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A survey on Anthozoa and its habitats along the Northwest African coast and some islands: new records, descriptions of new taxa and biogeographical, ecological and taxonomical comments. Part I

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  • Gobierno de Canarias, ESPAÑA

Abstract and Figures

Several species of Actiniaria and Scleractinia have been searched and collected along theWesternAfrican coast and some of its archipelagos. This paper constitutes the first part of an extensive paper and it is focused nMorocco and Cape Verde, although some material and images from other spots (Canary Islands, Madeira, Gabon or even Mauritania) are included. The second part will also include some material from Gulf of Guinea. Four new species and a new genus are described, and five new records are also included in the paper. Bellactis caeruleus, Tubastrea caboverdiana, Thalamophyllia wirtzi and Africana wirtzi are the four new species and the new genus described. Some species, due to previous lack of good descriptions, are presented more deeply from the point of view of the descriptive aspect.
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Rev. Acad. Canar. Cienc., Vol. XXVII, 9-66 (diciembre de 2015)
A survey onAnthozoa and its habitats
along the Northwest African coast and some islands:
new records, descriptions of new taxa and biogeographical,
ecological and taxonomical comments. Part I.
Ocaña1*, O., Hartog2, J.C. den, Brito3, A., Moro4, L., Herrera5, R., Martín6, J.,
Ramos7, A., Ballesteros8, E. & Bacallado9, J. J.
1Museo del Mar de Ceuta, Muelle España, s/n, 51001 Ceuta, Spain
2Curator of Colenterata from NNHM, Leiden, The Netherlands, Deceased
3Grupo de investigación BIOECOMAC, Unidad Departamental de Ciencias Marinas
Universidad de La Laguna, Canary Island, Spain
4Servicio de Biodiversidad, Viceconsejería de MedioAmbiente del Gobierno de Canarias
Edf. Usos Múltiples I. Av. Anaga nº 35. 38071, S/C de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
5Servicio de Biodiversidad. Viceconsejería de MedioAmbiente del Gobierno de Canarias
Edificio de Servicios Múltiples II (5ª planta). Agustín Millares Carló, 18
35071, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain
6Calle Caracas nº 3, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
7Centro de Investigación Marina de Santa Pola (CIMAR), Universidad de Alicante
03130, Santa Pola, Alicante, Spain
8Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes (CSIC), Acc. Cala, Sant Francesc 14
17300, Blanes, Girona, Spain
9Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Tenerife.Ap. Correos 853, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, islas Canarias
* Corresponding autor: Óscar Ocaña (email: lebruni@telefonica.net)
RESUMEN
Varias especies de Actiniarios y Escleractinias han sido recolectadas y estudiadas a
lo largo de la costa noroeste africana y algunos de sus archipiélagos. Esta es la primera
parte de un artículo más extenso que está centrado en Marruecos y Cabo Verde pero que
también incluye información de otras zonas geográficas (Islas Canarias, Madeira, Gabón
y Mauritania). La segunda parte incluirá bastante material del Golfo de Guinea. Cuatro
nuevas especies y un nuevo género son descritos además de cinco nuevos registros de es-
pecies para la región estudiada. Bellactis caeruleus,Tubastrea caboverdiana,Thala-
mophyllia wirtzi yAfricana wirtzi son las cuatro especies y el nuevo género descrito para
la ciencia. Se han completado algunas descripciones de especies que de una forma y otra
no estaban bien estudiadas.
Palabras clave: Antozoos, Actiniarios, Escleractinias, género nuevo, especies nue-
vas, Óceano Atlántico, costa noroeste de África e islas.
9
ABSTRACT
Several species of Actiniaria and Scleractinia have been searched and collected
along the Western African coast and some of its archipelagos. This paper constitutes the first
part of an extensive paper and it is focused on Morocco and Cape Verde, although some ma-
terial and images from other spots (Canary Islands, Madeira, Gabon or even Mauritania)
are included. The second part will also include some material from Gulf of Guinea. Four
new species and a new genus are described, and five new records are also included in the
paper. Bellactis caeruleus,Tubastrea caboverdiana,Thalamophyllia wirtzi and Africana
wirtzi are the four new species and the new genus described. Some species, due to previ-
ous lack of good descriptions, are presented more deeply from the point of view of the de-
scriptive aspect.
Key words: Anthozoa, Actiniaria, Scleractinia, new genus, new species, Atlantic
Ocean, Western Africa coast and islands.
1. INTRODUCTION
This study tries to supply information about Anthozoa and its habitats along the not
well-known coast of North West Africa.This paper includes images of habitat features and
sites from the Atlantic coast of North Africa, between the Strait of Gibraltar and Gulf of
Guinea, with the addition of some information about the Atlantic islands. Most informa-
tion comes from Moroccan coast, from north to south untill the Mauritanian border, and
some data collected during the CANCAP (Azores, Canary I., Madeira, Cape Verde I., Mo-
rocco) (see VAN DER LAND, 1987) by the second autor (there are much more data wait-
ing to be publish). Moreover, there is some other oportunistic information that were taken
from some short travels to different geographical areas as CapeVerde Islands, or even pro-
vided by different colleagues, some of them included in the paper. The foccus of this paper
is to provide information on the species recorded, with some new records and new taxa, also
offering a general view of intertidal and shallow waters habitats, through the color images
of the species showing, in some cases, the main encountered communities. Some species
of particular concern, due to their abundance or other biological aspect, as the case of Bun-
odosma biscayensis, have been studied extensively. In this first part of the study, octoco-
rals as well as many other hexacorallians are not included, leaving them for a second part.
The complete study (Part I and II) includes a general catalogue of the Anthozoa species
from the Moroccan coast and also a list of interesting biological sites from Morocco litoral,
including Western Sahara. This long term project, carryed by the Museo del Mar from
Ceuta, covers an extended not well known area along North African littoral, with the sup-
port of colleagues from different institutions, who have been enrriched the paper with their
contributions, not only on Anthozoa, but also on other subjects of interest in this paper.
Most of the studied material is deposited in the Museo del Mar de Ceuta collection. Nev-
ertheless, due to the lack of scientific information onAnthozoa on the NorthAfrican region
we feel relevant the present contribution.
10
2. MATERIALAND METHODS
The specimens were collected by snorkeling, scuba diving or intertidal exploration
and preserved in 8% formaldehyde in sea water, and later stored in 70% alcohol or in dry
conditions in the collections of the “Museo del Mar de Ceuta (MMC)”. Colonies of Scle-
ractinia were prepared using hypochlorite, in order to remove the organic tissues to study
the general morphology and the anatomical features of the skeleton by means of a stereo
dissecting microscope. Nematocysts of the Actiniaria were examined with a light micro-
scope equipped with a Nomarski differential interference contrast optic system. The clas-
sification and terminology of nematocysts follows that of SCHMIDT (1972), as adapted by
HARTOG (1980) and HARTOG et al. (1993). This terminoly can be ued as a convenience
(penicilli=p-mastigophore; spirulae=b-mastigophore) along the paper. The surveys on the
cnidom are summarized in tables in which nematocysts means (in the case of new taxon)
and ranges of length and width are included. The following codes are used in the tables: vc:
very common; c: common; rc: rather common; uc: uncommon; r: rare. The color images
were taken with diferent cameras along the years, there are images from small field acuar-
ians and also underwater pictures. The material and the images studied come from differ-
ent locations within the North West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea, CapeVerde Islands, Madeira
and The Canaries. Some images come from the CANCAP expedition to North West Africa
(see VAN DER LAND, 1987).
Localities and its coordenates
Spanish NorthAfrica: Ceuta maritime moat (35º53.355’N 5º19.112’W); Ceuta (San
Amaro) (35º53.912’N 5º17.976’W); Ceuta (South Bay) (35º53.107’N 5º18.245’W).
Canary Islands: Candelaria (Tenerife) (28º21.363’N 16º22.125’W).
Morocco: Cala Iris (35º9.071’N 4º21.955’W); M’Dik (35º41.108’N 5º18.862’W);
Cabo Negro (35º41.191’N 5º16.426’W); Punta Siri (35º54.533’N 5º28.282’W); Playa del
Avión (actual Tánger Med) (35º53.207’N 5º30.215’W); Alkasar Seguir (35º51.109’N
5º32.722’W); Cape Spartel (35º47.200’N 5º55.839’W); Asilah (35º28.214’N 6º2.390’W);
Sidi Mghit (35º23.450’N 6º4.925’W); Sidi Rhal (33º28.812’N 7º56.824’W); Jorf Lasfar (El
Jadida) (33º8.505’N 8º37.218’W); Sidi el Abed (33º4.471’N 8º40.062’W); Oualidia
(32º44.323’N 9º2.635’W); Cape Beddouza (32º32.702’N 9º16.931’W); Safi (32º18.155’N
9º14.988’W); Bhaibeh (31º47.791’N 9º35.071’W); Mouley Bouzarktoune (31º38.689’N
9º40.631’W); Diabat (Essauira) (31º29.329’N 9º46.545’W); Sidi Kaouki (31º21.871’N
9º48.166’W); Imsouane (30º50.327’N 9º49.364’W); Agadir (30º25.126’N 9º40.452’W);
Sidi Mohamed Abdallah-Mirleft (29º34.058’N 10º3.304’W); Legzira (29º26.952’N
10º6.927’W); Sidi Ifni (29º23.440’N 10º10.337’W); Tan Tan (28º30.124’N 11º20.106’W);
Aiun (27º11.635’N 13º23.388’W); Dakhla (23º49.847’N 15º51.988’W); Dakhla
(23º39.355’N 15º59.980’W); Dakhla (23º45.780’N 15º45.779’W); Dakhla (Porto Rico)
(23º28.918’N 15º57.372’W).
Cape Verde Islands: Tarrafal (Sao Tiago) (15º16.955’N 23º45.419’W); Quebra
Canela (Sao Tiago) (14º54.145’N 23º31.028’W); Buracona (Sal) (16º47.906’N
22º59.606’W); Murdeira Bay (Sal) (16º40.683’N 22º56.208’W).
Gabon: Pongara National Park (0º20.295’N 9º18.801’E)
Madeira: Quinta do Lorde-Caniçal (Madeira) (32º44.465’N 16º42.500’W).
11
3. SYSTEMATICS
Orden ACTINIARIA Hertwig, 1882
Family ACTINIIDAE (Gosse, 1858)
Actinia schmidti, Monteiro, Solé-Cava & Thorpe, 1997
Actinia equina Patriti, 1970: 116-117.
Actinia schmidti Ocaña, Brito y González, 2005: 479-482, figs. 1 and 7a-d. Description and discus-
sion with other Actinians species. Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, Mediterranean and Atlantic coast
of Morocco.
To check synonymous list see Ocaña et al., (2005).
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Sidi Rahal beach, MMC-001, 29.vii.2000, in crevices of the
flat rocky platform, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Imsouane beach and harbour, MMC-002, 8.xii.2001,
intertidal platforms, small pools of the mesolitoral and supralitoral, 2 big specimens, red color, also
many small specimens growing on the mussels carapaces, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Mohamed Abdallah-
Mirleft, MMC-003, September 2002, intertidal, numerous small specimens growing on mussels cara-
paces, red, brown and green colours, O. Ocaña leg. Moulay Bouzerktoum (30 km North Essauira),
MMC-009, 7.xii.2001, upper intertidal in pools and crevices, 4 specimens with juvenils inside,
O.Ocaña leg. Bhaibeh beach, MMC-004, 30.vii.2000, upper intertidal and supralitoral, small crevices
and pools, 2 specimens, red and green colours, O. Ocaña leg. Tan Tan beach, MMC-005, 8.iv.2001,
upper litoral and mesolitoral, 15 specimens with juvenils inside, O. Ocaña leg. Oualidia, MMC-006,
6.iv.2001, mesolitoral in rocky platform covered by Fucus, pools; also in supralitoral and big inter-
tidal caves, deep red in the specimens near Fucus, red, green and brown colours in the intertidal
caves, 3 deep red specimens collected near Fucus and also 12 specimens collected in the intertidal
caves, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni beach, MMC-007, 1.viii.2000, intertidal area with boulders and flat plat-
form areas, on stones and crevices, 3 specimens, red color, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach,
MMC-008, 2.viii.2000, intertidal on mussels, understones and crevices in upper litoral, 5 specimens,
red color, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi elAbed, (South of Jadida), MMC-009, 30.vii.2000, intertidal on sloped
wall and platform, upper mesolitoral and supralitoral, 5 specimens, red, deep red and green colours,
O. Ocaña leg. Diabat, Essauira beach, opposite to Mogador Island, MMC-010, 1.viii.2000, intertidal
crevices and pools among stones, 7 specimens, red and green colours, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Kaoki,
North Essauira, MMC-011, 29.iii.2013, located in holes at the rocky platform, 4 medium to big spec-
imens and one juvenil from inside the specimens, red, green and brown colours, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi
Mghit (North Asilah), MMC-012, 17.vi.2000, mesolitoral on small pools, crevices, slopes and under
big boulders, 7 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Aiun, Western Sahara, MMC-017, September 2002, inter-
tidal area, under stones, 8 specimens, O. Ocaña leg., Porto Rico, MMC-013, 22.ii.2012, intertidal,
rocky platform with holes and also under stones, 3 specimens, red color, Francisca Serrais leg. Dakhla,
MMC-014, 20.ii.2012, stony intertidal area, 12 small specimens, red and green colours, Javier Mar-
tin Barrios leg.
Strait of Gibraltar coast of Morocco: North of Kasar Seguer, MMC-015, 25.v.2003, stony
intertidal, under stones and very shallow pools from upper mesolitoral and supralitoral, juvenils in-
side, 4 specimens, red color, O. Ocaña leg. Punta Siri, MMC-016, 11.ii.2001, under stones in stony
intertidal area, red color, O. Ocaña leg.
12
Actinia schmidti from Dakhla.
