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Compositional studies of Citrullus lanatus (Egusi melon) seed

  • Landmark University, Omu Aran, Nigeria
  • Kwara State University, Malete via Ilorin, Kwara State


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ISPUB.COM The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness
Volume 6 Number 1
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Compositional Studies of Citrullus lanatus (Egusi melon)
G Ojieh, O Oluba, Y Ogunlowo, K Adebisi, G Eidangbe, R Orole
G Ojieh, O Oluba, Y Ogunlowo, K Adebisi, G Eidangbe, R Orole. Compositional Studies of Citrullus lanatus (Egusi melon)
Seed. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2007 Volume 6 Number 1.
Proximate, amino acid and mineral composition of Citrullus lanatus (egusi melon) flour were determined using standard
analytical procedures. The proximate composition analysis of egusi melon showed that the seed contained (% dry weight):
moisture (4.6±0.3), ash (3.7±0.1), ether extract (45.7±0.1), crude protein (23.4±0.2), crude fibre (12.0±0.1) and total
carbohydrate (10.6±0.2). The result of the amino acid analysis showed that egusi melon seed contained good quantities (g/100g
protein) of arginine (9.0), isoluecine (4.8), leucine (4.2), and phenylalanine (3.2) which are essential amino acids as well as
glutamic acid (16.9) and aspartic acid (16.3).The mineral analysis (mg/100g) of the flour included: Na (13.0±0.2), K (96.1±0.4),
Ca (28.2±0.2), Mg (31.4±0.2), Mn (1.7±0.1), Cu (0.4±0.1), Zn (1.2±0.1), Fe (1.3±0.2), and P (125.3±3.1). With this nutrient
profile egusi melon compares favourably with the known protein rich foods such as soybean, cowpeas, pigeon peas and
Many plant proteins usually in the form of protein extracts or
seed flours are being investigated and tested for new
products such as low cost fabricated foods which are
nutritious, attractive and acceptable to consumers just like
conventional foods from meat, fish and dairy products
(Lawhom and Cater, 1971; Lin et al., 1974; McWalters et
al., 1976). Seeds have nutritive and calorific values, which
make them necessary in diets. Research attention that are
geared towards increasing utilization of plant protein sources
for food use includes pumpkin (Olaofe et al., 1994), peanut
(Khan et al., 1975), pigeon pea (Oshodi and Ekperigin,
1989), African yam bean (Adeyeye et al., 1994), and akee
apple (Akintayo et al., 2002). The ultimate success of
utilizing plant proteins as ingredients largely depends upon
the beneficial qualities they impact to foods, which in turn
depend largely on their nutritional and functional properties
(Shadrach and Oyebiodun, 1999).
Citrullus lanatus (egusi melon) is the biological ancestor of
the watermelon now found all over the world, but originated
from West Africa . Egusi melon is a member of the
Cucurbitaceae family. Unlike the common watermelon,
whose flesh is sweet and red, the egusi melon's juicy flesh is
pale yellow or green, and also tastes bitter. A creeping
annual herb, the egusi melon has hairy stems, forked tendrils
and three-lobed hairy leaves.
Comprising 50% oil and 35% protein (Jack, 1972), the seeds
have both nutritional and cosmetic importance. The seeds
contain vitamin C and B2, minerals, riboflavin, fat,
carbohydrates and protein (Lazos, 1986). Despite the vast
nutritional and medicinal significance of egusi melon, little
detail on its amino acid and mineral composition is available
to an international readership. This study is therefore aimed
at investigating the proximate, amino acid and mineral
composition of egusi melon seed flour obtained from a
South- Western State of Nigeria . Such information may
expand the scope of knowledge on the nutritional qualities
and utilization of egusi melon flour outside the coast of West
Africa .
Chemicals: All chemicals used were of analytical grade and
were products of BDH Chemicals Ltd, Poole , England
unless otherwise stated.
