Arterial supply to the genital system of dromedary camel

  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - University of Baghdad
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Eleven adult camels apparently healthy were chosen for the study. Seven were injected with Gum-milk latex coloured with carmine and four were injected with contrast media for radiography through the abdominal aorta after routinely fixed with 10% formalin. The terminal branches of the abdominal aorta in male and female camels were described. It appeared that the origin of the testicular and ovarian arteries is similar to what has been reported in ruminant. It was also found that anastomosis between uterine and ovarian arteries of the same side as well as opposite side in she-camel was consistent in all specimens, which were different than what was reported in other animals. Difference in origin of some branches of the external iliac artery were described and explained according to the anatomic characteristics in camel.

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... The main supply of the uterus comes from the vaginal artery via the uterine artery as is the case in the carnivore and dromedary camel (Kadhim et al., 2001). There are no branches to the uterus from the external iliac or umbilical arteries as found in the mare, cow and sow. ...
... The territory nourished by this vessel in other species is supplied by the cranial rectal artery in llama, which is very distinct. When the middle rectal artery is present, it arises from the internal pudendal artery as occurrs in the ox, ram (Nickel et al., 1984) and dromedary camel (Kadhim et al., 2001). We have found the middle rectal artery in one female llama only. ...
... As is the case in horses, human (Barone, 1996) and one-humped camel (Kadhim et al., 2001) the dorsal perineal artery is absent in llama. ...
The aim of this research has been to describe the internal pudendal artery distribution in male and female llama and to compare it with that of other domestic animals including the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). The arterial system was perfused with a solution of 14% coloured plaster and preserved in a solution of a 10% formalin, 3% carbolic acid and 3% glycerine. The systematic dissection was made using traditional working techniques and standard instruments. The internal pudendal artery is the ventral terminal branch of the internal iliac artery at the level of the third sacral vertebra. The main supply of the pelvic organs comes from the prostatic or vaginal arteries; notwithstanding these arteries arise from the internal pudendal artery, showing an important difference between ruminants and pig (long iliac type). Similarities between the distribution of the internal pudendal artery of the llama and those obtained in the camel provide strong evidence of a common phylogenetic origin.
... The origins of the parietal and visceral branches were similar in both species. Graziotti et al. (2007) argued that the similarity of the llama and camel (Kadhim et al., 2001) with respect to the distribution of the internal pudendal artery and the internal iliac artery was strong evidence of a common phylogenetic origin. The pelvic arterial system has also been investigated in talpid species (Ventura and Lopez-Fuster, 1998), and the differences in these species from other insectivores and mammalian orders were evaluated. ...
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This study was aimed at determining the arterial supply and gross vascular architecture of the urinary bladder in the male cat. For this purpose, the urinary bladders of 10 cats were evaluated. Organ vascularization was investigated using the latex injection technique. The feline urinary bladder was found to be supplied by the prostatic artery, which stemmed from the internal pudendal artery and the umbilical artery that originated from the internal iliac artery. The umbilical artery extended caudally to form the cranial vesical artery, which was later distributed into the corpus and apex of the urinary bladder. The feline prostatic artery divided into the artery of the deferent duct and a slim branch, which supplied the prostate gland. The artery of the deferent duct gave off a caudal vesical artery which gave off slim branches to the preprostatic urethra. On the surfaces of the urinary bladders examined, the cranial and caudal vesical arteries followed varying courses, which reflected individual variations. In all samples, the blood vessels generally divided into two or three branches on the surface of the urinary bladder, whilst in only one sample, the caudal vesical artery was observed to be of the ladder type. Moreover, the cranial and caudal vesical arteries anastomosed with each other on the surface of the urinary bladder. This study constitutes a model for comparison with other species and provides morphological contributions to anatomy training and surgical interventions since there is a lack of literature on species-specific vascular morphology in the field of veterinary urology in contrast to the abundance of studies on humans and rodents.
