Article

Housing policy reforms in post socialist Europe. Lost in transition

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The book 'Housing Policy and Housing Market Indicators Survey' focuses on regional study on trends and progress in housing reforms in Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Republic of Moldova, Serbia and Montenegro. One stream of comparative housing research on transition economies is driven by economic determinism and could possibly be classified in the category of implicit convergence studies. Housing in those relatively egalitarian societies was a constitutional right and was priced to be universally affordable. The actual operation of the systems, however, led to chronic housing shortages, overcrowding, housing inequalities and production inefficiencies. Despite the generic subsidy cutbacks during the transition, the housing sector in South East Europe still maintains a diverse set of measures to ensure access to affordable housing as well to provide assistance to groups with special housing needs.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Pe de altă parte, numeroase cercetări referitoare la politica de arhitectură a blocului estic [31,74,75] teoretizează în cazul României un parcurs individualist, caracterul particular fiind susținut de politicile de locuire și de manifestările arhitecturale vag diferite față de țările socialiste învecinate. Totuși, evoluția discursului arhitectural în România urmează îndeaproape parcursul țărilor învecinate, M. Stroe enunțând particularitățile fine ale demersului românesc ca fiind datorate unui fenomen de "diversitate în unitate" [26, p. 17]. ...
... Pentru sistemul de alocare centralizat al locuințelor, criteriul primordial era lipsa locuinței, indiferent de venitul familiei, iar acest sistem genera neajunsuri majore referitoare la amplasament, tipologie și dimensiune, precum și referitor la timpii foarte lungi de așteptare. Locuințele erau normate conform cu standardele naționale impuse de prin legi, luând în considerare structura familiei și numărul de copii [74]. ...
... La începutul studiilor doctorale am lansat un blog în limba engleză, cu intenția de a comunica prin el etapele cercetării și idei diverse pe tema cercetării, intitulat Densityarchitecture: a Study on High Density Residential Architectures 74 . Acesta a fost intenționat să fie folosit ca un instrument de comunicare și de obținere de feedback din partea comunității internaționale de persoane interesate de subiect, ceea ce s-a și întâmplat dar într-un mod destul de minimal, postările fiind realizate la începutul studiului între anii 2012 și 2014. ...
... Wymienione różnice wizualne (pośrednio również realne) dotyczyły, jak można przypuszczać, konsekwencji rozstrzygnięć ustrojowych i specyfiki prywatyzacji osiedli wielkopłytowych w różnych krajach byłego bloku wschodniego (Tsenkova, 2009). W Polsce infrastruktura mieszkaniowa pozostała w zarządzie spółdzielni mieszkaniowych lub w obszarze administrowania samorządów lokalnych, co sprawiło po pierwsze, że możliwy stał się stosunkowo łatwy dostęp do środków publicznych przeznaczanych np. ...
... Na tym jednak nasza wiedza właściwie się kończy. Sporo natomiast zostało napisane o blokowiskach Bałkanów Zachodnich (Tsenkova, 2009;Stanilov, 2007a;Stanilov, 2007b). Tutaj kontrapunktem była dyskusja o podupadaniu modernizmu w Europie Zachodniej. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wybrany przykład międzynarodowy i wyniki badania w Polsce stanowią próbę przyjrzenia się blokowiskom postsocjalistycznym ze współczesnej perspektywy. Za podstawę analiz wzięto kontekst Europy postkomunistycznej, przywołując jako przykład Sofię. Opierając się na literaturze oraz nawiązując do przekazu kultury masowej, wskazano na specyfikę sąsiedztwa wielkomiejskiego, prowadząc czytelnika do propozycji konceptualizacji sąsiedztwa wykorzystującej pojęcie kręgu sąsiedzkiego. W części empirycznej zaprezentowano wyniki badania kwestionariuszowego, zrealizowanego za pomocą ankiety internetowej na terenie całego kraju oraz przy użyciu wywiadów kwestionariuszowych przeprowadzonych w trzech polskich miastach: Poznaniu, Warszawie i Wronkach. Zgromadzone dane empiryczne zostały opisane w odniesieniu do wybranych wątków nawiązujących do koncepcji kręgów sąsiedzkich, a także poddane analizie statystycznej. Postawiono dwa pytania: o sposób badania relacji sąsiedzkich w przestrzeniach postsocjalistycznych blokowisk, odwołując się tym samym do studiów prowadzonych w latach 80. oraz 90. XX w.; o charakter relacji sąsiedzkich, konstruowanych na podstawie architektonicznych inspiracji Le Corbusierem, tym razem w warunkach neoliberalnej deregulacji. Rekomendacje analizy wskazują na potrzebę zadawania kolejnych szczegółowych pytań i zapraszają do dyskusji na temat kondycji formuły modernistycznego, masowego zamieszkania z uwzględnieniem specyfiki budowania relacji sąsiedzkich.
... It must be noted that indepth recent academic literature on housing informality in the Balkans, and in Albania in particular, is in short supply. Some available studies discuss economic, legal, socio-cultural, and morphological aspects of informal settlements but the scope does not extend to the manipulation of informal construction for political purposes (see de Waal, 2004;NALAS, 2011;Tsenkova, 2009;UN, 2009;UN Habitat, 2010;Pojani, 2018Pojani, , 2021Pojani and Baar, 2020). ...
... While poor and marginalized populations have often engaged in informal construction, many working class families have done the same. A combination of savings, remittances from abroad, or sales of communist-era housing have provided access to financial resources (Tsenkova, 2009). (Nearly one million Albanians migrated abroad in the 1990s -permanently or temporarily.) ...
Article
Full-text available
Incumbent governments commonly increase public expenditures prior to elections in order to curry favor with voters and boost their chances of retaining office. This study, set in Albania, focuses on a non-fiscal approach to winning votes: condoning, or at least tolerating, informal construction activities in the residential sector prior to elections. We term this approach 'election-driven informality' (EDI). This study provides longitudinal statistical evidence for EDI using a proxy indicator for informal construction. We hypothesize and prove that EDI is a reality rather than a mere perception-primarily for the 2017 election. That was when the government's enforcement capacity in the construction sector was effective outside the election period. In a context where there is little moral value attached to law abidance, businesses or households that engage in informal economic activities might perceive a tolerant government as "magnanimous" and might be persuaded to support it in upcoming elections. From government's perspective, EDI presents an opportunity for a version of "pork barrel" politics where "tolerance" is applied selectively or differentially to households, businesses, or whole regions.
... The research is informed by the c onvergence-d ivergence paradigm for comparative housing studies ( Kemeny and Lowe, 1998) and advances the notion that European systems of social housing provision have become less similar over time, with diverging experiences likely to accelerate in the future. The core idea of the convergence theory is that similarity of economic and demographic development in different countries will lead to converging housing policies, despite differences in ideology, politics and institutional structures ( see Tsenkova 2009 for discussion on these issues). Esping-A ndersen ( 1990) made perhaps the most significant attempt to identify patterns of dissimilarity based on distinct welfare state regimes. ...
... These relationships sketched in broad strokes reflect very general aspects of the role of social housing in unitary systems. The supply of new social housing, in particular, is dependent on the availability of fiscal, financial and regulatory instruments to encourage provision and to deal with the frontend loaded nature of housing costs ( Carmona et al., 2003;Tsenkova, 2009). ...
... Jam būdinga, kad būsto nuosavybė yra pagrindinė disponavimo gyvenamuoju plotu forma, kad viešojo sektoriaus vaidmuo šiame sektoriuje yra menkas, kad nekilnojamo turto rinkoje dominuoja privačios (stambios) statybos įmonės, ir kad renovacijos ir atnaujinimo problema aktualiausia sovietiniais (ar socializmo) metais pastatytoje būsto fondo dalyje (Aidukaitė 2013). Kiti autoriai pereinamojo laikotarpio reformas posocialistinėse šalyse apibūdina kaip tam tikrus hibridus, kuriems būdingas liberalios ir konservatyvios politikos derinimas (Lux 2013;Tsenkova 2009). Kadangi sovietmečiu būsto sektorius buvo vienas neefektyviausių viešųjų sektorių, kuris pasižymėjo didele centralizacija ir griežta reguliacija, nelanksčiomis biurokratinėmis taisyklėmis, stipria būsto nuomininko teisine apsauga, todėl perėjimas prie socialdemokratinės politikos įgyvendinimo buvo atmestas kaip per lėtas kelias sukurti tvarų gyvenamojo būsto fondą, prie kurio išlaikymo galėtų stipriai prisidėti valstybė (Lux 2001;Pichler-Milanovich 1999, 2010Struyk 1996). ...
... ; Aidukaitė at al. 2014; Brazienė et al. 2018; Hegedus 2013; Kahrik, Kore 2013; Kahrik, Tammaru 2010; Mandic 2012;Tsenkova 2003Tsenkova , 2009). Lietuva kartu su Latvija ir Estija išsiskiria ne tik privatizacijos greičiu iš visų posocialistinių šalių, bet ir kaip buvo įgyvendinta gyvenamojo fondo restitucija. ...
