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Autonomous Maintenance: A Case Study on Assela Malt Factory

  • M.S. Ramiah university of applied sciences
Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2014 170
ISSN 2277-5056 | © 2014 Bonfring
Purpose: M/S Assela Malt Factory (AMF) is the pioneer in
malt supply to the breweries throughout the Ethiopia. The
boiler plant faces machines failures, and rate of failures is
increasing year after year, which affect the production cost.
The important problems of the boiler plant are machine
breakdown, machine idle, production loss, too much
maintenance man hour, high maintenance expenses, and plant
capacity loss. Objective of the research is productivity
improvement through identification of problems in machines
and the improvement of efficiency, employees attitude and
culture of work.Quality in maintenance and the associated
product quality is aimed to be enhanced by application of
Autonomous Maintenance (AM) and set maintenance plan for
the plant.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The study proceeded with
observation, data collection, related literature review;
document analysis, interview, and giving training for the
operators to embark upon 5S implementation at boiler house.
A three steps approach for maintenance and improvement of
the machine were implemented. First to set the cleaning
procedure for the machine and work place, inspection and
check for the cause of breakdown and initiate corrective
action by maintenance, and final to assign the standard plan
for maintenance.
Findings and Originality/Value: This plan has resulted in
remarkable improvements in maximum effectiveness of
equipment, tidier workplace and morally boosted employees.
This project was completed within 18 months and results of
research are following conclusion. Breakdown was decreased
about 46.38% per month. Average capacities were increased
about 8.75% per month. Production capacities were increased
about 4.85% per month. Machine idle was decreased about
8.01per month. Maintenance man-hours were decreased about
22.93% per month. Maintenance expense was decreased from
begin start the project about 64.42%.
Originality/Value: Ethiopian manufacturing industries
needs a grass root level improvement. Implementation of 5S,
TPM, and AM forms the basis for a clear path for growth and
sustainability. The key success factors are identified and
Melesse Workneh Wakjira, Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering
Department, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama City,
Ananth Shalvapulle Iyengar, Assistant Professor, Mechanical and
Vehicle Engineering Department, Adama Science and Technology University,
Adama City, Ethiopia.
DOI: 10.9756/BIJIEMS.10364
reported in this paper and a clear implementation steps are
also provided for an Ethiopian process industry framework.
Keywords--- Assela Malt Factory, Boiler Plant,
Autonomous Plant, Maintenance Plan
N the study of manufacturing engineering and industrial
production, total productive maintenance (TPM), is used to
improve production and reduce the cost of production. TPM is
a concept aimed at significantly increasing the production in a
manufacturing plant, while keeping the machine maintenance
costs low. TPM also ensures high employee job satisfaction
and customer satisfaction. TPM identifies sixteen types of
losses, which fall under the categories of equipment, people,
material and safety and suggests improvements in different
practices in operation of the factory and machines. These
operational practices are also called pillars of TPM. These
pillars are autonomous maintenance, focused maintenance,
planned maintenance, quality maintenance, education and
training, office TPM, development management and safety,
health and environment.
Several factors are responsible for the increased cost and
time delays on the shop floor. A quick look at the literature
clearly states the reasons for such delays. Among these
reasons, machine maintenance is the primary cause of delays,
lower customer satisfaction and poor quality of products. The
losses due to these factors can cause equipment losses and
plant losses. Originally equipment losses were categorized
into six major types, equipment failure, setup and adjustment,
idling and minor stoppages, reduced speed, defects in process,
and reduced yield. [1], [2]Additionally, plant losses can be of
eight important kinds namely, shutdown, production
adjustment, equipment failure, process failure, normal
production loss, abnormal production loss, quality defects, and
reprocessing. [3]These plant losses were further expanded to
sixteen types to include human effectiveness losses such as
management losses, motion losses, arrangement losses, loss
due to lack of automated systems and monitoring and
adjustment losses. [4]
Case studies reported in literature show a coherent set of
improvement techniques are necessary to bring about changes
in the plant. Improvements in overall equipment effectiveness
(OEE) and TPM can reduce the equipment losses. Methods
like statistical process control (SPC), and automated process
control (APC) can lead to an introduction of integrated process
control (IPC) that can improve the quality of product and
reduce plant losses. [5], [6]A new algorithm was reported that
Autonomous Maintenance: A Case Study on Assela
Malt Factory
Melesse Workneh Wakjira and Ananth Shalvapulle Iyengar
Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2014 171
ISSN 2277-5056 | © 2014 Bonfring
enables the estimation of the mean effective process time t (e)
and the coefficient of variation c (e) of a multiple machine
workstation from real data in a semiconductor industry. [7]The
results reported from the simulation further corroborate the
essential points about OEE, TPM and automation and
systematic improvements required in the plant. The
effectiveness and implementation of the TPM program for an
electronics manufacturing company has also been studied and
reported with similar outcomes. [8]Recently, a case study
reported show remarkable improvement in OEE through
lowering the number of fugai (breakdown) in a tool room
organization. [9] An OEE solution can enable manufacturers
to achieve world-class status. More specifically it can provide
benefits in four key areas; equipment (reduced equipment
downtime and maintenance cost, plus better management of
the equipment life cycle), personnel (labor efficiencies and
increased productivity by improving visibility into operations
and empowering operators), (increased productivity by
identifying bottlenecks), and quality (increase rate of quality
and reduce scrap). [10]It is important to understand the causal
factors for such effectiveness losses. Only by eliminating the
causes can a sustainable improvement in effectiveness be
achieved. The causal factors for the loss of effectiveness may
be categorized as:
A single causal factor for the effectiveness loss.