Collection and Preparation of Samples: Egusi melon seeds
used for this study were obtained from a local market in
Iwaro-Oka Akoko, Ondo State , Nigeria and were identified
as Citrullus lanatus by a taxonomist in the department of
Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin ,
Nigeria . Seeds were screened to remove bad ones, shelled
manually and further screened. The seeds were then dried to
constant weight in an oven at 70 ° C, ground using
Compositional Studies of Citrullus lanatus (Egusi melon) Seed
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mechanical blender, put in an air-tight container and stored
in desiccators for further analysis, some of the seeds was
subsequently deposited at the herbarium of the faculty.
Proximate Composition Analysis: The proximate analysis of
the samples for moisture, total ash and crude fibre were
carried out in triplicate using methods described (AOAC,
1990). The nitrogen was determined by micro Kjeldahl
method described by Pearson (1976) and the nitrogen
content was converted to protein by multiplying by a factor
of 6.25. Determination of crude fat/lipid content of the
samples was done using Soxhlet (Cehmglass) type of the
direct solvent extraction using petroleum ether (boiling
range 60-80 ° C) as solvent. At the end of the extraction, the
solvent was evaporated and the flask dried in the oven (at 60
° C). Total carbohydrate content was estimated by
‘difference'. All the proximate values were reported in
percentage (%).
Amino acid analysis: 2g of egusi melon flour was defatted
with chloroform/methanol mixture using Soxhlet extraction
apparatus (Cehmglass) while the extraction lasted for 15
hours. Between 30-50g of defatted sample was weighed into
glass ampoule. 7ml of 6M HCl was added and oxygen
expelled by passing nitrogen into the ampoule. The sealed
ampoule was put in an oven at about 110 ° C for 22 hours
and later allowed to cool before the content was filtered.
The filtrate evaporated to dryness at 40 ° C under vacuum in
a rotary evaporator. Residue was dissolved with acetate
buffer (pH 2). The method of amino acid analysis was by ion
exchange chromatography (FAO/WHO, 1991) using the
Technicum Sequential Multi Sample Amino Acid Analyzer
(TSM) (Technicum Instruments Corporation, New York ).
Mineral analysis: The mineral composition of the sample
was analyzed by dry-ashing the samples at 550 ° c to
constant weight and dissolving the ash in volumetric flask
using distilled, ionized water with a few drops of
concentrated HCl. Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) were
determined by using a flame photometer (Model 405,
Corning, UK) using NaCl and KCl to prepare the standards.
All other metals were determined by Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer (Perkin – Elmer model 403, Norwalk CT
, London ). Earlier, the detection limits of the metals had
been determined according to Techtron (1975). The
optimum analytical grade was 0.1 to 0.5 absorbance units
with a coefficient of variation of 0.87 – 2.20%. The minerals
content were reported as mg/100 g.
The proximate composition (on dry weight basis) of
Citrullus lanatus (egusi melon) are as shown in Table 1.
According to the results, the moisture content of egusi melon
(4.6%) is low compared to those reported for legumes by
Arkroyed and Doughty (1964) ranging between 7.0 and
10%. However, this value agrees closely with that reported
earlier by Ige et al. (1984) for pumpkin seeds. The mean ash
content value of 3.7% obtained for egusi melon in this study
is a little bit above the range of 1.5 – 2.5% recommended for
seeds and tubers for animal feed formulation by Pomeranz
and Clifton (1981). On this basis, egusi melon could be
considered not to be suitable for animal feeds. The ether
extract (crude fat) content of 45.7% obtained for egusi melon
in this study agrees closely with that reported by Ige et al.
(1984) for varieties of melon oil seeds which ranged
between 47.9 and 51.1% . Our value also agrees with that
obtained for pumpkin seed (47.0%) (Fagbemi and Oshodi,
1991), it is however too high compared to that obtained for
soybean (23.5%) (Paul and Southgate, 1980). With the high
amount of crude fat obtained for egusi melon in this study,
egusi melon could be regarded as an oil seed. Our results
show that egusi melon has a crude protein content of 23.4%.