Article
Urbanizacija kaip procesas yra apibendrinamas kaip viena iš esminių modernėjančios visuomenės sąlygų, o Lietuvos urbanizacijos modelis kardinaliai pasikeičia atgavus nepriklausomybę pereinant prie rinkos ekonomikos. Straipsnyje siekiama atskleisti kaip buvo įgyvendinamos būsto, regioninio ir teritorinio planavimo politinės reformos 1987–1997 m. laikotarpiu, keičiant moderniosios Lietuvos urbanizacijos modelį. Sovietinio centralizuoto ir rinkos ekonomikos decentralizuoto teritorinio, regioninio planavimo ir būsto politikos pokyčiams su kintančia modernaus miesto koncepcija atskleisti yra pasitelkiama nacionalinio lygmens dokumentų analizė. Analizė parodė, kad institucinių veikėjų atsakomybių pokyčiai buvo grįsti greita decentralizacija, miesto gyventojų vaidmuo kito iš pasyvaus gerovės gavėjo į aktyvų vartotoją būsto sektoriuje, o privatizacijos ir restitucijos programų derinimas tapo iššūkiu viešojo sektoriaus institucijoms, siekiant sutaikyti skirtingas gyventojų interesų grupes pereinamuoju laikotarpiu.
... The first perspective is based on the new housing policies in the post-socialist cities and countries, since these policies directly influence the major interventions in the urban residential areas and the residential landscapes of the cities (see Tsenkova, 2005Tsenkova, , 2009Tsenkova, , 2017. On the other hand, the urban political economy evolution gives to the urban spaces new forms of activities and productions changing the urban landscapes (Hirt, 2006, Czepczynski, 2016 in line with the new forms of urban economies related to the local needs of urban communities (Hutton and Paddisson, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The development of the commercial sector enhances evolution in the quality of the surrounding areas. The gains are not only financial, but also social and for urban growth. The opening of Iulius Mall and the later expansion of Iulius Town brought with it an unprecedented development on all the areas in its vicinity. One of the areas that benefited from the location in the vicinity of Iulius Town is the Circumvalațiunii neighborhood. The relation between this socialist built neighborhood and the biggest mixed-used complex in Timișoara, is the main topic of this paper. This article analyses the evolution of Circumvalațiunii neighborhood and Iulius Town complex, using historical analysis and also geospatial analysis. The methods used here will therefore present the chronological periods of development, linking to the main events before and after the December 1989 Revolution, such as industrialization, housing development, deindustrialization, tertiarization, landscape reconversion and commercial development. This paper proposes a new method of studying the topic of economic reconversion, being applicable to other study areas.
... The spatial evolution, the conditions of fundamental political and economic transformation, and the restoration of private initiative caused a number of essential spatial issues, including large-scale conflicts concerning organisation of the urban space as a whole and separate neighbourhoods in particular. Various problems of Sofia's post-socialist transformation in broader geographical context have already been approached in international scholar literature: issues of spatial planning (Hirt 2007;Slaev and Nedovic-Budic 2017), emergence of gated communities (Hirt 2012;Smigiel 2014), transformation of residential space (Hirt and Stanilov 2007), challenges to market reform in housing (Tsenkova 2009), unevenness in the development of public transport (Plevris 2019), barriers to cycling in the urban space (Barnfield 2016), etc. ...
... The evident strength of this simple method rapidly melts away due to the passing of time and the mobility of the all-complex factors that affect the city's life. This process was clear in the rigid socialist planning of many European cities during the second half of the 20th Century [81] or even in the case of Barcelona, where the general plan of 1976 accumulated 1249 official changes [82,83] after its 45 years of official (and illegal) life. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article tries to imagine the possible future retail-less city and its sustainability, combining some theoretical approaches with the initial data obtained from an analysis of Barcelona and Catalonia. The retail-less city is based on the idea of a city in which all the brick-and-mortar stores have closed as a consequence of the growing virtualization of retail. The hypothesis is based on the contemporary theory of planetary urbanization and its implications for the popular relationship between retail and the city. First, the study analyzes the relative weakness of the current retail theories and the spread of certain terms that have not succeeded in becoming real concepts. Second, the research attempt to find a possible definition of the retail-less city based on the increase of brick-and-mortar store and bank branch closures in Barcelona and Catalonia. Then, it explores some alternatives in urban policies and planning, using examples from Barcelona. Finally, the conclusion returns to the contemporary theories on globalization and planetary urbanization.
... The widespread deregulation and financialization of housing in Europe have further weakened this link or made it obsolete (Blessing, 2012(Blessing, , 2016Schwartz & Seabrooke, 2008;Stephens, 2020). In addition, a growing number of comparative housing studies focusing on post-communist (Chen et al., 2013;Hegedus et al., 2013;Tsenkova, 2009;Wang & Murie, 2011) or East Asian (Doling & Ronald, 2014;Forrest & Lee, 2003;Lee, 2003;Renaud et al., 2016) and Latin American (Molina et al., 2019;Murray & Clapham, 2015;Neto & Arreortua, 2019) regions suggest that typologies developed in the twentieth century in a Western welfare-state context are not transferable to emerging markets or transitioning housing systems, thus necessitating more region-specific methodologies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Comparative housing studies traditionally focus on housing systems and social or economic policy, only rarely considering design issues. Through an examination of subsidized housing and its design in 20 countries, this paper explores how design research can benefit cross-national housing studies. Subsidized housing is essential to delivering decent and affordable homes, underpinning the right to housing. To relate design dimensions to housing systems, the analytical focus is on regulatory instruments, technical standards, and socio-spatial practices as well as housing providers, tenures, and target groups. Design research benefits the contextualization of housing systems and design outcomes in several ways. It reveals the contextual and contingent nature of regulatory cultures and instruments, socio-technical norms and standards, and socio-cultural expectations and practices that shape housing solutions. The paper concludes by considering productive ways architectural design research might contribute to an interdisciplinary housing research agenda by offering new means of theorization and analysis beyond traditional housing system typologies.
... Socialist states take full control of the housing supply and complete ownership of housing stocks, allocating housing through work units to households on an as-needed basis in the form of low-cost rentals (Friedmann, 2005). In recent years, some countries with socialist legacies have gradually dismantled their universal housing welfare systems through privatization and commodification of social housing Lux & Sunega, 2014;Tsenkova, 2009). The major changes to urban housing policy in China since the 1990s indicate a potentially unique hybrid approach to housing provision, which uses land and housing resources to leverage economic goals and maintain social stability, as opposed to the conventional market-based, residual, or corporatist approaches (Wang & Murie, 2011;Zhou & Ronald, 2017). ...
Article
Governments in cities and countries around the world are faced with housing affordability problems, which acutely affect lower income residents. Prior comparative work adopts a national perspective that primarily draws upon theories of the welfare state and Western political ideologies to understand government responses to social problems. However, such work often overlooks alternative political systems, the distinctive role of housing policy, and local government strategies. This article compares the provision and role of public housing across three global cities that are experiencing major housing affordability challenges: New York, Hong Kong, and Shenzhen. Based on a review of agency documents and housing and demographic data, we describe public housing policy priorities and examine how the respective governments administer public housing programs. We find each case shows a strong demand for public housing, a broad interpretation of target population, and evolving relationships between the public and private sectors. There are important differences in policy priorities, program eligibility, management, and overlap with the private housing market. The findings suggest standard frameworks may miss variation within countries and the changing role of cities in providing housing for low- and middle-income households.
... The first important divergence is the different state role in housing, in the sense of early decentralization and transfer of state responsibility in housing provision, while the second is the decisive role of socially owned enterprises as housing developers from the early 1950s. However, the development of the housing sector during the socialist period was determined by two important drivers: 1) housing was a political priority and 2) centralized management of the economy enabled governments to direct resources to certain sectors [10]. The consequences of transition in the housing sector can be shortly described as the disintegration of the Eastern European housing model [11] [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with characteristics of multifamily housing development (MHD) in specific conditions of post-socialist transition. Multi-layered political, institutional and socioeconomic changes have influenced the change in the urban structure of cities, including housing areas. Time distance of thirty years from the beginning of transition in Serbia, gives us a good position to monitor and fully understand the effects of changes, including the last and longest-term phase of transitional process-urban changes. The development of multifamily housing is examined on the example of the city of Nis, a typical socialist industrial city that underwent dramatic changes in the post-socialist period and represent a good testing ground for transitional changes and their effects. The goal of the paper is to recognize different types of multifamily housing and the transitional changes that led to certain type of development and their spatial distribution in the city. The research suggests that multifamily housing development is especially influenced by privatization in the initial phase of transition, restitution in the later phase of transition, changing role of public and private sector in housing development, as well as changes in urban planning.
... The first important divergence is the different state role in housing, in the sense of early decentralization and transfer of state responsibility in housing provision, while the second is the decisive role of socially owned enterprises as housing developers from the early 1950s. However, the development of the housing sector during the socialist period was determined by two important drivers: 1) housing was a political priority and 2) centralized management of the economy enabled governments to direct resources to certain sectors [10]. The consequences of transition in the housing sector can be shortly described as the disintegration of the Eastern European housing model [11] [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with characteristics of multifamily housing development (MHD) in specific conditions of post-socialist transition. Multi-layered political, institutional and socio-economic changes have influenced the change in the urban structure of cities, including housing areas. Time distance of thirty years from the beginning of transition in Serbia, gives us a good position to monitor and fully understand the effects of changes, including the last and longest-term phase of transitional process - urban changes. The development of multifamily housing is examined on the example of the city of Nis, a typical socialist industrial city that underwent dramatic changes in the post-socialist period and represent a good testing ground for transitional changes and their effects. The goal of the paper is to recognize different types of multifamily housing and the transitional changes that led to certain type of development and their spatial distribution in the city. The research suggests that multifamily housing development is especially influenced by privatization in the initial phase of transition, restitution in the later phase of transition, changing role of public and private sector in housing development, as well as changes in urban planning.
