ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Inflammation is the complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. In the present investigation an attempt was made to screen the anti-inflammatory activity of Basellaalba leaf. From this study, it can be concluded that, Basellaalba possesses a good anti-inflammatory activity. In the cotton pellet induced inflammation and In the carrageenan induced inflammation the animals treated with the plant extract have been shown a significant activity at 500 mg/kg dose (p<0.001) which was comparable with the standard drug. In view of the percentage inhibition also the plant was studied, in which the plant extract was found effective. The antibacterial activity was carried out using different dilutions of methanolic extract against gram positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilus) and gram negative ones (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by the cup-plate assay method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The different concentrations of extract showed moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtiliswhile weak response against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichiacoli. The minimum inhibitory concentration of methanolic extract was 6.25μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillussubtilus and 12.5 μg/ml against Escherichia coli. The overall result of this study indicates that the methanolic extract of Basellaalba have interesting anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 14 (5): 650-655, 2013
ISSN 1990-9233
© IDOSI Publications, 2013
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.14.5.71225
Corresponding Author: Wan mohdAzizi wan Sulaiman, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy,
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota,
25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Tel: +60179363729.
650
An Overview on Phytochemical, Anti-Inflammatory and
Anti-Bacterial Activity of Basella alba Leaves Extract
A.K. Azad, W.S. Wan Azizi, Z.M. Babar, Zubair Khalid Labu and S. Zabin
11 1 2 3
Department of Basic Medical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy,
1
International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah,
Bandar Indera Mahkota 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, 3/A,
2
Road # 4, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology,
3
University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Abastract: Inflammation is the complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as
pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. In the present investigation an attempt was made to screen the
anti-inflammatory activity of Basellaalba leaf. From this study, it can be concluded that, Basellaalba
possesses a good anti-inflammatory activity. In the cotton pellet induced inflammation and In the carrageenan
induced inflammation the animals treated with the plant extract have been shown a significant activity at 500
mg/kg dose (p<0.001) which was comparable with the standard drug. In view of the percentage inhibition also
the plant was studied, in which the plant extract was found effective. The antibacterial activity was carried out
using different dilutions of methanolic extract against gram positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus,
Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilus) and gram negative ones (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by the cup-plate
assay method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The different concentrations of extract showed
moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtiliswhile weak response against
Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichiacoli. The minimum inhibitory concentration of
methanolic extract was 6.25µg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Bacillussubtilus and 12.5 µg/ml against Escherichia coli. The overall result of this study
indicates that the methanolic extract of Basellaalba have interesting anti-inflammatory and antibacterial
properties.
Key words: Antibacterial Activity Inflammation Basellaalba Cotton Pellet Granuloma
Carrageenan Phenyl Butazone
INTRODUCTION commonly has known as “Poi (Hindi), Potaki (Sanskrit)
Medicinal plant is defined as any substance with one cultivated, cool season vegetable with climbing growth
or more of its organ containing properties that can be habit. It is a succulent, branched, smooth, twining
used for therapeutic purposes or which can be used as herbaceous vine, several meters in length. Stems are
precursors for the synthesis of various drugs [1]. purplish or green. Leaves are fleshy, ovate or
Medicinal plants contain numerous biologically heart-shaped, 5 to 12 cm long, stalked, tapering to a
active compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, pointed tip with a cordate base. Spikes are axillary,
enzymes, fats and oils, minerals, vitamins, alkaloids, solitary, 5-29 cm long. Fruit is fleshy, stalk less, ovoid or
quinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, sterols, spherical, 5-6 mm long and purple when mature. Mainly
simple phenolic glycosides, tannins, saponins, leaves and stems are used for the medicinal purpose [2].
polyphenols etc. Basellaalba L., (Basellaceae) Taxonomy of the plant is.
and poi shak (Bengali) [1]. Basellaalbais a wildly
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 14 (5): 650-655, 2013
651
Kingdom: Plantae used as a coloring agent in pasteries and sweets [12]
Phylum: Magnoliophyta women, coughs, cold (leaf with stem), cold related
Class: Magnoliopsida pelvic inflammatory disease, orchitis, epididymytis,
Order: Caryophyllales in constipation, poultice for sores, urticaria and
Family: Basellaceae intestinal complaints etc [15]. The mucilaginous liquid
Genus: Basella popular remedyfor headaches [16]. In the present
Species: Alba inflammatory activity of Basella alba leaf in
The present study is focused towards compiling the
ethanobotanical and scientific importance of above MATERIALS AND METHODS
mentioned plant. India, due to its geographical and
environmental positioning has traditionally been a good Preparation of Extract: The dried and ground plant
source for such products among the Asian countries. material (1.0 kg) was first defatted with petroleum ether
In Ayurveda, it is used for hemorrhages, skin diseases, and then successively extracted with methanol using
sexual weakness and ulcers and as laxative in childrenand Soxhlet apparatus for 12 hours and filtered to yield the
pregnant women. The plant is febrifuge, its juice is a safe extract [1, 2, 6]. The extract was then concentrated in
aperient for pregnant women and a decoction has been Rotavapour and finally dried to a constant weight.
used to alleviate labour. It is also an astringent and The extract obtained was stored in a refrigerator at 4°C
the cooked roots are used in the treatment of diarrhea. until use. The dried extract was used for the evaluation of
The leaf juice is a demulcent, used in cases of dysentery cytotoxic and antibacterial activity [5, 9, 12, 14].