This value compares favourably with those of protein rich
foods such as soybean, cowpeas, pigeon peas and pumpkin
with protein contents ranging between 23.1 and 33.0%
(Olaofe et al., 1994). This protein value also falls within the
recommended daily allowance for children (23.0 – 36.0 g)
(NRC, 1989). The crude fibre content of egusi melon
(12.0%) obtained in this study is high compared to those of
legumes (5.0 - 6.0%) (Aremu et al., 2006). As observed from
our result, egusi melon is low in carbohydrate (10.6%)
compared to other legumes which have as high as
20.0-60.0% carbohydrate content (Arkroyed and Doughty,
Figure 1
Table 1: Proximate Composition (% dry weight) of
The amino acid analysis of egusi melon flour (g/100 g
Compositional Studies of Citrullus lanatus (Egusi melon) Seed
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protein) is shown in Table 2. The results show that arginine,
glutamic acic and aspartic acid with 9.0, 16.9, and 16.3
g/100g protein respectively were the three most abundant
amino acids in egusi melon. This observation is in close
agreement with the report of Olaofe et al. (1994), Adeyeye
(2004), and Aremu et al. (2006). In addition, our result
shows that egusi melon could serve as a good source of
essential amino acids such as arginine, isoleucine and
Figure 2
Table 2: Amino acid composition (g/100 g protein) of
Citrullus lanatus (egusi melon) seed flour
The results obtained for the mineral composition of egusi
melon are shown in Table 3. From the results, P is the
predominant mineral in egusi melon seed. This is not in
agreement with the observations of Olaofe and Sanni (1988),
and Aremu et al. (2005) that K was the most abundant
mineral in Nigerian Agricultural products. K however
ranked second in concentration to P in egusi melon as
observed in this study. Na, Ca and Mg are other important
minerals which are highly concentrated in egusi melon. The
Na/K ratio of egusi melon is less than one. This, on the basis
of the recommendation of Nieman et al. 1992) could suggest
that egusi melon would be suitable for reducing high blood
pressure. On the other hand, the Ca/P ratio of egusi melon is
far less than one (0.2) thus its consumption is likely to
reduce the intestinal absorption of calcium.
Figure 3
Table 3: Mineral composition (mg/100 g) of egusi seed flour
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Author Information
Godwin C. Ojieh
Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University
Olarewaju M. Oluba
Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin
Yetunde R. Ogunlowo
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology
Kayode E. Adebisi
Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin
George O. Eidangbe
Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University
Reginah T. Orole
Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University
... and Nakai subsp. mucosospermus (Egusi melon) is the biological ancestor of watermelon, which is now globally cultivated (Ojieh et al. 2007). It is often referred to as Egusi watermelon (Van der Vossen et al. 2004) and is native to West Africa (Ojieh et al. 2007). ...
... mucosospermus (Egusi melon) is the biological ancestor of watermelon, which is now globally cultivated (Ojieh et al. 2007). It is often referred to as Egusi watermelon (Van der Vossen et al. 2004) and is native to West Africa (Ojieh et al. 2007). Egusi watermelon is an unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. ...
... The Egusi watermelon is commonly known in Nigeria and the Republic of Congo as wild watermelon, Egusi melon or 'Ibara' (Gusmini et al. 2004). Unlike the common watermelon with red and sweet juicy flesh, the flesh of Egusi melon is pale yellow and green with a bitter taste (Ojieh et al. 2007). 'Egusi' (in Yoruba) or 'Agushi' (in Hausa) melon is a creeping annual herb with hairy stems, forked tendrils and three-lobed hairy leaves (Ojieh et al. 2007), cultivated mainly for its seeds (Achigan- Dako et al. 2008a). ...