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Foreword The world camel population is about 25 million heads of which the dromedary camel accounts for 95 per cent, the remaining 5 per cent being the two-humped one limited to countries in Central Asia. This population appears marginal at the world level representing less than 1% of the total livestock unit (cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo, horse, and yak). However, the place of camel in arid lands is quite more significant. In Saudi Arabia, more than 80% of the country being desert or arid, the extensive system with well adapted animals is obviously the traditional way for rearing animals as sheep and goats, and overall camels which represent more than 50% of the total TLU (tropical livestock unit). This percentage places Saudi Arabia among the arid countries where the economical importance of camel within livestock sector is one of the highest in the world (with Somalia, Mauritania and United Arab Emirates). Yet, the knowledge of the camel biology is low compared to that of the other species. The present book has the ambition to contribute to this knowledge. This book covers microscopic description of the normal pattern of the dromedary camel histology. It has been written in the frame of fructuous research collaboration between Al-Jouf University and Camel and Range Research Center (CRRC) for the interest of camel sciences and veterinary studies devoted to camel. The colored micrographs of this book have been produced from original sections prepared from camel biopsies obtained from the slaughter house in Skaka city, the capital of Al-Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. Gross examination and the histological work were done in the laboratories
The perineal muscles and fasciae are described and illustrated, and the diaphragma urogenitalis, components of m. sphincter urethrae, and m. ischio-cavernosus are described for the first time in the cow. The nerves of the pudendal plexus are discussed comparatively with the object of suggesting appropriate names based on their homology to the condition in other animals and man. The rami musculares to m. levator ani and m. coccygeus may originate from nn. sacrales 3 et 4, or n. pudendus, or n. rectalis caudalis. The combination of rami musculares with n. rectalis caudalis was formerly called by veterinary anatomists n. hemorrhoidalis medius, a term which should be abandoned because it is not listed in Nomina anatomica, and because it has also been applied to n. splanchnicus pelvinus in the horse. N. pudendus is large and its rami cutanei supply regio femoris caudalis as well as regio perinealis. It also gives rise to n. perinealis profundus, which supplies the genital muscles. The pudendal nerve ends by dividing into ramus mammarius and n. dorsalis clitoridis. There may be one or two nn. rectales caudales. They supply m. sphincter ani externus and adjacent parts of m. levator ani and the genital muscles. The distribution of arteria urogenitalis (vaginalis) and a. pudenda interna are described and illustrated.
The blood supply of the stifle joint was investigated in ten fresh dog cadavers using injections of Micropaque into the aorta and subsequent radiographic examination. The relevance of the blood supply to surgical intervention and the repair of injuries is discussed.
The major arterial blood supplies to the pelvic limbs of the ox, sheep, goat, pig, and horse are described from a comparative standpoint and the findings presented by composite illustrations. The article is limited to the essential characteristics of the major vessels, details being available in the specific articles cited in the text. Zusammenfassung Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Hauptarterien der Beckengliedmasse bei den Haustieren Die hauptsächlichsten Arterien der Beckengliedmasse von Rind, Schaf, Ziege, Schwein und Pferd werden vom Standpunkt der vergleichenden Morphologie beschrieben und bildlich dargestellt. Der Artikel beschränkt sich auf die wesentlichsten Charakteristika der Hauptgefäße, Details können den im Text zitierten Untersuchungen entnommen werden. Résumé Recherches comparatives sur les artères principales du bassin chez les animaux domestiques On décrit les artères principales du bassin chez le boeuf, le mouton, la chèvre, le porc et le cheval, sur le plan de la morphologie comparative, et on les représente par l'image. Cette publication se limite aux caractéristiques essentielles des principaux vaisseaux; les détails peuvent être trouvés dans les recherches citées dans le texte. Estudios comparativos sobre las arterias principales de las extremidades pelvianas en los animales domésticos Desde el punto de vista de la morfología comparada, se describen y representan gráficamente las arterias más principales de las extremidades pelvianas del buey, oveja, cabra, cerdo y caballo. El artículo se limita a las características más esenciales, pudiéndose deducir los detalles de las experiencias citadas en el texto.