24,5 µ
Some characteristics cnidae for A. schmidti
(taken from Dakhla material)
Homotrichs from P-mastigophore B-1
acrorhagie from filaments
Mediterranean Morocco: Cala Iris, (FMM-BM-AA-7=MMC-017), 10.vi.2000, 2 specimens,
O. Ocaña leg., upper littoral on boulder, red colour. Ceuta: Maritime moat, MMC-018, 5.iii.1999, in-
tertidal in pools and walls, 5 specimens, red color, O. Ocaña leg.
Diagnosis: The species presents the typical expected morphology and color (commonly red
but also green and even brownish was observed). Enlarged typical endodermic sphincter
and well developed retractors in the mesenteries. We find very well developed acrorhagi
at the upper margin; characteristic homotrichs with the tuve arranged spirally all along in
the acrorhagi and p-mastigophores B-1 in the filaments. Viviparism was observed in some
specimens (see material examined).
Habitat: This taxon has been recorded mainly in intertidal areas, from pools to platforms,
covered by seaweeds. Exceptionally, it can occur also under stones, in shallow waters up
to 5 metres deep.
Distribution and abundance: We
recorded it from Madeira and the Ca-
nary Islands: Lanzarote, Fuerteven-
tura, Gran Canaria and Tenerife. It
seems to be absent from La Gomera,
La Palma and EI Hierro. The species
is not common in Central Macarone-
sia (Canary Islands and Madeira), but
is more common in Fuerteventura and
Lanzarote than in any other island that
we have searched. The species was
previously known from the western
Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast
of Morocco (OCAÑA et al., 2005).
Remarks:Actinia schmidti is well
distributed along the Atlantic coast of
Morocco and belong to the group I
(homotrichs with the tube arranged
spirally all along and presence of p-
mastigophores B-1 in the filaments)
(see OCAÑA et al., 2005). Both char-
acters together with the presence of
larger b-mastigophore (=spirulae) in
the tentacles are typical for this
species. The species was previously
recorded from Morocco as Actinia
equina (see PATRITI, 1970) and much
more recently as Actinia schmidti
(OCAÑA et al., 2005).
13
Actinia sp. from Dakhla.
Actinia sp.
Remarks: Possibly we found in Dakhla (Sahara region) a new species belonging to the
genus Actinia. The specimens were observed under stones in low tide, and all of them
showed an ochreous colour and sparse green spots at the body wall.The green spots are ex-
clusively known in the species A. fragacea but it never presents this ochreous colour. Un-
fortunatelly, we lost the material during the travel back to Spain, so only the collection of
new material will solve this identification problem.
14
Actinia striata from Ceuta region (Juan Junoy
& Alfonso Herrera-Bachiller).
Some characteristics cnidae for A. striata
(taken from Kasar Seguer)
Homotrichs from large b-mastigophore
acrorhagie from the pharynx
24,5 µ
Actinia striata Risso, 1826
Actinia depressa Rapp, 1829
Paractis striata Jourdan, 1880. The author describes the lack of acrorhagi in the species.
Paractinia striata, Andres, 1884. A new genus erected, due to the lack of acrorhagi presence in some
specimens.
Actinia striata, Schmidt, 1971 and 1972. Complete anatomical description and cnidom data; its habi-
tat and reproduction pathern are remarkably characters.
Actinia striata, Tur, 1989: He thinks A. striata and A. virgata could be the same species.
Actinia striata, Ocaña, Brito & González, 2005: cnidoma data comparison among several species
including the species in the Group II. Cnidom characteristics differentiate A. striata from A. virgata.
Material examined: Strait of Gibraltar coast of Morocco: North of Kasar Seguer, MMC-
019, 25.v.2003, stony intertidal, under stones in mesolitoral, 1 specimen, pinkish color with
longitudinal stripes, O. Ocaña leg. Oued el Marsa, MMC-023, June 1998, under stone in
shallow waters, two specimens, O. Ocaña leg.
Mediterranean Morocco: Cala Iris, (FMM-BM-AA-7=MMC-020), 10.vi.2000, 1
specimen, O. Ocaña leg., shallow waters, under stones, pinkish with longitudinal stripes.
Remarks: LÓPEZ-GONZÁLEZ (1993) recorded this species in Ceuta, however, he men-
tioned to be present in the African coast of the Strait of Gibraltar. We have recorded the
species in differente spots of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast.
15
Typical homotrichs
from the Acrorhagies
of A. fragacea
(taken from Sidi Ifni material)
24,5 µ
Actinia fragacea from Sidi Ifni
Actinia fragacea Tugwell, 1856
Actinia fragacea Tugwell, 1856: 98
Actinia mesembryanthemum var. fragacea Gosse, 1860: brief description of the colour and size, plate
vi, fig. 6.
Actinia fragacea, Teissier and Teissier, 1930: 190: based on Gosse information, claims for a separate
species.
Actinia equina var. fragacea, Stephenson, 1935: 114. Data of shape and colour; Patriti, 1970: 116-
117. Diagnosis with colour, shape and external morphology, juvenils inside the coelenteron (vivipa-
rous) was observed also for this author.
Actinia fragacea, Manuel, 1981 and 1988:101.
Actinia equina spp. fragacea, Schmidt, 1971 y 1972. Based on coloration, habitat, reproduction path-
ern and the cnidome characters; the subspecies is stablished by the author.
Actinia fragacea, Carter & Thorpe, 1981. Genetics data supported A. fragacea as a separate species.
Actinia fragacea López González, 1993: 250-253, description and some data about the cnidome,
habitat and distribution include the Rabat and Casablanca area but without studied material.
Actinia fragacea, Ocaña, Brito & González, 2005: cnidoma data comparison among several species
including the species in the Group II.
Material examined:Atlantic Morocco: Sidi Rahal beach, MMC-024, 29.vii.2000, in crevices of the
flat rocky platform, 1 specimen, red color with greenish spots O. Ocaña leg. Oualidia, MMC-031,
31.iii, 2013, 1 meter deepn, in a hole of S. alveolata colony at a mesolitoral big pool, 1 specimen, O.
Ocaña leg. Beddouza Cape, MMC-021, 7xii.2001, flat rocky platform with algae, in crevices, 2 spec-
16
imens, red color with greenish spots in the body wall. Bhaibeh beach, MMC-022, 30.vii.2000, in-
tertidal pools, 2 specimens, red color with greenish spots, O. Ocaña leg. Bhaibeh beach, MMC-027,
30.vii.2000, intertidal in the pools, 6 specimens, red color with greenish spots, O. Ocaña leg. Im-
souane beach and harbour, MMC-023, 8.xii.2001, intertidal platforms, in mesolitoral canals, 3 big
specimens, red color with greenish spots, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-025,
2.viii.2000, intertidal on mussels in shadow places, crevices inside Sabellaria alveolata colonies,
mesolitoral and first meters of the infralitoral, 7 specimens, red color with greenish spots in the body
wall, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni beach, MMC-026, 1.viii.2000, intertidal area with boulders and flat plat-
form areas, under stones and crevices, 1 specimen, red color, O. Ocaña leg. Tan Tan beach, MMC-
029, 8.iv.2001, in pools and small crevices in the mesolitoral platform, 3 specimens, red color with
greenish spots, O. Ocaña leg. Aiun, Western Sahara, MMC-028, 6.ix.2002, intertidal area, under
stones, 4 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Mghit (NorthAsilah), MMC-030, 17.vi.2000, mesolitoral on
small crevices and in holes of the Sabellaria alveolata colonies, 4 specimens, O. Ocaña leg.
Strait of Gibraltar coast of Morocco: North of Kasar Seguer, MMC-032, 25.v.2003, stony
intertidal, under stones in mesolitoral, 1 specimen, red color with greenish spots, O. Ocaña leg. Punta
Siri, MMC-033, 11.ii.2001, under stones in shallow waters, 1 meters deep, red color with greenish
spots, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species can be recorded along the Moroccan atlantic coast and Sahara re-
gion but we did not find the species in Dakhla.
Bunodosoma biscayensis (Fisher, 1874)
Bunodes biscayensis Fisher, 1874: 229-231. External description and remark on the multilobulate
verrucae. We find also this character in the big specimens.
Bunodosoma diadema Patriti, 1970:117. Just some external data, the red color was recorded previ-
ously by this autor.
Phymactis diadema Carlgren, 1934: 21. Anatomical description including some data on cnidome,
sphincter depicted, material from South Rabat.
Bunodosoma biscayensis den Hartog, 1987: Complete description and detailed cnidae with the cat-
egories, distribution and mesaurements. Images of histology and cnidae. Acuarian images.
Bunodosoma biscayensis López González, 1993: 269-275 External description and some data about
the anatomy and the cnidae. Anatomical and acuarian images.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Sidi Mghit (South of Asilah), MMC-042, 17.vi.2000, mesoli-
toral on small pools, buryed in sand and among big boulders, 5 specimens, pale brownish color, O.
Ocaña leg. Sidi Rahal beach, MMC-046, 29.vii.2000, buryed in pools and rocky platform, 2 speci-
mens, O. Ocaña leg. Between Oualidia and Beddouza Cape (South Oualidia), MMC-045, 7.xii.2001,
buryied in upper mesolitoral with Fucus and mussels reefs, 3 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Bhaibeh
beach, MMC-043, 30.vii.2000, mesolitoral, pools and crevices, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Bhaibeh
beach, MMC-044, 6.iv.2001, mesolitoral, pools, 1 specimen, O. Ocaña leg. Imsouane beach and har-
bour, MMC-036, 8.xii.2001, intertidal platforms, small pools of the mesolitoral and supralitoral, 3 big
specimens, in crevices of the pools, we observed mollusk feeders? on B. biscayensis, O. Ocaña leg.
Among Agadir and Tiguert cape (30 km North Agadir), MMC-035, 8.iv.2001, walls and crevices in
the pools, 3 specimens, 2 with brown column with grey verrucs, disc and tentacles red and blue; 1
especimen with tentacles and column deep red, O. Ocaña leg. Aiun, Western Sahara, MMC-034,
6.ix.2002, intertidal area, buryed in shallow pools, 3 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni, Legzira
17
beach, MMC-038, 2.viii.2000, intertidal on pools: buryied in crevices or also understones, 9 speci-
mens a bit macerated, three specimens of fedder mollusks (Nassarius cf. reticulatus), several colours
but normally brown color with cream tentacles and disc or commonly also with red and blue tenta-
cles and disc, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-037, 2.viii.2000, shallow waters 1-3 me-
ters deep also intertidal on pools but much more rare, 3 specimens, tentacles, disc and colunm
included verrucae are deep red coloured, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-040, 6.ix.2002,
intertidal, pools among mussels reefs, 4 specimens, several colours, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni beach,
MMC-039, 1.viii.2000, intertidal area with boulders and flat platform areas, buryied in the sediment
and attached on stones, 10 specimens a bit macerated; one specimen eating small mussels, 7 speci-
mens in good conditions, several colours, O. Ocaña leg. Tan Tan beach, MMC-041, 8.iv.2001, mesoli-
toral, in pools, understones and buryed in the sediment, 9 specimens and one very small, O. Ocaña
leg. Dakhla, MMC-047, 19.ii.2012, understone in intertidal rocky platform with stones and sand, 1
specimen, O. Ocaña leg.
Cape Verde Islands: Tarrafal, SaoTiago, MMC-048, 15.viii.2002, intertidal in crevices under
calcareous algae at coastal clift, 1 specimen, red colour with some white verrucae, O. Ocaña leg.
Diagnosis: The verrucae (simple or with several lobes, although normally two) cover the
whole column and the arrangement along longitudinal rows cannot be easily distinguished,
acrorhagi present. HARTOG (1987) describes the colour and its variability in the Arca-
chon population. We find the colour patterns observed by the previous author, but we also
observed a great variety of colours along the distribution range.Tipically the specimens ob-
served present ochreous colour with some of the verrucae grey in the column; other spec-
imens show a mixture of both colour with a high number of grey verrucae. The bands
colour pattern described by FISCHER (1874) and HARTOG (1987) generally lack in our
material. Specimens completely red coloured seems to be present only at Africa coast from
Tanger till Senegal; tentacles with red and blue stripes is a very characteristic colour pat-
tern in this species, and can be found in Europe and also in Africa. Small specimens de-
veloped in crevices and littlel pools can be easily overlooked, big and medium size
specimens are very conspicuous to the observers. The measurements and distribution of the
cnidae agree very well with the previous works, but some data merits to be commented: in
the body wall the smaller b-mastigophore (spirulae) catagorie may lack or be sporadic; the
size of the cnidae present some measurements differences among the population, regard-
ing that bigger specimens present also bigger homotrichs in the acrorhagi. Although these
differences are included in the variation range of this wide distributed taxon.
Remarks: Dana includes a description of Bunodes diadema (Actinia diadema) in his paper
in 1846, including the drawing that Drayton did the same year. The drawing shows the
shape of such species recorded from Cape Verde Islands. CARLGREN (1949) included
the species into the genus Bunodosoma; later, the same author (see CARLGREN 1934)
studied material from South Rabat (Morocco) and, as well as Dana did with the material
from Cape Verde Islands, referred the species to Phymactis diadema. Carlgren in 1939 re-
vised the material of Dana, including anatomical description and sphincter depicted, as-
signed definitely the material to Bunodosoma diadema from Cape Verde and remarks the
possible differences among this material and the other from Rabat studied by himself some
years before. PATRITI (1970), following Dana’s work, identified Bunodosoma diadema as
a common species from Moroccan Atlantic coast. Carlgren’s intuition (see CARLGREN,
18
Bunodosoma cf. diadema from Cape Verde Islands (CANCAP).