[3]. This plant serves as a Thai traditional vegetable.
The fruit provides dark violet color for food colorant. Phytochemical Screening: The phytochemical screening
Basellamucilage has been used in Thai traditional of the prepared plant extract was carried out by chemical,
medicine as topical application for irritant, bruise, thin-layer chromatography and spectroscopic methods.
ringworm and laboring. Stem and leaves are used as mild The Phytochemical examination of the both extracts was
laxative, diuretic and antipyretic [4]. In India, it has been performed by the standard methods [19] and shows the
used for antipruritic and burn [5] and has been used presence of various phytochemical constituents tabulated
in Bangladesh for acne and freckle treatment [6]. in Table-2.
The tracking of phyto constituents is important step
which lead to isolation of biologically active compounds Phytochemical Group Analysis: The testing of different
[7]. The Ayurveda treatment in India has been used chemical groups present in extract represents the
B. albaleaves and stem for anticancer such as melanoma, preliminary phytochemical studies. The chemical group
leukemia and oral cancer [8]. Root and leaves has been test which are perform as follows. In each test 10% (w/v)
used for the removal of after birth, stomach pains and solution of extract in methanol was taken unless otherwise
increase milk production [9]. Basellaalba is administered mentioned in individual test. The following tests were
orally for the treatment of anal prolapsed or hernia. performed of identifying different chemical groups.
Ground leaves of Basellaalbaare rubbed on the human
hand to introduce the whole preparation into the animal Tests for Alkaloids
vagina every morning for the treatment of sterility [10] Mayer’s Test: 2ml solution of the extract and 0.2 ml of
The leaf juice is used in Nepal to treat dysentery, catarrh dilute di-hydrochloric acid were taken in a test tube.
and applied externally to treat boils. The mucilaginous Then 1ml of Mayer’s reagent was dissolved. Yellow color
qualities of the plant make it an excellent thickening agent precipitate was formed and that was indicated as the
in soups, stews, etc [11]. The purplish sap from fruits is presence of alkaloids [20].
Basellaalbahas been used for the treatment of Anemia in
infections [13]. Maceration is taken orally for infertility,
threatened abortion, spurious labour [14]. Leaves are used
gonorrhea. It is also used in poultice local swellings,
obtained from the leaves and tender stalks of plants is
investigation an attempt was made to screen the anti-
experimentally induced inflammations in rats [17, 18].
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 14 (5): 650-655, 2013
652
Table 1: Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves extracts of Basellaalba L.
S.NO Groups Concentration(µg/ml) (% protection Mean ± S.E.M [N=6]
1. Control - -
2. M.E.B.A 200 57.10 ±2.18**
400 68.38±1.18**
3. A.E.B.A 200 58.46 ±1.61**
400 71.89 ±1.22
4. Standard 50 70.17 ±0.22***
100 83.54 ±0.61***
The results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M [n=6].
Dragendroff’s Test: 2ml solution of the extract and citrate, 0.5% citric acid and 0.42% NaCl) and centrifuged
0.2ml of dilute hydrochloric acid were taken in a test at 3,000 rpm. The packed cells were washed with isosaline
tube. Then 1ml of Dragendroff; s reagent was added. and a 10% suspension was made. Various concentrations
Orange brown precipitate was formed and that was of extracts were prepared (200 and 400 µg/ml) using
indicated as the presence of alkaloids [21]. distilled water and to each concentration 1 ml of
Tests for Tannins suspension were added. It was incubated at 37°C for 30
Ferric Chloride Test: 5ml solution of the extract was min and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 20min. and the
taken in a test tube. Then 1ml of 5% ferric chloride hemoglobin content of the supernatant solution was
solution was added. Greenish black precipitate was estimated spectrophotometrically at 560nm. Diclofenac
formed and indicated the presence of tannins [22]. (100 and 200 µg/ml was used as reference standard and a
Test for Flavonoids: Added a few drops of concentrated
hydrochloride acid to a small amount of an alcoholic Antibacterial Studies: The methanolic extract was
extract of the plant material. Immediate development of a dissolved in 10% aq. DMSO to obtain the different
red color indicates the presence of Flavonoids [23]. concentrations (10 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 100
Tests for Saponins: 1ml solution of the extract was dilute (solvent control). Ciprofloxacin was used as positive
with water to 20ml and shaken in a graduated cylinder for reference standard having a concentration of 5µg/ml for
15minutes. No one-centimeter layer of foamindicates the all bacterial strains [14, 18].
absence of saponins. Following reagents are used for
different chemical group test [24]. Microbial Strains and Culture Media
Test for Mucilage: 0.5gm of mucilage was hydrolyzed bacteria were procured from the Microbial Type Culture
with 50ml of 0.1N sulphuric acid. The solution was Collection (MTCC, IMTECH), Institute of Microbial
neutralized using barium carbonate and filtered. Technology, Chandigarh and were tested: Pseudomonas
The filterate was concentrated and subjected to thin aeruginosa (MTCC 1688), Staphylococcus
layer chromatography on silica gel G plate (Merck). aureus(MTCC 737), Bacillussubtilis(MTCC 441),
Mobile phase were used n-butanol, ethanol and water Micrococcus luteus (MTCC 106), Escherichia coli
(10:2:2) resp. The spots were visualized with aniline (MTCC 443) [20]. All the strains were stored at freeze
phthalate reagent as dark brown spot [25]. temperature until use. Nutrient agar (NA, Himedia)
In-vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bacillus species, while NA was used for other bacteria.
The Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) Membrane
Stabilization Method: The blood was collected from
healthy human volunteer who had not taken any NSAIDS
for 2 weeks prior to the experiment and mixed with equal
volume of Alseversolution (2%dextrose, 0.8% sodium
phosphate buffer, 2 ml hyposaline and 0.5 ml of HRBC
control was prepared by omitting the extracts [26].
mg/ml). 10% aq. DMSO was used as negative control
Microbial Strains and Culture Media: Four strains of
containing bromocresol purple was used for the activation
The Agar well diffusion method was used in sensitivity
assay. Nutrient broth was used for MIC determination.
The culture plates were incubated at 37°C for 24hr [27, 28]
h and the zones of inhibition measured in diameter
(mm).
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 14 (5): 650-655, 2013
653
Table 2: Preliminary Phytochemical screening of M.E. and A.E. of leaves of Basellaalba(L.)
S. No Nameof the test constituents Reagent/Methods adopted Methanolic extracts of Basella alba Aqueous extracts of Basella alba
1 Alkaloids Picric acid + _
Dragendroffs + _
reagents + _
Mayer’s reagents + +
2 Carbohydrates Molish test +
Fehling’s test +
Benedicts test +
3 Tannins Ferric chloride test _ +
4 Flavonoids Shinoda test + +
5 Mucilage Ruthenium red _ +
6 Saponin Heamolysis test + +
“+”=Presence, “_”=Absence
Table 3: Antibacterial activity of BAE on various strains
Cup Plate method (Inhibition Zone, mm)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Extracts Conc. (Mg/ml) S.A M.L B.S P.A E.coli
Basella albaExtract 10 _ _ 3.32±0.28 5.3±0.058 _
25
50 5.0±0.1 3.3±0.058 6.02±0.036 10.7±0.12 4.0±0.1
100 10.3±0.058 7.7±0.12 13.67±0.058 15.1±0.1 7.7±0.058
16.3±0.058 10.7±0.12 21.02±0.1 22.2±0.1 15.3±0.058
Ciprofloxacin 5µg/ml 26±0.051 14±0.068 32±0.024 25±0.035 22±0.056
Mean ± S.D. (n=3), P. A. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa,E. coli - Escherichia coli;S. A. -Staphylococcus aureus, M. L. - Micrococcus luteus, B. S. - Bacillus
subtilus “_” Sign shows no zone of inhibition.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION anti-inflammatory activity. An anti-inflammatory activity
The present results provide evidence that the Table 1.
extracts of Basella alba contains substances with Anyway, further studies are necessary to isolate
anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity and, andcharacterize the active constituents of the plant to
therefore, suggest that the traditional use of this evaluate their modes of action and render this species
plant for the treatment of diarrhoea and anti- interesting for future research.In the present work a
inflammatory properties can be linked to cytotoxic and humble attempt was made to detect, by using various
antibacterial properties. The results are reported in standard qualitative chemical tests, the presence of
Table 1. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate, reported compounds and to look for possible presence of
methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of other chemical constituents in the root and stem bark of
Basellaalba L.were studied for in vitro anti-inflammatory the Basellaalba (L.). The phytochemical screening of the
activity by HRBC membrane stabilization method. extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids,
The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts Carbohydrate, Saponin in Methanolic extracts and and
were concentration dependent, with the increasing tannin, mucilage, saponnin and Carbohydrate are present
concentration, the activity is also increased. in aqueous extracts. The phytochemical studied results
Among both the extracts, aqueous extract at a are reported in Table 2.
concentration of 400 µg/ml showed 71.89% protection Methanolic extract was screened for antibacterial
of HRBC in hypotonic solution. All the results activity. The different concentrations of extract showed
were compared with standard Diclofenacwhich moderate activity against Pseudomonasaeruginosa,
showed 83.54 % protection. Aqueous extract showed Bacillus subtiliswhile weak response against
significant in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity as Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcusluteus and
compared to standard. The aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli [Table 3]. The results of different
significant anti-inflammatory activity (71.89 %) at the concentrations of extract were correlated with standard
dose of 400 µg/ml. On the basis of the above results it drug and activity was found to be dose dependent
can be concluded that the Basellaalba L. have an against all bacteria.
of leaves extracts of Basellaalba Lis given bellow in
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 14 (5): 650-655, 2013
654
Table 4: The MIC values of BAE on various bacterial strains
Serial dilution (µg/ml)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Microorganisms 50 25 12.5 6.5 3.12 1.56
Staphylococcus aureus _ __ _ + +
Micrococcus luteus _ __ _ + +
Pseudomonas aeruginosa _ __ _ + +
Bacillus subtilus _ __ _ + +
Escherichia coli _ __ + + +
“-”No growth; “+” Growth; Stock solution = 100µg/ml
The minimum inhibitory concentration of methanolic 4. Chou, C.T., 1997. The anti-inflammatory effect of
extract against bacterialstrains was found to be 6.25 µg/ml TripterygiumwilfordiiHook F on adjuvant-induced
for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, paw edema in rats and inflammatorymediators release.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilusand 12.5 Phytother Res., 11: 152-154.