... The literature describes semiperipheral housing systems such as in CEE and SE but with little or no focus on systemic aspects. CEE housing systems are portrayed as being subject to the semiperiphery's inability to catch up with the advanced housing systems of more advanced core countries (see Tsenkova, 2009;Hededus and Tosics, 1996;Stephens, Lux and Sunega, 2015 etc.) and, in SE, as due to weak industrialisation . In his article "Is there a core-semiperiphery in housing?", ...
Article
Full-text available
In Balkans region, uneven development under global capitalism has led to significant differences in housing commodification patterns, related (social and housing) policy and associated inequalities. In this article we describe commodification patterns in Slovenia, Serbia and Greece by considering the diversity existing in the semiperiphery. We do this by comparing processes of privatisation of housing, development of the rental sector, strategies to homeownership and legal frameworks of protection of property and housing rights. We find some similarities in specific individual and familial commodification patterns and also pronounced inequalities but also semiperiphery diversity, which has been produced and maintained by the presence (or absence) of policies and state care provided for certain vulnerable groups. These diverse aspects arise from specific local, regional and global histories of housing struggles that mean the responses to them have varied. In this research, we show that Balkans semiperipheral territories must not be regarded as a passive background but as a landscape in which active agents participate in creating and transforming commodification patterns.
... As place-based infrastructures, these are an integral part of the community fabric and their inadequacy can impact the socio-economic and human well-being of communities (Ahmad et al., 2014(Ahmad et al., , 2017Foell & Pitzer, 2020). Overcrowding and unsustainable use of housing resources hamper human development (Tsenkova, 2008). Persistence of economic inequality among communities leads to inadequate housing consumption in the long run (Tilly, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban housing inequality is a major academic and policy concern in Pakistan, but empirical investigations and, in turn, evidence-based policy interventions are limited. This study examines the nature of housing inequalities and their determinants focusing on ethnolinguistic groups using a nationally representative household survey, where housing inequality is measured using two indicators: housing space usage (room per capita) and access to utilities (an index based on access to piped water, sewerage, cooking gas, and electricity). Results show that housing inequality by ethnicity is very high, and ethnic belonging, along with socioeconomic factors, significantly influences space consumption and access to utilities. Intersectionality between ethnicity, income, and education plays a crucial role in housing inequality. Balochi, Sindhi, and Siraiki communities have a lower potential for achieving adequate housing than other communities. To reduce housing inequalities, identified disadvantaged communities along with the economic poor should be targeted through housing policies and programmes.
... The homeowners in Grbavica also benefited from the redefinition of land property rights introduced by the 2006 Constitution, as their lots were not burdened with unresolved ownership and delayed restitution. These new circumstances put them in the position to overprice their houses, similarly to the landlords in CEE cities with land shortages, who were charging developers a "private tax" of up to 50% of the housing price [109] (p. 79). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although a growing body of literature examines the post-socialist European context of urban regeneration, studies on the demolition-based approaches are relatively scarce. Moreover, the regeneration policies of cities in non-EU Balkan countries with a distinctive transitional path remain largely unexplored. The paper contributes to filling these voids by investigating a specific demolition-based urban regeneration strategy named permanent reconstruction, which has been launched in Novi Sad, Serbia’s second largest city, and applied to low-density neighborhoods with a derelict housing stock, being seen as a tool for achieving sustainable urban development. The specific research aims are to explain the origin of this strategy; analyze the institutional and planning framework, mechanisms, and dynamics of the regeneration process through a case study; and assess its outcomes based on a mixed methodology. The main research objective is to identify the issues of a post-socialist entrepreneurial urban governance, primarily deriving from Serbia’s distorted transition, which hampered the development of a strategic, integrated, and locale-conscious approach. The findings suggest that Novi Sad and other Serbian cities necessitate socially responsible and context-perceptive regeneration that would produce sustainable regeneration projects. The authors propose the means for redefining them, emphasizing the responsibilities of the public sector and the significance of involving the local community in the planning and decision-making process.
... The social outcomes of private affordable homes targeting "lower middleclass" households is one of the crucial issues in avoiding distressed and run down areas comprising small, condominium-type dwellings. Moreover, the fragmented management between properties held in co-ownership with different interests and unequal capacities to maintain their residences is not risk-free as has been demonstrated in different Eastern European contexts (Tsenkova, 2008). There is a risk that residents will be forced to bear higher maintenance costs and responsibilities together with requests (Doling and Ronald, 2010) for more stringent municipal regulations. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the spatial and residential impact of social-mix and urban renewal policies in large French social housing estates. Tenure diversification is one of the drivers of a privatization process that is leading to an increase in private housing, especially home ownership developments. The wholesale urban restructuring of the modernist conception of high-rise buildings and open public spaces of the 1960s provides another vector. Analyzing the implementation of these two national strategies at large housing estate micro level—partly at La Duchère housing complex in Lyon—sheds light on how the design and location of new housing developments results in fragmentation of “residences” and space. To a certain extent, these social-mix policies exacerbate internal socio-residential differentiation by simply “displacing the stigma”. What is new is rescaling at the level of small “residences” and gating of housing more than the segmentation process itself, which already existed in large housing estates. At the micro-level of large housing estates, this challenges the standardization of urban and social practices through design, the “residualization” of social housing and public space as well as the public management of fragmented space. In a broader context, these changes show how the recent shift in the French social housing model has been embodied in spatial reconfiguration.
... In the 1990s, Croatia and Serbia experienced rapid privatisation of previously socially owned housing and today they are among European countries with the highest homeownership rate, with Croatia at 90.1%, and Serbia at 84.4% (Eurostat 2018). This wholesale privatisation created conditions for a market-oriented housing sector that soon became financialised (Tsenkova 2009), with important repercussions for housing affordability. 1 Alongside privatisation and financialisation, consecutive governments in both countries systematically neglected housing and urban development and social housing needs in particular (Sevšek and Marčetić 2015;Vilenica 2017;Marčetić 2020). ...
Article
We establish features of political opportunity structures of Croatia and Serbia as parameters that help explain the strategies pursued by housing and anti-debt social movements in the two countries. Movements focused on evictions and household debt. Relying on the protest event analysis data for 2007–2017, we identify peaks in protest mobilisations and levels of disruptiveness. Furthermore, we analyse the actors' strategy of electoral contestation and compare it across cases. In Croatia, movement actors organised into political parties, while in Serbia, the electoral turn has remained fringe. We argue that this divergence can be explained by different levels of institutional openness to new challengers.
... The key to answering questions about the reasons for LSBF's vitality may be complex. The first factor concerns the consequences of the marketisation of housing resources and the change in the housing policy philosophy (Tsenkova, 2009), which, from a central element of state policy, has become a problem of individual inhabitants and a consequence of their credit worthiness. The second factor is related to the economic conditions of postsocialist societies and the presence of long-term residents (i.e. ...
Article
Full-text available
The question of the big-city neighbourhood seems important due to the discussion on the condition of modern cities. The issue is centred on the problems of sustainable development and designing social relations. The problem of the neighbourhood in relation to various forms of residence triggers a discussion rooted in the classic issues of sociology as a discipline. In the proposed article, the researchers address the problem of the late socialistic block of flats, attempting to diagnose the condition of the modern urban community in the developmental context of Central Europe, based on the neoclassic concept of ‘spatially determined social circle’. The text introduces the issues of ‘socialist modernism’ using the available Central European literature. In the research part, the data obtained from an online survey on the subject conducted in 2019 in three Polish cities and from a nationwide online survey on the same subject are statistically analysed. The linear regression analysis suggested the relative vitality of the block form of residence, whose sources are both economic and social. The problem of traditional forms of accommodation and urban neighbourhoods has become a hotly debated political issue that triggers a scientific reflection on the phenomena of integration and disintegration in cities. In this context, the issue of the vitality of the forms of housing seems important not only for diagnosis purposes but also for predictions for the forthcoming decades. The case to be analysed herein is that of the late socialistic block of flats (LSBF) in Central and Eastern European countries, which for some is an anachronistic form of residence whereas for others is a partial solution to the insufficient market dynamics intended to meet people’s housing needs. In this context, we ask four questions based on a hypothesis regarding LSBF urban neighbourhood vitality in Poland. The first question is a partly theoretical question based on the conceptualisation of social circles: To what extent does living in an LSBF modify one’s sense of belonging to a social circle? The second question concerns the empirical findings regarding the LSBF neighbourhood: What is the neighbourhood assessment related to declared residence in an LSBF? The third question concerns more specific subjects related to the LSBF neighbourhood: To what extent does living in an LSBF affect the declared depth of neighbourly relations? The fourth and last question relates to the notion of vitality of the LSBF neighbourhood: Does the length of residence in an LSBF impact the interactions between the neighbours therein? The questions concerning the present-day LSBF cannot be answered without historical references to the concept of the city of socialist modernism. It is only from the genetic perspective dating back to several decades that we can understand the dynamics of the process, which has been marked by a few fundamental tribulations.