1939) may be right as Bunodosoma diadema can be a valid species and occurs at the Cape
Verde Islands (should be also present in other tropical West Africa sites), and it is appar-
ently different from B. biscayensis in the external apparience. In the continental coast Bun-
odosoma biscayensis (see HARTOG, 1987) is widely distributed from tropical West Africa
along theAfrican coast till South Portugal, including some special environments at France;
the species is also present at Cape Verde Islands. Morphological characters of the analized
material, assigned to B. Biscayensis, agree very well with the descriptions from the previ-
ous authors (see HARTOG, 1987). The last author also collected material in the Cape
Verde Archipelago that does not present a dense packet verrucae in the column (accord-
ing to Drayton’s drawing) and can be easily assigned to the species B. diadema. However,
our material of Bunodosoma collected at Sao Tiago and Sal islands is clearly identified as
B. biscayensis.
The drawing from Drayton of B. diadema agrees with the information of such
species that we have from the CANCAP expedition; we include images of this material.
These images are supporting the possible presence of a different species of Bunodosoma
(B. diadema) at the CapeVerde Islands, although the only way to solve this problem should
be the revision of the material from Dana Expedition and also all the CANCAP material
belonguing to such genus. After all, the presence of B. biscayensis at the Cape Verde re-
marks the possibility of that B. biscayensis can be synonymous of B. diadema. We leave
Bunodosoma biscayensis as a valid name pending the CANCAP material revision in order
to take an accurate decition about Bunodosoma diadema.
19
20
Unfortunately, J. C. den Hartog overlooked the paper and did not recognize the
species in PATRITI (1970). This is the first record from Morocco; nevertheless, den Har-
tog had previously remarked the possible presence of the species along the Moroccan lit-
toral (see HARTOG, 1987) and Portugal. The species is also recorded for the first time
in Cape Verde and some images showing the external characters of the species from the
Gulf of Guinea (although the last record should be confirmed checking material). At-
tending to the distribution pathern, it seems to be a species from the North WesternAfrica
Some characteristics cnidae for B. biscayensis (taken from Sidi Ifni material)
Homotrich from Acrorhagi Homotrich and Spirulae from Body wall Spirulae from tentacles
24,5 µ
Some characteristics cnidae for B. biscayensis (taken from Cape Verde material)
Homotrich from Acrorhagi Spirulae from Body wall Spirulae from tentacles
24,5 µ
21
Bunodosoma biscayensis from Dakhla.
Bunodosoma biscayensis from Sidi Ifni.
Bunodosoma biscayensis, Cameroon, P. Wirtz.
From the left to the right: Bunodosoma biscayensis, Sao Tomé, P. Wirtz; Bunodosoma biscayensis
from Principe, P. Wirtz; Bunodosoma biscayensis from Cape Verde Islands (CANCAP Expedition)
(with clear subtropical/tropical affinities) that can reach appropriate Northern habitats
and survive on them (maybe the European populations reached these coasts during the last
warm period along the Pleistocene). The species has been recorded in Portugal (Nuno
Vasco sent this information). Nevertheless, a general study of material from different
coasts should be interesting to determinate the variation range and also possible differ-
ent species along such extended geographical range. Above, some characteristic cnidae
and colour images are shown from different localities along West African coasts. The
species Ocenebra erinaceus has been observed frequently on the base and in the body
wall near the base of this species.
Anemonia sulcata (Pennant, 1777)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Imsouane beach and harbour, MMC-049, 8.xii.2001, inter-
tidal platforms, mesolitoral with important populations (see biological sites and habitats), 8 speci-
mens, greenish color with purple tips in tentacles, Ocenebra erinaceus may feed on the specimens,
O. Ocaña leg. Moulay Bouzerktoum (30 km North Essauira), MMC-050, 7.xii.2001, upper mesoli-
toral, 2 specimens, O.Ocaña leg. Tan Tan beach, MMC-051, 8.iv.2001, mesolitoral, 2 specimens, O.
Ocaña leg. Sidi Rahal beach, MMC-052, 29.vii.2000, mesolitoral, in big pools, 4 specimens, O.
Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-053, 2.viii.2000, intertidal, in pools, 5 specimens, red
color, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi Ifni beach, MMC-054, 1.viii.2000, intertidal area with boulders and flat
platform areas, in pools with sand and understones, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Dakhla, MMC-055,
19.ii.2012, intertidal area, rocky platform with stones, understones, 1 specimen, O. Ocaña leg.
Strait of Gibraltar coast of Morocco: Playa delAvión (área destruida por Tanger-Med), MMC-
056, 11.ii.2001, under stones in stony bottom, shallow water, 0.5 m, 1 specimen, Spurilla neapolitana
feeding on the column, O. Ocaña leg.
22
Mediterranean Morocco: Cala Iris, MMC-057, 29.ix.2001, 3 specimens, O. Ocaña leg., shal-
low waters, on rocky bottom, under stones.
Remarks:The species is widely distributed along Morocco and Western Sahara.
Anemonia melanaster (Verrill, 1907)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Dakhla, MMC-058, 19.ii.2012, intertidal area, rocky plat-
form with stones, understones, 4 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Dakhla, MMC-059, 23.ii.2012, shallow
waters in rocky platform with stones, among rocky platform with algae and understones, 2 specimens,
O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: First record from Mo-
rocco, but only found in the ex-
treme southern region near
Mauritania. Also from Senegal
there are some images of A.
melanaster, and possibly the
species may be distributed in the
Gulf of Guinea. A. melanaster is
the typical anphiatlantic species
widespread in subtropical/tropi-
cal region (see OCAÑA & HAR-
TOG, 2002), also found in the
Azores (see WIRTZ et al., 2003)
and recorded in both shores of
the Atlantic Ocean. The angular
morphology of the homotrichs
from the acrorhagies is very
characteristic of this species.
23
Characteristics cnidae from acrorhagie
of Anemonia melanaster
Homotrichs Spirulae o b-mastigophore
24,5 µ
Anemonia melanaster from Dakhla (left); acrorhagie morphology (right).
Anthopleura thallia from Dakhla.
24
Anthopleura thallia (Gosse, 1854)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
?Anthopleura balli Patriti, 1970:117. Just some external data; acrorhagie present in the material anal-
ized by the author.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Imsouane beach and harbour, MMC-060, 8.xii.2001, inter-
tidal platforms, supralitoral pools, 5 specimens, color similar to the Canary Islands populations, O.
Ocaña leg. Dakhla, MMC-061, 20.ii.2012, stony intertidal area, 2 small specimens, pinkish colum
with dark capitulum in retracted conditions, Javier Martin Barrios leg. Dakhla, MMC-062, 19.ii.2012,
intertidal area, rocky platform with stones, understones, 2 specimens, pinkish colum with dark ca-
pitulum in retracted conditions, O. Ocaña leg.
Typical homotrichs from the Acrorhagies
of A. thallia (taken from Imsouane material)
24,5 µ
Typical spirulae (b-mastigophores) from the body wall
and the zooxanthellae (right) from the endodermic tissue of the A. balli
24,5 µ
25
Mediterranean Sea: Ceuta: San Amaro, MMC-063, 09.ix.2000, mesolitoral, in small pools,
7 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Monte Hacho, South Bay, MMC-064, vi, 2001, mesolitoral, in small
pools, 7 specimens, orange color in the column and white stripes in the disc, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: Colour and homotrichs from
Acrorhagies are very important to recognize
the species; this is the first record from Mo-
rocco. Patriti comments, on the material as-
signed to A. balli in his paper, exhibit the
existence of acrorhagies in his material
(small to medium size specimens) from Mo-
rocco. The common absence of acrorhagie
in small to medium size specimens of A.
balli advice us to have in mind that perhaps
the specimens assigned to A. balli by PA-
TRITI (1970) should be refered to A. thallia.
After all, A. balli is extremely rare in Mo-
rocco (only found in the Strait of Gibraltar),
meanwhile A. thallia is a quite common
species along theAtlantic coast of Morocco.
Anthopleura ballii (Cocks, 1851)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002
Material examined: Strait of Gibraltar coast of Morocco: Playa del Avión (destroyed by Tanger-
Med), MMC-065, 11.ii.2001, mesolitoral, understone, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The presence of zooxanthellae in the endodermic tissues of our material is one
of the key character to recognized A. balli distinguishing from A. thallia. It is possible that
Patriti was in confusion with A. thallia, a common species in the Atlantic of Morocco.
Bunodactis rubripunctata. One specimen from Dakhla, it was not collected.
Typical homotrichs and b-mastigophore
from the verrucs and wall of B. rubripunctata
(material from Tan Tan)
24,5 µ
Typical homotrichs and b-mastigophore
from the verrucs and wall of B. rubripunctata
(material from Cape Verde)
24,5 µ
26
Bunodactis rubripunctata (Grube, 1840)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Moulay Bouzerktoum (30 km North Essauira), MMC-066,
7.xii.2001, mesolitoral centre and near infralitoral, 5 specimens, O.Ocaña leg. Tan Tan beach, MMC-
067, 8.iv.2001, mesolitoral, under stone, 1specimen, O. Ocaña leg. Oualidia, MMC-068, 6.iv.2001,
mesolitoral, in pools, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña
leg. Sidi Rahal beach, MMC-069, 29.vii.2000,
mesolitoral, buryed in the rocky platform and
also in the pools, 4 specimens, O. Ocaña leg.
Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-070, 2.viii.2000,
intertidal, burryed in sand, 2 specimens, O.
Ocaña leg. Bhiha beach, MMC-071,
30.vii.2000, intertidal in pools, 1 specimen, O.
Ocaña leg. Bhiha beach, MMC-072, 6.iv.2001,
mesolitoral, pools and rocky platform, 3 speci-
Bunodactis verrucosa from Dakhla.
27
mens, O. Ocaña leg. Cape Verde Islands: MMC-073, 15.viii.2002, intertidal in crevices under cal-
careous algae at coastal clift, 2 specimens, redish colour, O. Ocaña leg.
Mediterranean, Ceuta: Monte Hacho, South Bay, MMC-074, vi, 2001, mesolitoral, in small
crevice, 1 specimen, near A. schmidti and A. thallia, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species was previously recorded from Morocco (see OCAÑA & HARTOG,
2002), and now we add the collection data and distribution along the North African coast.
The species has been found at the Cape Verde Islands for the first time, so it is quite pos-
sible its presence along the tropical coast ofWestAfrica. The distribution pathern followed
by this species is similar to what is known for B. biscayensis.
Bunodactis verrucosa (Pennant, 1777)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-075, 6.ix.2002, mesolitoral, crevice in small
pool, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Tan Tan beach, MMC-076, 8.iv.2001, mesolitoral, understone, 2
specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Bhaibeh beach, MMC-077, 30.vii.2000, intertidal in pools, 5 specimens and
Actinostella cf. flosculifera from Cape Verde
(CANCAP).
Actinostella. cf. flosculifera, shallow waters,
Cameroon, P. Wirtz.
28
2-3 juvenils, O. Ocaña leg. Bhaibeh beach, MMC-078, 6.iv.2001, mesolitoral, partially buryied in
pools, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Dakhla, MMC-079, 23.ii.2012, mesolitoral, understone in rocky
platform with sediment, 1 specimen, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species was previously recorded from Morocco (see OCAÑA & HARTOG,
2002) and now we add the collection data and distribution along the North African coast.
Actinostella cf. flosculifera (Lesueur, 1817)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Remarks: The images show typical characters of this species, remarking the two faces
(day and night) showed by A. flosculifera, although studying the material is the only way
to confirm the presence at Cape Verde Islands; we can not reject the presence of more than
one species along the North African coast. This is apparently the first record from
Cameroon, Senegal and CapeVerde Islands. The species is typically found in bottoms with
sediment and stones and also can tolerate important quantities of organic matter dissolved
in the water (first author personal observation in Cuba Island).
Andresia cf. partenopea from Gran Canaria
(Sanchez Cuervo).
Typical large spirulae from the tentacles
of Andresia parthenopea,
taken from Madeira material
24,5 µ
29
Family ANDRESIIDAE Stephenson 1922
Andresia partenopea (Andres, 1884)
Ilyanthus partenopeus Andres, 1884: external morphology and colour varities, drowings based on
acuarian specimens. Gulf of Naples, Mediterranean.
Andresia parthenopea Carlgren, 1949: 33; just the family and genus diagnosis and references.
Andresia partenopea Schmidt, 1972: 61-63; complete description and cnidome data, high quality
black and white underwater images. Atlantic and Mediterranean distribution.
Andresia partenopea den Hartog & Ates, 2011: 33-34 the paper includes cnidome data and refer-
ences but not images. Ría de Arosa, Galicia. Also referenced for Atlantic coast of France and even
Eastern Mediterranean.
Andresia parthenopea Wirtz, 2013. Just the record and an underwater image of the species in its
habitat. Madeira.
Material examined: Madeira, Quinta do Lorde marina, near Caniçal, MMC-080, ii.2006, 18 m, sand
bottom, 1 specimen, P. Wirtz leg.
Remarks:A. parthenopea (=A. partenopea) has been recorded recently in Madeira Ar-
chipelago (see Wirtz, 2013). We include some images from the Canaries that may belong
to this species although morphological confirmation is needed, this can be first record from
the Canaries and also from Senegal.The species is possibly spread along the NorthAfrican
Atlantic coast.
30
Family HORMATHIIDAE Carlgren, 1925
Phelliactis hertwigi Simon (1892)
Material examined: Tenerife, Candelaria, Canary Islands, MMC-081, 20.xii.2011, lost fishing bas-
ket, 400 meters deep, 3 specimens, Javier Martín Barrios leg.