µg/ml for Escherichia coli (Table 4) which clearly 5. Saikia, A.P., V.K. Ryakala, P. Sharma, P. Goswami and
indicates its strong inhibition potential. U. Bora, 2006. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used
CONCLUTION cosmetics. J. Ethnopharmacol., 106: 149-157.
From the above obtained results, it can be concluded S.H.C. Mohammad and S.S. Sanjay, 2008. A review on
that the extract of Basellaalbashows a significant the use of non-timber forest products in beauty-care
anti-inflammatory activity which was demonstrated in Bangladesh. J. Forestry Res., 19: 72-78.
in above methods which it can be under stood that 7. Beikmohammadi, M., 2011. Ethno Pharmacology and
Basella alba showing a dose depending activity. It can the Investigation of the Most Important Secondary
be stated that, Basellaalbawill promise a significant and Materials and the Comparison of Chemical
effective an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agent Combinations of Essential Oil of Different
in future. Organs. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research.,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 8. Premalatha, B. and G. Rajgopal, 2005. Cancer-an
At the very beginning all gratefulness to almighty 9. Pascaline, J., M. Charles, O. George, C. Lukhoba,
creator “Allah” who has enabled me to complete this L.N. Ruth and D.M. Solomon, 2010. Ethnobotanical
studies soundly. It my immense pleasure for me to express survey and propagation of some endangered
my deepest sense of gratitude to my honorable brother medicinal plants from south Nandi district of Kenya.
Mohammad JakirHossain Khan, Dept. of Chemical Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences,
Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603Kuala Lumpur, 8(3): 1016-1043.
Malaysia for his constant encouragement, untiring efforts, 10. Chifundera, K., 1998. Livestock diseases and the
sympathetic advice and thoughtful suggestions. traditional medicine In the Bushi area, Kivu province,
REFERENCES Monographs, 19(1): 13-3.
1. Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal Plants and traditional 2011. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali
medicines in Africa.2nd Edn.Karthala Ibadan Nigeria. mucilage (Basellaalba) as tablet binder. IJGP;
2. Adhikari, R., H.N. Naveen Kumar and S.D. Shruthi, 5(1): 24-27.
2012. A Review on Medicinal Importance of 12. Taraghi,Z., H.D. Khezri, A.G. Baradari, M.A.H. Gorji,
Basellaalba L. International Journal of Pharmaceutical A. Sharifpour and M. Ahanjan, 2011. Evaluation of
Sciences and Drug Research, 4(2). the Antibacterial Effect of Persica® Mouthwash in
3. Smith, G.R. and Sotiris Missailidis, 2004. Cancer, Mechanically Ventilated Icu Patients: A Double Blind
inflammation and the AT1 and AT2 receptors.Journal Randomized Clinical Tria. Middle-East Journal of
of Inflammation. 1:3, 10.1186/1476-9255-1-3. Scientific Research, 10(5): 631-637.
by Assamese people for various skin ailments and
6. Akhter, S., H. Abdul, I.S. Shawkat, K.S. Swapan,
9(4): 486-495.
ayurvedic perspective.Pharmacol Res., 51: 19-30.
democratic Republic of Congo. African Study
11. Ramu, G., G. Krishna Mohan and K.N. Jayaveera,
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 14 (5): 650-655, 2013
655
13. Rahmatullah, M., A. Rahman, Z. Haque, A.H. Mollik, 21. Wafaa, A., S. Tawfik, Nahla Abdel-Azim, Abdel-Aaty
Z.U.M. Emdad UllahMiajee, R. Begum, M. Rahman, A. Shahat, Nahed M. Hassan, Shams I. Ismail and
D. Nasrin, S. Seraj, A.R. Chowdhury, Z. Khatun and M. Faiza Hammouda, 2009. Chemical Investigation of
A. Khatun, 2010. A Survey of Medicinal Plants used Opuntia tuna Mill Growing in Egypt, Aust. J. Basic
by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of Station Purbo Para and Appl. Sci., 3(1): 96-102.