... The main goal of SIRP was to raise local capacities, establish local housing agencies, and design, develop, and monitor pilot housing projects. Regardless of these significant yet limited examples, Serbia was lagging behind in the housing reforms compared to other post-socialist countries of the Southeast Europe [8]. ...
... While only a small fraction of the metropolitan population and jobs were located outside the urban core during the socialist period, the post-socialist suburban explosion reshaped urban regions radically (HEGEDÜS, TOSICS, 1998;TSENKOVA, 2009;SÝKORA, STANILOV, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with some of the most significant changes in the domain of housing during the socialist and post-socialist period. The transition from the 1990s towards the democratic system and market-oriented economy further empowered the privatization of ownership, and especially home ownership. The changes are especially visible in the quality of housing and housing policy, and in socioeconomic and socio-demographic circumstances, which are related to them causally. The provision of housing was transferred from the state to the citizens, with home ownership becoming a privilege. In the process of repurchase and return of nationalized flats from socialism, there was the process of housing privatization and Croatia became one of the post-socialist countries with a greater share of home ownership. Such a situation resulted in numerous consequences, visible in all aspects of life, especially demographic and economic. They also influenced the housing standard. In the context of strong processes of privatization and financialization of housing and the reduced role of state, there are many new aspects hinder housing rights and problems from being resolved. They are followed by economic problems due to pushing of the market and increasing the private civil engineering sector, along with the escalation of the global financial crisis that affected the Croatian market, too. Moreover, country's unfavourable demographic trends are visible in the reduction of the average family size, and the increase in the number of families without children, which leads to different housing demands.
... The spatial evolution, the conditions of fundamental political and economic transformation, and the restoration of private initiative caused a number of essential spatial issues, including large-scale conflicts concerning organisation of the urban space as a whole and separate neighbourhoods in particular. Various problems of Sofia's post-socialist transformation in broader geographical context have already been approached in international scholar literature: issues of spatial planning (Hirt 2007;Slaev and Nedovic-Budic 2017), emergence of gated communities (Hirt 2012;Smigiel 2014), transformation of residential space (Hirt and Stanilov 2007), challenges to market reform in housing (Tsenkova 2009), unevenness in the development of public transport (Plevris 2019), barriers to cycling in the urban space (Barnfield 2016), etc. ...
Chapter
This chapter justifies the topicality and relevance of spatial conflicts and divisions in cities from the viewpoint of human geography and other branches of science dealing with spatial facets of urban development such as sociology, political science, and economics. Based on the analysis of publications regarding post-socialist cities, the author outlines the main themes in this well-developed interdisciplinary discourse. The author also stresses that despite its high research potential, we lack a separate domain that generates knowledge about conflicts in cities of East-Central Europe. Particular attention is paid to the global discourse of knowledge on contested and divided cities and the variety of currents and problems raised by scholars. The merits of the current book and its contribution to the process of maturing from conflicts and divisions in post-socialist cities as a prospective direction of future research are highlighted. Issues with high research potential include geopolitically- and ethnonationally-motivated conflicts and divisions, as well as topics related to current disputes about the heritage of multicultural cities, conflicts caused by competing interests in spatial planning under conditions of post-socialist transformation, globalisation, and European integration. Conflicts and divisions caused by post-socialist transformation and its long-lasting socio-spatial consequences make the missing link between post-socialist urban change and global discourses on contested and divided cities.
... In the neo-Marxist framework of analysis, the contradictions of the housing systems of existing socialism (restraint on housing consumption, housing shortage, inequalities, etc.) were difficult to interpret. Nor did Szelenyi's (1983) critical analysis receive a clear positive resonance in Marxist sociology. The real features of the existing socialist housing are difficult to fit into Kemeny's theory: how can the influence of the power structure (one-party system) and the dominant ideology (scientific socialism) be identified as the causal factors of the socialist housing system? ...
Article
Full-text available
The comments to Stephens’ crucial overview of Kemeny’s regime theory, discuss two issues. Firstly, the embeddedness of housing in the political and economic system and its narrowed interpretation. Secondly, the analysis of the socialist and the housing systems of the new EU member states based on Kemeny’s approach, which I consider to have low explanatory power and inadequate interpretation of the facts.
... The earlier studies influenced by the World Bank's'enabling' approach (World Bank 1993) were looking for signs of a transition to a system dominantly coordinated by market mechanisms, where the state interferes only by supporting the most vulnerable populations. These studies seek to establish how close the housing system came to this ideal state in various areas, such as housing finance, construction, the subsidy system, etc. (Renaud 1995a(Renaud , 1995Hegedüs et al. 1996;Tsenkova 2009, Pichler-Milanovich 2001. This 'transition to the market' approach (Lowe 2004: 166) lost significance in the 2000s. ...
... The change of the property regime post-1989 has meant the switch from a collective and public paradigm of property towards a private, individualized one. Such change has had residential properties as its most important target (Tsenkova 2009). Largely framed as a return to a Western European sense of belonging, the post-socialist changes were understood as complex and even painful processes of continuing a history 'interrupted' by 50 years of communism. ...
Article
Based on my experience as an organizer and militant researcher for the FCDL—Frontul Comun pentru Dreptul la Locuire [Common Front for Housing Rights]—in Bucharest, I propose a critical analysis of post-socialist property redistribution by emphasizing the role of Westernizing aspirational paradigms. Supported by findings of colleagues and comrades from similar organizations in Romania, I argue that restitutions are a key process for understanding the aspirational, racializing dynamics of property redistribution in post-socialism through their hegemonic narrative of restoring a pre-communist, ‘European’ class composition. I seek to build a situated scholar-activist perspective anchored in the experience and testimony of evictions produced by restitutions. Placing the resistance of the Vulturilor community in Bucharest, a mixed Romanian-Roma community, as the starting point of my analysis, I argue that the tactics of encampments run by evictees in the Romanian context are in fact a radical form of protest that breaks with standards of protest as formulated in normative Western narratives. By going beyond the conventional categories of ‘the concerned citizen’ to be found in some right to the city type of movements in the region, the strategies of evictees push the boundaries of radicalism and solidarity. At the same time, they make space for a protest practice outside of the civilizational narratives of Western becoming, breaking the aspirational paradigm of becoming a white middle-class West. Such struggles break with historical property regimes based on continous racialized dispossesions, setting a new threshold for political anti-racist struggles that go beyond the cultural.
... Moreover, the characteristics of the emerging post-transition housing regime(s) remain under debate (e.g. Tsenkova, 2009, Hegedüs and Tosics, 1996, Hegedüs et al., 1996, Pichler-Milanovic, 2001, Lowe, 2003. In this paper, agreeing with Stephens (et al. 2015), we argue that it is crucial to embed typologies of housing systems into their ideological and socio-political context. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the expansion and crisis of the foreign-currency (FX) loan market and responding mortgage-rescue programs in Hungary. We assess changes in the housing regime and illustrate the process through analyzing interactions between individual and institutional (state, financial institution, and municipality) strategies. We argue that the current, malformed housing regime has not changed significantly and remains vulnerable to similar events. This particular case offers insight into regional tendencies, while also explaining the reasons behind the escalation of the crisis in Hungary. We claim that the coping strategies and broader behavior of participants reinforced the disproportionate elements of the housing regime. Since 2015, housing policies have again relied on economic stabilization, now subsidized by the EU, that incentivize market solutions for private home ownership and disregard the experiences of past decades.
... Social housing in Serbia was created on the ruins of the Yugoslav societal housing system, which organised housing for Yugoslav workers more or less successfully until the 1990s. The academic literatures describes the period after the 1990s in ex-Yugoslav states largely as post-socialism and an unfinished or failed transition to capitalist political, institutional, economic, and socio-spatial standards (Kovacs, 1999;Tsenkova, 2009;Hegedus, Luz and Teller, 2013;Sunega 2013, Neducin andKrklješ, 2017). The process of "transition" in housing effectively meant the abolition of socialist institutionalisation, and with it the exorcism of class justice from the housing system. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article tackles contradictions of social housing in contemporary Serbia. It shows how residualised social housing does not bring justice to marginalised groups affected by capitalist expropriation. In this article, the term (anti-)social(ist) housing will be introduced to describe the historically grounded, incomplete, and contradictory solutions that social housing is currently offering in Serbia, as well as its antisocial nature. By focusing on a particular case study, the Kamendin project situated in Zemun Polje, one of the very few social housing projects in Belgrade, the article explores debt crises produced by mechanisms of social housing; the production of racism, segregation, and responsibilisation; and mechanisms of passing responsibility on all levels in an attempt of the state to spend as little money as possible. (Anti-)social(ist) housing is further assessed as a space of struggle that includes different survival and resistance tactics that are used in order to oppose social housing violence. Following that, the article will focus on the possibilities of the activist art project Kamendynamics and the theatre peace How does fascism not disappear? Zlatija Kostić: I sued myself to confront the racialisation and culturalisation of problems by introducing collaborative visual, class-based, and historical-materialist analyses. By documenting and conceptualising mechanisms of social housing and reflecting on the role of activist art within housing struggles, I aim to contribute to anti-segregation and anti-racist housing struggles in Eastern European cities and beyond.