To check synonymous list see Riemann-Zürneck, 1973; Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Remarks: The species had been recorded in the Canaries previously (CARLGREN, 1934;
OCAÑA& HARTOG, 2002), but life observations and cnidome study are included to com-
plete the information gathered by RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK in 1973 (see below). P. hertwigi has
been recorded and studied under differents taxonomical names. STEPHENSON (1918)
(also GRAVIER, 1922) did not succeed in recognizing the species previously described by
Simon in 1892, and perhaps their descriptions are not well pointed to the species identifi-
cation as it happens nowadays, but the habitus drawings (see STEPHENSON, 1918: plate
XV figure 3), and even the black and white images, allow us to recognize some important
characters of the species (see GRAVIER, 1922: planche IV, fig., 39) that can be also noticed
in the new colour images printed here. Although some external characters are not exclusively
found in Phelliactis but in others hormathidae species, the constant presence of “thickened
white aboral swellings of mesogloea” in the tentacles is well described by STEPHENSON
(1918) and others authors. CARLGREN (1942) includes in his description of P. hertwigi a
good sintesis of the color features showed by the species. P. hertwigii may include a num-
ber of closer species grouped by the shape and the presence of six couples of perfect mesen-
teries; other characteristics should diferenciate the species included in such group, as in the
case of P. capricornis and P. pelophila (see RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK, 1973). Althouth the lack
of pointed descriptions are an extended fact in the genus, some species (see P. coccinea and
P. pulchra listed by RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK, 1973) may be synonymous of P. hertwigi. The
wide external variability, apparently showed by this species, make difficult its identification;
often this variability is not well understood, being more than one species mixed up under
the same name (see RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK, 1973). Cnidom characters (measurements, lo-
cation and morphology) are usefull descriptors also in this genus. P. michaelsarsi present
quite different measurements in the cnidom of the acontiae, much more smaller in P. her-
twigi (see RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK, 1986). P. incerta from the gulf of Cádiz is included by
RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK (1973) in the synonymous list of P. hertwigi; the similarities are ob-
vious, even in the cnidom generalities, but the long and thick penicillie found in the tenta-
cles (see CARLGREN, 1934: 15) is not present in P. hertwigi (see RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK,
1973: 297; see our cnidom data). Acnidom comparison between the species of Phelliactis
is usefull for taxonomical purposes, not only the measurements but also the morphology
can show some differences; the enlarged and curved spirulae type from tentacles is some-
thing typical from P. hertwigi and apparently unknown in other species of the same genus
with printed cnidom images (see RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK, 1973 and 1986).
Supplementary information after RIEMANN-ZÜRNECK paper in 1973: New data
about the cnidom, the colour and habitus of the Canary Island specimens are included in
Phelliactis hertwigi from Tenerife.
31
the present paper.Very few information is known from the bathyal bottoms around the Ca-
naries, so it is possible that P. hertwigi can be locally abundant. Three specimens from the
South of Tenerife were collected in 2011; body measurements are similar to the specimen
showed by CARLGREN (1910) and collected North East off Fuerteventura. The enlarged
and curved spirulae with short shaft from tentacles can be a pointed character in order to
distinguish P. hertwigi from others of the same genus. The cnidom measurements and cat-
egories showed in this paper are widely consistent with what was known for P. hertwigi (see
CARLGREN, 1942; RIEMAN-ZÜRNECK, 1973). The presence of large spirulae in the
body wall should be due to a contamination from the acontia.
Phelliactis hertwigi
Tentacles Pharynx Filaments
Spirocysts Spirulae Spirulae Penicilli Spirulae Penicilli
Phelliactis hertwigi
Acontiae Body wall
Spirulae Spirulae Penicilli
24,5 µ
32
Tissue Nematocysts type Frequency
Range of lenghth and with of the
nematocysts capsules in µm
Acontias Spirulae (19-23) × (2) c-rc
Spirulae (30-40) × (3-4) vc
Tentacles Spirulae (10-16) × (1.5-2) r
Spirulae (33-35) × (4) uc-rc
Spirulae (30-45) × (3-4) c
Spirocysts (35-50) × (5-8) vc
Pharynx Penicilli (32-35) × (4) c
Spirulae (30-36) × (3-4) c
Filaments Penicilli (25-30) × (4) c
Spirulae (13-15) × (2) rc
Spirulae (30-34) × (3-4) c
Body wall Penicilli (27-36) × (3.5-4) rc
Spirulae (35-36) × (3) uc
Spirulae (10-20) × (1.5-3) c-vc
Calliactis parasitica from Mauritania (CANCAP).
33
Adamsia carciniopados (Otto, 1823)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002
Material examined:Mediterranean Morocco: M’dik harbour, MMC-082, 10.ix.2001, 1 specimen,
collected from the fishermen nets, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species was previously recorded from Morocco (see OCAÑA & HARTOG,
2002), we have observed specimens in the Essauria harbour and Bhaibeh beach (Atlantic
Morocco).
Calliactis parasitica (Couch, 1838)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Western Sahara:
Dakhla, MMC-083, Febreary, 2012, 6
specimens, collected from the fishermen
nets, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species was previ-
ously recorded from Morocco (see
PATRITI, 1970 and also OCAÑA &
HARTOG, 2002), we also observed
specimens in the Bhaibeh beach in
the fishermen nets.
Hormathia cf. coronata from Mauritania (CANCAP).
34
Hormathia cf. coronata (Gosse, 1858)
Bunodes coronata Gosse, 1860: 202-204, general description and color details. Plate VII, fig. 4 shows
a very characteristic drawing of such species.
Hormathia coronata, Stephenson, 1935: 269-275, general description including anatomical details
and some data about cnidome.
Hormathia coronata, Carlgren, 1949: 92, main references and distribution, up to 90 meters.
Hormathia coronata, den Hartog, 1977b: 237-244, remarks about the slightly differences among H.
coronata,C. brodricii and P. expansa; cnidome images, plate II.
Hormathia coronata, Schmidt, 1972: 29-32, general and anatomical description, cnidome and hábi-
tat information, Abb 20.
Hormathia coronata, Manuel, 1981 y 1988: 166-167, external descriptions, hábitat and distribution,
fig. 57.
Hormathia coronata, Tur, 1989: 87-94, general and anatomical descriptions, cnidome measurements
and drawings of them, figs. 19, 20 and Lámina II fig. e.
Remarks: The images show the typical shape and color pattern of the species H. coro-
nata, although the material should be studied before its definitive identification.
Actinothoe sphyrodeta from Sidi Ifni.
35
Familia SAGARTIIDAE Gosse,1858
Actinothoe sphyrodeta (Gosse, 1858)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Imsouane beach and harbour, MMC-084, 8.xii.2001, inter-
tidal platforms, in the mesolitoral channels and shadow places with water movement, 25-28 speci-
mens, whitish color with green stripes in the column, O. Ocaña leg. Tan Tan beach, MMC-085,
8.iv.2001, mesolitoral and infralitoral in shallow waters, 20-30 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Bhaibeh
beach, MMC-086, 6.iv.2001, mesolitoral, pools, also shallow infralitoral, 5 specimens, O. Ocaña leg.
Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-087, 2.viii.2000, near infralitoral on mussels reefs and understones
in the rocky platform, also in shallow waters till 10 meters deep, whitish tentacles and colunm with
green longitudianal stripes, numerous specimens of small size, O. Ocaña leg.
Strait of Gibraltar coast of Morocco:
Playa del Avión (destroyed by Tanger-Med),
MMC-088, 11.ii.2001, understone in stony bot-
tom, shallow waters, 0.5 m, 1 specimen, O.
Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species has been previously
recorded from Morocco (see PATRITI,
1970). This is a common species along the
shallow infralitoral and it is also present in
large mesolitoral pools.
Sagartia troglodytes
Tentacles
Spirulae Spirulae Homotrich Penicilli
24,5 µ
36
Sagartia troglodytes (Price, 1847)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Imsouane beach and harbour, MMC-089, 8.xii.2001, inter-
tidal platforms, supralitoral pools, 6 specimens, close to A. thallia,A. schmidti and B. biscayensis, O.
Ocaña leg.
Remarks: This is the first record from Morocco. The species has been recently recorded
from Madeira (seeWIRTZ, 2013).Typically, the species present in the tentacles several ne-
matocysts capsules: two spirulae, one penicilli and one homotrich.
Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant, 1777)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Oualidia, MMC-063, 06.iv.2001, upper mesolitoral and
supralitoral pools, buryied in sand, 6 specimens, red and green colours, O. Ocaña leg.
Mediterranean Morocco: Cala Iris, MMC-090, 29.ix.2001, 4 specimens, O. Ocaña leg., shal-
low waters, 0.5 m, under stones, partially buryed in sand.
Remarks: This species was recorded previously from Morocco (see OCAÑA & HAR-
TOG, 2002).
Aiptasia couchii from Agadir bottoms.
37
Familia AIPTASIIDAE Carlgren, 1924
Aiptasia couchii (Cooks, 1851)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Mediterranean Morocco: Cala Iris, MMC-091, 29.xii.2001, 3 specimens, O.
Ocaña leg., shallow waters,1 m, under stones.
Remarks: A morphological revision of the
genus Aiptasia and the Aiptasiidae family
has been recently published (see GRA-
JALES & RODRÍGUEZ, 2014), and the
previous species Aiptasia mutabilis have
split up in two different species: Aiptasia
couchii and Aiptasia mutabilis.A. mutabilis
is restricted to the Mediterranean but A.
couchi is widely distributed along the
North East Atlantic and also the Mediter-
ranean. A. couchii had been recorded pre-
viously from Morocco (see PATRITI,
1970).
Aiptasiogeton hyalinus cf. from Mauritanian coast (CANCAP).
38
Aiptasiogeton hyalinus (Delle Chiaje, 1825)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Imsouane beach and harbour, MMC-092, 8.xii.2001, inter-
tidal platforms, mesolitoral chanels, growing inside big Balanus sp., 1 specimen, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species has been recorded previously from Morocco (see OCAÑA & HAR-
TOG, 2002). It was exclusively found in Imsouane. The species is apparently also present
in Mauritany but it should be confirmed checking the material from CANCAP expedition.
39
Bellactis caeruleus Ocaña, den Hartog & Brito new species
Material examined: Holotype, MMC-19, Cape Verde Arquipelago: Tarrafal, Sao Tiago,15.viii.2002,
8 meters deep, small crevices in stony bottoms with sand, partially buryied in sand, 0.8 cm high ×
1 cm broad semi-retracted specimen, dissected and stained, O. Ocaña leg. Paratype; MMC-20, 0,7
cm high × 0.5 cm broad, semi-retracted specimen sectioned and stained for anatomical purposes.
Paratype, MMC-21, 0.8 cm high × 0.8 cm broad, semi-retracted specimen with numerous acontiae.
Paratype, MMC-22, 0.5 cm high × 1 cm broad, retracted specimen. Paratype, MMC-23, 0.4 cm
high × 1 cm broad, strongly retracted specimen, pedal laceration abundant. Paratype, MMC-24, 0.4
cm high × 0.3 cm broad, very small semi-retracted specimen. Paratype, MMC-25, specimen inside
hydrocoral.
Diagnosis: Measurements in fixed conditions: 1 cm high × 1 cm broad; one small speci-
men measured 0.4 cm high × 0.3 cm broad. External anatomy and colour. Up to 120 short
pointed tentacles grouped in six cycles on a lobed capitulum (one small specimen shows
four cycles). Short column in fixed conditions but surely it can be expanded considerably
as it usually happens in the species of this family. Irregular base with evident pedal lacer-
ation processes. Colum grey, disc and tentacles are blue coloured with some ochreous spots
in the tentacles; white acontia. Microanatomy: Two first cycles macrocnemes with well
developed restricted retractors, two microcnemes cycles without muscular development.
Folded pharynx with two enlarged syphonoglyphs. Numerous acontia, cinclides disposed
around the base and also in the scapus. Sphincter absent; well-developed restricted retrac-
tors showing reniform to enlarged morphology; parietobasilar poorly developed and ex-
clusively observed in the two first cycles. Upper part of the column with a thinner ectoderm
and mesogloea present the mesogloea and ectoderm thinner than in the scapus, margin ten-
tacular. Zooxanthellae present in the endoderm tissue and specially concentrate in the ten-
tacles and column endoderm.
Cnidom. A survey of the cnidom is summarized in the table II. See remarks too.
Etymology: The name remarks the conspicuous blue color present in this new species.
Habitat and distribution: The species was exclusively recorded in Tarrafal (Sao Tiago Is-
land) in the Cape Verde Archipelago although it should be widely distributed in the islands.
B. caeruleus was found in 10 meters bottom, and in all the samples observed, the pedal disc
and column were located inside stones, hermatypic scleractinian and fire coral holes. The
new species was found also near some colonies and individuals of Balanopsammia wirtzi.