Multiple two or more causal factors combined result
in the effectiveness loss.
Complex the interaction between two or more causal
factors results in the effectiveness loss
Figure 1: Categories of Causal Factors for Loss of Effectiveness
Autonomous maintenance (AM) is one of the pillars of
TPM. It follows a structured approach to machine and process
maintenance, which increases the skill levels of personnel to
understand, manage and improve their equipment and
processes. The operators' role is changed from being reactive
during machine breakdown to a more proactive in machine
maintenance. This facilitates a smoother process flow; achieve
optimal conditions for production of high quality end-product
without delays. The autonomous maintenance also eliminates
minor equipment shutdowns and faster recovery from a
machine breakdown.
To understand the importance of AM, we need to look at
maintenance procedure followed in the early parts of 20th
century. Huge plants were already established after the
industrial revolution, and maintenance was done by dedicated,
highly skilled employees. The machine operators were
expected to wait for the maintenance personnel to rectify
minor breakdowns while they were around the equipment all
of the time. This leads to unnecessary delays and reduction in
productivity. A drastic change had to be brought about by
allowing the machine operators to maintain their machines.
The operators have to first identify insufficient lubrication, air
leaks, increased machine vibrations because of lose nuts and
bolts. The solution to these common problems will be
available with the operator because he is in constant
interaction with the machine.Operator equipment maintenance
is about training operators to care for equipment at the source
so as to ensure that basic equipment conditions (no looseness,
no contamination, perfect lubrication) are established and
maintained. This allows the successful implementation of
planned preventive and predictive maintenance to be
administered by the maintenance department. AM improves
corporate business results and creates pleasant and productive
workplace by changing the way people think about and work
with equipment throughout the factory. AM is one of the most
important basic building blocks maintenance program.
The first stage of operator’s training starts when the he /
she observe the activities of maintenance personnel. Operators
should work closely together with the maintenance personnel,
and they can do this in three ways:
They can alert maintenance people.
They can provide excellent information.
They can perform routine maintenance.
AM is a critical first step of TPM and operators must be
trained to close the information gap between them and the
maintenance staff, making it easier for both to work as one
Effective Losses in the plant
Causal factor
Multiple but simple
Causal factors
Multiple and interlinked
Causal factors (complex)
Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2014 172
ISSN 2277-5056 | © 2014 Bonfring
Steps for AM Implementation
The steps of AM can broadly categorized into three main
1. Training and education,
2. Teamwork,
3. Housekeeping and employee involvement. [11]
The commitment of top management to smoothen the
autonomous maintenance activity should not be
Specifically, the AM activities can be divided into seven
stages as shown below
1. Conduct initial cleaning and inspection
2. Eliminate sources of contamination and inaccessible
3. Develop and test provisional cleaning,
4. Inspection and lubrication up to standards,
5. Conduct general inspections autonomously,
6. Workplace organization and housekeeping, and
7. Fully implement the autonomous maintenance
program. [8]
The above seven steps are implemented to progressively
increase operator’s knowledge, participation and responsibility
for their equipment. The steps start with the initial cleaning
and progresses towards full self-management. Steps 1 to 3
place priority on abolishing environments that cause
accelerated deterioration, reversing deterioration and
establishing and maintaining basic equipment conditions. The
goals of these steps are to get operators interested in their
equipment and help them shake off their self-image as mere
button pushers or switch flickers.
In steps 4 and 5, operators are taught about inspection
procedures. The goals of these steps are to reduce failures and
develop operators who thoroughly understand their equipment.
Last two steps are designed to upgrade autonomous
maintenance and improvement activities by standardizing
systems and methods. The ultimate goal of these steps is a
robust organization and culture in which every workplace is
full of self-management.
Step 1: Performing an initial cleaning and inspection
In a functional production plant the AM starts with the
existing list of daily and weekly inspection tasks. First, a
cleaning procedure for each work station and the whole
production line is setup. The maintenance work is helped by
the maintenance personnel. Effort is made toeliminate dust
and dirt from the main body of the equipment.Common minor
defects and breakdown causes areexposed to the maintenance
personnel. Care is taken to reach the inaccessible places for
cleaning and contamination sources are reduced or eliminated.