... • Technical issues [26][27][28]-In case of extremely poor maintenance, the lifespan of prefabricated buildings is estimated to 50 years. Since the investments in improving their technical condition were frequently lesser than required, a number of these buildings has low energy efficiency compared to the EU standards, poor insulation, outdated infrastructure, damaged facades, leaking roofs, worn out equipment, problems with concrete spalling and mould, etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the socialist times, large housing estates in the Central and East European (CEE) cities were praised for effectively resolving the housing crisis, providing good and homogeneous housing conditions at reasonable costs and enabling rapid urbanization. Following the collapse of communism, they have met with various consequences of low-cost construction based on prefabrication, lack of repair and upgrading investments and neglected or deferred maintenance, and the Western experience drew attention to the socioeconomic outcomes of further physical downgrading. As the flats located in these estates make up almost half of the total urban housing stock in the CEE region, thus having a significant impact on the overall housing quality, this paper discusses the post-socialist context of development of these estates based on the existing literature and an interdisciplinary analytical approach, with an emphasis on their rehabilitation. The research questions relate to the problems they have been affected by, mechanisms and methods of interventions and multifaceted differences between the CEE and West European estates. The aim of the paper is to analyse the development and rehabilitation challenges that these estates have encountered during post-socialism and thus join the discussion on future prospects and feasible and sustainable upgrading related policies and programmes.
... I refer to Tirana as 'now-capitalist' -despite the compelling reasons Douglas Rogers (2010: 13-15) has given for retaining 'postsocialisms' as an analytic device -to bring into sharper relief the structure of feeling I am tracing in this article. Working in the tradition of ethnographies that pursue local perspectives on the complex and contradictory forms of value and valuation found in socialist and postsocialist contexts (e.g., Archer 2018; Berdahl, Bunzl, and Lampland 2000;Burawoy and Verdery 1999;Fehérváry 2013;Ghodsee 2011;Humphrey 2002;Mandel and Humphrey 2002;Musaraj forthcoming;Verdery 2003), I reach back in this writing to Lila Abu-Lughod's call to 'experiment with narrative ethnographies of the particular ' (1991: 153). By foregrounding the displaced booksellers' interpretation of their own experience as lived and felt, I intend to subvert -not to reinforce -the image of a coherent 'culture' of Albanian society. ...
Article
Full-text available
‘Business as usual’ in contemporary Albania takes place between different and conflicting systems of meaning and value. Drawing from ethnographic material collected in Tirana, Albania, this article examines the complexities of social and economic life in a city where distinct moral economies routinely clash with the capitalist principle of profit. Starting from the ethnographic impulse to learn how two local booksellers made sense of the contradictory systems of meaning operating in their everyday lives, the analysis shows how a grinding of discordant value systems produced the more general paradox of an ‘ordinary tragedy’.
... The scale of housing construction and distribution was decided on by central authorities. Since the 1990s, transformations have been under way resulting in a very strong reduction in the role and size of the social housing stock as well as a shift of responsibility for meeting housing needs onto the shoulders of citizens (CESARSKI 2011;HEGEDUS, TOSICS 1996;TSENKOVA 2008;LUX, SUNEGA 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Poland municipalities do not fulfil their statutory obligations of providing dwellings for vulnerable households and often limit their activity to merely providing housing for persons to whom the court has granted the right to dwelling in eviction proceedings. However, even for these people there are not enough dwellings. This very difficult situation of Polish municipalities in terms of the provision of direct housing assistance results from history-related problems with the quality of the existing housing stock, a lack of reform of municipal lease rules and insufficient financial resources. The author focused on a comparison of the municipal housing stock management in the largest cities in the context of changes that took place in years 2009-2016. The results of the research proved there were important differences among cities in terms of the activity of applying the available instruments. Despite acting in the same institutional framework, some municipalities were able to improve the housing situation of citizens most in need of assistance, step by step. The survey covered the voivodeship capital cities of Poland. Critical analysis of literature and documents as well as an analysis of statistical data were used.
... In the Eastern Europe, this idea was little known before the 90s, because of the socialist regime. During the socialist regime predominantly, there were no social classes and as a matter of fact it was supposed the worker, director and officer could live all in the same dwelling (Tsenkova, 2009;Kovacs, 2014). There has been a massive increase in privately governed residential spaces in recent years, and these are beginning to noticeably shape the cityscape with their walls, gates, and barriers. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study observes the development of gated communities and their features in the post-socialist period in capital of Albania, Tirana. The research studies the evolution of this housing form in Tirana, by focussing in three different gated communities including "Rolling Hills Luxury Residence", "Kodra e Diellit" and "Touch of the Sun” residences. An analysis aiming to depict their urban, architectural and gated communities features is conducted to each of the examples included. The aim of the study is to reveal the features of these residences in the framework of gated communities typological models which were defined to be comunity, physical structures and security based. The methodology used in the study includes architectural and urban descriptive analysis, observation and in depth interviews. At the end, the study, reveals the features of the aforementioned gated communities by revealing their urban, architectural features and analysing their features through typological models including community type, physical structures and their security aspects.
... This exposure to fluctuations in the owner-occupied housing market made the system more vulnerable to external shocks and placed significant limits on locationbased responses that respond to the sustainability imperatives in cities. In general, the post-crisis period created an opportunity to test the institutional and economic resilience of financial institutions, social housing developers, and low-income households that ultimately assume the long-term risk and liability (Tsenkova, 2009). The results of the social housing experiments in Mexico demonstrate that there is a need for coordinated action to redesign the model and find solutions to the inefficiency of the market that has resulted in a high degree of inadequate, poorly serviced housing in undesirable locations and abandonment of housing developments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evolution of social housing policies in Mexico promoted deregulation of housing finance and a shift from top-down publicly controlled provision of social housing to a corporate model of social housing development based on subsidised homeownership for low- and middle income households. While innovation through mortgage-backed certificates mobilized private capital for the purchase of social housing, the housing policy did not provide the regulatory framework necessary to minimize market failure. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2009, Mexico faced overproduction of social housing, bankrupt financial institutions and social housing developers and more than 5 million abandoned homes in Mexican cities. We argue that the results of the social housing experiment demonstrate a need for coordinated action to align fiscal, financial and regulatory instruments to create a more resilient system of social housing provision.
... Many authors have analysed the development of the social housing sector in the EU-15 countries (Priemus et al., 1999;Boelhouwer, 1999;Walker, 2000;Heijden, 2002;Priemus and Dielemann, 2002;Whitehead, 2003;King, 2006) and the new Member States (Lux, 2003;Donner, 2006;Tsenkova, 2009;Hegedüs and Teller, 2013;Muczyński, 2016), and they have identified numerous differences and similarities. Maclennan and More (1997) have argued that social housing is needed when the socially desired needs for housing exceed the effectively desired demand for housing. ...
Article
The management of social housing is an interdisciplinary activity whose efficiency is determined by the availability of complete and up-to-date real estate data. Reliable and valid information is essential for the smooth operation of all public administration agencies. In Poland, social housing is managed as part of the existing municipal housing stock. However, many Polish municipalities lack comprehensive information systems capable of supporting of social housing management by integrating multiple distributed databases and providing complementary information for the efficient execution of core management functions. For this reason, an original concept of a social housing management information system (SHMIS) with universal features that could be applied on the national scale should be proposed based on research findings and effective management practices. The management of social housing could be significantly improved by providing municipalities with access to real estate data from public registers incorporated into a single Land Administration System (LAS). Poland is currently in the process of developing the national LAS, referred to as the Integrated Real Estate Information System (IREIS). The Polish LAS is scheduled for implementation in 2019. A pilot system is currently operated by selected administrative units. The main aim of this study was to develop the SHMIS concept as part of the Polish LAS. The study was preceded by an analysis of the degree of data overlap between both systems. The required data for effective support of social housing management were identified and grouped for the needs of the analysis. The analysis demonstrated considerable data overlap between the SHMIS and the currently implemented IREIS, which indicates that the proposed SHMIS should constitute an integral sub-module of the IREIS environment.
Article
This paper is aimed to carry out the historical analysis of various state strategies concerning their role in housing provision to the citizens and to define the relevant results. The author strives to demonstrate also the severity of the actual problem and to propose a conceptual basis that could help to outline new strategic tasks. The study used historical and logical analysis of recent trends caused by long-lasting legal limitations which were not taken into account in most studies as to housing policy. About 80% of all houses in the cities, which have been built up to 1980, stay not yet been repaired and, to prevent collapse, require urgent major repair and modernization. The rising tariff for housing services, unlike all post-socialist countries, does not include a renovation component which could double the actual household housing expenses. In recent years half of all families in the country have applied for subsidies to pay for raised-in-times utility services. The challenge arises of how to transform their housing property. The similar international practice and Ukrainian management experience are not sufficient. The main housing policy problem is the mismatch between the housing provision and the lack of legal and financial opportunities for sustainable satisfaction.