Remarks: This is one of the two species of the genus Bellactis. Indeed both species are very
close (B. ikalyseae and B. caeruleus), but some significative differences are enough to dis-
tinguish them. Color is quite different but very little is known about this character in the
genus. Anatomically, both species are very similar but there are much more tentacles in B.
ikalyseae (up to 204) than in B. caeruleus (up to 120), also the retractors of B. caeruleus
are slightly more extended than in B. ikalyseae. We do not observe sphincter under binoc-
ular, using staining “in toto” although it is possible its presence searching histological sec-
tions. Pedal laceration is very evident in the studied species in this article; meanwhile
asexual reproduction is pending to be confirmed in the case of B. ikalyseae (see GRA-
Bellactis caeruleus new species, Tarrafal, Sao Tiago (Cape
Verde Islands). P. Wirtz
Tissue Frequency
Nematocysts Mean and range of lenghth and with Number of capsules
type of the nematocysts capsules in µm measured
Acontias Spirulae 27 (28-33) × 1.6 (1-2) 30 c
Penicilli 14 (11-15) × 2.4 (2-3) 20 rc
Penicilli 67.3 (63-73) × 7 (6-8) 25 c
Tentacles Spirulae 13.8 (10-19) × 2.5 (2-3) 30 c
Spirulae 18.5 (14-22) × 2.5 (2-3) 40 vc
Penicilli 22 (15-27) × 2.5 (2-3) 35 vc
Spirocysts (12-20) × (2-4) vc
Pharynx Spirulae 19.8 (17-22) × 2.6 (2-3) 25 rc-c
Penicilli 14.2 (12-16) × (2) 8 uc
Penicilli 33.8 (28-45) × 4 (3.5-4.5) 35 c-vc
Filaments Spirulae 11.7 (10-14) × 2.2 (2-3) 15 c-rc
Penicilli 10.8 (10-13) × 2.4 (2-4) 20 c-rc
Penicilli 30.2 (19-35) × 4.8 (3-5) 30 c
Body wall Spirulae 11 (8-15) × 1.6 (1.5-3) 40 vc
Spirulae 24.3 (18-30) × 3.8 (3.5-4) 30 c-vc
Penicilli 18.1 (15-20) × 3.8 (3-4) 25 c-vc
40
JALES & RODRÍGUEZ,
2014). Nevertheless, the
most relevant and consistent
differences can be observed
searching the cnidom: large
penicilli (p-mastigophore)
from the pharynx, larger in
B. caeruleus than in B. ikal-
yseae, there is also an extra
penicilli category in the
pharynx of B. caeruleus, ap-
parently absent in B. ikaly-
seae; tentacles of B.
caeruleus have two different
categories of spirulae (ba-
sitrichs or b-mastigophores),
meanwhile one categorie can
be observed in B. ikalyseae
(see GRAJALES & RO-
DRÍGUEZ, 2014). In addition, large penicilli of the acontia are larger in B. ikaluseae than
in B. caeruleus; the morphology of the large Penicilli from the filaments of B. ikalyseae (see
GRAJALES & RODRÍGUEZ, 2014) is quite different in B. caeruleus.
Bellactis caeruleus
Acontia
Spirulae Penicilli Penicilli
24,5 µ
Bellactis caeruleus
Tentacles
Spirocysts Spirulae Spirulae Penicilli
24,5 µ
41
42
Bellactis caeruleus
Pharynx
Spirulae Penicilli Penicilli
24,5 µ
Bellactis caeruleus
Body wall
Spirulae Spirulae Penicilli
24,5 µ
Bellactis caeruleus
Filaments
Spirulae Penicilli Penicilli
24,5 µ
Family ISOPHELLIIDAE Stephenson, 1935
Telmatactis elongata (Delle Chiaje, 1825)
To check synonymous list see Ocaña & den Hartog, 2002.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Sidi Ifni, Legzira beach, MMC-093, 2.viii.2000, mesolitoral
in crevices from small pools, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg. Sidi elAbed, South of el Jadida, MMC-094,
30.vii.2000, mesolitoral in crevices, 2 specimens, O. Ocaña leg.
Strait of Gibraltar coast of Morocco: Playa del Avión (destroyed by Tanger-Med), MMC-095,
11.ii.2001, mesolitoral exposed, in crevices, 1 specimen, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species had been recorded previously from Morocco (see OCAÑA & HAR-
TOG, 2002).The species is widely known as Telmatactis forskalii.
Family DIADUMENIIDAE Stephenson, 1920
Diadumene leucolena (Verrill, 1866)
To check synonimous list see Ocaña and den Hartog, 2002.
Remarks: We had already recorded the species from Senegal (see OCAÑA, 1994; OCAÑA
& HARTOG, 2002). We include some new images, showing the color of column and tentacles.
43
Diadumene leucolena from Senegal (CANCAP).
Dendrophyllia laboreli from Cabo Negro (Morocco).
44
Orden SCLERACTINIA Bourne, 1900
Family DENDROPHYLLIIDAE Vaughan & Wells, 1943
Dendrophyllia laboreli Zibrowius & Brito, 1984
Dendrophyllia laboreli Zibrowius & Brito, 1984: 641-657, plates 1 and 2.
Dendrophyllia laboreli, Brito y Ocaña, 2004: 431-434, Lámina 101, figs. 61 and 68
Dendrophyllia laboreli, López-González, Megina, Martínez, Gómez, Arroyo,
Fernández-Casado & Tamsouri, 2010: 1-4 pp, color plate.
Dendrophyllia laboreli, Ocaña, Herrera, Brito, Garrido, González-Lorenzo, Monterroso & Aguilar,
2011: 53-68, 8 figs., 2 tables.
Material examined: see Ocaña et al., 2011.
Remarks: In the Mediterranean, this species is exclusively known from Cabo Negro in
the coast of Morocco.
Dendrophyllia cornigera (Lamarck, 1816)
To check synomimous list see Zibrowius, 1980.
Material examined: M’Dik, MMC-096, 35º41’15.25’’N 5º16’23.65’’W, 05.vii. 2007, part of a
colony collected by fishermen, O. Ocaña leg; Safi, MMC-097, 26.xii.2004, small colony collected
by fishermen, O. Ocaña leg.
Dendrophyllia cornigera. Two colonies from Safi (left) and Cabo Negro (right).
45
Remarks:Dendrophyllia cornigera was already known from the Atlantic coast of Morocco
(see ZIBROWIUS, 1983) and this is the first time recorded in the Mediterranean coast.
Dendrophyllia ramea (Linné, 1758)
To check synomimous list see Zibrowius, 1980.
Material examined:Jorf Lasfar (El Jadida), MMC-098, , 22.xii.2010, medium size colony collected
by the fishermen, O. Ocaña leg.; Asilah, MMC-099, 15.vi. 2005, a big colony collected by fishermen,
O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks:Dendrophyllia ramea was already known from Atlantic coast of Morocco (see
Zibrowius, 1983) and shows a wide range of distribution in the North Atlantic region (see
ZIBROWIUS, 1980; BRITO & OCAÑA, 2004).
Balanophyllia regia Gosse, 1860
To check synomimous list see Zibrowius, 1980.
Material examined: Oualidia, MMC-100, 02.i.2013, two specimens collected in a big intertidal
pool, with strong waves influence, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks:B. regia was already recorded from Tanger and Mohammedia, in the Atlantic
coast of Morocco (see ZIBROWIUS, 1983), and shows a wide range of distribution in the
Balanophyllia regia from Oualidia (Morocco).
Balanophyllia regia from Oualidia (Morocco).
46
North Atlantic region (see ZIBROWIUS, 1980; BRITO & OCAÑA, 2004). The especies
was found in the same habitat of A. macrodentata and it is not easy to be found in the in-
tertidal or shallow waters because the excesive sedimentation observed along the Atlantic
coast; nevertheless, it should be present in special sites with some protection from the
waves action. We find them in the shadow part of a wide pool, with good environmental
conditions and interesting benthonic assemblages. We found the two color varieties (yel-
low and orange), but the orange one is most common. The parasitic barnacle Megatrema
anglicum was commonly observed in several specimens.
Balanopsammia wirtzi from Buracona (Sal), A. Brito.
Image from Cape Verde, Boa Vista, P. Wirtz.
47
We have received some images from Cape Verde Islands showing the typical char-
acters of this species, so the species should be present in the Archipelago; nevertheless, to
confirm its presence is necessary to check some material.
Balanopsammia wirtzi Ocaña & Brito, 2013
Material examined: Cape Verde Islands,
Sao Vicente, MMC-101, 08.xi.2014, in-
tertidal, two small specimens, P. Wirtz
leg.; Tarrafal, Sao Tiago, MMC-102, vii,
2008, 3 specimens and one small colony
of three polyps, in formaline, P. Wirtz leg;
MMC-127, 03.ix.2015, 3 specimens, red
colour, P. Wirtz leg.
Remarks: The description can be
checked at OCAÑA & BRITO
(2013). We just include in this paper
some extra material of this new
species.
Astroides calycularis from Cape Spartel (Morocco).
48
Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766)
To check synomimous list see Zibrowius, 1980.
Material examined: Cape Spartel, Tanger, MMC-103, 15.ix.2010, 5 colonies, O. Ocaña leg.
Remarks: The species ha been previously recorded in Morocco, at Cape Spartel near Tanger
(see ZIBROWIUS, 1980; OCAÑA, 2005; and MERINO-SERRAIS et al., 2012) and now
we include some information and images about the habitat. In shallow waters (up to 8 me-
ters deep) the species is not abundant and generally restricted to some shadow places as
vertical walls, ruffs and small caves. The algae carpets are very important in the area, cov-
ering most of the rocky substrate. From 15 to 20 meters deep there are also Astroides caly-
cularis populations associated to Lithophyllum expansum. We suspect the species may be
spread between this site and Asilah region but it needs to be confirmed. The genetic struc-
ture of this population has been recently studied (see MERINO-SERRAIS et al., 2012).
Tubastrea caboverdiana Ocaña & Brito new species
Material examined: Coll. MMC-26: 10 meters, in rocky substrate on a ruff of a tunnel, King Fish,
Tarrafal, SaoTiago Island, Cape Verde Islands, O. Ocaña leg., 15/08/2002, yellow color, one colony,
Holotype; Coll. MMC-27: infralitoral, Inv. 97, c-28, Gran Canaria University expedition to Cape
Verde Islands, LIFE project, one colony, Paratype; Coll. MMC-28: 10 meters, in rocky substrate on
a ruff of a tunnel, King Fish, Tarrafal, Sao Tiago Island, Cape Verde Islands, O. Ocaña leg.,
15/08/2002, one colony, Paratype; MMC-29: 6 m, rocky substrate on a shadow ruff, Quebra Canela,
Praia, Sao Tiago,A. Brito leg., 1986, one rounded colony, Paratype; MMC-30: 4 m, shadow vertical
walls, Buracona, Sal, A. Brito leg., 18/07/2014, dry colony with the soft tissues not removed, one
rounded colony, Paratype; MMC-31: Sao Vicente, 6.xi.2014, small ramified colony, Peter Wirtz leg.,
Paratype; MMC-32: Buracona, Sal, 18.vii.2014, 4 m, shadow wall, A. Brito leg., one small ramified
colony, Paratype; MMC-33: Boavista Island, 03.ix.2015, shallow waters in a wall, Peter Wirtz leg.,
two portion of colonies with the tissues not removed, Paratype; MMC-34: Sao Vicente, viii.2015,
shallo waters, Peter Wirtz leg., small portion of a colony with tissues nor removed, Paratype.
Skeletons of Tubastrea caboverdiana build up in the bottom, Tarrafal, Sao Tiago,
Cape Verde. Image, O. Ocaña.
Diagnosis: Corallum cylindrical and elongate (up to 6 cm long and 1.3 cm wide) forming
ramified colonies showing bushy like morphology. Large polyps with several buds project,
no only but mainly, in the upper part of the corallum. Corallum may be straight but ofently
curved or even contorted. The calices are round to elliptical in outline, costae are granular.
The calices contain up to 45 spiny septa with 24 full grown and the rest with low devel-
opment; incomplete S4 may be join to S3 and the last can be also join to S2. Fossa mod-
erately deep enclosing a massive spongy columella although can be practically absent from
other polyps. Orange to yellow are the only colours known for this new species.
Etymology: The name is dedicated to Cape Verde Islands.
Habitat and distribution: The species has been located at shadow places in shallow wa-
ters although, as it happens with other species belonging to the same genus including As-
troides calycularis, it may occurs in deeper environments. Ruffes and walls from caves
and tunnel gates are common places to find the new species. T. caboverdiana is only known
from Cape Verde Islands. Tubastrea caboverdiana, as well as Astroides calycularis, may
build up skeltons in the bottom forming a peculiar habitat.
Remarks: From the point of view of the way of growing, the species belonging to Tubas-
trea genus can be divided in two groups: 1) T. coccinea,T. aurea yT. faulkneri form a
basal plate and do not branch out, showing all of them attracting yellow-orange colours,
meanwhile T. diaphana and T. micrantha (=T. micranthus) always ramify profusely, even
simmilar to Dendrophyllia genus, and show brownish color in their polyps and tissues (see
VERON, 1986; ARRIGONI et al., 2014). The new species described, T. caboverdiana,
ramifies discreetly and normally does not show basal plate (incase of its presence, branch-
ing and budding are evident), but present yellow-orange colours. Furthermore, T. cabover-
49
Tubastrea caboverdiana. Image from paratype MMC-30.
Tubastrea caboverdiana. Images of Paratype MMC- 31 right and
Paratype MMC-33 left.
diana presents enlarged polyps. T. coccinea originally described from Bora Bora, inthe Pa-
cific Ocean, has been identified to be distributed along the Caribbean Sea and the Brazil
region too. ROOS (1979), and ZLATARSKI & ESTALELLA(1982) shown the morphol-
ogy and typical features of T. coccinea from Curacao and Cuba, both materials are quite dif-
ferent from Tubastrea caboverdiana as well as the material of T. coccinea studied by
ARRIGONI et al., (2014). In the colony of T. coccinea showed by CAIRNS & KITA-
HARA (2012), but also in ROOS (1979) and ZLATARSKI & ESTALELLA (1982), there
are important differences with T. caboverdiana; colonies of T. coccinea present placoids to
50
Tubastrea caboverdiana. Image from Tarrafal, Sao Tiago. P. Wirtz.
Tubastrea caboverdiana. Image from Tarrafal, Sao Tiago. P. Wirtz.
51
faceloids morphology, meanwhile T. caboverdiana forms dendroids colonies. Tubastrea
sp1 from New Caledonia (ARRIGONI et al., 2014) also develops modest dendroids
colonies but color, and septa disposition are different. Furthermore, the septa are sipiny in
T. caboverdiana and this character is apparently absent from T. coccinea; spiny septa are
also identified in Tubastrea sp2. from New Caledonia although the columella is not spongy
(see ARRIGONI et al., 2014). The species T. diaphana is the most simmilar to T. cabover-
diana in the growing morphology, although T. caboverdiana presents longer polyps, less
open ramification and yellow-orange pigmentation, meanwhile, coenosteum, calyces and
polyps of T. diaphana are brown coloured. The new species from Cape Verde was previ-
ously identified as Enallopsammia micranthus by CHEVALIER (1966); the researcher was
impresive by the ramified colonies found at Cape Verde islands. However, the large den-
droids ramification makes T. micrantha (=E. micranthus and T. micranthus) quite differ-
ent from T. caboverdiana and any other known Tubastrea. Later, two different forms were
identified in tropical West African coasts by LABOREL (1974): yellow-orange ramified
form found in the Cape Verde Islands and other orange placoid form recorded along the
Gulf of Guinea. This autor finds out the pigments differences among both species found in
the tropical West Africa and the Chevalier misidentification, finally he also claims about a
general revition of the genus Tubastrea to solve the taxonomical mistakes.