Village of JamalpurSadarUpazila in Jamalpur district, 22. Heinrichs, J., T. Pröschold, C. Renker, H. Groth and
Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of D.S. Rycroft, 2002. Plagiochilavirginica A. Evans
Sustainable Agriculture, 4(2): 122-135. rather than P. dubiaLindenb. and Gottsche occurs
14. Focho, D.A., E.A.P. Nkeng, C.F. Lucha, W.T. Ndam in Macaronesia; placement in sect. Contiguae Carl is
and A. Afegenui, 2009. Ethnobotanical survey of supported by ITS sequences of nuclear
plants used to treat diseases of the reproductive ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution,
system and preliminary phytochemical screening of 230(3): 221-230.
some species of malvaceae in Ndop Central 23. Sofowara, A., 1982. Medicinal Plants and traditional
Sub-division, Cameroon. Journal of Medicinal Plants Medicinal in Africa, JohnWilley and Sons Ltd., New
Research, 3(4): 301-3141. York, pp: 6.
15. Yasmin, H., M.A. Kaiser, M.M. Rahman, 24. Chitravadivu, C., M. Bhoopathi, T. Elavazhagan,
M.S. Rahman and M.A. Rashid, 2009. Preliminary S. Jayakumar and V. Balakrishnan, 2009. Screening of
antibacterial activity of some indigenous plants. antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant oils prepared
The Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical by herbal venders, South India. Middle-East Journal
Sciences, 8: 61-66. of Scientific Research, 4(2): 115-117.
16. Jadhav, V.D., S.D. Mahadkar and S.R. Valvi, 2011. 25. Singh, Popinder, 2010. Studies on mucilage of
Documentation and ethnobotanical survey of wild Basellaalba Linn. Journal of Pharmacy Research,
edible plants from Kolhapur District. Recent Research 3(8): 1892-1894.
in Science and Technology, 3(12): 58-63. 26. Sushila, R., A. Deepti, R. Permender, T. Madhavi,
17. Rodda, R., A. Kota, T. Sindhuri, S.A. Kumar and R. Dharmender and D. Rathee, 2010. Cytotoxic and
K. Gnananath, 2012. Investigation on anti- Antibacterial Activity of Basella Alba Whole Plant: A
inflammatory property of Basellaalba Linn leaf extract. Relatively Unexplored Plant. Pharmacologyonline,
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical 3: 651-658.
Sciences, 4(1): 452-454. 27. Orisakeye, O.T. and T.A. Olugbade, 2012. Studies on
18. Kokate, C.K., 2004. Practical Pharmacognosy. Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Analysis
Published by NiraliPrakashan New Delhi., 29: 107. of the Plant Sterculiatragacanthalindl. Middle-East
19. Kumar, V., Z.A. Bhat, D. Kumar, P. Bohra and Journal of Scientific Research, 11(7): 924-927.
S. Sheela, 2011. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of 28. Darsanaki, R.K., M.L. Rokhi, M.A. Aliabadi and
leaf extracts of Basellaalbalinn. var. alba. Int. J. K. Issazadeh, 2012. Antimicrobial Activities of
Drug. Dev. and Res., 3(2): 124-127. Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fresh
20. Mayer, S., 1982. N. Readers Digest. 121(723): 124-125. Vegetables. Middle-East Journal of Scientific
Research, 11(9): 1216-1219.
... Traditional medicine is the core of modern medicine [1][2][3][4]. From an ancient era to till, people are frequently using natural remedies for each and every diseases while they are facing old or new health problem or other illness [5][6][7][8]. Murray koenigii (L.)Spreng., is a member of Rutaceae family known as 'Curry leaves' or 'Meethineem'native to India has been proved to show diverse biological activities against neurodegeneration. It is an aromatic, more or less deciduous shrub or a small tree having a maximum height of up to 6 m with a trunk up to 40 cm in diameter. ...
... Another study with total alkaloidal extracts of M .koenigii leaves in doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg p.o. found increased values of protective antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase (GPX), reduced glutathione ( GSH), glutathione reductase (GRD), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in brain homogenate [5, 27]. It also demonstrated that M.koenigii leaves extract could reduce lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) that produces an oxidation product called peroxynitrite. ...
... It also demonstrated that M.koenigii leaves extract could reduce lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) that produces an oxidation product called peroxynitrite. The previous study also found that there was an increase in the acetylcholine (Ach) levels and decrease in the anticholinesterase (AchE) activity [5, 20]. Besides reducing brain cholinesterase activity, M.koenigii extracts significantly improved cognitive functions as evidenced by the significant increase in the memory scores of young and aged mice while the extracts reserved the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) and diazepam (1 gm/kg i.p.).It was also proved that ethanolic extract of M.koenigii resulted in increase in grip strength of STZ-induced diabetic rats which developed neuropathy at 9 th single injection. ...
Article
Full-text available
This current review is precisely aimed to focus the traditional uses and the significance of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng leaves in preventing CNS disorders. This review was done based on the scientific literature, traditional uses and herbal treatment which were collected from the existence database, google scholar, pubmed, science direct and scopus. Based on this review, Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng leaves has strong effect on CNS disorder, antioxidant activity, neuroprotective effects, anti-inflammatory and analgesic property etc. However, scientist should give more concentrate with this plant leaves due to the presence of its high concentrate of different phytochemical groups. Therefore, It could be the main source of crude medicine for future generation to solve the current issue like CNS disorders, cancer and HIVs. This current reviewed, recommended looking more effective bioactive compounds and its potential preclinical trial.