Unnecessary and seldom used items are placed in suitable
places and simplify the equipment operation area. The AM
initial clean is part of the early AM training and is performed
by a small team that includes the operators, maintenance
personnel, the area production supervisor, and others with a
vested interest in performance of the production area. A
qualified AM trainer should act as facilitator for the initial
clean activity. [5]
Performing the initial cleaning and inspection eliminates
sources of contamination, clears some of the inaccessible
areas. It gives a planned approach to test provisional cleaning,
and inspection procedure. Operators learn to conduct general
inspections autonomously, workplace organization and
housekeeping. It paves way for the full implementation the
autonomous maintenance program. To indicate the value of
initial cleaning under implementing AM program,the
following picture shows clearly the role of initial cleaning in
Figure 2: The effects of good Initial Cleaning in Autonomous Maintenance [12]
Initial cleaning is the most difficult job for operators,
compared to other tasks in AM. But its role in complete
implementation of AM is the highest. During the initial
cleaning by the operators a great impact on the equipment
performance and productivity can be observed.
Step 2: Establishing counter measures for the causes and
effects of dirt and dust.
The counter measures for the cause and effect of dirt and
dust in the working environment can be identified by the
operators and eliminated based on their experience. AM tags
are developed and colour coded as red and white to mark any
abnormality in the equipment to the maintenance personnel in
the absence of the operator. These AM tags are shown on
Figure 3 that can be used between operators of different shifts
or with the maintenance personnel. The key part in this step is
not to clean for the sake of cleaning, but to clean for
inspection with high standards. As the team begins to clean
they will identify defects. It can be wear and tear in
equipment, loose or lost nuts and bolts due to vibrations,
lubricant leakages or dirt and dust on machine parts which
hide the parts to be inspected.
The causes of such defects or problems should be found
and countermeasures should be applied. The defects can be
divided into two different categories, the first kind of defects
are those which can be corrected by the operators themselves,
while the second kind of defects are those which can only be
corrected by maintenance personnel. Using tag cards can be a
good idea for the second kind of defects. Operators are
instructed to tag the location of each abnormality as it is
spotted, using a card that shows when it was found, the
operator who found it and nature of the problem. This enables
everyone to see what the machine status is and share and learn
Clean Inspect
Pride in
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ISSN 2277-5056 | © 2014 Bonfring
from the maintenance activities. Use white tags for problems
that operators can handle and red tags for ones that the
maintenance department will handle. Tagging takes problems
out of both individual operator’s hands and that of
maintenance personnel and introduces them to autonomous
maintenance circles and involves everyone.
Figure 3: Red and White Tags Used for Marking the Abnormalities in Equipment
Step 3: Establishing cleaning and routine maintenance
standards (checklist)
The list of cleaning and routine maintenance steps should
be reviewed by the TPM team and new cleaning and
maintenance standards should be set. These steps should
include countermeasures for root causes of defects and
cleaning routine of dusty parts. Formulate work standards that
help in maintaining cleaning, lubrication and tightening levels
with minimal time and effort. This gradually produces the
autonomous maintenance thinking in the operator’s daily
routine. It also clearly demarcates the responsibilities and
capabilities of operators and the maintenance personnel.
Step 4: Conducting a standards and inspection training
Top management takes the decision to implement
maintenance program to reduce equipment breakdown and
stoppages in the production line. If the operator is not directly
involved the maintenance strategy invariably will be
corrective maintenance. In fact there is three maintenance
strategies such as corrective, proactive and aggressive; AM for
instance is categorized under aggressive maintenance strategy.
AM is focussed heavily on internal resources through total
participation from all levels of employees. It ensures certain
objectives and goals set by top management can be attained.
However, the effort to put AM as a continuous improvement
program certainly needs proper planning and execution.
Therefore, training and education have become one of the
important stages in autonomous maintenance. Training and
promotion in AM is conducted by the introduction of the
program and sustaining the maintenance with high standards.
The objective of AM training and education is not only to
explain AM elements and pillars but also to raise morale and
soften resistance to change. A campaign to promote
enthusiasm for AM implementation is organized where
AMF (AM) tag
Equipment code _____________________
Equipment name _____________________
Found by _______________________________________________
Date and time___________________________________________
Description of problem________________________________________
NOTE: Attach this tag to the equipment
RED tag
AMF (AM) tag
Equipment code _____________________
Equipment name _____________________
Found by _______________________________________________
Date and time___________________________________________
Description of problem________________________________________
NOTE: Attach this tag to the equipment
White tag
Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2014 174
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banners, signs, flags and notice boards that bear AM slogans
are created in order to have a positive effect on the operator’s
environment. Autonomous maintenance requires teamwork
from various departments such as production and maintenance
to work closely to eliminate any potential breakdowns and
stoppages through total commitment. The training should
emphasize on standards of inspection for example the visual
inspection of major parts, modification of equipment to aid
inspection, finding and fixing minor defects. Inspection
manuals should be developed and followed for the training.