Family RHIZANGIIDAE d’Orbigny, 1851
Astrangia macrodentata Thiel, 1940
Astrangia macrodentata Thiel, 1940: 195-200, 3 Abb.
Astrangia astraeiformis, Chevalier, 1966: 926-930, pl. III and IV.
Material examined: Agadir, MMC-104, 25.vii.2004, 20 meters, rocky bottom covered by sediments,
4 colonies growing on Balanus, O. Ocaña leg. Dakhla, MMC-105, 19.ii.2012, intertidal, understone,
3 small colonies, O. Ocaña leg. Oualidia, MMC-106, 31.iii.2013, intertidal in a shadow area of a big
pool, 0.5-1 meter deep, rocks and sand, rocks affected by sediments, colonies invaded by calcareous
algae, 1 small colony dry, 5 small colonies in alcohol and 1 colony in formaline, O. Ocaña leg.
Diagnosis: Encrusting colonies with corallum reptoid, although sometimes giving the pla-
coid apparience, corallites round, elliptical and also irregular in shape, never tightly packed
but always spaced several millimeters apart (5 mm can be reached as a maximum separa-
tion among calyces). Calices 2-4 mm in diameter and 2-6 mm in hight; septa arranged in 3
complete cycles, 4º cycle not complete. No more than 36 septa were observed but most ca-
lyces present more than 24 septa, S3 and S4 may enclose to S1, S2 and not very common
S4 to S3. Septa dentate, strongly dentate in some corallites, fossa deep, columella normally
papillose but some specimens may present trabecular. Colonies normally present brown
color in the skeleton as a whole and particulary strongly in the fossa and septa, some colonies
shows white color in the fossa. Extended polyps show whitish tentacles with green or even
yellow in their contact with the oral disc, acrospheres white. Oral disc brownish or orange
color, with green spots and stripes, oral operture orange. Zooxanthellae not observed.
52
Astrangia macrodentata. Images from Oualidia.
Astrangia macrodentata. Images from Dakhla (left) and Agadir (right).
Habitat and distribution: The colonies were found understones, growing on Balanus sp.,
and also on shadow places of wide intertidal pools.All the environments share the presence
of sand and rock, the dominance of algae was observed in the intertidal habitats and the in-
vertebrate assemblage were very important in the infralitoral habitats from Agadir. The
corallum was invaded by red algae in one of the intertidal locality but in both intertidal
sites the sand covered the corallites. Astrangia macrodentata has been previously recorded
from Congo (see THIEL, 1940). The species has been recorded also from Sierra Leone,
Konakry and Dakar (see CHEVALIER, 1966). Due to its reduced size the species can be
easily overlooked but it might be extended widely along North African coast.
Variability: From the point of view of the skeleton, the material presents some variation.
Brown color might be more usual, as we found it in the material fromAgadir and Oualidia,
while the white color was present only in the colonies from Dakhla. Some calyces from in-
fralitoral are taller than the others from intertidal areas and present also trabecular col-
umella although papillose is the normal morphology. Elliptical to irregular corallites are
more typical from very stressing intertidal habitats.
53
Remarks: Extratentacular budding is the most common way of asexual spread, but intra-
tentacular has been infered in our colonies and also observed previously on the material
from Punta Noire in Congo (see THIEL, 1940: Abb 1-3). Sensu several authors (see PE-
TERS et al., 1988), the species, belonging to the genus Astrangia, recorded in Africa (see
THIEL, 1928 and 1940; CHEVALIER, 1966), may represent different species. A. macro-
dentata, described by Thiel in 1940, belongs to this group of Astrangia species that do not
present pali developed. A. mercatoris (from African coasts; see CHEVALIER, 1966) and
A. solitaria (from the American coasts; see ZLATARSKY & ESTALELLA, 1982) develop
pali meanwhile A. macrodentata (from African coasts), A. rathbuni and A. poculata (from
American coasts and A. rathbuni also recorded from Antartica by Cairns) do not develop
pali. A. macrodentata do not form the tightly packed colonies with the polygonal corallites
commonly observed in A. poculata.A. macrodentata and A. rathbuni are simmilar in shape
and way of growing (see VAUGHAN, 1906), and we have thought to merge both species
into one. However, the slight but constant differences (already remarked by CHEVALIER
in 1966) between both species (wider calycinal diameter, taller corallites and four com-
plete cycles in A. rathbuni), make us to leave them in two separate species. The specimens
studied by Chevalier present a simmilar way of growing what we have found (see CHEVA-
LIER, 1966, planche III and IV). López-González described colonies belonging to the
genus Astrangia but without definitive status. The Astrangia sp. shows very much resem-
blance with our colonies, even the intratentacular budding, but unfortunately it is not pos-
sible to observe the fossa properly (see LÓPEZ-GÓNZALEZ, 1993: 415, Lam. 57D-E).
López-González also describes pali in his specimens, although we appreciate some doubts
about this particular, as he wrote about some soft differences between pali and columella
not very consistent at all. Attending to these arguments, and also to the extended distribu-
tion range showed in this genus, it should be considered the possibility that Astrangia sp.
(see LÓPEZ-GONZÁLEZ, 1993) could be Astrangia macrodentata. This is a new record
from Morocco.
Family CARYOPHYLLIIDAE Gray, 1846
Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794)
To check synonimous list see Cairns, 2000.
Material examined: Tenerife, Candelaria, Canary Islands, MMC-127, 20.xii.2011, lost fishing bas-
ket, 400 meters deep, 1 specimen, Javier Martín Barrios leg.
Remarks: The species was previously recorded from Canary Islands (see ZIBROWIUS,
1980) in the South East of Tenerife and it was confirmed in another publication (see BRITO
& OCAÑA, 2004), although the information came from a dead specimen found associated
to the colonial biobuilder Solenosmilia variabilis. The new found at Tenerife coast, in the
upper batial bottoms, of a live specimen, has been interesting not only to assure at least the
rather common presence in the Canary sea but also it makes posible to have the general
54
Desmophyllum dianthus from Tenerife.
Caryophyllia cyathus from Tenerife.
color information of the specimen. The species is widely known as Desmophyllum crista-
galli (see ZIBROWIUS, 1980).
Caryophyllia cyathus (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
To check synomimous list see Zibrowius, 1980.
Material examined:Tenerife, Candelaria, Canary Islands, MMC-128, 20.xii.2011, lost fishing bas-
ket, 400 meters deep, 1 specimen, Javier Martín Barrios leg.
Remarks: The species had been previously recorded from Canary Islands (see ZIBROW-
IUS, 1980) in Tenerife and Lanzarote. We also found material in Tenerife and that study was
already published (see BRITO & OCAÑA, 2004). The new found at Tenerife coast, at the
same locality, Candelaria, in the upper batial bottoms of a live specimen has been inter-
esting not only to assure at least the rather common presence in the Canary sea, but it also
makes posible to have the general color information of the specimen.
55
Phyllangia mouchezii. Images from Agadir (left) and Cape Verde (right).
Phyllangia mouchezii (Lacaze-Duthiers, 1897)
To check synomimous list see Brito y Ocaña, 2004 and Zibrowius, 1980.
Material examined: Atlantic Morocco: Agadir, MMC-107, 25.vii.2004, 25 meters, rocky bottom
covered by sediments, very low visibility, 1 portion of a colony, O. Ocaña leg.; Cape Verde Islands:
Three Rocks,Tarrafal, Sao Tiago, MMC-108, vii.2008, 1 colony, P. Wirtz leg.; Sao Vicente, MMC-
109, 06.xi.2004, 1 small colony, P. Wirtz leg.; MMC-128, viii. 2015, colony with the tissues do not
removed, P. Wirtz leg.; Bahía de Murdeira, Sal Island, MMC-110, ruff, 4-5 meters, 10.vii.2014, 7
colonies of small to medium sizes, A. Brito leg.; Gulf of Guinea, Gabón: Pongara National Park,
MMC-111, x.2012, 1 colony, K. Ballesteros leg.
Remarks: This is a new record from Morocco and Cape Verde Islands. Certainly, all the
material examined shows a variation range typical for a widely distributed species, al-
though keeping the main characters. Sensu CAIRNS (2000), Phyllangia mouchezii from the
North East Atlantic is a subspecies of Phyllangia americana, so there are P. americana
americana and P. americana mouchezii.Sensu this assertion P. americana nazensiss, de-
scribed by CHEVALIER (1966) is merged into P. americana mouchezii. However, the
colony from Gabon presents cup like calyces, with exerted pointed septa, and these char-
acters have not been observed previously.Although looking the wide range of variation in
the species (see BRITO & OCAÑA, 2004; ZIBROWIUS, 1980 and the present images in-
cluded in this paper) we feel the subject still should be resolved.
56
Phyllangia mouchezii. Colony from Gabón.
Polycyathus senegalensis. Image from Sao Vicente (left) and from Tarrafal (right). P. Wirtz
Polycyathus senegalensis Chevalier, 1966
To check synomimous list see Brito y Ocaña, 2004 and Zibrowius, 1980.
Material examined: Cape Verde Islands, Tarrafal, Sao Tiago: MMC-112, 18.viii.2002, 20 m, gate
cave, rocky bottom with sand, 1 colony, O. Ocaña leg; Tarrafal, Sao Tiago: MMC-113, vii.2008, one
small colony and another big colony with numerous polyps, P. Wirtz leg; Sao Vicente, MMC-114,
08.xi.2014, ruff in a cave, three small colonies, P. Wirtz leg.
57
Remarks: This is a new record from Cape Verde Islands.The variability of the colony
machts very well with the specimens observed and studied by CHEVALIER (1966). The
pali of the material from Senegal and Cape Verde arquipelago present an asymmetrical de-
velopment, very evident in the colony from Senegal (see CHEVALIER, 1966) and also
bushy like morphology. In the Canaries and Madeira the corallites merged into the genus
Polycyathus present commonly a brown dark color, even black in the deepest part of the
calyces (not recorded in the material from Senegal or Cape Verde Islands) and indeed we
do not find those varation range in the pali; neither observed in the colonies showed by ZI-
BROWIUS (1980), ZIBROWIUS & SALDANHA (1976) and BEST (1968); however, it
is present in our material from Cape Verde.
Thalamophyllia wirtzi Ocaña & Brito new species
Material examined: Cape Verde Islands, Sal, Cavala: MMC-35, 28.xi.2006, 40 m, roof of cave, 1
small colony, P. Wirtz leg., Holotype; ídem, 1 small colony, MMC-36, Paratype; Sal Island, Cavala:
MMC-37, 28.xi.2006, 40 m, roof of cave,1 small colony, P. Wirtz leg., Paratype; Tarrafal, Sao Tiago,
Arco: MMC-38, vii.2008, shadow place, two placoid colonies, P. Wirtz leg., Paratype; Tarrafal, Sao
Tiago, The Wall: MMC-39, viii.2008, several small colonies, P. Wirtz leg., Paratype; Tarrafal, Sao
Tiago, Punta do Atum: MMC-40, vii.2008, several small colonies, P. Wirtz leg., Paratype; Tarrafal,
Sao Tiago, Danger: MMC-41, vii.2008, several small colonies, P. Wirtz leg., Paratype.
Diagnosis: Phaceloids to placoids colonies that forms solid aggregations of corallites. The
corallites are not individualized from the common base and can extrude considerably or
not extrude very much. Small calyces present 24 septa (S1, S2 and S3), but medium and big
ones can reach S1, S2, S3, S4 and even incomplete S5 was observed in one calyce; S1 and
S2 are exsert, in some colonies are extremely exsert. Calyces can be circular to elliptical (up
to 18 mm in diameter) and the septa present moderate to low exsertness, costae can be well
developed or also hardly to be distinguished. There is a wide central space in the calyces
with a deep fossa. There is not columella; tiny granules cover the septal faces. Budding is
observed as well as commonly intracalycinal partition. Rose and white are the common
colors observed in the colonies, greenish and also brown was recorded sporadically.
Etymology: The name is dedicated to Dr. Peter Wirtz who has been doing a huge sam-
pling efforts in the behalf of the East Atlantic marine fauna knowledge.
Habitat and distribution: The species has been observed in shadow habitats (caves, tun-
nels and vertical walls) from 20 to 40 meters. T. africana is known from Sao Tiago and Sal
islands but surelly should be present in other Cape Verde islands.
Remarks:T. wirtzi shows a range of variability from small phaceloids to solid placoids
colonies, with the corallites partially embebed in the common skeleton, but it never was ob-
served any reptoid colony. The costae can be very developed along the corallites or, in the
contrary, hardly to be noticed. The exertion of S1 and S2 can be observed in phaceloids and
placoids colonies as well. The species is placed in the genus Thalamophyllia because of its
58
Thalamophyllia wirtzi. Image of the Paratype MMC-35.
Thalamophyllia wirtzi. Image of the Holotype MMC-34.
59
Thalamophyllia wirtzi. Images from different bottoms at Tarrafal, Sao Tiago (Cape Verde Islands).