... The ethanol extract was concentrated in vacuo (temperature at 45 °C, 175mbar and rotation 80-85rpm) using a rotary vacuum evaporator (BUCHI R-205) to a final corrected volume of 500 ml. This was further frozen at −70 °C and shifted instantly to three weeks successive freeze drying at −50 °C using bench top freeze dryer (ALPHA 1-4LD-2), to give a ultimate yield [10][11] ...
... The ethanol extract was concentrated in vacuo (temperature at 45 °C, 175mbar and rotation 80-85rpm) using a rotary vacuum evaporator (BUCHI R-205) to a final corrected volume of 500 ml. This was further frozen at −70 °C and shifted instantly to three weeks successive freeze drying at −50 °C using bench top freeze dryer (ALPHA 1-4LD-2), to give a ultimate yield [10][11] Experimental . The control group received normal saline (2 mL/kg body weight p.o.) while other groups received 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg of the test extract orally. ...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the toxicity impact of ethanol concentrates of Banaba. This study utilized as a part of vivo methodologies. Harmfulness of Banaba concentrates was assessing through in vivo with diverse dosages. Thirty male grown-up Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks) measuring (180 to 200gm) separated into Control group I (Control-10% ordinary saline) and Treatment groups (500, 1000,2000 and 3000 mg/kg), n=6 for every gathering individually. The Banaba concentrates was offered orally to every rodent and disregard at 4 and 6 hourly for any physical change. In vivo biochemical analysis for the treated animal' serum qualities were like control animal. Histological results demonstrated no periportal rot of the hepatocytes and no aggravation of lymphocytes and macrophages in both gatherings. No distinction was found in glomeruli or some other section of kidney tubules to that of control typical rats. Discoveries of the present study propose the Banaba are non-dangerous and suitable for further study.
... Sravan Kumar et al., 2015). Basella alba have potential antibacterial and anticancer properties as the methanolic extract has signi cant growth inhibition on human cancer cell lines and a signi cant zone of inhibition for microbes studied (Azad et al., 2013; Olaniran Adegoke, 2017; Sushila et al., 2010). Basella alba (74 mg) had high vitamin C than B. rubra (67 mg) in 100g of fresh leaves (Kumar et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Basella rubra L. is a type of spinach, which is edible with high nutrient composition. It is also known to be an antioxidant. However, initial germination and root growth remain an issue due to hard exterior seed coating. Thus, some may germinate within 10 to 21 days, and some may not work at all. Inhibited growth may lead to vegetative propagation and micropropagation, which fundamentally reduce the growth and yield. Basella seed treated with Bokashi leachate was found to improve seed germination and root growth. A study was conducted using food waste EM Bokashi leachate (0:1, 1:1500, 1:1000, 1:500) with biopriming duration (6 and 12 hours). The experiment was conducted in a completely random design (CRD) with 3 replications of 100 seeds, with 24 experimental units. Based on the results, a short biopriming duration (6 hours) significantly enhanced the mean germination rate, germination speed accumulated, and coefficient of germination velocity. However, germination percentage had no significant improvement by leachate. Long priming duration significantly reduced the root development due to the seed may loss of desiccation tolerance. The concentration of leachate and priming duration had no significant interaction. In order to improve the germination and root growth performance, 6 hours of seeds priming duration or 1:500 (0.2%) of food waste Bokashi leachate was recommended to soak the Basella rubra seeds.
... The plant extract has been shown a significant activity at 500 mg/kg dose (p<0.001) which was comparable with the standard drug. It can be concluded that Basellaalba possesses a good anti-inflammatory activity [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation is a protective mechanism of the body which involves vascular tissues, plasma proteins or cells and chemical mediators for the removal of hazardous stimuli like pathogens, allergens, irritants or cell damage and initiates the healing process. Anti-inflammatory drugs like steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat inflammation. Recently, the synthetic drugs shows a number of side effects such as kidney failure, ulceration and bleeding, liver damage etc. Therefore a search for the other substitute with no or less side effects is necessary. Plants are used from ancient times to treat various serious disorders. Plant constitutes a large number of chemicals which are responsible for the treatment of disease in an archaistic manner. The present review was pile up various plants with anti-inflammatory potential.
... [10] The mucilage present in B. alba has been credited with hypoglycaemic activity. [11] It also possess CNS depressant activity, gastro protective activity, [12,13] anti-inflammatory activity, [14,15] membrane stabilization property in human blood cell membrane, [16] antibacterial activity, [17] wound healing and anti-ulcer activity. [18,19] B. alba is consumed in food preparations in southern India. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. Results Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. Conclusion The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda.