Step 5: Carrying out an autonomous equipment inspection
Cleaning, lubrication and inspection standards should be
practiced to maintain optimal equipment conditions. A review
of equipment and human factor should be carried out to fix
Step 6: Organization and standardization of the workplace
Improve work effectiveness, product quality and safety
through work place organization and housekeeping. Set and
practice control standards for raw material, work in progress,
tools and spare parts.
Step 7: Continuous improvement of policies, standards and
Pinpoint the weaknesses in equipment and give
suggestions in meetings to improve them to simplify the
operations and increase reliability.
The history of preparing malt in Ethiopia was started in
1974 at St. George Brewery; AMF was established in 1984
with the aim of supplying malt to local breweries. AMF is
located in south-eastern part of the Ethiopia 162 km from the
capital city Addis Ababa and 7 km from Assela town. The
production of malt over the years has increased by 22%. In
total it has 223 employees (184 male and 39 female) from
which 104 workers (103 male and 1 female) are working in
production department and 119 workers (81 male, 38 female)
are supportive staff.
AMF can be broadly divided into main section and general
utilities section. These two divisions together have seven
plants as listed below:
Machine tower and silo (main plant)
Steeping plant (main plant)
Germination plant (main plant)
Kiln plant (main plant)
Cooling plant (General utilities)
Water treatment plant (General utilities)
Boiler Plant (General utilities)
Boiler Plant
AMF boiler is a horizontal, multi tubular and two pass
packaged type boiler that uses furnace oil as fuel. There are
147 tubes in first pass and 143 tubes in second pass.
Combustion of fuel takes place in furnace, hot gases flows
through boiler tube and water is contained in shell. Heat
transfer takes place from hot gases to water/steam.
Evaporative capacity of boiler is 10,000 kg/hr. The water
from the supply is found to have temporary hardness that can
be softened by addition of certain chemicals. The feed water to
the boiler is first softened by the water softener equipment.
There are two steam generating boiler plants in the factory,
each works in shifts as per the requirements of batch
processing of malt in the kiln plant. The steam production of
each boiler (nominal) 6 to 7 tons per hour, design pressure 10
bar, feed water temperature (maximum) 180 C, combustion
efficiency 80%. Boiler plant is typically operational for 17
hours for one kiln box, and average amount of malt product
70,000 kg. Kiln temperature level requirements vary with
time. The initial 9 hours need low temperature, following 4
hours the kiln plant is at medium temperature, and final 3
hours kiln is maintained at high temperature. The furnace of
the boiler can be categorized into three main components
namely, control and safety mechanism, rotary cup atomizer
and ignition of furnace.
Figure 4: Schematic of Rotary Cup Atomizer and the Steam Generator Body (picture credit: AALBORG industries)
Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2014 175
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The Choice of Boiler Plant
Boiler plant was selected for the autonomous maintenance
study for these reasons.
1. The boiler plant is a general utility and downtime of
this plant directly affects the malt production
2. Constant maintenance is necessary for the continuous
operation of the plant.
3. The boiler plant is one of the main contributors for
product quality and customer satisfaction.
Some of the main problems associated with the boiler plant
are listed below:
1. Negligence of continuous follow-up and care causes
consumption of additional fuel.
2. Boiler malfunction reduces the quality of product and
can reduce customer satisfaction.
3. Leakage of furnace oil from intake causes water
pollution in the plant vicinity. Environmental studies
in literature indicate that one liter of furnace oil
pollutes one million liters of water. [13]
4. Inadequate handling and operation of water softener
makes the water to remain in a state of permanent
hardness. These factors create accumulation of rust
and dissolved oxygen that causes corrosion and
reduces the life of boiler.
5. The accumulation of rust, corrosion and scale
formation inside the tube can reduce normal heat
transfer that increases fuel consumption adding to the
cost of malt production.
6. In extreme cases rust and salt deposition can result in
7. The autonomous maintenance study also focused on
the furnace rotary cup atomizer due to its high down
time. A schematic of the furnace atomizer is shown in
figure 4.
At AMF, autonomous maintenance was implemented by
working on the Focused improvement pillar of the TPM
Focused Improvement Pillar (Kobetsu Kaizen)
Focused improvement includes all activities that maximize
the overall equipment effectiveness and processes. It achieves
these by thorough elimination of losses and improvement of
performance. The objective of focused improvement is to
make sure the equipment’s daily performance is the same as
the performance on its best day. [3] The fact is machines do
virtually 100 percent of the product manufacturing work. The
only thing we people do, whether we’re operators, technicians,
engineers, or managers, is to tend to the needs of the machines
in one way or another. The better our machines run, more is
the productivity of our shop floor and more will be the success
our business. [14] The driving concept behind losses may be
either a functional loss (inability of equipment to execute a
required function) or a function reduction (reduced capability
without complete loss of a required function).