Book
Full-text available
Колективна монографія розкриває сутність актуальних питань, що стосуються інноваційних підходів до розвитку управління. В сучасних умовах життєво важливим завданням для організацій є пошук нових шляхів отримання конкурентних переваг (зокрема, у разі впровадження інноваційних підходів до управління розвитком), дослідження та опис процесів впровадження інновацій, їх генерування всередині організацій.
Thesis
Cette recherche sur les transformations spatiales de la Bulgarie contemporaine vise à interroger les cadres de la rénovation urbaine dans le pays au travers de la notion de patrimoines ordinaires modernes. Une génération après la fin du communisme, elle doit aujourd’hui faire face à plusieurs défis pour se projeter dans le XXIe siècle : une décroissance urbaine et démographique forte, la présence d’un parc de logements issus de la période moderne qu’il est nécessaire de rénover, une société de propriétaires précaire et l’absence de reconnaissance de ces héritages architecturaux et modernes comme des ressources pour concevoir la ville du XXIe siècle.Face à ces constats, sur quelles bases renouveler les cadres de la rénovation urbaine en Bulgarie ?Nous avons émis l’hypothèse qu’il est possible de renouveler l’approche de la rénovation urbaine en Bulgarie en nous intéressant à la notion de patrimoines ordinaires modernes. Ils sont définis comme l’articulation de trois dynamiques : un processus d’hybridations culturelles issu de la modernisation de la Bulgarie depuis le XIXe siècle, un processus de stratification spatiale issu du recyclage des espaces urbains au fil de la planification de la ville ; et d’un processus de résilience issu du marquage de l’espace par les acteurs de la fabrique de la ville. L’hypothèse d’un patrimoine ordinaire moderne, qui serait l’articulation de ces trois processus, permettrait alors de renouveler l’approche de la rénovation urbaine en Bulgarie, jusqu’à présent cantonnée à la rénovation énergétique des bâtiments et à la maintenance de structures.Afin de tester notre hypothèse, le protocole de recherche proposé se développe sur la ville de Varna, sur une période allant des débuts de la modernité en Bulgarie jusqu’à aujourd’hui (XIXe – XXIe siècle). La déstratification de l’espace nous amène à comprendre les dynamiques de transformation des territoires modernes et à formuler des propositions pour renouveler l’approche de la rénovation urbaine.
Chapter
Full-text available
Albania inherits a diversity of unique natural and cultural landscapes of international importance. Unfortunately, the development programs related to urbanization, infrastructure and energy investments generate significant pressures on the native quality of these landscapes. This chapter discusses further the opportunities and threats that Albanian landscapes are facing. The post-socialist turbulent, uncontrolled chaotic urban development in Tirana, inescapably brings into discussion the existential meaning of its identity. In one side, the historical urban pattern of the city featured by pre-socialist and socialist layers, in the other side the disproportionate post socialist built environment has resulted in a hybrid cacophonic identity, which ask “quo vadis” Tirana. Nowadays, despite the great efforts from the municipality in making order in the “spontaneousness” generated in the post-socialist years, something is missing from Tirana development strategies. The new Masterplan (TR030) is lacking in appropriately considering two of the most profound aspects of the city; the scattered historic heritage, and that adaptive living city that creatively grew up within the Capital's super-blocks frame. Complementary strategies are needed. Furthermore, during the post-communist development there is a significant change in the housing design and construction paradigm. The traditional small scale Tirana houses are replaced by the large urban blocks with the minimal public and semi-public space. This resulted in the drastic increase of the urban density, which became one of the highest among the European cities. It is not easy to transform a community, and if Albania aims to join the standards of the other European countries, should consider the built environment. Through a citizen’s participation, and with their involvement in the design of the spaces, better-built environments will develop. Nevertheless, development and change start from children, thus a further challenge is to accept designing with them for them. Finally, Albanian households are endangered by energy poverty. A strong potential factor supporting this statement is the extremely low standard of construction of residential units during the construction boom in Albania (1990–2000), representing more than 83.7% of the building stock. Energy retrofitting represents an opportunity to upgrade or enable adequate energy performance for a building's life cycle.
Chapter
Following the signing of the peace agreement in Paris in December 1995 to end the war in Bosnia, Sarajevo simultaneously experienced a transition from war to peace and from socialism to capitalism. This double transition was marked by an increasing intervention from the international community, which deployed an administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina to oversee the implementation of the peace accord. Even though no specific local peacebuilding mission was established in the Bosnian capital, the OHR became particularly involved in policies shaping its urban transformation. This chapter addresses socialist and post-socialist cities to frame analyses conducted on Sarajevo’s urban spatial restructuring. Secondly, the production and reproduction of ethno-territorialities is considered in order to analyse the division of Sarajevo’s urban area and its consequences. Finally, international intervention in post-war contexts is explored through the characterisation of peacebuilding missions and political institutions in ethnically divided societies, which will allow an assessment of the OHR intervention and the struggle between local and international actors during the post-war period.
Chapter
As noted earlier, wealth is a way of measuring environmental impact, and this chapter expands on this by looking at the link between wealth and complexity. It investigates how wealth is expressed in the built environment and how this relates to developing inequalities in societies. It looks at how investment in buildings was involved in the 2008 global financial crisis and the changing relationship between house owners and landlords. Flipping is also discussed. The chapter continues by looking into personalisation of the dwelling and aspirations of wealth as a driver of this. This leads to a discussion of house size and the proliferation of large dwellings with few occupants in some societies. The next step is to look at the reading of wealth in commercial and manufacturing buildings, including the quest to own the tallest building. The chapter moves to a discussion of underused buildings, including second homes and ghost cities, as well as considering the cities of the dead. It ends by considering the relationship between wealth and monuments in the built environment, noting that the built environment is a means of wealth creation and concentration, with all the problems that follow, not least the fact that inequalities are made visible in it.
Article
Full-text available
Urban growth has been increasing rapidly across the globe, in particular in low and middle-income developing countries. As city populations and GDP per capita rise exponentially, cities tend to experience similar challenges related to urban development and transport/mobility. One of the most problematic issues emerges when urban growth drives car-oriented urban development. This is characterised by a range of unsustainable patterns such as low-density development, urban sprawl, lack of plans and infrastructure to accommodate collective transport and active travel, and significant efforts and investments to meet the demand for private motorised vehicle use. For emergent cities, the risk is that these developments lead to highly inefficient, unhealthy and unsustainable urban systems that are difficult to remedy. This paper aims to identify recurrent governance and policy factors across sectors, as well as macro factors, that tend to contribute to car-dependent urban mobility systems in rapidly growing cities. It draws on qualitative and quantitative research findings from five under-researched Eastern European and Middle Eastern cities: Tallinn, Bucharest, Skopje, Adana and Amman. Data examining the evolution of urban mobility in these cities were collected as part of the Horizon2020 EU funded project CREATE. The paper investigates the extent to which car-dependent urban development processes can be avoided in rapidly growing cities, to support transitions towards liveable and sustainable cities. Finally, it provides policy recommendations targeting growing cities with low levels of car-use, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa. It highlights the importance of acting swiftly to achieve targets such as the Sustainable Development Goals, the New Urban Agenda or the Paris Agreement, by supporting policies fostering efficient, sustainable and inclusive urban mobility and land-use across sectors and levels of governance.
Chapter
This chapter presents important lessons from the first systematic evaluation of social housing energy retrofit programs in the last decade. Recognizing the potential impact of energy savings in social housing, the comparative research focused on the experiences of three provinces in Canada—BC, Ontario and Alberta—to highlight the diversity of approaches, program achievements and challenges in program implementation. Highlights from nineteen case studies of best practices in the four largest cities illustrate a range of investment strategies deployed by public, non-profit and cooperative housing providers, beneficial in environmental, economic and social terms.
Chapter
The chapter introduces the rationale for the comparative research in the book and its objectives. It situates this first assessment of the energy-efficiency retrofit programs in the social housing sector of Canadian cities in a theoretical framework focused on policy design. The chapter outlines an analytical framework for evaluation of program efficiency and effectiveness with links to key policy instruments—regulatory, financial and institutional—in relation to major results achieved. The approach is interdisciplinary, supported by rich empirical data from case studies, observations and interviews. The structure of the book systematically presents the results of decade-long energy efficiency retrofit programs in Toronto, Vancouver, Edmonton and Calgary. It offers valuable lessons for the design, planning and implementation of energy retrofit programs in Canada and beyond.
Chapter
Full-text available
This book presents cross-national insights into spatial fragmentation in post-socialist cities in Europe. Trying to rethink the heritage of the last 30 years of transformation and grasp current processes taking urban units of various categories as examples, the book exemplifies typical or unique causes of political, social and ethnic disintegration of cities in Central and Eastern Europe. Presenting spatial studies into different cases of conflict in a cross-national context, the authors apply concepts of contested and divided cities, urban geopolitics, cultural atavism, contested heritage, etc. The book is divided into four parts. The first part raises the issue of genesis, development and contemporary discrepancies of cities divided by political and state borders. The second part includes chapters which deal with the impact of ongoing geopolitical divisions, wars, and ideologies on the social and political tensions as well as their polarising effect on urban territory. The third part comprises reflections on controversial relations of ethnic and national culture with urban space. The fourth part deals with socio-economic transformation of post-socialist cities which went through transition of old patterns of spatial planning and attempts to establish more rational and justice spatial order.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing apartment buildings is one of the most responsible tasks since it has the largest effect on the users and is their closest interaction with the built environment. People spend the most time in their homes and therefore it is imperative to explore all aspects of housing with the goal of understanding and subsequently improving the living conditions. Architectural research in housing is mostly focused on urban planning and on spatial characteristics of the apartments but there are other areas which need to be considered, such as the structural aspect. The structural elements of the buildings are primarily important for the building stability, but also for the living comfort. Additionally, the choice of the structural elements influences both the building cost and the time needed for construction. Development of new materials and technologies has enabled faster and cheaper construction of apartment buildings of higher quality and has opened up new architectural design possibilities. The goal of this paper is to identify the time periods of predominant use of certain materials and structural systems in apartment buildings and to show the evolution of construction technologies through the prism of residential architecture. The sample used in this research consists of apartment buildings in Osijek, Croatia constructed from 1930 to 2015.