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Background: Food and nutritional security are main development goals in several countries of Africa. In West Africa, the use of African indigenous vegetables caters for the food and nutritional needs of a high proportion of the people, most particularly amongst the poor and rural dwellers. The family Cucurbitaceae is one of the most important and widely grown vegetables in the tropical and subtropical climates. Aim and objective: This review discusses the culinary relevance of several species of Cucurbitaceae and their roles in food security in West Africa. Methods: A literature search was conducted on electronic databases such as Google Books, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Discussions: Certain genera such as Telfairia, Cucurbita and Citrullus and other Egusi species are commonly cultivated in different parts of West Africa including Nigeria for their fruits, seeds and leaves because of their crucial nutrient compositions and palatability in local diets. These species and other species of Cucurbitaceae are used as traditional vegetables or African indigenous vegetables and are either sourced from the wild or cultivated in several African countries. Some of these species have played roles beyond food security but have also been crucial tools for nutritional security, especially within the low-income group and rural communities. Conclusions: Several communities in West Africa use almost all parts of the plant (leaves, fruit, seed, flowers) of some species of this family as food or in food preparations. Their use could also lead to innovative pathways towards reducing diseases associated with malnutrition especially those related to protein deficiency.
... Melon is grown and cultivated all over Nigeria. Melon seed is called "Ogili" (Ibo), "Dende" (Fulani), "Egusi" (Yoruba), and "Iguana Agushi" (Hausa) (Ojieh et al., 2008). Melon seeds nutrients include about 53% oil, 28.4% protein (60% in defatted flour), 2.7% fiber, 3.6% ash and 8.2% carbohydrate (Adeyeye et al., 2020). ...
... Groundnut crops originated from South America and are widely known globally because almost every part of the plant has commercial value (Ojieh et al., 2008). The nutrients present in groundnut seed include 44-56% oil and 22-30% protein with minerals and vitamins (Savage and Keenan, 1994). ...
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Robo is a widely consumed Nigeria snack made from local food ingredients. Snacks are often subjectively classified as junk food, possibly because they naturally have little or no nutritional value, and unhealthy snacks consumption are associated with the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. The effects of producing Robo from melon and groundnut seeds at different ratios from 20 to 50% wereevaluated for proximate composition, physicochemical/functional and sensory attributes. The results showed an increase in crude protein (38.56a - 42.8d), crude fiber(15.01±0.014d), fat content (35.20e) and ash content (18.02e), but decreased in moisture content (2.43a - 3.30e). Hardness properties decrease from (240a- 720e). Robo from blends of melon and groundnut seeds have improved sensory attributes in terms of flavour, crispness, taste and overall acceptability, particularly at supplementation of 60% melon and 40% groundnut seeds. Thus, improved Robo will increase consumer’s nutrients intake and prevent health problems associated with snack intake. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.56(4), 263-270, 2021
... Edible melon seeds are the important source of plant proteins and the seeds are being tested and investigated for the lowcost fabricated foods or other new products. 1 They contain carbohydrates ( glucose, fructose, and sucrose, starch, pectin), vitamins, folic acid, minerals, various aromatic compounds and carotene. 2 Melon is one of the most popular as well as healthiest fruits in the world. ...
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The seeds of winter (wax gourd), long (bottle gourd) and large (pumpkin) melon were analyzed for nutritional parameters mainlyprotein, fat/oil, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, protein, minerals and moisture and fatty acids composition. The double beam ultravioletvisible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of total sugar. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl method. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to quantify minerals (Fe, Cu, and Zn). Fatty acid was analyzed by gas chromatography(GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). From the proximate analysis, it was found that the winter melon (wax gourd)seeds contain protein, oil, carbohydrate, soluble dietary fiber, moisture and ash content of 19.71, 16.46, 56.48, 3.10, 68.88 and 4.26%, respectively. Similarly, long melon (bottle gourd) was found to contain 16.12, 13.61, 46.88, 2.2, 76.45 and 5.2% of protein, oil,carbohydrate, soluble dietary fiber, moisture and ash, respectively. The contents of protein, oil, carbohydrate, soluble dietary fiber,moisture and ash in large melon (pumpkin) seeds were found to be 29.64, 18.17, 55.32, 1.3, 79.53 and 5.12%, respectively. In mineralanalysis, iron, copper, and zinc contents were found to be 6.75, 0.62, and 6.10 mg/100g in winter melon; 7.8, 1.63, and 4.25 mg/100gin long melon; and 13.95, 1.15, and 5.11 mg/100g in large melon, respectively. Dhaka Univ. J. Sci. 70(1): 58-63, 2022 (January)
... A study conducted by Mustafa et al. (1972) revealed that the fat content of seed and kernel were 25.87 and 50.64%, respectively. It was also reported that the oil content of two varieties of seeds "Bara and Serewe" were 54.2 and 56.9%, respectively (Oyenuga et al., 1975;Godwin et al., 2008). The percentage composition of crude fibre for (peels, pulp and seeds), the seeds was higher contains 14.66 ± 0.57 % compared to the peels which contained 10.66 ± 29 %. ...
