 425 million cases took place in 2017 and expected to rise up to 693 million by 2045. In diabetes, the patient elevation of blood glucose level occurs due to the deformation of insulin receptor action/secretion or both. Long term increases in blood glucose level causes chronic effects such as dysfunction and damage of various organs such as eyes, nerves, kidney heart and blood vessels. There are many treatment regimens available in market, but do not able to provide complete relief and cause severe side effects. To overcome these types of problems it becomes important to find different therapeutic targets and use it in combination with conventional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. To surmount the side effect of presently available treatments, now researchers relay on herbal plants. In this review, we discussed the diabetes occurrence, epidemiology, types, different target receptors, and available treatments and describe briefly role of different plant constituents in diabetes management and focused on a main plant, Moringa oleifera.
Article
Aim To study the comparative effect of acetaminophen with aqueous Neem leaf extract (Azadirachta Indica) and vitamin E mediated liver toxicity on the basis of liver enzymes. Methods: A total of sixty (60) Wistar rats of either sex were divided equally into four groups. Each groupwas made up of 15 animals. Group A was the control group. Animals in Group B were treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg / kg b / w Paracetamol. Group C animals with 500 mg / kg b / w oral Neem extract for 15 days with oral administration of 2 mg / kg b / w oral Paracetamol. In Group D, animals received the same dose of Paracetamol and 100 mg / kg b / w intra-peritoneal vitamin E for 15 days, respectively. The liver enzymes ALT,AST, and ALP were then evaluated. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 with level of significance being kept at p-value ≤0.05 Results: In the 4 groups, The ALT values were 22.8 (Group A), 100 (Group B), 29.11 (Group C), and 31.16 U/L (Group D). The AST values were 25 (Group A), 40 (Group B), 20 (Group C), and 15 (Group D) U/L. The ALP values were 220 (Group A), 445 (Group B), 242 (Group C), and 244 (Group D) U/L. There was significant increase in liver enzymes were found in Group B after induction of Paracetamol toxicity, however, hepatoprotective effects could be seen in the intervention Group C and D Conclusion: Azadirachta Indica and Vitamin E showed hepatoprotective effects on the Wistar rats that were subjected to Paracetamol Key words: Azadirachta Indicaleaf extract, Vitamin E, Paracetamol, Wistar rats
Article
Objective: We aim to provide a critical review focused on the various pharmacological activities of Azadirachta indica A. Juss related to diabetes management. We also emphasise on phytochemistry and toxicology of A. indica, which could provide a comprehensive approach for plant-based drug development in future. Key findings: From 2784 identified studies, only 83 were considered after double screening based on the inclusion criteria. Further, 63 pharmacological investigations were considered for review. Resultant studies deliberated on using different extracts and phytochemicals of A. indica on blood glucose level, lipid profile, oxidative stress, carbohydrate digestion enzymes, diabetic complications, glucose tolerance, and uptake of glucose. Summary: In the end, one can know the efficacy of A. indica as a potent antidiabetic herbal medicine. However, based on gaps in research, recommendations have been provided to evaluate A. indica. in a systematic manner to develop plant-based drugs, nutraceuticals, and to evaluate their clinical efficiency and safety against diabetes mellitus.
Article
Full-text available
Herbal and Medicinal plants are terminologies used for plants around the world as they possess significant therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to assess the properties and biological activities of these plants as well as their phytochemistry. The results of this study were done descriptively and placed into various tables. Analysis showed that Azadirachta indica possessed eighteen (18) therapeutic properties and sixty-five (65) biologically active compounds, Ocimum tenuiflorum possessed twelve (12) therapeutic properties and eighty-two (82) biologically active compounds were noted and Cymbopogon citratus possessed six (6) therapeutic properties and sixty-four (64) biologically active compounds were reported and analyzed. This study revealed that medicinal and herbal plants have great significance and are greatly overlooked. They can be used to resolve a variety of issues worldwide such as: avoiding microbial and insect resistance in species and even be useful in this time of pandemic against the SARS-CoV-2 (COVD-19 Virus). More studies should be done by health authorities, food authorities, agriculture authorities and other organizations with these plants and other medicinal and herbal plants to maximize their benefits.