... There are many natural extracts like plant extract, herbal extract, animal extract and yeast extract [1][2][3][4] that can be used as the active ingredients in cosmetic products [5][6][7]. Natural phytochemicals have been reported to possess a wide range of biological activities [8][9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe Vera as skin moisturizer as measured by Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) and hydration value. The Dermalab®Combo was used to determine the efficacy of skin cosmetic products. Fifteen subjects were divided into three groups where each group was tested with one type of moisturizer product available in the local market. The TEWL and Hydration level of the subjects were measured before they were treated with the products as the baseline reading and after 3 weeks applying the products twice daily on the left forearm. The TEWL and Hydration levels were increased after 3 weeks for both side but the percentage increment of TEWL on the test side was lower than control side. Meanwhile, the percentage increment of Hydration level was higher on the test side compare to the control side. From the results, it is clear that Aloe Vera is effective for skin care treatment. In conclusion, it can be used asingredient to improve skin barrier function for different skin care products formulations. © 2016, SILAE (Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine). All rights reserved.
... Hassan, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia and deposited in the Herbarium, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia (Voucher specimen No.: PIIUM 0230). The mesocarp and pericarp of the fruits were sliced and dried in a normal room temperature at 25 °C for 10 days, then it was pulverized to powdered form (713 g) using FRITSCH Universal Cutting Mill-PULVERISETTE 19, Germany, and kept in at 4 °C until further use [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits extracts. Methods: The cytotoxicity test was carried out by in vitro MCF-7 cell line and in vivo brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: The preliminary phytochemical test showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycosides, saponin, terpene, steroids, phenols and flavonoids. The MTT-assay results showed that the highest percentage of cell viability was 106.23% at concentration of 1.25 µL and the lowest percentage was 13.04% at concentration of 10 µL. Conclusions: The MTT-assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay results showed that the extract was non-toxic and it would be consumable as a herbal remedy.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This particular study aims to investigate the effect of mineral oil in different products on the barrier function of normal skin, as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and hydration. In this study, 15 female Methods: volunteers were divided into three groups, which corresponded with three different brands of moisturizers. The volunteers were treated with one test preparation on one volar forearm twice daily for 3 weeks, while leaving the other forearm untreated to serve as the control. After 3 weeks, both volar forearms, treated and control, were assessed for the measurement of TEWL and hydration by using DermaLab® Combo, and the readings were compared to the baseline. Results: Changes were observed after 3 weeks treatment of mineral oil-based moisturizers, in which both TEWL and hydration increased for both control and test sides, but the percentage of increment was lower than that observed with test side. TEWL Moisturizers influence the skin barrier function of normal skin, as measured by TEWL and hydration. readings of all subjects for all the three types of products increased significantly from the baseline This . Conclusions: results shows that the side treated with mineral-oil based moisturizers were able to promote greater degree of skin hydration compared to the untreated side. Keywords: DermaLab®, Dehydration, Moisturizer, Trans Epidermal Water Loss.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This particular study aims to investigate the effect of different local antiageing products on the barrier function of normal skin, as measured by quality of skin elasticity. Methods: The elasticity probe of DermaLab® Combo Series assesses the effectiveness of three local anti-aging products by measuring the pressure needed for the suction pump to elevate skin. In this study, 15 female volunteers were divided into three groups, which corresponded with three different brands of moisturizers. The volunteers were treated with one test preparation on one volar forearm twice daily for 4 weeks, while leaving the other forearm untreated to serve as the control. After 4 weeks, both volar forearms, treated and control, were assessed for the measurement of skin elasticity by using DermaLab® Combo, and the readings were compared to the baseline. Results: Brand B shows the greatest percent increase in skin elasticity with the value of 96.44%, followed by Brand C (95.16%) and Brand A (39.02%). The result implies that Brand B gives the best anti-aging effect to the consumers regardless of subject compliance. This is relatively acceptable since the difference in percentage increase of skin elasticity between the highest reading and the lowest reading is near to each other except for Subject B1. The result portrayed by Subject B1 reflects his compliance problem during product application phase as mentioned during final skin assessment. In case of Brand C, a large gap is seen between the highest (468.8%) and the lowest (-26.5%) percentage increase in skin elasticity. Conclusions: The application of seaweed-containing antiaging products leads to improvement in skin elasticity as measured by DermaLab® Combo Series. Keywords: DermaLab®, Skin, Elasticity, Seaweed, Antiageing
Article
Women, especially in the marginalized communities of the high-risk regions prone to flood and drought are considered most vulnerable to climate change risks. They play a very important role in household nutrition management and resource management in terms of labor, off-farm products, and small savings. In the absence of help from formal and informal R and D and technology institutions, their knowledge and resources’ exchange system has to be very robust to cope with the seasonal shortages arising due to climate fluctuations. The study found that these exchanges, spilling over caste or class boundaries, serve as valuable informal safety nets and contribute to household resilience. Researchers seeking to strengthen community coping strategies should pursue such polices and institutional interventions which strengthen women's resource exchange and exploitation mechanisms. We offer in the end a 4-E model involving exchange, expertise, ethics, and environmental consciousness which describes how these empower women and help in articulation of their unique coping strength at intra- and inert-community levels. Lateral learning among community members sustains and enhances over time collective and household coping strategies with climate risks.
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants play a prominent role in the new era of medicine. Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well as in the traditional system of India. Inflammation is the complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The plant under investigation, Basella alba is called as Malabar climbing, puli shak,valchi baji, bachhali. In the present investigation an attempt was made to screen the anti inflammatory activity of Basella alba leaf in experimentally induced inflammations in rats. The aim was met by two methods, one is carrageenan induced paw edema and another is cotton pellet granuloma. Basella alba extract showed a significant activity at a dose of 500 mg/kg. From our study, it can be concluded that, Basella alba possesses a good anti inflammatory activity.