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis explores the housing situation of Romanian Roma in recent times. Many Romanian Roma are relegated to inadequate living condi­tions, and this thesis seeks to further our knowledge of the spaces this group inhabits. This is done by focusing on postsocialist urban segrega­tion, institutional intervention inertia, and local efforts made and strate­gies deployed by Roma to appropriate decent living conditions. Paper I examines the postsocialist relegation of poor Bucharesters to the impoverished southern parts of Ferentari, a neighbourhood in Roma­nia’s capital. The paper proposes a theoretical understanding of Roma­nia’s postsocialist production of urban space by drawing on the housing trajectories of residents of various housing types, ranging from small apartments to newly built slums. Paper II brings the perspective of Bucharest’s local officials to the fore, analysing institutional dynamics and policymaking in Bucharest’s poorest administrative division, where Ferentari is situated. In this article, political inertia is highlighted as comprising a problematic pairing of political disregard of welfare provision and racialised understandings of Ferentari’s citizens. As a result, no concrete and rigorous efforts are made to address the neighbourhood’s obvious problems. Paper III examines the narratives of Romanian Roma who travel to Sweden to earn more income, but where they are also exposed to an un­welcoming context and homelessness. The study helps clarify how certain groups in Europe can be both homeowners and homeless at the same time. This article disputes the assumption that homeownership is a more stable tenure form than for example decommodified rental housing. Paper IV examines two different and highly mobile housing and earn­ing strategies of two related Boyash-Roma communities in two countries: Argentina and Romania. The Argentine case concerns Romanian-speak­ing Roma involved in street-vending throughout Argentina. The Roma­nian case concerns Rudari from Vâlcea County, who travel to Sweden primarily to beg. The cases illustrate how two groups have managed to improve their housing condi­tions in post-crisis and xenophobic contexts. In combination, this multi-site research advances our understand­ing of the problems Roma face in finding adequate housing. Although continuously marginalised and excluded, Roma still find ways to cope with their situation and even improve their housing.
Chapter
This chapter provides a comparative overview of the post-war housing programmes of the Central and Eastern European post-war socialist states, arguing that they, like the Baltics, were in some ways distanced from the highly standardised orthodoxies of mainstream Soviet mass housing. With the aim of underlining the extreme diversity of the political/organisational and architectural solutions of mass housing within Central and Eastern Europe, the chapter demonstrates that while public housing was generally dominant in most parts of the region, this concealed wide variations, from the programmes of Poland and East Germany, dominated from the late 50s by large, powerful cooperatives, to the highly decentralised, even anarchic system in Yugoslavia and the prominence of home-ownership in both Hungary and Bulgaria. Architecturally, the conservative policies of street-façade monumental architecture that prevailed in Ceauşescu’s Romania contrasted very strikingly with the idiosyncrasies that sprouted elsewhere, ranging from the sinuous and extraordinarily long ‘falowiec’ (wave-form) blocks of Gdańsk and Poznań to the wildly variegated design solutions of the various ‘blok’ sections of Novi Beograd. The chapter compares these varied patterns closely with those of the Baltics, to demonstrate that the latter were not alone within the socialist bloc in their individuality and intermittently ‘western’ sensibilities.
Chapter
Scholarly literature frequently refers to the incompleteness of service infrastructure in socialist housing estates. This has been considered a major failing of socialist residential landscapes that were planned and built according to scientific principles offering a high quality of life to residents through rational and technical design standards. This chapter presents visual and context-based evidence to illustrate how compromises in the service networks of newly built modernist housing estates were made during the socialist years. To do so, we investigate contemporaneous circumstances and decisions that delayed or (indefinitely) postponed the construction of neighbourhood services and community infrastructure. We ground our arguments in the evolution of Väike-Õismäe, a 1970s-era housing estate in Tallinn, Estonia. Findings suggest that even in one of the most admired residential districts, recognised with a prestigious architectural award from the Soviet state, the initial visions of the architect were unrealised and adjustments to plans were made in the earliest phases of implementation before construction began.
Article
This article explores housing models and hybrid typologies advanced as part of an urban renewal programme in Belgrade (Serbia, former Yugoslavia) in the 1980s. We argue that these typologies were tested against the socialist-modernist model of mass residential construction that had been dominant since the 1960s. Our research identifies the design methodologies employed in the insertion of collective housing typologies into an elite residential quarter of traditionally-planned detached family houses, in the case of high-standard housing project Dedinje II/2 (1979–1986) designed by the architect Zoran Županjevac. The article particularly focuses on local adaptation of the transnational concept of designing spaces of transition between community and privacy. Instrumental in this adaptation, we aim to show, was the educational experience and professional practice critical of radical modernism gained by the architect in the USA, UK and Austria. In particular, we find that the project reflects the transfer of knowledge and experience across cultural, geographic and political contexts. The resulting typologies, we contend, not only represented an example of a pluralist approach to late-socialist architecture but provided models for re-thinking housing in the transition to the market economy of the post-socialist period.
Article
Full-text available
SAŽETAK U radu se analiziraju neki od elemenata rada i stanovanja znanstvene populacije u Hrvatskoj dobiveni internetskom anketom koja je provedena 2017. godine. Anketa je upućena na adrese elektroničke pošte 7 269 znanstvenika, a odgovorilo ih je 1 966. Radne i stambene uvjete smješta se u suvremeni informatizacijski i postsocijalistički kontekst društva te ističe neke osnovne procese i fenomene koji na njih utječu, kao što su privatizacija stanovanja i fleksibilizacija rada. Nesigurnost radnih uvjeta koji iz njih proizlaze vidljiva je naročito kod mlađih znanstvenika. Testirane su razlike u zadovoljstvu znanstvenika radnim i stambenim uvjetima prema spolu, radnom statusu, tipu ustanove, mjestu rada i području bavljenja. Zadovoljniji su radnim uvjetima oni zaposleni izvan Zagreba od onih zaposlenih u Zagrebu te su muškarci zadovoljniji od žena. Stalno zaposleni ispitanici zadovoljniji su od ispitanika zaposlenih na određeno vrijeme. U boljem su stambenom položaju znanstvenici zaposleni na neodređeno, koji su i više sudjelovali u subvencioniranoj kupnji vlastitog stana. Za razliku od njih, zaposlene na određeno često prate nesigurni radni uvjeti, a uzrok tomu može se naći i u novoj znanstvenoj politici sve više okrenutoj tržištu. Zaključno, prema osnovnim stambenim kriterijima znanstvenu populaciju temeljno obilježava nastavak i jačanje modela privatizacije stanovanja započetog u tranzicijskom razdoblju u kojem je posjedovanje vlastitog stana poželjan stambeni status. U radnom smislu mora se istaknuti podijeljena situacija te kako postoji određeno zadovoljstvo radom, ali i iscrpljenost i nesigurnost koju u većoj mjeri osjećaju žene i mlađi znanstvenici. Ključne riječi: znanstvenici, radni i stambeni uvjeti, fleksibilizacija rada, privatizacija stanovanja, Hrvatska
Article
Full-text available
The nature of home ownership is contested within housing studies, with disagreement over whether it is a 'natural desire' or an unimportant feature of the housing situation. This paper sheds some light on this debate by examining the meaning of home ownership in Slovenia both before and after democratic changes in the early 1990s. In the late 1970s and the 1980s there was an acute housing shortage and households opted for the tenure which provided them with a better chance of being housed and employers provided home loans rather than building new rented housing to make scarce funds stretch further. The attributes within each of the tenures at this time varied widely and were more important in influencing housing quality and the rights and obligations of tenants than tenure. The early 1990s have brought a strong ideological drive towards home ownership as a symbol of a market economy. In addition, the sale of rented housing derives income for industrial enterprises which can be invested in their mainstream activities. The move to overwhelming support for home ownership cannot be explained solely by reference to household preferences.
Article
Full-text available
The slum is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning in the countries of the South. The existence of slums worldwide is also a sign that the slum is a crucial element of contemporary urbanisation. This article will attempt to define this phenomenon and understand its causes. Adequate policy responses are then suggested. Without finding appropriate solutions to the housing problems of a majority of urban dwellers, public and private decision makers will not be able to meet the challenges of sustainable development.