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The fruit popularly known as Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a local recipe eaten in Nigeria and African. The research was conducted to evaluate the nutritional composition and phytoconstituents of the peels, pulp and seeds of the fruit. The vitamin C was also determined. Proximate analysis revealed that the pulp contained much higher moisture content of 11.50 ± 0.50 % than the peels with 8.78 ± 1.25 %, and 3.66±0.29 % seed respectively. The ash content for peels was high with 5.31 ± 0.55 %, while pulp contained 3.66 ± 0.82 % and the seeds contained 2.97 ± 05 % respectively. For crude lipids; seeds contained high value of 13.66 ± 0.29 % compared to the peels with 2.33 ± 0.29 % and pulp contained 0.5± 0.00 %.respectively. The crude fibre; seeds contained higher value of 14.66 ± 0.57 % compared to peels with 10.66 ± 29 % and7.66 ± 0.29 % for pulp. The crude proteins, the peels contained 2.88 ± 1.69 %, while the pulp contained 3.33± 0.17 % and seeds contained 18.75± 0.65% having the highest value which implies that the seed is rich in protein thereby help to build the body and replace worn-out tissues. The carbohydrate value for pulp was much higher with 73.35 ± 1.78 %, peels contained 70.04± 4.05 % and seed contained 46.3± 0.78 % respectively. The mineral elements revealed that Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and Zn are much present with significant different P<0.05.Therefore, seed is a reservoir of crude lipids, while pulp serves as a reservoir of moisture content and food supplement whereas peels serve as reservoir for mineral elements. The vitamin C value ranged from (4.56± 0.47 to 3.32± 0.37) mg/100 g respectively. Phytochemical analyses of aqueous extracts revealed that terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids are present. This justify the claim why the fruit can be used as food and medicinal purpose.
... The fat contents in I. gabonensis and I. wombolu are higher than that of C. colocynthis, making the Irvingia seeds potential source of vegetable oil for both domestic and industrial uses. With the high amount of crude fat content (52.48± 1.84%) present in the seeds of C. colocynthis as reported by Adam et al. (24) and 36.27 ± 0.31 % obtained in the seeds of C. colocynthis in this study, the seeds of C. colocynthis could also be regarded as an oil seed (30). C. colocynthis contains a higher percentage of protein (20.46%) than I. gabonensis and I. wombolu (6.07 and 6.30%, respectively). ...
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Background: The effects of malnutrition due to food insecurity demand continuous and urgent efforts to salvage the situations. There are needs to compare the nutritional and anti-nutritional status of edible plant materials commonly used to help consumers make a scientific-based informed decision. Objective: to determine and compare the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of three seeds - Citrullus colocynthis, Irvingia gabonensis and I. wombolu. Materials and methods: The seeds sourced from Nsukka Market and were analyzed for mineral, proximate, vitamin and anti-nutrient compositions using standard protocols. Results: The concentration of sodium, copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorous were higher in C. colocynthis seed compared to Irvingia species. I. wombolu had the highest calcium, and potassium contents. I. gabonensis had the highest iron content. C. colocynthis had the highest protein content, while the two Irvingia seeds had higher total fats, fatty acids, and calorific values compared to C. colocynthis seed. Vitamin C, in C. colocynthis was the least total vitamin content and the least antinutrient. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that seeds of Citrullus colocynthis, Irvingia gabonensis and I. wombolu are rich in nutritive factors, in varying proportions, and are low in antinutrient contents. With the results of this comparative study, consumers are therefore encouraged to make evidence-based decision on the choice of the seed to consume in line with their nutritional and health needs.