Article
Full-text available
Ethnobotanical investigations and chemosystematic analyses of plants were carried out in Ndop Central Sub-division to identify medicinal plants that treat diseases of the reproductive system and to know the characteristic compounds in the family Malvaceae that have chemotaxonomic value. A total of 88 plant species belonging to 77 genera and 42 families were sampled treating about 24 different reproductive ailments. Their scientific names, vernacular names, parts used, modes of preparation and administration are presented. Chemical screening involved 8 species and 4 families. From the chemical analyses, alkaloids and phenolic compounds are characteristic compounds of the family Malvaceae indicating that they have chemotaxonomic value in the family. Ecdysterone and ajugasterone are not present in the plants tested, indicating that they are not the characteristic ecdysones in that family.
Article
Full-text available
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been isolated from specific habitats, including dairy products, plants, meat products, sewage, manure, humans and animals. Among LAB members, Lactobacilli as normal flora of gastrointestinal tract have beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial properties of lactobacillus strains isolated from fresh vegetables. For this reason, 80 samples were collected by wet swabs in spring season and were enriched in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth and isolated by growing on MRS agar medium. From 80 samples, as many as 23Gram positive, catalase negative, non spore forming bacilli were isolated in first phase. The samples were tested for tolerance against acidic conditions (pH: 2.5) and bile salts and tolerance samples were identified Lactobacillus plantarum (3 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (2 isolates) and Lactobacillus brevis (1 isolate) produced the highest tolerance against acid and bile salts as well as antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1431, Salmonella typhimurium PTCC 1639 and Escherichia coli PTCC 1399.
Article
Full-text available
This review describes the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) used for different aspects of beauty-care in Bangladesh on the basis of extensive literature survey. The diverse plant species, including used parts and using patterns for hair care, facial treatments and body care, were summarized in 13 tables. This paper accumulate the scattered knowledge regarding the use of plants in beauty-care in Bangladesh, to draw the extent of use of NTFPs in health care and to record the knowledge for assessing the possibilities of further implementation in herbal cosmetics industries. The structured knowledge can be used in policy making process for sustainable management of these valuable NTFPs leading to the conservation of the country’s biological diversity. It is suggested that intensive field level research is necessary for securing sustainability of NTFPs.
Article
The ethanobotanical properties of Basella alba have been reviewed in this article. Various parts of the plant are used for treatment of the diseases as well as for different healing activities of human beings as well as animals across the globe especially in India and China. Its use has been discovered as asperient, rubefacient and for catarrhl infections. Some of the compounds available especially in the plant are basellasaponins, kaempherol, betalin, etc. Several extracts like aqueous, chloroform, ethanol and petroleum has been used for different pharmaceutical activities.
Article
Basella alba leaf mucilage was investigated as a binder in paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Mucilage at four levels (concentrations of mucilage binders: 4, i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w) were studied. No significant work has been reported to use it as a tablet binder. The evaluation of granules showed 0.62 to 0.76 mm granule size, 2847' to 3027' angle of repose and 31.57 to 23.45% fines. Moisture content of the different granulations was less than 1%. The tablets were prepared and evaluated for average weight and weight variation, thickness, content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro dissolution profiles. All the batches of tablets exhibited good uniformity in content. The hardness was within the range of 4.5 to 5.5 kg/cm 2. The hardness was increased and friability decreased with the increasing concentration of binding agent. The disintegration time also increased with increasing binder concentrations. The evaluation of tablet showed 0.434 to 0.410% friability, 9 to 18 minutes disintegration time and the drug release was more than 70% in 60 minutes. Tablets at 7.5% w/w binder concentration showed more optimum results as tablet binder. The B. alba mucilage was found to be good as a binder to paracetamol tablets.
Article
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F(TWH), commonly known as the Thunder-God-Vine, is a popular remedy for rheumatism in southern China. In this study, we investigated the effect of T2 (an extract from TWH) on adjuvant-induced paw oedema in rats and inflammatory mediators. The results showed that an intraperitoneal injection of T2 could significantly decrease the adjuvant-induced paw oedema of rats. During in vitro study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human mononuclear prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the culture supernatant was significantly inhibited by T2 at a concentration of 2 μg/mL compared with the control group without T2 treatment (22352±4725 vs 43433±9014 pg/mL, p
Article
 Plagiochila dubia Lindenb. & Gottsche is reduced to a synonym of the Neotropical P. patula (Sw.) Lindenb. Specimens from the Canary Islands and Madeira proved to belong to the eastern North American P. virginica A.Evans, new to Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA of ten Plagiochila species produced four independent lineages that are well supported by all bootstrap analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and distance). These lineages correspond with the Plagiochila sections Arrectae, Contiguae, Cucullatae and Glaucescentes. Spruce's “Ramiflorae” and “Cauliflorae” may no longer be regarded as monophyletic units of Plagiochila.