P. Wirtz.
shape that fits very well with the general morphology of the genus; moreover, the budding be-
haviour and the absence of columella are also complementary characters to reinforce the
decition. There are four species of this genus, T. riisei,T. gasti,T. gombergi and the pres-
ent new species. The three previous known species share the development of reptoid and
phaceloids colonies and the reproduction trend (extratentacular budding) (see CAIRNS, 1979),
meanwhile, T. wirtzi mainly present intratentacular bipartition colonies and develop placoid
colonies and more septa cycles. Nevertheless, some growings of T. wirtzi present some re-
semblance with T. gasti but the last species does not form colonies withpolyps not individu-
alized, merged in a common tissue, as it happens in T. wirtzi. Furthermore, T. wirtzi shows
wider polyps with a common intracalycinal bipartition and T. gasti only present extraten-
tacular budding and polyps with diameter not wider than 5 mm (see ZIBROWIUS, 1980).
Africana Ocaña & Brito new genus
Faceloid to reptoid colonies formed by extracalicinal budding present (intracalicinal also
possible). The calices are solid in their skeleton and present septal junction and exsertness
in all septa, costa well marked. Columella trabecular like. There is not pali.
60
Africana wirtzi, holotype.
Africana wirtzi Ocaña & Brito new species
Material examined: Cape Verde Islands, Tarrafal, Sao Tiago, Three rocks: MMC-42, viii.2008, one
colony, P. Wirtz leg., Holotype.
Diagnosis: Small to medium size colonies formed by flat corallites with a solid skeleton
(up to 10 mm hight ×10 mm wide). S1, S2, S3 and S4 complete and S5 very scarce and
only present some couples, S1 most developed and exsert; S2 less developed and exsert;
S3 join with S2 at the columella level showing a typical apparience of septal junction. S5
exclusively developed in major specimens, small calyces only reaching incomplete S4.
There are granules in most of the developed septa. Thick columella with trabecular ap-
parience, the pali is absent. The color observed was rose or orange in the calyces, disc and
tentacles looks like redish color in retraction conditions.
61
Africana wirtzi. Image from Tarrafal, Sao Tiago.
P. Wirtz.
Etymology: The name is dedicated to Dr.
Peter Wirtz who has been doing a huge
sampling efforts in the behalf of the East
Atlantic marine fauna knowledge.
Remarks: The presence of a solid corallum
joined to the septal junction make Africana
wirtzi different from other genus into the
Caryophylliidae family. Certainly, perhaps
its solid calice keep some resemblance with
the very strong corallum of Heterocyathus,
but the rest of characters, as septa arrange-
ment or pali presence, are complety differ-
ent among both genera (see CAIRNS &
KITAHARA, 2012). Septal junction ob-
served in the new genus and species can be
typically observed in Dendrophylliidae but
the porous corallum, a basic character of
this family is indeed absent in A. wirtzi. It
is posible to find septal junction also in
other Caryophylliidae genera as
Stephanocyathus, Deltocyathus or Pepono-
cyathus but the corallum characters, mor-
phology and way of life are very different
compared to A. wirzi. In the sea, the new
species and genus keep some resemblance
with the genus Phyllangia (see CAIRNS, 1979; ZIBROWIUS, 1980; CAIRNS, 2000).
There is only a single colony of the new genus and species, but due to the clear distintion
among the others Caryophylliidae species and genera we have decided to describe the new
taxa on the base of the holotype.
4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank Francisca Serrais the general edition and first English check-
ing. Bert Hoeksema facilited some papers of interest for scleractinians and Fernando Es-
pino provides material from Cape Verde and J.J. Sanchez Cuervo some images from the
Canaries. M.J. Fernández Maqueira take care of the latin language, regarding the genus
and species congruence. Younes Saoud from Tetúan University and Said Benhisoune from
Agadir University facilitate some of the sampling trips. Dr. Peter Wirtz sent to us interest-
ing submarine images and important material of Scleractinia.
62
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... El proceso invasivo ha sido muy estudiado, tanto su expansión geográfica (ver síntesis en Creed et al., 2017) como el impacto en las comunidades coralinas (Creed, 2006;Lages et al., 2011;Dos Santos et al., 2013;Miranda et al., 2016). En el Atlántico Oriental tropical se conoce también la presencia de Tubastraea, tanto en el medio natural (Laborel, 1974;Boekschoten & Best, 1988;Morri et al., 2000;Ocaña et al., 2015) como en plataformas petrolíferas (Friedlander et al., 2014), pero se plantea que al menos el origen de una de las especies es incierto (Creed et al., 2017), pudiendo tratarse realmente de una especie nativa (Ocaña et al., 2015). En el Mediterráneo se conoce el caso de Oculina patagonica de Angelis, 1908 (Oculinidae), coral al que se le atribuye un proceso de introducción mediante el mismo vector desde Sudamérica (Zibrowius, 1974(Zibrowius, y 1980, aunque hay una reciente controversia al respecto de su origen e identificación (Leydet & Hellberg, 2015;Leydet, 2016). ...
... El proceso invasivo ha sido muy estudiado, tanto su expansión geográfica (ver síntesis en Creed et al., 2017) como el impacto en las comunidades coralinas (Creed, 2006;Lages et al., 2011;Dos Santos et al., 2013;Miranda et al., 2016). En el Atlántico Oriental tropical se conoce también la presencia de Tubastraea, tanto en el medio natural (Laborel, 1974;Boekschoten & Best, 1988;Morri et al., 2000;Ocaña et al., 2015) como en plataformas petrolíferas (Friedlander et al., 2014), pero se plantea que al menos el origen de una de las especies es incierto (Creed et al., 2017), pudiendo tratarse realmente de una especie nativa (Ocaña et al., 2015). En el Mediterráneo se conoce el caso de Oculina patagonica de Angelis, 1908 (Oculinidae), coral al que se le atribuye un proceso de introducción mediante el mismo vector desde Sudamérica (Zibrowius, 1974(Zibrowius, y 1980, aunque hay una reciente controversia al respecto de su origen e identificación (Leydet & Hellberg, 2015;Leydet, 2016). ...
... En cuanto a la identificación de los dos corales, la taxonomía de ambos géneros es compleja e incluso actualmente los estudios moleculares cuestionan la validez de algunas especies (Eytan et al., 2009;Arrigoni et al., 2014). En el caso de Tubastraea, algunas de las especies descritas no se han podido aún confirmar con métodos moleculares y hay confusiones (Arrigoni et al., 2014;Ocaña et al., 2015;Capel et al., 2016;Creed et al., 2017).), necesitando una revisión. ...
Article
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The occurrence of two non-native sclerantinians of the genus Tubastraea and Oculina has been recorded for the first time in the Canary Islands. The distribution of Tubastraea is essentially tropical and its presence in the Canary Islands represents the northern-most record of the species in the Eastern Atlantic, breaking into a subtropical area. For Oculina, this new record constitutes its first occurrence of in the EasternAtlantic. Both species have been introduced through the ‘Las Palmas de Gran Canaria’ harbor; Tubastraea has also been introduced through the ‘Santa Cruz de Tenerife’ harbor. It is clear that sea transport of large oil platforms would be the introduction pathway or vector. High density populations of Tubastraea have been found in one of the docks of the ‘Las Palmas’ harbor and on artificial substratum of the ‘Santa Cruz de Tenerife’ harbor; its rapid spread beyond the harbor area has also been confirmed in Gran Canaria. It can already be frequently spotted in a locality some 11 km away from the harbor and is present in another area located around 30 km south-east from the harbor. Available data allow us to initially identify it specifically as T. coccinea, although there is a certain degree of confusion in the group’s taxonomy. The high invasive capacity of this species and its being an integral part of oil platform fouling are well-known. The increased temperature caused by climate change appears to have enabled colonization and spread of Tubastraea, a thermophilic species. The morphology type of Oculina corresponds to that of O. patagonica, a coral which is deemed to have been introduced in theMediterranean and to be invasive, but whose origin and taxonomic status are rather uncertain. The recorded presence of this coral is still limited to the ‘Las Palmas de Gran Canaria’ harbor area. The status of the Tubastraea genus in the Eastern Atlantic is discussed and hypothesis on the potential impacts of the invasion of said corals in the Canary Islands are formulated.
... All of them represent important morphological differences and also have three nematocyst categories (two spirulae and one penicilli in the case of Carcinactis and Verrillactis) in the acontia, whereas in the new genus there are two nematocyst categories (one spirulae and one penicilli) in the acontia. The species belonging to genus Actinothoe are typical to rocky bottoms (see Ocaña 1994;Ocaña et al. 2015) and also have quite different biometrical features of the cnidome (which is longer and wider). Gymnophellia hutchingsae England 1992, which was originally described from southern China Sea (1992), was placed into the family Isophelliidae, but according to the anatomical and cnidom characteristics of the species, it should be placed into the family Sagartiidae. ...
... Diadumene franciscana Hand 1956 and D. lighti Hand 1956, which were originally described from the California (see Hand 1956), inhabit the shallow-and brackish-water benthic environments. Diadumene leucolena (Verrill 1866) is another Pacific species found in intertidal and shallow waters (see Hand 1956;Ocaña & Hartog 2002;Ocaña et al. 2015). Diadumene schilleriana (Stoliczka 1869) inhabits the Chilka Lake in India. ...
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The present study describes two new genera, six new species and three new records from the Sea of Marmara. The new genus Marmara gen. nov. belonging to the family Sagartiidae is mainly characterized by having conspicuous muscular belts along the column and the absence of suckers and tenaculi on the body wall. The genus Charisactis gen. nov. belonging to the family Condylanthidae is mainly characterized by having an atypical mesentery arrangement, single siphonoglyph and homotrichs in tentacles. The other species newly described from the Sea of Marmara belong to the families Diadumenidae (one species from deep waters), Halcampoididae (one species from shallow waters), Edwardsiidae (one species from shallow waters) and Epizoanthidae (one species from deep waters). Three species, namely Epizoanthus arenaceus (family Epizoanthidae), Rolandia coralloides (family Clavulariidae) and Virgularia sp. (family Virgulariidae) are reported for the first time from the Sea of Marmara. The external and internal anatomical features as well as cnidom structures of the species are presented and discussed with the closely related species. http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub
... The sea anemone Anemonia sulcata (Pennant 1777) (Fig. 1) is a common cnidarian that occurs in the intertidal and shallow sublittoral zones, mainly on rocky platforms or boulder beaches down to 20-m depth (Hofrichter 2005). The species has a broad distribution from the Atlantic coast of Europe to West Sahara, and in the Mediterranean Sea (Ocaña and den Hartog 2002;Ocaña et al. 2015). A. sulcata is a popular seafood item (known locally as "ortiguilla") in southern Spain, and it is currently being promoted in eastern and northwestern Spain. ...
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Anemonia sulcata (Pennant, 1777) is a common shallow water cnidarian from rocky platform and boulder beaches in southern Spain, where it is a popular seafood item with an increasing fishery. To aid in the management of a sustainable fishery, a study on the reproduction of A. sulcata in the littoral of Malaga (southern Spain) was performed from November 2014 to September 2015, using histological methods. A total of 123 specimens were examined, with a size range (as diameter of the pedal disc) from 1.1 to 48.2 mm. The sex ratio was significantly biased to females, with 1.7 females: 1 male (χ² = 4.45, p < 0.01). The spermatozoids and oocytes arise from the endodermal cells. The mature oocytes receive nutritive filaments (trophonema) from the endoderm cells. There were zooxanthellae in the mesenteries, tentacles and also inside the oocytes. A gastrula was observed in one individual, as well as several planula larvae in different degree of development in others. Asexual reproduction by internal budding was observed in some individuals. The studied population showed an extended reproductive cycle with a peak of spawning in April. The size and weight of sexual maturity of the studied population were 21.5 mm and 16.5 g, respectively. A positive significant correlation was observed between size and weight of individuals. We suggest that the diameter of the pedal disc should be used as the legal parameter for the management of this fishery, as this measurement is easier to take by fishermen at sea than the weight, the current legal parameter.
... Regarding Polycyathus, the less abundant species in the studied harbor area, it has already been recorded in the Canary Islands and P. muellerae is frequent in coastal waters. However, the form occurring in the artificial substrates showed some morphological characteristics that better matched a very close species difficult to separate, P. senegalensis, which lives on both sides of the tropical Atlantic (Cairns, 2000;Ocaña et al., 2015) and is also capable of colonizing artificial substrates (Cairns, 2000). Given the difficulty of differentiating both species and their distributions, we cannot rule out that P. senegalensis was already naturally present in the Canary Islands, having gone unnoticed. ...
Article
In this study the presence, distribution and density of several species of Scleractinia corals introduced in the Canary Islands and settled in artificial substrata (marina pontoons and port docks) of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife harbor were studied. Tubastraea spp. and Oculina patagonica densities in such locations were assessed owing to their potential as invasive species, and the abundance of other introduced and native corals was also estimated. O. patagonica showed a high frequency of occurrence (28.8%), reaching densities of 0.25 colonies/m² and was exclusively located in the marina pontoons, found opposite the anchoring spots of oil platforms, mainly in shaded environments. Tubastraea spp. were also found in said area, where they showed very high densities (44.6% of frequency and 2.0 colonies/m²) regardless of light availability, as well as in the inner wall of another port dock where oil platforms berth. Other species were only recorded in the pontoon areas of the marina, with the occurrence of the Culicia genus especially remarkable (15.9%), whose only previous record in the Atlantic was in the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa). Tubastraea tagusensis was also recorded for the first time in the eastern Atlantic. Results confirm that oil platforms have been the introductory vector of non-native corals and the introduction process, the expansion and invasion risks, as well as the need for a control plan are discussed.
... Regarding Polycyathus, the less abundant species in the studied harbor area, it has already been recorded in the Canary Islands and P. muellerae is frequent in coastal waters. However, the form occurring in the artificial substrates showed some morphological characteristics that better matched a very close species difficult to separate, P. senegalensis, which lives on both sides of the tropical Atlantic (Cairns, 2000;Ocaña et al., 2015) and is also capable of colonizing artificial substrates (Cairns, 2000). Given the difficulty of differentiating both species and their distributions, we cannot rule out that P. senegalensis was already naturally present in the Canary Islands, having gone unnoticed. ...