Article
Full-text available
Background Medicinal plants are used to treat various disorders, including diabetes, globally in a range of formulations. While attention has mainly been on the aerial plant parts, there are only a few review studies to date that are focused on the natural constituents present in the plant roots with health benefits. Thus, the present study was performed to review in vivo studies investigating the antidiabetic potential of the natural compounds in plant roots. Methods We sorted relevant data in 2001–2019 from scientific databases and search engines, including Web of Knowledge, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, Reaxys, and Google Scholar. The class of phytochemicals, plant families, major compounds, active constituents, effective dosages, type of extracts, time of experiments, and type of diabetic induction were described. Results In our literature review, we found 104 plants with determined antidiabetic activity in their root extracts. The biosynthesis pathways and mechanism of actions of the most frequent class of compounds were also proposed. The results of this review indicated that flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and phytosteroids are the most abundant natural compounds in plant roots with antidiabetic activity. Phytochemicals in plant roots possess different mechanisms of action to control diabetes, including inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase enzymes, oxidative stress reduction, secretion of insulin, improvement of diabetic retinopathy/nephropathy, slow the starch digestion, and contribution against hyperglycemia. Conclusion This review concludes that plant roots are a promising source of bioactive compounds which can be explored to develop against diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Graphical abstract
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Plant-based alternative medicine is normally grounded on empiric cultural perception, as the main objective, these practices intent to either maintain good health or to provide a route to turn-the-tide on a specific disease or ailment. Amongst the thousands of plants that have been used and studied, Neem (Azadirachta indica) seems to have a very interesting tale to tell, since its properties to ward-off certain diseases have overtime, and in a rigorous way, been proven. The preceding concise review is a collection of some of the most relevant studies today, not only focusing on the health benefits obtained by its use, but digging into the molecular mechanisms of how the properties come about. In particular, we take a look over antioxidant properties and how these mediate and mitigate important molecules such as IL-6 and TNF-, leading the way in reducing systematic damage by oxidative stress. Further, we relate this oxidative reduction to other systemic diseases such as cancer and diabetes, as these are currently becoming the most rampant killers. As of yet not all is known about the different ways of extracting or the total composition of an extract, as these may be from different parts of the plant. Therefore, we also allude to an important cautionary view where toxicological effects and conflicting outcomes arise. Overall, presented results show a great potential for the different extracts of Neem as their antioxidant activity can be taken advantage off, and potentially used in modern medicine.
Article
Since ancient time, herbal drugs were highly used in the prevention and cure of various human illnesses. In India, Azadirachta indica being commonly known as Neem or Margosa is one of the multi-functional trees; belonging to Meliaceae family. In 1992, the US National Academy of Sciences was published a report entitled ‘Neem- a tree for solving global problems’. It is still considered as ‘village dispensary’ throughout the India. There are two species of Azadirachta which have been investigated; Azadirachta indica that is found in the Indian subcontinent and Azadirachta excelsa Kack that is homegrown to Indonesia and Philippines. A large number of pharmacologically active substances have been identified and isolated from the different parts of neem including azadirachtin, meliacin, gedunin, salanin, nimbin, valassin and various other components which are derived from these main compounds. Many different studies have been evaluated and authenticated for its various traditional and pharmacological activities like itching, leprosy, wound healing, spermicidal, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, antidiabetic and analgesic etc. In the beginning of 1979, patenting on neem was started by CSIR to separate the active compounds from neem oil. Its great implantation fights with soil erosion, global warming, deforestations and desertification world-wide. In 2002, World Neem Conference raised the neem tree as an industrial or commercial plant. This review is going to explore comprehensively; traditional, pharmacological potential along with patenting, environmental & industrial significant of various parts of neem tree with safety concerns.
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Due to changed life style and changed environment of Indian society we are suffering through different types of infections such as fever, wound infection, vaginal infection, skin infections etc. In this case we are always taking antibiotics for cure but it creates side effects on our body. To fulfil our same need we can go for natural remedies that are Azadirachta indica. In the present research, antibacterial activity and antifungal activity of Neem leaf extract were determined by using Disc diffusion method. Extracted Neem leaf effectively inhibited fever causing Salmonella typhi and wound infection causing staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone 15mm and 17mmrespectively. Also showed 28mm inhibition zone against Candida species which is mainly known for vaginal infection.
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Neem is an underutilized tree of the developing and underdeveloped world. The antimicrobial (antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal), antimalarial, antioxidant, immunostimulant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, contraceptive, and antiulcer bioactivities of neem have been exploited since. Neem leaves are a regular feed for ruminants in dry lands and are also effective in treating snake and insect bites. Its twigs are a rich source of alkaloid, resins, gum, fluoride, sulfur, tannins, oils, saponins, flavonoids, sterols, and calcium. Its seeds are a rich source of fatty acids and proteins but remain largely unexploited because of the presence of bitter toxic principles. If the bitters can be substantially reduced, then the toxicity of neem parts can be overcome and it may be utilized as an excellent nutraceutical. Its bioactivities, mammalian safety, and ecofriendly disposition are quite encouraging for the prospects for a bright future in the field of nutraceuticals.