Focused improvement is aimed at zero losses, both
functional and function reduction. Maximizing equipment
effectiveness requires the complete elimination of failures,
defects, and factors causing failures; in other words, the
wastes and losses incurred in equipment operation. [2]A
critical TPM paradigm shift is the core belief of focused
improvement. [14]This can be summarized as follows:
Old paradigm new equipment is the best it will ever
New paradigm new equipment is the worst it will
ever be.
The more we operate and maintain a piece of equipment,
the more we learn about it. We use this knowledge to
continuously improve our maintenance plan and the
productivity of the machine. We would only choose to replace
a machine should its technology become obsolete, not because
it has deteriorated into a poorly performing machine. The
proper implementation of focused improvement
methodologies yield short term and long term improvements
in equipment capacity, equipment availability, and production
cycle time. [15] Focused improvement has been, and still is
the primary methodology for productivity improvement in the
manufacture of microchip devices. Overall Equipment
Effectiveness (OEE) is the key metric of focused
Specific Steps taken for Improvement at AMF
Four levels of planning and implementation were aimed at
AMF, these are listed below:
Level 1
Create awareness; Recognize deterioration and improve
equipment to prevent it:
AM awareness was created through banners, posters,
streamers and flyers throughout the plant especially
in the production lines.
Watch for and discover abnormalities in equipment
operation and components.
Understand the importance of proper lubrication and
lubrication methods.
Understand the importance of cleaning, inspection
and proper cleaning methods.
Understand the problem of contamination and the
ability to make localized improvements.
Level 2
Understand equipment structure and functions:
Understand what to look for when checking
mechanisms for normal operations.
Clean and inspect to maintain equipment
Understand criteria for judging abnormalities.
Confidently judge when equipment needs to be shut
Some ability to perform breakdown diagnosis.
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Level 3
Understand causes of equipment induced- quality defects:
Physically analyze problem related- phenomena.
Understand the relationship between characteristics
of quality and the equipment.
Understand tolerance ranges for static and dynamic
precision and how to measure such precision.
Understand causal factors behind defects.
Level 4
Perform routine repair on equipment:
Be able to replace parts.
Understand life expectancy of parts.
Be able to deduce causes of breakdown.
Daily checklist for boiler equipment was made for
employees working with the boiler plant. Along with the daily
check list weekly checklist and emergency checklist were
prepared. These are shown here for completeness.
Observe/check the switching points of the water level
Observe the switching points of the temperature or
pressure regulator respectively.
Check easy movement of the burner control (control
elements for air and fuel).
Check combustion air fan, ignition and/or ventilation
fan for easy turning and power transmission (V-belt).
Check tightness of control device and/or intermediate
Check ignition device.
Check pre- pump ventilation.
Check flame detection unit.
Examine combustion quality.
Purge water level gauge.
Check temperature or pressure limiter for changes of
the set values (test keys).
Operate draining and desalting device.
Examine feed water and boiler water by means of
chemical analysis.
Check boiler water monitoring devices for infiltration
of foreign substances by means of the test key.
Other tests and maintenance to be performed at
regular intervals:
Check boiler valves for tightness.
Check feeding and recirculation device by alternate
Check tightness and easy movements of fuel tank,
fuel lines as well as mountings.
Check fuel pressure indicator.
Examine combustion chamber and flue gas passes.
Check vent safety valves.
Check water level limiter by lowering the water level
Control of the temperature and pressure indicators
via, precision thermometer respectively manometer.
Close and open the flue gas tap in order to check the
limit switch.
Interrupt the impulse line of the air pressure flow
indicator and the air pressure control device at the
Check fuel shut-off device.
Check easy movement and tightness of the safety
shut-off device upstream of the burner.
Check gas ignitions control device and intermediate
venting respectively.
Operate main cut-out.
Check ignition device.
Check pre- purge ventilation.
Check flame detector by blacking out the flame
Examine combustion quality.
Weekly Check List for Work Stations
Check the joint of the pipe lines, if it has any defects
or not?
Clean the around of the pipe lines, ensure that there
are no leakages on the floor.
Take the filters out and clean it.
Clean the track of the furnace fuel lines and burner
Check the steam pipe, ensure that is not defected.
Weekly Checklist for Boiler Equipment
In case of steam boiler which can be switched from
high to low pressure, the limiters must be checked at
least during each operating period, however at least
weekly in case of low pressure operation.
In Case of Emergency
Switch off main cut-out.
Cut off fuel supply.
In case of water shortage water shortage and damage
to the boiler do not refill boiler.
Release boiler pressure and report to the supervisor
respectively to the local boiler authority.
Calculations on OEE of the boiler plant for January, 2011:
Mechanical breakdown =44 hrs. and 40 min
Electrical breakdown =22 hrs. and 30 min
Electronics breakdown =7 hrs.