Article
Zooxanthellate zoantharians (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) are commonly found in tropical and subtropical marine regions around the world. However, due to the low genetic variability of commonly used DNA markers combined with high levels of intraspecific morphological variation, misidentifications and species synonyms are commonly found in the literature. In this study, zoantharians from the suborder Brachycnemina collected in the Macaronesia and Cape Verde ecoregions were studied combining morphological, molecular and ecological data, in order to comprehensively assess the species diversity of the region. Moreover, molecular analyses of endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae zooxanthellae were also performed to provide more information on each holobiont. Our integrative results demonstrate that Brachycnemina species diversity increases as seawater temperature rises toward the tropics with a total of nine species recorded: one from waters around northern Madeira, five in the Canary Islands and seven in the southernmost Cape Verde Archipelago. All species were seen to host either Symbiodiniaceae of the genera Symbiodinium (former Symbiodinium ‘Clade A’) or Cladocopium (former Symbiodinium ‘Clade C’). Moreover, this study records for the first time the presence of Palythoa grandis, P. aff. clavata, P. grandiflora, an unknown Zoanthus species and Z. pulchellus in the East Atlantic Ocean. These results show no endemic zooxanthellate zoantharians in the East Atlantic, with all species shared with the West Atlantic.
... When it was first described, none of the individuals examined was incubating juveniles, which led to the conclusion that this species appears not to brood polyps which may imply it did not exhibit asexual reproduction by viviparity, similarly to A. fragacea Tugwell, 1856 (Monteiro et al., 1997;Perrin et al., 1999). However, the occurrence of viviparity in this species was later observed (Ocaña et al., 2005(Ocaña et al., & 2015. ...
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The majority of sea anemone species exhibit variations of sexual and asexual reproduction. However there is a lack of data concerning the use of these different forms of reproduction in natural conditions. Actinia schmidti Monteiro, Thorpe & Solé-Cava, 1997 is distributed in the Northeastern Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay to Morocco and in the Mediterranean coastline. In its original description, this species is considered to reproduce sexually and not perform brooding within the gastrovascular cavity. In more recent papers, the occurrence of brooding was recorded in this species. In this paper the seasonality of brooding in A. schmidti on the Portuguese west coast was investigated along 2014/2015. Viviparous reproductive activity peaks were recorded in summer, when the water temperature is warmer, and decreased in the remaining seasons. The pattern observed was discussed considering previous knowledge on the reproductive sexual and asexual seasonality of Actinia equina, a distinct species from the same genus. Resumé : Saisonnalité de la reproduction vivipare chez Actinia schmidti (Cnidaria : Anthozoa) de la côte occidentale portugaise. La majorité des espèces d'anémones a des formes de reproduction sexuée et asexuée. Cependant, il n'y a pas de données concernant l'utilisation de ces différentes formes de reproduction en conditions naturelles. Actinia schmidti Monteiro, Thorpe & Solé-Cava, 1997 est une espèce d'anémone distribuée en Atlantique nord-est du Golfe de Gascogne jusqu'à la côte du Maroc et en Méditerranée. Dans sa description d'origine, cette espèce était considérée comme ayant une reproduction sexuée et pas d'incubation dans la cavité gastro-vasculaire (viviparité). Cependant, dans la littérature récente, ce type d'incubation a été décrit. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d'une recherche concernant l'activité d'incubation dans la cavité gastro-vasculaire de l'espèce A. schmidti dans la côte ouest du Portugal au cours de l'année 2014/2015. Nous avons observé une activité de reproduction par viviparité plus intense pendant les mois d'été, quand la température de la mer est plus chaude, et moins intense aux autres saisons. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lumière de la littérature existante sur l'activité de reproduction sexuée et asexuée d'Actinia equina, une espèce du même genre.
... A continuación, con el propósito de contribuir a aumentar el conocimiento de la fauna de babosas marinas de este área poco prospectada de la costa atlántica del noroeste de África, se acompaña un listado de las especies colectadas, agrupadas según las localidades muestreadas, registradas durante las campañas naturalísticas promovidas por el Museo del Mar de Ceuta, cuyos primeros resultados fueron publicados en Ocaña et al. (2016). ...
... A continuación, con el propósito de contribuir a aumentar el conocimiento de la fauna de babosas marinas de este área poco prospectada de la costa atlántica del noroeste de África, se acompaña un listado de las especies colectadas, agrupadas según las localidades muestreadas, registradas durante las campañas naturalísticas promovidas por el Museo del Mar de Ceuta, cuyos primeros resultados fueron publicados en Ocaña et al. (2016). ...
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Two nudibranchs, Corambe testudinaria H. Fischer, 1889 and Flabellina rubromaxilla Edmunds, 2015, and one sacoglossan, Elysia viridis (Montagu, 1804), are recorded for first time in theAtlantic coasts of Morocco and Sahara. In addition, a list of the species of slugs collected south of Temara is provided.
... The sea anemone Anemonia sulcata (Pennant 1777) (Fig. 1) is a common cnidarian that occurs in the intertidal and shallow sublittoral zones, mainly on rocky platforms or boulder beaches down to 20-m depth (Hofrichter 2005). The species has a broad distribution from the Atlantic coast of Europe to West Sahara, and in the Mediterranean Sea (Ocaña and den Hartog 2002;Ocaña et al. 2015). A. sulcata is a popular seafood item (known locally as "ortiguilla") in southern Spain, and it is currently being promoted in eastern and northwestern Spain. ...
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Widespread non-native species tend to demonstrate an apparent lack of selectivity in habitat requirements, feeding regimes, and reproductive needs, while displaying a tendency to thrive in human-modified habitats. The high phenotypic plasticity typical of sessile, substrate-attached marine species may enhance their chances of survival and spread in a new region. Anthropogenic activities have changed marine habitats over a wide range of phenomena, including water temperature, community species composition, and the types of available substrates, creating new physical and biotic regimes that may contribute to the potential for successful species introduction. Here we examine ten species of sea anemones that have been introduced outside of their native range, and elucidate specific characteristics that are common among globally introduced sea anemones. Various life history strategies enable these species to survive and flourish through transport, introduction, establishment and spread, leading to the successful colonization of a new geographic area. Considering life history strategies and weighing of vector potential, we suggest conditions that facilitate introduction of these species, and identify species of sea anemones that may be introduced in the future in the face of changing climate and increased anthropogenic activities.
Article
RESUMEN Se describe un nuevo género y especie de escleractinia perteneciente a la familia Den-drophylliidae, denominada Balanopsammia wirtzi, de las islas de Cabo Verde. Esta nueva es-pecie puede crecer de forma solitaria o formar colonias con los cálices densamente dispuestos. Presenta los septos organizados siguiendo el Plan de Portualés, manteniéndose dicha dispo-sición desde la etapa juvenil hasta la adulta. Una primera impresión puede llevar a clasifi-carla dentro del género Balanophyllia, pero la capacidad de formar colonias nos indica que debemos explorar otras posibilidades. Esta nueva especie ha permanecido confundida al menos desde la década de los sesenta con la especie mediterránea Balanophyllia italica. B. wirtzi se ha localizado en las islas Sao Tiago y Sal pero debe estar presente también a lo largo del resto de las islas del archipiélago caboverdiano. Vive desde los charcos intermareales bien renovados, pero es más común en la zona submareal somera incrustando pequeñas grietas y cavidades hasta 10 m de profundidad; es especialmente conspicuo en paredes verticales bien sombreadas y parcialmente cubiertas por algas calcáreas incrustantes. A efectos comparativos, se aporta un estudio completo del cnidoma y datos sobre la distribución ecológica de Cla-dopsammia rolandi en las mediterráneas Islas Eolias, estudiando una población grande loca-lizada en el techo de una cueva. Palabras Clave: Balanopsammia wirtzi, escleractinia Dendrophylliidae, nuevo gé-nero y especie, islas de Cabo Verde, Cladopsammia rolandi, Mar Mediterráneo, cnidoma. ABSTRACT A new genus and species of scleractinia belonging to Dendrophylliidae family recorded from Cape Verde is described in this paper. Balanopsammia wirtzi develop Portualés Plan in their septa from the juvenile to the adult stage and can grow solitary or forming colonies with densely calyces arrangement as well. In a first sight the species can be tentatively included into the genus Balanophyllia, but its colonial way of growing advices us to explore other possibilities. In the Cape Verde Archipelago, the new species had been previously confused with the mediterranean Balanophyllia italica. We recorded B. wirtzi from Sao Tiago ad Sal although its presence in the other islands is expected but not confirmed. It is intertidal in pools with good water movements and especially shallow waters species down till 10 m and widely spread in crevices and small cavities. It is conspicuous in upper part of vertical walls, particularly in shadow places among calcareous algae. The study of a cave in Eolie Islands at the Mediterranean make possible to include some data on a huge population of Cladopsammia rolandi growing on a ruff cave through the time as well as to compare the morphology and the cnidae of both Denrophylliidae studied.
Article
New records of the Dendrophylliidae species Dendrophyllia laboreli in the Medite-rranean Sea (Alboran basin), South Portugal and also in the Canaries are biogeographically relevant. The presence in the Mediterranean Sea and the recent wide distribution towards new locations in Canary Islands of such species is discussed in relation to the climatic fluctuations. In the Canaries several years of ecological searching have producing a high quantity of new data about the environment where the species occurs and its distribution along the islands. The population stability at the Mediterranean Sea and its characteristics are described, the habitats where the species occurs along the distribution area is also analyzed. RESUMEN Los nuevas localizaciones del madreporario Dendrophyllia laboreli en el Medite-rráneo, sur de Portugal y también en Canarias son datos relevantes desde el punto de vista biogeográfico. Esta expansión geográfica de la especie hacia nuevos enclaves es también discutido atendiendo a las fluctuaciones climáticas que están afectando a la temperatura del medio marino tanto insular como mediterráneo. Durante los últimos cinco años se han lleva-do a cabo en Canarias una serie de campañas de muestreo exhaustivo de los fondos marinos someros hasta cuarenta metros de profundidad, que han aportado nuevos datos sobre la dis-tribución particular en cada isla y su hábitat. Las características de la población mediterrá-Rev. Acad. Canar. Cienc., XXII (Núm. 4), 53-68 (2010) (publicado en septiembre de 2011) maqueta 2011 v8:Maquetación 1 01/08/2011 11:52 Página 53 54 nea y su estabilidad son analizadas, así como también los hábitats donde la especie es capaz de desarrollarse a lo largo de su área de distribución. Palabras Clave: Dendrophyllia laboreli, Mar Mediterráneo, islas Canarias, Portugal, tolerancia a la sedimentación, estabilidad de la población, fluctuaciones climáticas.
Article
Tentacles development is important for the Corallimorphidae in terms of speciation, being interesting to discuss about the presence of different evolutionary levels in tentacle anatomy. We studied three species of Corallimorpharia belonging two of them to Pseudo-corynactis and one to the new genus Paracorynactis. The extendible capability of the tentacles is proposed to make difference among the above mentioned genera. The species Pseudo-corynactis globulifera from the Red Sea is include in this genus for the first time, we also have described the new species Pseudocorynactis tuberculata from Indonesia and Maldives. The help control of Paracorynactis hoplites on the crown of thorns sea stars population is exposed. RESUMEN El desarrollo tentacular es importante para comprender los procesos de especiación en la familia Corallimorphidae y poder discutir acerca de la existencia de niveles evolutivos relacionados con la anatomía de los tentáculos. En este artículo estudiamos tres especies de Corallimorpharia pertenecientes dos al género Pseudocorynactis y una al nuevo género Paracorynactis. La capacidad de extensión de los tentáculos es una característica que proponemos para diferenciar los géneros. Incluimos a la especie Pseudocorynactis globulifera en este género por primera vez y también se describe una nueva especie, Pseudocorynactis tuberculata, a partir de material procedente de Indonesia y las Maldivas. Es interesante destacar la capacidad de la especie Paracorynactis hoplites para ejercer cierto control sobre las poblaciones de la Rev. Acad. Canar. Cienc., XXI (Núms. 3-4), 9-34 (2009) (publicado en septiembre de 2010) maqueta.qxp 23/08/2010 23:40 PAEgina 9 10 estrella de mar corona de pinchos que tantos estragos causa a los madreporarios en el Indo-Pacífico. Palabras claves: Corallimorpharia, capacidad de extensión de los tentáculos, nuevo género, nueva especie, nueva combinación, región Indopacífica.
Article
Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that most traditional families of zooxanthellate shallow-water scleractinians are polyphyletic, whereas most families mainly composed of deep-sea and azooxanthellate species are monophyletic. In this context, the family Dendrophylliidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) has unique features. It shows a remarkable variation of morphological and ecological traits by including species that are either colonial or solitary, zooxanthellate or azooxanthellate, and inhabiting shallow or deep water. Despite this morphological heterogeneity, recent molecular works have confirmed that this family is monophyletic. Nevertheless, what so far is known about the evolutionary relationships within this family, is predominantly based on skeleton macromorphology, while most of its species have remained unstudied from a molecular point of view. Therefore, we analysed 11 dendrophylliid genera, four of which were investigated for the first time, and 30 species at molecular, micromorphological and microstructural levels. We present a robust molecular phylogeny reconstruction based on two mitochondrial markers (COI and the intergenic spacer between COI and 16S) and one nuclear (rDNA), which is used as basis to compare micromorphogical and microstructural character states within the family. The monophyly of the Dendrophylliidae is well supported by molecular data and also by the presence of rapid accretion deposits, which are ca. 5 μm in diameter and arranged in irregular clusters, and fibres that thicken the skeleton organized in small patches of a few micrometres in diameter. However, all genera represented by at least two species are not monophyletic, Tubastraea excluded. They were defined by traditional macromorphological characters that appear affected by convergence, homoplasy and intraspecific variation. Micromorphogical and microstructural analyses do not support the distinction of clades, with the exception of the organization of thickening deposits for the Tubastraea clade.