... Melon (Citrullus lanatus) also called Egusi in Nigeria and some of the African countries is a leguminous cropsgrown mostly in tropical parts of Africa (Ojiel et al., 2007). Melon is a good source of amino acids, vitamins, minerals, oil and protein (Brande et al. 2012). ...
... The crude protein content obtained for the defatted oven-dried and sun-dried B. sapida aril flours in this study compared favorably with that of many known legume flours, including cowpea (24.1%), egusi melon (23.4%), pigeon pea (19.9-24.0%), and chicken pea (23.7%) (Ojieh et al., 2007;Maninder et al., 2007;Anderson-Foster et al., 2012;Sreerama et al., 2012). The crude protein content of defatted B. sapida aril flour as reported in the present study is sufficient to meet the minimum dietary protein recommendation of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO/WHO, 2002). ...
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The composition of Blighia sapida fruits is reported to differ based on its origin, variety, and preservation technique. In this study, the effect of drying method on the composition as well as the antioxidant activity of oven-dried and sun-dried B. sapida aril flour and oil were examined using standard procedures. Sun-dried B. sapida aril flour had significantly higher protein and fat content compared to the oven-dried flour. In addition, sun-dried B. sapida aril flour contained a more diverse phytochemical profile compared to the oven-dried flour. However, oven-dried B. sapida aril oil (ODAO) showed a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids compared to oil from the sun-dried B. sapida flour (SDAO). On the other hand, SDAO showed significantly higher DPPH scavenging and nitric oxide inhibitory activities compared to ODAO. Based on these findings, sun-drying is recommended for both nutritional purposes and other health-promoting usage such as antioxidant, over oven-drying.
... Those with high amounts of melon seed milk without peanut milk had higher ash content. Dairy milk has a calcium content of between 122 mg-134 mg/100 g [34], tiger nuts have a calcium content of 40 mg/100 g [40], peanuts, coconuts, melon seeds have a calcium content of 54 to 92 mg/100 g [34] and 18.1 mg/100 g [41] and 28.2 mg/100 g [42], respectively. Because of these low calcium levels in most plant raw materials, most plantbased dairy alternatives have to be fortified with calcium [10]. ...
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Limitations of plant-based dairy alternatives as sustainable foods are their relatively low protein content and low sensory appeal. In this study, we used a consumer-led product development approach to improve the sensory appeal of existing prototypes of 3-blend dairy alternatives produced from melon seeds, peanuts and coconut. We used Relative Preference Mapping (RPM) and consumer acceptance testing using the 9-point hedonic scale to respectively identify innovative flavours and deduce the effect of ingredient components on consumer sensory appeal. Mixture design was used as the formulation tool to obtain optimized prototypes of the 3-blend dairy alternatives. Proximate analysis of the new prototypes, instrumental color assessment and consumer testing provided a basis to select a sustainable 3-blend dairy alternative. This prototype had a relatively high protein content (2.16%), was considered innovative by target consumers and also had a moderate liking score (6.55 ± 1.88) on the 9-point hedonic scale. Prototypes with higher protein content had low sensory appeal and were not considered innovative. Other prototypes with innovative sensory appeal had low protein content. By combining different plant raw materials and utilizing different sensory testing methods, we were able to design sustainable plant-based dairy alternatives which can be further optimized.
... for the peels flour, 17.63 ± 0.01% for the unpeeled seed flour and 1.86± 0.01% for the peeled seed kernel. Crude fibre value for the peeled seed kernel is lower than that of egusi melon whereas the peels and unpeeled seed flour were higher compared to that reported for eusi melon 12% by Ojieh et al., [22]. Based on the fibre content of this seed, the peels and the unpeeled seeds are recommended for adult human being while the peeled seed kernels are recommended for children. ...