Total breakdown =74 hrs. and 10 min
Setup and other conditions =7 hrs. and 30 min
Total loss =81 hrs. and 40 min
Total good hours =720 hrs.
Net loss (Total good hours - Total loss) =720 hrs. 81 hrs.
and 40 min = 638 hrs. and 20 min.
 
  ×100 = 638.2
720 ×100 =88.64%
Defected steam = total breakdown X steam produced per hour
Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2014 177
ISSN 2277-5056 | © 2014 Bonfring
Percentage of quality steam produced
Total steam produced defected steam
Total steam produced =7200 741
Performance rate: Management loss = 90 hours
Startup loss = 15 hours.
Performance rate: Net loss (management loss +startup loss )
Net loss
638.20 (90 +15)
638.20 =83.55%
Consumption of furnace oil, per batch = 5550 Liters
Consumption of furnace oil, per month = 210316 Liters
Overall Equipment Effectiveness:
Availability × performance rate × Quality rate × 100
0.8864 × 0.8355 × 0.8971 ×100 =66.44%
OEE less than 85% indicates improvements are required
urgently. [10]
Table 1: OEE Calculations for the Select Months during the Project
Total loss (hrs:mins)
Availability (%)
Performance rate (%)
OEE (%)
January 2011
February 2011
March 2011
April 2012
May 2012
June 2012
Table 2: This Table is in not Compatible for Double Column Format
Before AM application
After AM application
Change (%)
Hours / month
Average capacity
Tons / month
Prod. capability
Tons /month
Machine idle
Maintenance cost
USD / month
Asella malt factory has implemented the autonomous
maintenance principles in their boiler plant. Marked
improvements in average capacity, production capacity and
decrease in breakdowns and maintenance costs can be
observed in the table 2. A successful implementation of
autonomous maintenance paves way for further
implementation of TPM principles and this will further
improve the employee’s morale and helps in quickly achieving
the set goals.
TPM Total production maintenance
AM Autonomous maintenance
AMF Asella malt factory
OEE Overall equipment effectiveness
APC Automated process control
SPC Statistical process control
IPC Integrated process control
The authors like to thank the Assela malt factory for
allowing the research to be conducted.
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Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, November 2014 178
ISSN 2277-5056 | © 2014 Bonfring
Melesse Workneh Wakjira was born in July 1975, at
NegelleBorena, Ethiopia. He received his Bachelors in
Manufacturing Technology from Bahirdar University,
Engineering Faculty, Ethiopia. He has received Masters
of Science from Adama Science and Technology,
Ethiopia. He has worked in Assela TVET College,
AthletKenenisa Polytechnic College, and Adama
Science and Technology University. He has published
his research in Global Journal of Researches in Engineering.
Dr. Ananth Shalvapulle. Iyengar was born in
November, 1979 at Bangalore, India. He received his
Bachelors of Engineering from Bangalore University,
Masters of Science from The University of Texas at El
Paso, and Doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from
Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). He has
worked as Research Associate at CWRU, Associate
Professor at Mangalore Institute of Technology and
Engineering, and Team Lead (predictive engineering) at
Axiom Consulting, Bangalore. He is presently working as Assistant Professor
at Adama Science and Technology University. He has 3 journal publications
and 6 conference publications.
... The review shows AM is one of the most important components of TPM (McKone and Weiss, 1998;Romano et al., 2013;Workineh and Iyengar, 2014;Mushiri et al., 2016). World Class Manufacturing (WCM) defines AM as a "key topic" within TPM (Gajdzik, 2014). ...
... Therefore, AM success affects positively the results obtained from TPM projects (Dogra et al., 2011;Min et al., 2011;Workineh and Iyengar, 2014). ...
... AM key importance for TPM and its success necessitate training, especially training of operators (Mad Lazim and Ramayah, 2010;Kulkarni and Dabade, 2013;Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, 2014;Workineh and Iyengar, 2014;Po or et al., 2015;Molenda, 2016;Rukijkanpanich and Pasuk, 2018;Braglia et al., 2019;Lima, 2019). ...
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to support total productive maintenance implementers by providing a roadmap for autonomous maintenance (AM) preparation phase. Design/methodology/approach The authors use the axiomatic design (AD) methodology with lean philosophy as a paradigm. Findings This is an exploratory research to find the most important factors in AM preparation phase. A decoupled AD design ensures an effective usage of training within industry (TWI) and the introduction of standardized work (SW). TWI provides value in importance it assigns to leaders, with its “train the trainers” approach and in preparing a training program. Besides being an effective training method, TWI job instruction (TWI JI) provides needed information infrastructure to front load operators SW and equipment trainings. Research limitations/implications Although AD, TWI and lean artifacts are generally field proven, the research is limited due to the lack of an industrial application. Practical implications In many real-life projects, companies do not know where to start and how to proceed, which leads to costly iterations. The proposed roadmap minimizes iterations and increases the chance of project success. Originality/value The authors apply AD for the first time to AM preparation phase despite it is used in the analysis of lean manufacturing. AD permits to structure holistically the most relevant lean manufacturing solutions to obtain a risk free roadmap. TWI has emerged as a training infrastructure; TWI JI-based operator SW training and the adaptation of JI structure to equipment training are original additions.