Article
Full-text available
The paper argues that the national and local authorities in Bulgaria do not utilize the vast experience accumulated by many developed and developing countries, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) and the World Bank in providing housing for the poor and dealing with squatter settlements. Ignoring this experience is a serious omission, which has resulted in a typically inefficient, top-down 'slum eradication' policy. New large-scale projects funded under European programmes also follow this flawed approach. The research identifies several important factors which could inform the development of better policies. For example, it stresses the existing extremely high rate of uncontrolled construction of robust housing made with reinforced concrete in the Roma neighbourhoods. The paper concludes that this is a critical factor, which has become the major threat to living conditions and leaves no other alternative but to regularize the settlements and develop streets and other infrastructure. Yet these high rates of construction serve as evidence that Roma households are capable of contributing to the solution of their own housing problems if only their development initiative is encouraged in the proper direction.
Article
This paper is concerned with making sense of current ways of explaining housing policy. Four different types of explanation are identified and analysed in detail:explanations in terms of systems of actors, hypothetico-deductive explanations, realist explanations, and culturalist explanations. The characteristic ontology and epistemology of each type of explanation is made explicit. The four types of explanation are then evaluated, partly in their own terms, and partly in relation to each other. It is argued that explanations in terms of systems of actors are inherently superficial, so it is essential to go beyond and below them in order to achieve an acceptable level of explanatory adequacy. Hypothetico-deductive explanations are rescued from realist and culturalist criticisms which tend to dismiss them altogether, but they are recognised as having serious limitations in terms of conceptual vagueness/ambiguity and contextual fragmentation. Realist explanations are considered in greater depth through an examination of regulation theory. This examination amounts to a critique of the theory as regards its application to housing policy. Finally, culturalist explanations are assessed by using Kemeny’s theory as an illustration, with both ontological and epistemological problems being identified. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the logical relations and differences between explanations of the four different types.
Article
Tirana, the capital of Albania, has just over 200 000 inhabitants, representing about 7% of the country's total population. By European standards it is a relatively modern foundation, dating back to the early 17th century. This profile examines its development from the early days of Ottoman control and its subordinate role to other cities in the urban hierarchy, its elevation to capital city in the interwar years, through to its rapid post-second world war growth, and analyses possible planning predictions for the city's expansion up to the end of the century.
Article
Housing has enjoyed a high place on the agendas of most socialist countries. However this place has not been undisputed and this book examines the internal and external forces which have influenced housing under central planning.
Article
As housing policy becomes more complex, it may also become more interesting, yet at the same time more difficult to monitor. The current housing indicator project can be considered useful. It will provide a good basis for the exchange of experience and information internationally. However, we should ask whether the Program in its present form is over-ambitious in striving towards a set of global indicators rather than a few basic ones. After all, the housing problems of the developed and developing world differ enormously. It is impossible to use the same tools if we want to illustrate their problems in proper detail. International cooperation is certainly needed to develop indicators which are useful specifically in Europe. The author sees two key areas for international and European cooperation. First, basic data -for instance, on the number of rooms in dwellings -should be made more comparable. Most developed countries have the technical and other skills needed to produce such comparable data. Secondly, much more internationally comparable data on housing expenditure and the effectiveness of housing subsidies are needed. This is much more difficult than merely improving the comparability of basic data. This is the area where there should be a more international cooperation.
Article
This article gives an overview of housing policy in Denmark and Germany and tries to evaluate its consequences for the housing market in the two countries. The purpose is to discuss some general questions concerning the nature of housing policy and to compare two distinct fields of housing policy-social housing and rent control-where the two countries have quite different systems.
Article
What lies ahead for the social rented sector in western Europe? Do countries differ merely in degree, or do differences between countries offer grounds on which to sketch divergent scenarios for the future? This paper treats these questions in light of the work of Harloe and Kemeny. Based on the development of the policy context and the size and the character of the social rented sector in six west European countries, three plausible scenarios will be presented. The first (residual dual market) scenario is comparable to Harloe's residual model and Kemeny's dual market model. The second (residual unitary market) scenario starts with Kemeny's unitary market model but develops in the direction of the first (residual dual market) scenario. The third (unitary rental market) scenario combines social responsibilities with a market approach to housing provision.
Article
The paper begins with the examination of the concept of an Eastern European housing model. It describes what the main features of such a model could be and charts the nature and extent of variations between different countries. Attention then turns to the changes in the housing systems since the introduction of parliamentary democracy. The main elements of these changes and variation between countries are described. An attempt is made in the third section to chart the future directions of east European housing systems. Finally an assessment is made of the implications of this discussion for frameworks of comparative study of national housing systems. -from Author
Article
The transition from plan to market in socialist economies dominates the economic agenda of this decade. This two-part paper on the Russian housing reforms addresses four questions. First, what is the legacy of the administrative-command system and why were demands for major reforms so widespread in the housing sector? Secondly, in what manner does the severe contraction of the Russian economy complicate the reformers' task? Thirdly, how has the Russian government responded so far to the reform challenge? Fourthly, why are the privatisation of housing and rent reforms at the core of the transition to market? The first part of the paper deals with the first two questions. The second part addresses the last two questions. Priority goes to an integrated perspective on the early stages of Russian reforms over an in-depth analysis of individual issues. The modern analysis of the real estate economy distinguishes two markets: the 'property market' for the allocation of space, and the 'asset market' where investment decisions are made. This theoretical insight provides a much needed framework to understand how the key components of Russian reform interact during the housing transition to market.
Article
Housing analysis traditionally focuses on the consumption and allocation aspects of housing provision, concentrating particularly on state policies towards housing tenures. This paper presents a theoretical critique of the consumption‐orientated emphasis, and suggests an alternative framework based on structures of housing provision. It is argued that to look at consumption‐related issues in the context of state housing policies is important, but an adequate analysis must place such an investigation in terms of the totality of social relations associated with the form of housing provision in question.
Article
Should housing provision be marketised, or should states intervene in pursuing social objectives? Neo‐classical economic theory tells us that the supposed advantages of markets (such as quick response to changing conditions) should be most effective in situations of rapidly increasing demand while the supposed disadvantages of state action (e.g. bureaucratic ossification) should be most marked. The research examines trends in housing provision within, and between four European high growth regions—the “E4 Corridor” (Stockholm‐Arlanda), Berkshire in the “M4 Corridor” west of London, the Toulouse metropolitan region, and the southern fringes of Paris. While housing provision in Berkshire has become even more marketised during the 1980s, housing provision in the E4 has become less marketised. But the less marketised system is superior in terms of output levels, cost development, product diversity, consumer choice and production form. The French case studies are intermediate cases tending towards the Berkshire extreme.
Article
This study undertakes a statistical analysis of housing policy and housing market developments in 18 advanced industrial countries comparing the early 1970s with the mid‐1980s. The article applies three modes of theoretical explanation, namely convergence theory, labour movement theory, and an institutional model based on theories of corporatism, focusing upon the first mode. The results show that contrary to convergence theory and its associated thesis of a particular “logic of industrialism”, institutional and ideological factors loom large. Analysing the structure of the market, ideological factors are found to be of greatest importance. At the same time, housing market processes and the character of housing policy are primarily determined by institutional factors, that is, the way in which market actors have been organized into or out of the housing policy system.
Article
The fall of socialism in 1989–1990 led to the end of the East European housing model, which was based on the limitation of property rights, extensive central planning and politically determined allocation of subsidies. This paper aims to present a clear picture of the current housing situation through a reliable information system. The major observation is that in the countries studied, the housing situation is relatively good; it is not housing shortage, but die inefficiency of the institutional system, affordability and deferred maintenance that are the main problems. Based on the idea of “enabling policies” - policies that facilitate the activities of the key stakeholders in the sector while providing an essential element of the social safety net - the paper establishes the goals and objectives that should guide the formulation of policy and institutional reforms within the sector, and defines priorities for actions to be taken by national and local governments and by international agencies in support of governments.
Article
This paper provides a review of different approaches to informal settlement upgrading. It begins by showing how linking informal settlement upgrading and sites and service provision as twin approaches to development led firstly to a situation where the former was situated within a particular development paradigm and then to an ideological divide between externally driven and community-supported upgrading initiatives. After a review of existing literature on the subject, the paper argues that the origin of the intervention is less important than substantiation of the results of the intervention. It then identifies three “thematic approaches” that can be shown to have a substantive track record in upgrading. These are the progressive improvement model of physical infrastructure provision, community microplanning and physical transformation through an holistic plan (“plano global” in Portuguese). These three thematic approaches are reviewed comparatively, and their strengths and weaknesses analysed.
Article
This paper explores the impact of housing reforms on public rented housing in Eastern Europe, using Latvia and Ukraine as case studies. The focus on public housing is important, since in both countries municipalities and state institutions are the major social landlords. Rent structures are not sensitive to demand or quality of housing services and allocation decisions rely on bureaucratic processes. The study evaluates changes in ownership, rent and allocation policies in the two countries to determine the extent to which public housing has moved away from a'command’system to a more market-sensitive model. The limited success of housing reforms, particularly in Ukraine, has critical implications for the financial sustainability of the sector. Drawing on comparative work on social rented housing provision in Western Europe, the paper argues that in transition economies where the sector is large, reforms need to focus on rent policies that ensure cost recovery for services with targeted'in cash’support for low-income households. By contrast, in countries where the sector is small, reforms need to define its social character and role in the provision of'in kind’subsidy.