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Pigeon pea seeds (Cajanus Cajan) were carefully selected cleaned and divided into two lots for flour production. One portion was germinated following soaking in water for 36 hours, with water change every 6 hours, at a ratio of 1:10 including an hour air rest before re-soaking. The seeds were germinated to obtain root length of 5 cm. the functional properties of the flours were determined. Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve handling characteristics.
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The proximate analysis, determination of nutritionally valuable minerals and the functional properties of the seed flour of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were investigated. Three different colour varieties of whole seeds and their cotyledons from the same source were identified and processed for the study. The average composition of the seeds (whole grains) was as follows: protein 20.51%, fat 12.20%, carbohydrate 50.24%, ash 2.60%, fibre 6.00% and moisture 8.36%. The corresponding cotyledons contained protein 23.93%, fat 3.65%, carbohydrate 62.40%, ash 2.25%, fibre 2.07% and moisture 5.62%. The seeds were rich in potassium and phosphorus (625.43 mg/100g) and (206.35 mg/100g) respectively for whole grains while values for cotyledons were (553.6 mg/100g) and (234.161 mg/100mg) respectively. The functional properties, that is, protein solubility (PS), water absorption capacity (WAC), fat absorption capacity (FAC), fat emulsion stability (FES), lowest gelation concentration (LGC), foaming capacity (FC) and foaming stability (FS) were investigated. Heat treatment (for the preparation of cotyledons) reduced the protein solubility, fat emulsion capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability and lowest gelation concentration while water absorption capacity, fat absorption capacity and fat emulsion stability were slightly increased.
Cucumeropsis edulis has a protein content of 38% and the two varieties of Citrullus vulgaris have 34.1% and 30.8%, respectively. Tetracarpidium conophorum has the lowest protein content (23.4%). The fat contents of the oilseeds ranged from 43 to 51%. The solubility profiles of the flour proteins showed minimum solubility at two pH values. However, the nitrogen solubility profiles for the protein isolates were more simple in that they showed single isoelectric points. The following functional properties-water-soluble nitrogen, fat absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, and water holding capacity-were determined and found to be comparable to those of soy products. The flours have good foaming stability but poor foaming capacity when compared with soy flour.
Nutritional and oil characteristics of pumpkin and melon seeds were investigated. On a dry basis, the data obtained for the two seeds, respectively, were: crude oil 45.4 and 37.8%; crude protein, 32.3 and 25.2%; crude fiber, 12.1 and 15.4%; and ash, 4.65 and 3.85%. Food energy values were 2.83 and 2.59 MJ/100g, respectively. The seeds were found to have considerable amounts of essential minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and P). The defatted flour of the pumpkin and melon seeds contained, respectively: crude protein, 55.4 and 39.4%; crude fiber, 28.1 and 24.7%; and ash, 7.23 and 6.18%. The major fatty acid of the oils was linoleic (18:2) at concentrations of 43.1 and 64.6%, followed by oleic (18:1), 37.8 and 20.1%, respectively.
SUMMARY— Glandless cottonseed meals were prepared under controlled conditions in a pilot plant by three different processing methods. These meals along with a glandless cottonseed meal produced at a commercial oil mill were used as source meals for protein isolates. Two protein fractions differing in composition and characteristics were isolated from each type meal using a two-step, two-solvent isolation procedure developed at the USDA Southern Utilization R & D Div. yields of each isolate precipitated at three different pH levels were determined on the pilot plant meals. Isolate yields from the commercial meal were determined near the respective isoelectric points of the two fractions. Functional properties including whippability, heat gelation, solubility and foaming properties, were measured on all isolates. Variation in measured values due to meal processing method and precipitation pH was statistically assessed in some instances. Meal processing method was found to significantly affect the yield of Isolate I, the minor isolate. pH of precipitation was found to significantly affect the yield of Isolate II, the major isolate. Also, it was shown that the pH-solubility profiles of both Isolates I and II could be altered by changing the pH at which they were precipitated. The functional properties of isolates from meals processed without heat were superior to those of isolates from heated meals. Data collected indicated the need for a new practice in evaluating the extent of denaturation of cottonseed protein products. The present practice of determining nitrogen solubility at one point was shown to be inadequate.