... Based on (Workineh & Iyengar, 2014) Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is used to improve production and reduce of cost of production. TPM is a concept aimed at significantly increasing the production in a manufacturing plant and ensuring high employee job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. ...
... Autonomous maintenance is one of the pillar TPM that can eliminate the minor equipment shutdowns and faster recovery from a machine breakdown (Workineh & Iyengar, 2014). Autonomous maintenance is the independent maintenance undertaken by the operators of machines and for the technicians dedicated to the maintenance (Ferreira & Leite, 2016). ...
Full-text available
The paving molding machine is one of the machines used to produce black paving at PT XYZ. Based on the historical data from the engineering maintenance department, this machine has the highest breakdown frequency which affected the low performance and productivity of the machine. To solve this problem, the effectiveness of the paving molding machine was analyzed using overall resource effectiveness (ORE) methods. ORE aims to analyze machine indicators, consisting of readiness, availability of the facility, changeover efficiency, availability of material, availability of manpower, performance efficiency, and quality rate. The ORE analyzed result shows that values of performance efficiency of paving molding machine were 64.54% and still below the standards of the ORE. To increase the ORE, a design of autonomous maintenance (AM) was proposed. The proposed design means the operator is given the responsibility to maintain the basic condition of the machine to minimize the damage of the paving molding machine at PT XYZ. The result of ORE analysis, especially in the performance efficiency, will be an input for the engineering maintenance department to make an AM basic design that can be executed by each of the machine's operators. In general, this research’s novelty is to combine the application of the ORE method with the AM basic design, whereas the AM is one of the pillars of total productive maintenance (TPM).
... In Autonomous maintenance (AM), equipment operators are given the responsibilities and powers in daily equipment maintenance, including 5S (Ferreira & Leite, 2016). This directly improves the skill of these operators to manage and improve the equipment (Wakjira & Iyengar, 2014). AM demands a cultural change to the way maintenance is done (Mugwindiri & Mbohwa, 2013). ...
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper develops a ‘light’ total productive maintenance (TPM) model suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). By design, the system is rudimentary, using a relatively small sum of capital investment and resources. The model recommends TPM implementation in three stages, namely plan, improve, and sustain.Design/methodology/approach: The literature review provides the inputs to the model development. Action research is used to demonstrate and verify the effectiveness and practicability of the framework, in an SME manufacturing hydraulic parts in China. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and awareness of employees were studied before and after the implementation. Findings: The case study shows a significantly improved production efficiency of the equipment. The framework structuralizes TPM deployment and binding different levels of the organization into the program, from planning, implementation to sustaining the practices. To break the barrier of shop-floor resistance, the leader must drive many activities unassisted, it, therefore, necessitates an open endorsement of authority by the steering committee composed of top management. The Prudent pilot run of TPM helped to accelerate the implementation at critical equipment, in addition to cultivating experience and hence confidence among staff.Research limitations/implications: This study provides a pragmatic reference to other researchers and practitioners to promote a light TPM model in SMEs, without losing the essence of TPM. Being action research with the case study in a specific manufacturing industry, the resultant evidence, therefore, is anecdotal.Originality/value: The model adopts a phased method to implement TPM, without aggravating the financial and human resource burden of the enterprise. It promotes the cultivation of employees’ TPM awareness and active involvement, which can lay a solid foundation for the wide implementation of TPM in SMEs.
The purpose of this research is to increase the Avaibility rate, Performance rate and OEE value on pipe extruder line 9 at PT. Wahana Tunas Utama Rucika which is engaged in manufacturing PVC pipe products (Poly Vinyl Clhoride). In order to increase productivity, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is measured by calculating OEE. The method used in solving this problem the 8 pillars of TPM with the Autonomous Maintenance (AM) method. The implementation of the TPM pillar aims to increase the knowledge, responsibility and skills of production operators related to machines, so that overall productivity will increase. AM uses a structured and documented system so that this program can run consistently. The results of the implementation of the proposed improvements showed that the Availability rate had to increase by 3.61%, the Performance rate had to increase by 3.41% and OEE had to increase by 3.25% after the proposed improvements 6 months.
Nowadays, organizations in the cotton knitwear industry have had to adapt to a client who is not willing to pay an additional cost for activities that do not add value to the product. In Peru, many companies that export cotton knitwear closes every year since they cannot compete with countries such as China and Hong Kong due to their high production costs. This paper introduces a production management model based on Lean Manufacturing techniques and standardization of operations to reduce waste in the production flow, thus improving quality, and reducing production time and costs. So, a Production and Continuous improvement model (PDCA) were implemented. The validation was performed in a representative Peruvian company that exports cotton knitwear, resulting in an efficiency improvement of 10%, reduction of defective products of 20%, and generating savings of almost 5,000 soles monthly.