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Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. commonly-known as velvet bean is a commercially important medicinal plant belonging to the Fabaceae family and it is one among the few members that can treat a wide range of neural disorders like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Dementia and other CNS (Central Nervous System) related issues. It is due to the presence of catecholic amino acid 3-(3, 4-dihydroxy phenyl)-L-alanine (L-DOPA) which is a precursor to the neurotransmitters like dopamine, adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. It can also promote testosterone levels and increase the male vitality; hence it is also known as Indian viagra. Due to its immense range of medicinal uses this plant is considered to be a ‘wonder plant’. Though all parts of the plant have L-DOPA, propagating and extracting them is complicated due to many reasons like the presence of itchy, irritant, dense silky trichomes on the pods and other parts of the plant, poor germination and less viable seeds. To overcome this, biotechnological approaches with the aid of plant tissue culture techniques like in-vitro multiplication, cell suspension culture, somatic embryogenesis, hairy root culture etc have been employed. In this chapter, many strategies like standardization and media optimization, the effect of various components of media, pH, phytohormones etc on callus induction, multiple shoot regeneration were studied and also L-DOPA produced was quantified using analytical techniques like TLC and HPLC. Furthermore, to enhance the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites an array of elicitors was used and their effect on L-DOPA production and the enzymes involved in the biotransformation of L-DOPA were analyzed and discussed in this chapter. Keywords: Mucuna pruriens, L-DOPA, Parkinson’s, Cell suspension, Hairy root culture, Elicitation
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Advances in Biotechnology and Biosciences-4
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In India, plants have always been a source of medicines for humans. According to WHO, diabetes is one of the most dreadful disease with serious threat to health of mankind. This review focuses on traditional medicinal plants found in India which are used in treatment of diabetes. The use of synthetic drugs in developing countries is expensive due topoverty and access to medicare, therefore medicinal plants are a great alternative to these synthetic drugs. The common and effective Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic properties includeFicus religiosa
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Neem seed and leaf extracts have immunomodulators that induce cellular immune reactions. These aspects of neem were exploited in earlier studies, where the oral administration of the neem seed extracts in rodents and primates could completely abrogate pregnancy at an early post implantation stage. Complete restoration of fertility was observed in the animals treated in the subsequent cycles. For the purpose of using neem as a long term contraceptive, an activity guided fractionation, followed by identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds was carried out. Sequentially extracted fractions of neem seeds were tested orally at an early post implantation stage in rats. The hexane extract of the neem seeds was found to be biologically active and was the precursor for the final active fraction. The active fraction, identified as a mixture of six components, could completely abrogate pregnancy in rodents up to a concentration of 10%. No apparent toxic effects could be seen following treatment with the fraction. The treatment with the active fraction caused a specific activation of T lymphocyte cells of CD8+ subtype as well as phagocytic cells followed by elevation in cytokines gamma-interferon and TNF. The results of the present study show that a pure active fraction of neem seeds could be obtained for the purpose of early post implantation contraception when given orally, and its mechanism of action seems to be by activating cell mediated immune reactions.
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OBJECTIVE: To find out the hypoglycemic activity of Ficus hispida Linn. (bark) in normal and diabetic albino rats and to evaluate its probable mechanism of hypoglycemic activity if any. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Albino rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments consisting of vehicle, water-soluble portion of the ethanol extract of Ficus hispida bark (FH) (1.25 g/kg) and standard antidiabetic drugs, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) and 0.24 units of insulin (0.62 ml of 0.40 units/ml). Blood glucose was estimated by the glucose oxidase method in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats before and 2 h after the administration of drugs. To find out the probable mechanism of action of FH as a hypoglycemic agent, i) the glycogen content of the liver, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, and ii) glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm were estimated. RESULTS: FH showed significant reduction of blood glucose level both in the normal (P<0.01) and diabetic (P<0.001) rats. However, the reduction in the blood glucose level was less than that of the standard drug, glibenclamide. FH also increased the uptake of glucose by rat hemi-diaphragm significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in the glycogen content of the liver (P<0.05), skeletal muscle (P<0.01) and cardiac muscle (P<0.001). The amount of glycogen present in the cardiac muscle was more than the glycogen present in the skeletal muscle and liver. CONCLUSION: FH has significant hypoglycemic activity. Increased glycogenesis and enhanced peripheral uptake of glucose are the probable mechanisms involved in its hypoglycemic activity.
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Effects of A. indica (AI) were evaluated on some biochemical, immunological and visceral parameters in normal and stress rats. AI (100 mg/kg) lowered blood glucose, triglyceride and SGOT levels in normal rats, and attenuated stress-induced elevations of cholesterol and urea levels. In rats immunized with SRBC, AI enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen. Further, AI facilitated the footpad thickness response to SRBC in sensitized mice and also enhanced leucocyte migration in immunized rats. In stressed rats, AI significantly attenuated the stress-induced (a) suppression of humoral immune response and (b) gastric ulcerogenesis. These results are discussed in light of the possible mechanisms involved in the effects of AI in normal and stressful situations.
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The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities, as well as the acute toxicity of Azadirachta indica (Neem tree) extract were studied. It was found to have a pronounced anti-inflammatory (rat paw oedema) and a fairly good antipyretic effect (pyrogen induced hyperpyrexia in rabbits) . The acute oral toxicity test in mice showed a very low range of approximately 13 g/kg body weight.
Hypoglycaemic effect was observed with Azadirachta indica when given as a leaf extract and seed oil, in normal as well as diabetic rabbits. The effect, however, was more pronounced in diabetic animals in which administration for 4 weeks after alloxan induced diabetes, significantly reduced blood glucose levels. Hypoglycaemic effect was comparable to that of glibenclamide. Pretreatment with A. indica leaf extract or seed oil administration, started 2 weeks prior to alloxan, partially prevented the rise in blood glucose levels as compared to control diabetic animals. The data suggests that A. indica could be of benefit in diabetes mellitus in controlling the blood sugar or may also be helpful in preventing or delaying the onset of the disease.