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and to present an overview of TPM implementation practices adopted by the manufacturing organizations. It also seeks to highlight appropriate enablers and success factors for eliminating barriers in successful TPM implementation. Design/methodology/approach The paper systematically categorizes the published literature and then analyzes and reviews it methodically. Findings The paper reveals the important issues in Total Productive Maintenance ranging from maintenance techniques, framework of TPM, overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), TPM implementation practices, barriers and success factors in TPM implementation, etc. The contributions of strategic TPM programmes towards improving manufacturing competencies of the organizations have also been highlighted here. Practical implications The literature on classification of Total Productive Maintenance has so far been very limited. The paper reviews a large number of papers in this field and presents the overview of various TPM implementation practices demonstrated by manufacturing organizations globally. It also highlights the approaches suggested by various researchers and practitioners and critically evaluates the reasons behind failure of TPM programmes in the organizations. Further, the enablers and success factors for TPM implementation have also been highlighted for ensuring smooth and effective TPM implementation in the organizations. Originality/value The paper contains a comprehensive listing of publications on the field in question and their classification according to various attributes. It will be useful to researchers, maintenance professionals and others concerned with maintenance to understand the significance of TPM.
This paper focuses on a study of total productive maintenance (TPM) in three companies. The companies implemented TPM because of the business difficulties they faced. In all three companies senior management had supported TPM and set up suitable organisational structures to facilitate its implementation. The companies had followed Nakajima’s seven steps of autonomous maintenance, although different TPM pillars had been adopted, with the common ones being improvements, education and training, safety, and quality maintenance. The main differences in TPM implementation related to the use of ABC machine classification system and the role of facilitators.
The role that effective maintenance management plays in contributing to overall organizational productivity has received increased attention. Presents the development of a situational maintenance model that may be used to analyse and design the elements of a maintenance system. The situational approach to maintenance builds on contingency theory and considers both internal and external corporate dynamics. Using ideas from total productive maintenance (TPM), discusses how this model may be used to link corporate goals with maintenance policies. Defines design variables for maintenance systems that include the perspectives of individual behaviour, decision support systems, management systems and organizational structure, and corporate culture.
The control of production processes is the subject of several disciplines, such as statistical process control (SPC), total productive maintenance (TPM), and automated process control (APC). Although these disciplines are traditionally separated (both in science and in business practice), their goals have a great deal of overlap. Their common goal is to achieve optimal product quality, little downtime, and cost reduction, by controlling variations in the process. However, single or separated parallel applications may be not fully effective. This implies the need for an integrated approach to define, describe and improve the control of production processes. This paper discusses how controls from disciplines such as SPC, TPM and APC can be seen as a coherent set of efforts directed to the technical control of production processes. To achieve this, an integrated process control (IPC) model is introduced. The model provides a structure to get an overview of the functions of controls and their interrelations. It shows that there is no one best way to control a process: the optimal set of controls depends on the situation. The main contingencies are briefly addressed. The possibilities to use the model for prescribing, describing and improving control are illustrated. Finally, implications for business practice are discussed.
The role of maintenance in modern manufacturing is becoming ever more important, with companies adopting maintenance as a profit-generating business element. As a result, traditional terms used to describe maintenance such as “necessary evil” seem to be obsolete. It would appear that the aim of the maintenance function is to contribute towards an organisation’s profit, clearly bringing the need for maintenance operations to be in harmony with corporate business objectives. As the measurement activity provides the link between the actual output and the desired results, performance measurement systems are crucial to those who have a stake in maintenance, to ensure that they are not in conflict with the overall business needs. This paper looks at the role of performance measurement systems (PMS) in maintenance, with particular reference to developing a new PMS using the quality function deployment (QFD) technique. First, a literature review on performance measurement is presented, in which the key factors for an effective PMS are identified. Second, common PMSs for maintenance are examined. Then, based on the principles of an effective PMS a discussion on PMSs is presented, when applied to the maintenance function. Next, a framework is developed to embrace these key facets, which is followed by a discussion of its practical implications, in the light of its application within a SME.
Conference Paper
This paper details activities targeted at improving task behaviors within self-directed work teams (SDWTs), which subsequently improve productivity and quality within the factory. Like many companies, Harris Semiconductor manages its resources to improve productivity and lower manufacturing costs. One major initiative employed at Harris, Theory of Constraints (TOC), focuses on increased throughput, decreased inventory, and reduced operating expense. TOC is the central focus for individual, team, and equipment improvements. Employees are involved in continuous improvement activities, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and system improvement project teams to achieve TOC objectives. We focus on the methods used at Harris Semiconductor to deploy and train employees in TOC and TPM, a subset of the total employee “tool box” needed to be successful in today's very competitive environment